Monthly Archives: December 2018

thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 26 – seyya paraththuvamAy

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namperumal-kaithalam-nammazhwar

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 3.6

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of giving instructions to samsAris (worldly people) on emperumAn’s saulabhyam which extends up to his archAvathAram and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done?

AzhwAr thought “My giving up on these worldly people is like beating those who are already falling down, with a stick” about the loss of those who were despised by him, and out of overwhelming compassion, instructs emperumAn’s saulabhyam to them by mercifully explaining his para (supreme form in paramapadham), vyUha (his form in kshIrAbdhi), vibhava (incarnations) etc in proper order; further he explains “as you consecrate a form as per your desire, out of his great simplicity, he shows great affection for those forms similar to the desire he has for his divine forms in paramapadham, he mingles with you all and fulfils all your desires; so you surrender unto the archAvathAram of emperumAn” in thiruvAimozhi 3.6seyya thAmaraik kaNNan“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains the essence of it, starting with “seyya paraththuvamAy“.

pAsuram

seyya paraththuvamAych chIrAr viyUgamAyth
thuyya vibavamAyth thOnRivaRRuL – eydhumavarkku
innilaththil archAvathAram eLidhenRAn
pannu thamizh mARan payinRu

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word-by-word meanings

seyya paraththuvamAy – being the distinguished parathva (supreme form)
sIr Ar viyUgamAy – vyUha (form in kshIrAbdhi) which is having greatness
thuyya vibavamumAy – very pure vibhava (incarnations)
thOnRu ivaRRuL – among these which are seen
eydhumavarkku – for those who surrender
innilaththil – in this material realm
archAvathAram – deity forms [in temples, mutts, homes etc]
eLidhu enRAn – mercifully explained to be easy to approach

(who said that?)
payinRu pannu thamizh mARan – AzhwAr who is having the thamizh vEdham, which is well analysed along with chEthanas, as his identity

Simple Translation

AzhwAr who is having the thamizh vEdham, which is well analysed along with chEthanas, as his identity, mercifully explained that for those who surrender, in this material realm, among the distinguished parathvam, great vyUha, pure vibhava etc forms, deity forms are easy to approach.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • seyya paraththuvamAy – As said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.2.12 “para: parANAm parama:” (the most supreme), beautiful parathva which is distinguished than all other entities.
  • sIrAr viyUgamAy – vyUham is as explained in hari vamSam “Esha nArAyaNaS SrImAn kshIrArNava nikEthana:” (SrIman nArAyaNa who is residing in the milk ocean) – sIr indicates qualities and opulence.
  • thuyya vibhavamAy – Incarnations which have the purity of being enjoyable physically. parathvam etc are mercifully explained in this decad in “seyya thAmaraik kaNNan” (reddish lotus-eyed emperumAn) [1st pAsuram], “amarar kula mudhal” (the lord of nithyasUris) [9th pAsuram], “thadam kadal kidandhAn” (one who is reclining on the vast ocean) [2nd pAsuram], “aravamERi alai kadal amarum thuyil koNda aNNal” (the lord who is climbing and resting on the serpent bed in the ocean) [3rd pAsuram], “then ilangai eri ezhach cheRRa villi” (the archer who destroyed lankA by setting it on fire) [2nd pAsuram], “dhayaradhaRku magan thannai” (son of dhaSaratha) [8th pAsuram], “kuravai kOththa kuzhaganaik kudak kUththanai maNivaNNanai” (the one who danced with gOpikAs by easily mingling with them, who danced with the pots and who has dark gem like complexion) [3rd pAsuram].
  • thOnRu ivaRRuL – In this manner, among these forms which have restrictions based on time, place, qualification and can be understood through pramANams (SAsthram),
  • eydhumavarkku innilaththil – For those who approach him and surrender unto him in this material realm.
  • archAvathAram eLidhenRAn – AzhwAr is saying that archAvathAram is very easy to approach due to emperumAn’s saulabhyam (easy approachability), being visible to the eyes and being present eternally. mAmunigaL is thinking AzhwAr’s words “nenjinAl ninaippAn yavan avanAgum nIL kadal vaNNan” (one who is in the form of the vast ocean, assumes the forms desired by the heart of his devotee) [9th pAsuram]. In AchArya hrudhayam, nAyanAr explained that manifesting his ultimate saulabhyam in archAvathAram to make the incarnations as said in “eLivarum iNaivanAm” (appearing in all forms and mingling with all) appear to be like parathvam when compared to archAvathAram. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 6.4 “SrImathyAyathanE viSNOSSiSyE naravarAthmaja:” (Meditating upon lord vishNu in his beautiful temple, SrI rAma slept there) and SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 6.1 “nArAyaNam upAgamath” (meditated upon nArAyaNa), archAvathara emperumAns have the greatness of being worshipped by his own incarnations.

mAmunigaL is revealing the identity of the one who brought out the greatness of archAvathAram in this manner.

  • pannu thamizh mARan payinRu – That is AzhwAr who is having the thamizh vEdham which is well analysed along with chEthanas, as his identity. As he revealed the ultimate pramANam (authentic text) in thiruvAimozhi 2.7.3 “paNNiya thamizh“, AzhwAr is said to have mercifully revealed archAvathAram to be the essence of pramEyam (goal, emperumAn’s forms).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thiruvandhAdhi – 48 – emakkiyAm viNNattukku

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says “We were thinking that we will have emperumAn, who is capable of removing our strong hurdles, as the means and will attain paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) through him. Isn’t this the way that we should be?”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

emakkiyAm viNNAttukku uchchamadhAm vIttai
amaiththirundhOm ahthanrE yAmARu amaippolindha
menthOLi kAraNamA vengOttu EREzhudanE
konRAnaiyE manaththuk koNdu

Word by Word Meanings

amai polindha – being like a bamboo

menthOLi kAraNamA – nappinnai pirAtti (SrI neeLA dhEvi) who has soft shoulders

vem kOdu – sharp horns

Ezhu ERu – seven bulls

udanE – simultaneously

konRAnaiyE – krishNa, who killed

manaththuk koNdu – keeping in the mind

nAm – we

viNNAttukku uchchamadhAm vIttai  – paramapadham which is above svarga (heaven) etc

emakku amaiththirundhOm – we were desirous

ahdhanRE AmARu – isn’t that, the correct way?

vyAkyAnam

emakkuyAm viNNAttukku uchchamadhAm vIttai amaiththirundhOm – We had desired for us, paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) which is above the worlds occupied by brahmA, rudhra, indhra et al.

ahdhanRE AmARu – Isn’t that the way that we should be?

When asked “There are many hurdles to attain paramapadham. How will you overcome these?”
AzhwAr says further “He, who removed the hurdles which prevented him from attaining nappinnaip pirAtti, will remove those hurdles”.

amaippolindha menthOLi kAraNamA vengOttu EREzhudanE konRAnaiyE manaththukkoNduAzhwAr says that since he has kept in his mind kaNNan (krishNa) who killed seven bulls which had sharp horns, simultaneously, for the sake of nappinnaip pirAtti, who has soft shoulders resembling bamboo, his hurdles would suffer the same fate which those bulls suffered.

Here, the word amaivu [as in the first verse amaiththirundhOm] comes in the meaning of ‘desire’ with the variant samaivu. Since the word amaiyum would mean “not required”, the word amaiththirundhOm would mean ‘we did not need it’. This would convey the meaning that we did not require kaivailya mOksham (a variant of liberation in which the AthmA (soul), instead of enjoying emperumAn, enjoys itself) which is located in the outskirts of paramapadham and which is above the worlds of brahmA, rudhra, indhra et al. The implied meaning is that for us, who have thought of the consort of nappinnai, kaivalya mOksham, which excludes experience of emperumAn, is not required.

Instead of this, we could also interpret the meaning in another way – we can consider viNNAttukku uchchamadhAm vIttai to refer to paramapadham itself. However, just as hanuman had said “Other than this physical form of a monkey which was embraced by SrI rAma, in whose auspicious qualities I had got engaged, with his divine form, I do not require the aprAkrutha (not related to primordial matter) form with which I have to enter paramapadham as there is nothing in paramapadham for me to enjoy”, we can consider that AzhwAr says “For me who has kept firmly in the mind nappinnaip pirAtti’s consort kaNNa, the experience of paramapadham is not required ”. Did not thoNdaradippodi AzhwAr too say in thirumalai 2 “ichchuvaithavira yAn pOy indhiralOgam ALum achchuvai perineum vENdEn aranga mAnagaruLAnE” (I will not like if I have to leave this experience of enjoying thiruvarangam even if I were to get the opportunity of going to paramapadham)!

We will take up the 49th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 25 – moymbARum mAlukku

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vishnu-12-azhwars

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 3.5

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of  praising those who serve emperumAn and despising those who do not serve emperumAn, and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Having served emperumAn through his speech and becoming blissful, AzhwAr despises those who simply nurture their body ignoring such service to emperumAn, and joyfully praises SrIvaishNavas who serve by singing, dancing etc as an outlet to their internal experience enjoying bhagavAn in thiruvAimozhi 3.5moymmAm pUmpozhil“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “moymbArum mAlukku“.

pAsuram

moymbArum mAlukku mun adimai seydhuvappAl
anbAl Atcheybavarai Adhariththum – anbilA
mUdarai nindhiththu mozhindharuLumARan pAl
thEdariya paththi nenjE sey

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word-by-word meanings

moymbu Arum – for sarvESvara who is greatly capable
mun adimai seydha uvappAl – due to the joy of serving through his speech previously [in previous decad]
anbAl AL seybavarai – those who serve with devotion
Adhariththum – praising
anbu ilA – lacking devotion
mUdarai – fools
nindhiththum – scolding
mozhindharuLum – mercifully spoke (advice for them)
mARan pAl – for AzhwAr
nenjE – Oh heart!
thEdariya paththi – most supreme devotion
sey – you should perform

Simple Translation

Oh heart! You should perform the most supreme devotion to AzhwAr who mercifully spoke praising those who serve with devotion and scolding those fools who lack devotion, due to the joy of serving the greatly capable sarvESvara through his speech previously

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • moymbArum mAlukku – For sarvESvara who is abundantly glorious due to having the entire cosmos as his form. It was due to his omniscience and omnipotence that he mercifully accepted the service of the elephant (gajeEndhrAzhwAn) after freeing it from the crocodile in the pond [1st pAsuram].
  • mun adimai seydha uvappAl – Previously in thiruvAimozhi 3.4pugazhunal oruvan“, AzhwAr performed vAchika kainkaryam (service through speech) and became blissful.
  • anbAl AL seybavarai Adhariththum – Praising those who serve with devotion. That is, as seen in “Odhi uNarndhavar” (those wise ones having studied SAsthram) [5th pAsuram], “munivinRi Eththik kunippAr muzhudhuNar nIrmaiyinAr” (those who praise without hatred, dance with somersaults are having the nature of knowing all SAsthrams) [6th pAsuram], “Arvam perugik kunippAr amarar thozhap paduvARE” (devotees who dance around doing somersaults with abundance of enthusiasm, will be glorified by sUris who are eternally enjoying bhagavAn) [8th pAsuram]. It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 61.14 “gAyanthi kEchith, praNamanthi kEchith, nruthyanthi kEchith” (some of the monkeys sang, some offered salutations, some danced).
  • anbilA mUdarai nindhiththum mozhindharuLum – Scolding those ignorant fools who are devoid of bhakthi. That is, as seen in, “ezhundhum paRandhum thuLLAdhAr thammAl karumamen” (please tell, what is the purpose of those who do not speak with the mouth, sing, flying high without having the feet touching the ground instead of being seated and jumping up and down doing somersaults?) [1st pAsuram], “maN koL ulagil piRappAr valvinai mOdha malaindhu” (will be born in this world which is having abundance of soil/land, to be smashed on the ground, being inflicted with the great sins which are difficult to exhaust) [2nd pAsuram], “alai koL naragaththazhundhik kidandhuzhaikkinRa vambar” (those who never lose their freshness, are drowned (so they cannot reach the shore) in the great hell which is having many sorrows and stay there suffering) [3rd pAsuram], “tham piRappAl payanennE sAdhu sanangaL idaiyE” (what is the use of being born amidst sAthvika sangam) [4th pAsuram] and “en savippAr manisarE” (what will those men chant?) [5th pAsuram], “uththamargatken seyvAr” (what purpose will they serve for the best bhAgavathas?) [7th pAsuram]. As said in sudharSana manthram “mArgam pradharSaya” (show the path towards vishNu), those who have not entered this path are explained to be secondary.
  • mARan pAl … – Oh heart! Engage in great devotion towards AzhwAr who scolded the ignorant ones to stop them from engaging in misdeeds.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 24 – pugazhonRu mAl

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panch-bhutha-antharyami-azhwar

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 3.4

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of kainkaryam through speech, after emperumAn manifested his being the antharyAmi (indwelling supersoul) of everything to fulfil AzhwAr’s desire for kainkaryam which was prayed by AzhwAr previously and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? sarvESvaran manifested his being the antharyAmi of everything to AzhwAr who desired to serve as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.25 “aham sarvam karishyAmi” (I will serve you both in all ways); such emperumAn set out to accept AzhwAr’s kainkaryam; AzhwAr engaged in vAchika kainkaryam (service through speech) in thiruvAimozhi 3.4pugazhu nal oruvan“, considering emperumAn’s nature where he becomes satisfied just seeing the initiative for kainkaryam in the AthmA and nature of self, where he could not do anything beyond service through speech; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “pugazhonRu mAl“.

pAsuram

pugazhonRu mAl epporuLgaLum thAnAy
nigazhginRa nEr kAtti niRka – magizhmARan
engum adimai seya ichchiththu vAsigamAy
angadimai seydhAn moymbAl

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word-by-word meanings

pugazh onRum mAl – sarvESvaran who has fitting glories
epporuLgaLum thAnAy nigazhginRa – shining as all entities
nEr kAtti niRka – manifesting his honesty
magizhmARan – AzhwAr who is vakuLAbharaNa (wearing vakuLa garland)
engum adimai seya ichchiththu – desiring to serve everywhere
angu – as desired
moymbAl – due to the greatness of being blessed with faultless knowledge and devotion
vAsigamAy adimai seydhAn – performed vAchika kainkaryam

Simple Translation

As sarvESvaran who has fitting glories, manifested his honesty in shining as all entities, AzhwAr who is vakuLAbharaNa, desired to serve emperumAn everywhere and as desired, performed vAchika kainkaryam due to the greatness of being blessed with faultless knowledge and devotion.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • pugazh onRum mAl – Previously sarvESvaran was hailed in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.3eNNil thol pugazh vAnavar Isan” (the supreme lord of nithyasUris who has countless qualities), and such emperumAn has all greatness to be fittingly praised by everyone as said in “pugazhu nal oruvan” (unparalleled one who is praised by all) [1st pAsuram]. As he is protecting all the worlds, his glories will also be fitting. Alternatively, due to accepting AzhwAr‘s service, he acquired endless glories.
  • epporuLgaLum thAnAy nigazhginRa nEr kAtti niRkaemperumAn manifested his prakAra-prakAri bhAvam where he remains the antharyAmi of everything to be identified as those objects themselves, for AzhwAr to visualise the same. That is, emperumAn being the five elements which are highlighted starting with “poruvil sIr bhUmi enkO” (Should I say he is earth which is not having match) [1st pAsuram], the variegated manifestations of the five elements which are highlighted starting with “kunRangaL anaiththum enkO mEvu sIr mAri enkO” (Should I call him as all mountains or as rain that is having glorifiable qualities?) [2nd pAsuram], the radiant precious gems as highlighted starting with “sAdhi mANikkam enkO” (Should I call him as precious gems found in mines?) [4th pAsuram], the taste entities as highlighted in “achchudhan – achchuvaik katti enkO” (Should I call the unfailing lord as a sweet bundle?) [5th pAsuram], the sounds such as song as said in “nAngu vEdhap payan enkO samaya nIdhi nUl enkO nudangu kELvi isai enkO” (Should I call him as the result of such four vEdhams? Should I call him as mImAmsA SAsthram which explains logic and establishes the meanings? Should I call him as songs/tunes which are having sounds which engage (the listeners)? ) [6th pAsuram], the purushArthams (goals) such as mOksha (liberation) as highlighted starting with “vAnavar Adhi” (creator of dhEvas) [7th pAsuram], the primary dhEvathAs of the universe such as brahmA, rudhra et al as highlighted starting with “oLi maNivaNNan” (one with radiant gem like form) [8th pAsuram], the cause for all of these namely prakruthi (primordial matter) and purushas (souls) as said in “yAvaiyum yavarum thAnE” (his being everything and everyone) [eighth pAsuram], having all of these as his wealth, being the antharyAmi in everything/everyone and pervading them, and being untouched by their defects as said in “thOyvilan” (no bondage) [tenth pAsuram]. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 117.26 “jagath sarvam SarIram thE sthairyam thE vasudhAthalam | agni:kOpa: prasAdhasthE sOmaS SrIvathsa lakshaNa ||” (The entire cosmos is your body. The earth constitutes your firmness. Fire is your anger. The moon constitutes your placidity. You are vishNu who bears the mark Srivathsa – a curl of hair on his chest), in this manner, emperumAn manifested his being every entity starting with “pugazhum nal oruvan enkO” to “nAnmugak kadavuL enkO“, to AzhwAr.
  • magizh mARan – AzhwAr who wears vakuLa flower garland.
  • engum adimai seyya ichchiththu – Desiring to serve in all places, at all times and in all forms at the divine feet of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn.
  • vAsigamAy angu adimai seydhAn – In the matter of such bhagavAn, AzhwAr engaged his speech in service saying “enkO” repeatedly.
  • moymbAl – As said in yajur vEdham kAtakam 7.5.36 “ya AthmadhA baladhA:” (That paramapurusha (supreme lord) who gives himself and the mental strength to enjoy him), periya thirumozhi 1.10 “valam tharum” (the divine name “nArAyaNa” will give strength), thiruvAimozhi 3.2.10nilaip peRRu en nenjam peRRadhu nIduyir” (My broken heart became stable and my AthmA became permanent), AzhwAr will only desire for stability when it comes by the strength given by emperumAn. moymbu – pride. AzhwAr‘s vAchika kainkaryam in consideration of emperumAn’s vyApthi (all pervasive nature) is always for thiruvEngadamudaiyAn as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.9.1thiruvEngadaththu ennAnai ennappan emperumAnukku” (I am unable to submit the sweet pAsurams coming out of tongue fulfilling its purpose to anyone other than thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn) as seen in thiruvAimozhi 1.8.3kaNNAvAn ennum maNNOr viNNOrkku” (emperumAn, being the controller, resides in the abundantly cool thiruvEnkatam always for the residents of material and spiritual realms), nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 45 “vEngadamE vAnOrkkum maNNOrkkum vaippu” (thiruvEngadam is the treasure for nithyasUris and the people of this world), periya thirumozhi 1.9.10 “kaNNAy Ezhulagukkum uyirAya en kArvaNNanai viNNOr paravum pozhil vEngada vEdhiyanai” (thiruvEngadamudaiyAn who is known through vEdham, the protector of the worlds, and my life who is having cloud like dark complexion, and who is worshipped by nithyasUris), thiruvAimozhi 2.6.10 “thAy thandhai uyir AginRAy unnai nAn adaindhEn viduvEnO? pAginRa thol pugazh mUvulagukkum nAdhanE! paramA! thaN vEngadam mEginRAy!” (emperumAn is the one who is caring for me like my mother, father and self in present, past and future times spreading thus to protect all, having [auspicious] qualities which are eternally present, being the lord for the three types of chEthana and achEthana entities and having no one superior to him with such greatness; concealing such greatness, he is staying there out of love, being easily approachable in cool thirumalA; having reached you, will I leave you?), thiruvAimozhi 3.3.4thiruvEnkataththAnukku – en kaN pAsam vaiththa paranjudarch chOdhikkE” (For thiruvEngadamudaiyAn, who is the radiant light who placed his affection on me), and in periya thirumozhi 6.6 starting with “ambaramum”, where his being the lord of both realms, his omnipresence, his presence in all times are mentioned. Due to this, mAmunigaL said “angadimai seydhAn” (AzhwAr served thiruvEngadamudaiyAn).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 1 (Names 1 to 10)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama: 

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<< pUrva pItikA – Part 8

We begin to construe the thousand names of the Lord denoting His various forms namely para (as seen in the Supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam), vyUha  (the milky ocean) and vibhava (as seen in the various incarnations) in light of the authoritative texts such as pAncharAthra Agama, with a clear justification of such denotations according to the context, without any repetitions or any other such blemishes, and by detailing the grammar and etymology of such names, and also based on the previous interpretations by various seers in the past.

First of all, the completeness of the all pervading bhagavAn is said with the name ‘viSvam’.

विश्वं विष्णुर्वषट्कारॊ भूतभव्यभवत्प्रभुः ।
भूतकृद्भूतभृद्भावॊ भूतात्मा भूतभावनः॥ १ ॥

1) viSvam (विश्वम्)

The word viSvam is derived from the root ‘viS’ (to enter). This name means that He enters every part of this universe, and pervades it. As per the aphorism ‘अशूप्रुशि-लटि- कणि-खटि-विशिभ्यः-क्वन्’, the suffix ‘kvan’ adjoins the root ‘viS’ and thus results in the name ‘viSvam’. As is it said in the mOksha dharma in mahAbhAratha by sage panchaSikha, “He is called viSvam due to His pervasiveness in every part of all the worlds (the origin being viS – praviSanE), Oh king of kASi! Since He is only visible in every part of this universe, all the worlds are verily called ‘viSvam’ in His name”. The purport of this name is to show the “completeness of bhagavAn with natural, boundless, and extraordinary auspiciousness and grandeur of nature, forms and qualities”, since the word denotes completeness, and also due to bhagavAn’s natural eligibility to be glorified with all His boundless wealth.

Although originally a neuter gender word, the name ‘visvam’ – in this context – should be considered as masculine only, since this represents vishNu. This is as per the pANinIya ashtAdhyAyi aphorism ‘तदाशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात्’. If the word ‘viSva’ representing the effect is otherwise thought to represent the cause, it wouldn’t be apt; since all the names representing bhagavAn are always conforming to Him and this single word ‘viSvam’ effectively represents all such names in short, the crooked way of decoding the meaning would not hold good.

Some people have been propounding the non-dualism between the Supreme brahman and this creation with this name. This is nothing more than deception, because the word ‘viSvam’ does not have non-dualism in it whatsoever. This word does even not connote non-dualism like the vEdhic statements such as ‘thath-thvam-asi’ (thou art that) by congruence.

Thus, the words ‘viSvam’ and ‘vishNu’ are indistinct and show the same characteristic. The other school of thought propounding non-dualism of this world and the brahman stands refuted at the very beginning, and also in many places further down the chapter. The completeness shown with this name is only explained further with all other names such as ‘vishNu’ etc.

Etymology: viSvam means the all-round completeness in nature, forms, qualities and grandeur.

विश्वम् – सर्वत्र पूर्णत्वात् स्वरूपगुणवैभवै: |

2) vishNu: (विष्णुः)

Since bhagavAn enters this creation as the indwelling self of all, He is called ‘viShNu’. This means that He enters all of the sentient and insentient entities, which are His properties, as the indwelling self. This is as per the scriptural statements:

  • “He entered all the created objects – movable and immovable”,
  • “He only entered as the indwelling self”,
  • “Having pervaded all of these worlds, the Supreme Lord kESava resides everywhere. Thus He is called ‘vishNu’, since the root ‘viS’ means pervasiveness” etc.

The name vishNu is derived out of the root ‘viS’, which means to pervade everything. This root is suffixed with the adjunct ‘knu’, which results in this name. The varAha purAaNa says thus: “The natural supremacy of bhagavAn is put forth with this name vishNu, which has the ‘knu’ adjunct representing all of His characteristic qualities”.

Although the earlier name ‘viSvam’ and this name ‘vishNu’ are both derived out of the same root ‘viS’, there is no fault of repetition since the former represented ‘completeness’ and the latter represents ‘pervasiveness’.

Etymology: He is called vishNu since He pervades all of the sentient and insentient entities.

चराचरॆषु भूतॆषु वॆशनात् विष्णुरुच्यतॆ

3) vashatkAra: (वषट्कारः)

bhagavAn is called ‘vashatkAra’ in order to identify His expansiveness distinctly from the other expansive entities such as the sky or space (AkASa). The meaning of the name is “the One who controls all out of His own free will”. The verb ‘does’ (karOthi), when used in the karmaNi form, is suffixed with the adjunct ‘aN’. Thus the root ‘vaS’ meaning ‘charm’ gets the suffix ‘at’ by the grammatical rule of bAhulaka anuvruththi. The letter ‘sha’ (ष) supplements the smaller ‘Sa’ (श) in the root ‘vas’. All these transformations to the root result in the name ‘vashatkAra’. This is in conformance with the scriptures which declare “He is the controller and ruler of all”, “This world acts at His behest”, etc.

Etymology: The One who controls all out of His own free will is called vashatkAra.

स्वॆच्छया यॊ वशॆ सर्वं वषट्कार्ः करॊति सः |

4) bhUtha-bhavya-bhavath-prabhu: (भूतभव्यभवत्प्रभुः)

The name bhUtha-bhavya-bhavath-prabhu means the sole master (prabhu:) of all the things that appear in the different points of time namely past (bhUtha), present (bhavya) and the future (bhavath). He is the ruler of all such things. He is the controller of all those things. This name is derived as per the pANini ashtAdhyAyi aphorism, which says “विप्रसम्भ्यॊड्वसंज्ञायाम्” (the root ‘bhU’ is suffixed with adjunct ‘dhu’ as per this aphorism). Since this word name collectively and inclusively references all the objects, there is no contradiction in using the said adjunct, per the grammatical rules. The scriptures declare thus, in connection with bhagavAn:

  • “Of the master of all worlds…”
  • “Of the master of even the masters…”
  • “He is the one and only master of all that is created”
  • “This world belongs to that Supreme Soul”
  • “All of these regions are his…”
  • “All the worlds and creatures in it are created by krishNa and for krishNa only”
  • “krishNa, The slayer of the demon named kESi Himself is the master of all creatures appearing in past, present and future times”, et al.

Etymology: The master of all objects appearing in past, present and future is called as bhUtha-bhavya-bhavathprabhu:.

त्रिकालवर्तिनां शॆषी भूतभव्यभवत्प्रभुः |

5) bhUthakruth (भूतकृत्)

The next five names starting with this explain bhagavAn’s ownership (SEshathvam) over all other entities created. Since He creates all these entities independently, He is called ‘bhUtakruth’ (originator of creatures). This is as per the scriptures that say, “All these worlds and the creatures in it are created verily by that Supreme brahman”, “From whom all these creatures are born, by whom all these creatures are sustained, and into whom all these creatures enter at the end of creation, know that Supreme Self to be the brahman” etc.

Etymology: The one who creates all these creatures independently is called bhUthakruth.

भूतानि यॊsसौ सृजति स्वातन्त्र्यॆण स भूतकृत् |

6) bhUthabhruth (भूतभृत्)

Since He bears the creatures, He is called bhUthabhruth (the bearer of creatures). The scriptures declare thus:

  • “He supports all the creation, and is the centre of all the worlds”
  • “Just like how the rim of a chariot wheel is supported by the spokes, and the spokes in turn are supported by the axle, so also all the creatures are supported by consciousness (the knowledge of ‘I’, which is the characteristic of an individual soul), and all such consciousness are supported by the sole Supreme Self, who is verily the life force of all of them”
  • “He is bearing the earth”
  • “The ceaseless master of all bears all of this creation” etc.

Etymology: He is called bhUthabhruth due to his bearing of all the creatures.

भूतभृत् भूतभरणात् |

7) bhAva: (भावः) 

All the creatures born in all the worlds as said earlier are connected with bhagavAn just like the feathers are connected with a peacock in its tail. Thus, He is called ‘bhAva:’, meaning the one who is connected with all creatures. The aphorism “भवतॆश्च इति वक्तव्यम्” directs the usage of ‘Na’ adjunct with the root ‘bhU’. The sole ownership of bhagavAn over all the entities is understood because of all the creatures manifesting themselves as modes to bhagavAn (prakArathvam), and thus having Him as their indweller.

Etymology: He is called ‘bhAva:’ due to His connection with all the creatures.

श्लिष्टत्वात् भाव ईरितः

8) bhUthAthmA (भूतात्मा)

The property and owner relation between the creatures and the Supreme Self as explained before is now described using the body and soul relationship, with the name ‘bhUthAthmA’. He is the soul of all the creatures. Even the individual souls have the soul-body relation with each of their physical bodies in this creation, pervading which they conduct themselves differently. Similarly, the Supreme Entity bhagavAn pervades all of this creation. All these creatures – being the body of bhagavAn – are different than the perceptions of other ownerships such as spouse, residence, and land of an individual soul. Unlike the other ownerships, all the creatures are totally dependent on bhagavAn for their very existence. Also, all the creatures are very close to bhagavAn due to the body-soul relationship. This is as per the following scriptural statements:

  • “He who is in this earth, for whom this earth is the body, but the earth realizes not; He who is in every individual soul, for whom the soul is itself the body, but the soul realizes not…”
  • “He is the indwelling soul of all the creatures – both sentient and insentient”
  • “All these worlds are verily your body…”
  • “All those are His body”
  • “All of them are verily the body of Sri hari” etc.

Etymology: In all the creatures which are physically born in this creation, the one who is called by the name ‘bhUthAthmA’ resides as the indwelling soul.

शरीरभूत भूतानां भूतात्मा आत्मतया स्थितः

9) bhUthabhAvana: (भूतभावनः)

He is called ‘bhUthabhAvana:’ since He nurtures all the born creatures with all the materials required for their sustenance, nourishment and enjoyment. By this, He demonstrates His complete ownership of all the creatures. The aphorisms “नन्द्यादिभ्यॊ ल्युः” and “कृत्यल्युटॊ बहुलम्” cause the adjunct ‘ana’ to be suffixed with the root ‘bhU’ (in the meaning of ‘nurturing’). Thus, the name ‘bhUthabhAvana’ is derived. Similar is the case with the other names ‘bhAvana:’ (32nd name) and ‘prathardhana:’ (60th name), which also get the ‘lut’ adjunct. The nurturing of creatures by bhagavAn is explained in the scriptures thus:

  • “He is the owner of all creatures, and nurtures them”
  • “He looks after all creatures…”, etc

Thus, by expounding the creatorship, sustenance, and nurturing of all creatures born in this creation, the sole mastership of bhagavAn over all other entities is established. He is called as ‘SEshI’ (the Supreme Master) only to expound this nature of creatorship and nurturing of all the creatures. With this, the aphorism in pUrva mImAmsA which says “this creature is His property, since this lives for His sake” (शॆषः परार्थत्वात्) stands justified.

Etymology: He who nurtures the creatures by providing them with all materials for their sustenance, nourishment and enjoyment is called bhUthabhAvana.

धारकादि प्रदानॆन यश्च वर्धयति स्वयम् ।
भूतानि नित्यं झटिति स तु स्यात् भूतभावनः ॥

पूतात्मा परमात्मा च मुक्तानां परमागतिः ।
अव्ययः पुरुषः साक्षी क्षॆत्रज्ञॊsक्षर ऎव च ॥ २ ॥

10) pUthAthmA (पूतात्मा) 

The name ‘pUthAthmA’ is hailed here, in order to negate any blemishes that may be accorded to bhagavAn due to His being the soul of all the creatures in these worlds and thus being associated with their blemishes. He is rather of a pure nature. Even in the event of association of Supreme soul with the individual soul with a soul- body relationship, only the lower individual soul enjoys the fruits of action, and undergoes agonies. The vEdhas say “The other entity – Supreme Soul – shuns the enjoyments of fruits, while the individual soul enjoys such fruits due to its own past deeds”. The giver of such fruits to the individual soul is the Supreme soul Himself. However, He does not partake of such fruits due to His own free will (which the individual self lacks due to its past deeds). The Supreme Self glows with purity. This is much akin to the teacher and student pair, both of whom are associated with a cane. Although both are associated with it, only the student who gets beaten with the cane is affected by it, and not the teacher who wields it. The same opinion is voiced by other scriptures as well, thus: “Enjoying none of such fruits, the One who glows with purity…”

  • “He is the indweller of all creatures, yet untouched by any blemishes due to such association”
  • “The actions (karma) do not stick to me”
  • “Oh nAradha! Behold that greatness of the Supreme Soul, who is never affected by the fruits of any of the deeds – good or bad – at any instant!”, et al.

All such declarations are summarized in an aphorism in the brahma sUthras thus: “If one opines that the joy or agony for a soul come due to sheer association with the physical body, that is wrong. Rather, the joy or agony come from the special qualifiers called ‘past deeds’, and not just the body” (सम्भॊगप्राप्तिरिति चॆन्नवैशॆष्यादिति).

Etymology: Although all creatures are His body, He is not affected by any of their blemishes, and does not enjoy the fruits of any of the actions. Thus, he is called ‘pUthAthmA’.

शरीरत्वात् च जगतः तत्-दॊषैः न कदाचन ।
लिप्यतॆ यः स पूतात्मा न भुङ्क्तॆ च फलानि यः ॥

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 23 – ozhivilAk kAlam

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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srinivasan -ahzwar

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 3.3

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of revealing his great desire for kainkaryam and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? As AzhwAr meditated upon the cruel nature of this connection with the material body and became filled with sorrow, emperumAn manifested his divine presence in northern thirumalA (thiruvEngadam, thirumalA thiruppathi) to change AzhwAr’s mood, AzhwAr approached him and realised his true nature as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.2.10nilaippeRRu en nenjam peRRAdhu nIduyir” (my broken heart acquired stability and the AthmA acquired eternity)  again; AzhwAr then thought “we should serve emperumAn matching our true nature” and desired to perform faultless service at the divine feet of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn (SrInivAsa), and highlighted the same in thiruvAimozhi 3.3ozhivil kAlam ellAm“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “ozhivilAk kAlam“.

pAsuram

ozhivilAk kAlam udanAgi manni
vazhuvilA Atcheyya mAlukku – ezhusigara
vEngadaththup pAriththa mikka nalam sEr mARan
pUngazhalai nenjE pugazh

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word-by-word meanings

ozhivilAk kAlam – at all times
udanAgi manni – remaining together
mAlukku – to emperumAn
vazhu ilA AL seyya – to perform faultless kainkaryam
ezhu sigaram – having risen peaks
vEngadaththu – in thirumalA
pAriththa – enthusiastically setting out to
mikka nalam sEr mARan – attained great bliss
mARan – AzhwAr‘s
pUm kazhalai – beautiful, divine feet
nenjE – Oh heart!
pugazh – praise

Simple Translation

Oh heart! Praise the beautiful divine feet of AzhwAr who attained great bliss by enthusiastically setting out to perform faultless kainkaryam at all times to emperumAn remaining together with him, who is in thirumalA which is having tall peaks.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • ozhivilAk kAlam udanAgi manni – Thinking about performing kainkaryam in all places, all times and in all states.
  • vazhu ilA AL seyya mAlukku – desiring to perform all types of kainkaryams to sarvESvaran, without slipping from any aspect of servitude.
  • ezhu sigra vEngadaththup pAriththa – desired in thirumalai (thiruvEngdam) which has tall peaks. Just as iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) desired to perform all kainkaryams to sIthAp pirAtti and SrI rAma in thiruchchithrakUtam as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.25  “bhavAmsthu saha vaidhEhyA girisAnushu ramsyathE | aham sarvam karishyAmi jAgrathas svapathaSchathE ||” (While you enjoy with sIthA in the foothills of the mountain, I will serve you both in all ways), AzhwAr too desired to serve the divine feet of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn who is having SrI mahAlakhsmi in his divine chest, and is residing in thirumalai which is having huge peaks.
  • mikka nalam sEr mARan – AzhwAr who has unlimited bhakthi as said in in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 34.13 “anurakthaScha bhakthaScha” (adherent devotee), and in perumAL thirumozhi 8.5 “ARA anbiLaiyavan” (lakhmaNa who has endless love for SrI rAma), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.2ARA anbil adiyEn” (I who am a servitor, having endless love).
  • pUngazhalai nenjE pugazh – Oh heart! Just as AzhwAr served emperumAn‘s divine feet as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.4pUvAr kazhalgaL” (divine feet covered with flowers), you praise the divine feet of AzhwAr which are beautiful and tender like flowers. Try to engage your faculty of speech in his service. kainkaryam [to emperumAn] which is highlighted in the second sentence of dhvaya mahA manthram, extends up to emperumAn’s devotees. By this, the meanings of “ozhivil kAlam ellAm …” [1st pAsuram] is mercifully explained here.

Further, the following principles which were mercifully explained by AzhwAr in the subsequent pAsurams in this decad are also considered by mAmunigaL.

  • sindhu pU magizhum” (spreading flowers that blossom) [2nd pAsuram] showing kAyika kainkaryam (service through the faculty of body)
  • theNNiRaich chunai nIrth thiruvEngadam” (thiruvEngadam which is having pure water in ponds) [3rd pAsuram] showing mAnasa kainkaryam (service through the faculty of mind)
  • Isan vAnavarkku” (leader of nithyasUris) [4th pAsuram] showing vAchika kainkaryam (service through the faculty of speech)
  • vEngadaththuRaivArkku nama” (saying nama: towards the lord who resides eternally in thirumalai) [6th pAsuram] showing elimination of self-enjoyment
  • saman koL vIdu tharum thadam kunRamE” (thirumalai itself will bestow sAmyApaththi mOksham (equivalence with bhagavAn in eight qualities)) [7th pAsuram] showing thirumalai AzhwAr [thirumalai is addressed honourably as thirumalai AzhwAr] itself will grant that kainkaryam
  • thiruvEnkada mA malai onRumE thozha nam vinai OyumE” (as we worship the thirumalai hill, our hurdles will be removed) [8th pAsuram] showing the hurdles for kainkaryam will also be removed by thirumalai AzhwAr itself.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 22 – munnam azhagar ezhil

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kallalagar-ahzwar -srinivasan

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 3.2

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of becoming bewildered thinking “I am unable to fully enjoy emperumAn‘s qualities due to limitations in my senses” and emperumAn eliminating such bewilderment, and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? In the previous decads, AzhwAr tried enjoying the beauty etc of azhagar emperumAn but could not do it fully; he thought “it must be due to limitation of my own senses” instead of realising that it is due to emperumAn’s greatness; he became overwhelmed with sorrow thinking “emperumAn performed srushti (creation), avathAra (incarnations) etc to let me enjoy him fully without any limitations in senses; but I have lost it and am in a disastrous state now; will I be able to reach him now?” and called out for him in thiruvAimozhi 3.2 “munnIr gyAlam”; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “munnam azhagar ezhil“.

pAsuram

munnam azhagar ezhil mUzhgum kurugaiyar kOn
innavaLavenna enakkaridhAyththenna
karaNak kuRaiyin kalakkaththaik kaNNan
orumaip paduththAn ozhiththu

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word-by-word meanings

munnam – previously
azhagar – azhagar emperumAn‘s
ezhil – beauty
mUzhgum – immersed
kurugaiyar kOn – AzhwAr
inna aLavu enna – ‘to measure as a particular level
enakku – even for me (who was blessed with unblemished knowledge and devotion)
aridhu Ayththu enna – difficult’ mercifully saying so
karaNak kuRaiyin kalakkaththai – ignorance caused due to the limitation in senses
kaNNan – emperumAn
ozhiththu – eliminated
orumaip paduththAn – he pacified the heart

Simple Translation

Previously AzhwAr became immersed in azhagar emperumAn‘s beauty; the ignorance caused due to the limitation in senses of AzhwAr who mercifully said “even for me, it is difficult to measure his beauty to be as a particular level”, was eliminated by emperumAn as he pacified AzhwAr’s heart.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • munnam azhagar ezhil mUzhgum – At first, AzhwAr became captivated in azhagar emperumAn‘s divine form instead of his true nature, qualities etc. mUzhgugai – fully drowning in that ocean of beauty. Such AzhwAr who is drowned in this ocean of beauty,
  • inna aLavu enna – to measure to be of a particular limit
  • enakku aridhAyththu ennaAzhwAr said “even for me who is blessed with unblemished knowledge and devotion by bhagavAn, it is difficult [to measure emperumAn‘s greatness to be of a particular limit]”. As AzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 3.2.1thirumAlE katturaiyE” (Oh lord of SrI mahAlakshmi, please tell), emperumAn who is having unbounded knowledge and fully knowledgeable on his own, due to being together with SrI mahAlakshmi, it appears that AzhwAr cannot comprehend it fully.
  • karaNak kuRaiyin kalakkaththai – The ignorance which occurred due to the limitation of senses which were given to be put in use for emperumAn’s purpose. As mercifully explained by AzhwAr in “annAL nI thandha Akkaiyin vazhi uzhalvEn” (you gave me a body; but in such day when I have become pitiable having gone in the ways of such body) [1st pAsuram], “vinaigaLai vEr aRap pAyndhu ennAL yAn unnai ini vandhu kUduvan” (after eliminating all the sins, when will I come and unite with you) [pAsuram 1], “panmA mAyap piRaviyil padiginRa yAn thonmA valvinaith thodargaLai mudhalarindhu nin mA thAL sErndhu niRpadhu engyAnRukolO” (I am living in a well fitting manner assuming many different forms in prakruthi which is amazing and variegated, is very difficult to cross over and which exists for your sport. When will I cut off the countless chains of sins, which are difficult to eradicate and which exist since time immemorial, reach your divine feet which are having great glories and stay there firmly?) [pAsuram 2], “pollA Akkaiyin puNarvinai aRukkalaRA sollAy yAn unnaich chArvadhOr sUzhchchiyE” (even if I tried to cut off the connection with the body I am unable to do so; please tell me a distinct method to reach you) [pAsuram 3] etc. It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 37.6 “lankAmunmUlithAm kruthvA kadhAdhrakshyathi mAm pathi:” (My husband SrIrAma will cause destruction for the rAkshasas, kill rAvaNa and destroy lankA completely and will see me always). Such bewilderment was caused by the limitation of senses.
  • kaNNan orumaip paduththAn ozhiththu – krishNa who removes the sorrows of the devotees as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66mA Sucha:” (Do not grieve), removed sorrow in AzhwAr which was caused due to the limitation of senses and pacified the divine heart of AzhwAr to let AzhwAr fully enjoy him with his senses. mAmunigaL is mercifully following the words of AzhwAr “kalaip pal gyAnaththen kaNNanaik kaNdu koNdu nilaip peRRen nenjam peRRadhu nIduyir” (after seeing krishNa who is known by many types of vEdham, eliminating such sorrows, my broken heart acquired stability and the AthmA acquired eternity) [10th pAsuram]. emperumAn manifested his presence in periya thirumalai (thiruvEngadam, thirumalA thiruppathi) where he was accepting the service of animals which have very limited senses, and pacified AzhwAr.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 21 – mudiyAr thirumalaiyil

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kallalagar-ahzwar

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 3.1

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of fully enjoying the beautiful form of azhagar emperumAn who is residing in thirumalai (thirumAlirunjOlai) and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr, who is as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.10.11maruLil vaNkurugUr vaN SatakOpan“ (the leader of the distinct/beautiful AzhwArthirunagari, being devoid of ignorance), enjoyed azhagar emperumAn in thirumalai, as the one

  • who appears like a peak on the mountain as said in periya thirumozhi 7.10.3 “vada mA malai uchchi” (the peak on the great northern mountain),
  • who is resembling a well branched out and blossomed kalpaka tharu (celestial wish-fulfilling tree) as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.3.11 “mElirum kaRpagaththai” (the kalpaka tree on top) and having the proper match between emperumAn‘s divine limbs and the ornaments which decorate them,
  • who is having great glories which cannot be comprehended by vEdham and vaidhika personalities, and
  • who is having ASritha vAthsalyam (motherly care towards his devotees) which is greater than the previously explained aspects

He became blissful and revealed his overwhelming emotions in thiruvAimozhi 3.1mudichchOdhiyAy“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “mudiyAr thirumalaiyil“.

pAsuram

mudiyAr thirumalaiyil mUNdu ninRa mARan
adivAram thannil azhagar vadivazhagaip
paRRi mudiyum adiyum padigalanum
muRRum anubaviththAn mun

pAsuram 21

word-by-word meanings

mudi Ar – having peaks
thirumalaiyil – in thirumalai (thirumAlirunjOlai hill)
mUNdu ninRa – firmly remained and enjoyed
mARan – AzhwAr
adivAram thannil – in the divine foothill
azhagar – azhagar emperumAn‘s
vadivu azhagaip paRRi – on the beauty of his divine form
mudiyum – crown
adiyum – anklet
padigalanum – other ornaments on his divine form
muRRum – fully
mun – previously
anubaviththAn – enjoyed.

Simple Translation

Previously, AzhwAr firmly remained and enjoyed the thirumalai which is having peaks and fully enjoyed the beauty of azhagar emperumAn‘s divine form, along with his crown, anklet and other ornaments on his divine form.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • mudiyAr thirumalaiyil mUNdu ninRa mARan – As said in “virAjathE vrushAthrEScha Sikaram dhaSadhAthubhi: | bhUshithO bhUpathiriva kirItE nArkavarchasA ||“, with abundant peaks which resemble the tall crown of the supreme lord as said in thiruviruththam 50 “viNmudhal nAyagan nILmudiyOdoththa” (resembling white pearl garland decorating the divine crown of paramapadhanAthan) and in thiruvAimozhi 2.10.2madhi thavazh kudumi”  (the peak where moon crawls), and in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.3.10 “Ayiram paindhalai ananthan” (well-spread, thousand hooded serpent, AdhiSEsha), AzhwAr remained firm and enjoyed the thirumalaiyAzhwAr (the divine hill).
  • adivAram thannil azhagar vadivazhagaip paRRi – In the divine foothills of the divine hill, the divine form of azhagar emperumAn as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.3.11 “mAlirunjOlai ennum malaiyai udaiya malaiyai” (the hill (emperumAn) who has the hill mAlirunjOlai), is making his divine nature and auspicious qualities subdued/unmanifest. Enjoying the beauty of such divine form and having that as the target for enjoyment. While enjoying it,
  • mudiyum adiyum padigalanum muRRum anubaviththAn munmAmunigaL is mercifully following the words of AzhwAr in “mudichchOdhiyAy unadhu mugachchOdhi malarndhadhuvO adichchOdhi nI ninRa thAmaraiyAy alarndhadhuvO padichchOdhi Adaiyodum palakalanAy nin paim pon kadicchOdhi kalandhadhuvO thirumAlE katturaiyE” (Did the radiance of your divine face rise upwards to become the radiance in your divine crown? Did the radiance of your divine feet spread downwards to become the radiance in the lotus flower where you stand? Did the radiance of your well spread beautiful waist spread downwards and upwards with the naturally radiant cloth and the divine ornaments you wear? Since you are the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi, as said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.8.18 “arthO vishNuriyam vANi” (SrI vishNu is the meaning and SrI mahAlakshmi is the word), as you are the one who are the controller of words and meanings, mercifully explain this to remove my doubts) [1st pAsuram], which highlights emperumAn‘s inconceivable form. It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kaNdam 1.1 “rUpam samhananam lakshmIm” (his form, beauty and tenderness).
  • mudiyum adiyum – He enjoyed starting from the crown and down to the anklet.
  • padigalanum – The ornaments which are present on his form in between the crown and anklet; alternatively – it is saying the ornaments which are matching well on his form. Just as a waterfalls [from the crown] will split into various floods and lead to the river [waist]. In this manner, being the wavy ocean of beauty which engages the mind.
  • muRRum anubaviththAn mun – It is saying “AzhwAr fully enjoyed it previously”, or saying “he [AzhwAr] first enjoyed him [emperumAn] fully”. muRRum indicates all that is said in the “mudichchOdhi” [1st] pAsuram; further, the various other references [in subsequent pAsurams] which mercifully explain the first pAsuram such as “katturaikkil – sutturaiththa nan pon un thirumEni oLi ovvAdhu” (when clearly said – the best molten gold that is prepared does not compare to the collective radiance of your divine form) [2nd pAsuram], “paranjOdhi” (supreme radiance) [3rd pAsuram], “nin mAttAya malar puraiyum thiru uruvam” (your tender flower-like divine form) [4th pAsuram], “malar kadhirin sudar udambAy” (radiant light with blossomed rays as his form) [5th pAsuram], “pOdhuvAzh punandhuzhAy mudiyinAy! pUvinmEl mAdhuvAzh mArbinAy!” (Oh one who is having the divine chest which is the eternal abode of SrI mahAlakshmi, who was eternally residing in the lotus flower!) [6th pAsuram], “mAsUNAch chudar udambAy” (Oh one who has a divine form which is devoid of any blemishes) [8th pAsuram], “un sudarch chOdhi” (your radiant lustre like form) [9th pAsuram].

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 20 – kiLaroLi sEr

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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kallalagar-mulavar-uthsavar-azhwar

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 2.10

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of instructing others saying “Taking refuge of thirumalai (the sacred thirumAlirunjOlai hill) is the means for the goal” and is mercifully explaining it. Alternatively it can be said that mAmunigaL is explaining how AzhwAr is enjoying thirumAlirunjOlai as the ultimate goal.

How is that done? While AzhwAr was determining his own goal in thiruvAimozhi 2.9 “emmA vIdu“, he was greatly craving for it saying “ollai” (quick) repeatedly; understanding AzhwAr’s urge, emperumAn revealed his presence in southern thirumalai (thirumAlirunjOlai, the sacred hill) so that AzhwAr can enjoy him in this world itself with his present body; AzhwAr meditated upon this and thought “more than emperumAn himself, the divine hill which is his dear abode, is apt for us to pursue”, enjoys thirumalai AzhwAr (the divine hill) with great affection, becomes pleased and instructs the samsAris (materialistic people) also to take refuge there in thiruvAimozhi 2.10kiLaroLi iLamai“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “kiLaroLi sEr“.

pAsuram

kiLaroLi sEr kIzhuraiththa pERu kidaikka
vaLaroLi mAl sOlai malaikkE – thaLarvaRavE
nenjai vaiththuch chErumenum nIdu pugazh mARan thAL
mun seluththuvOm em mudi

Listen

word-by-word meanings

kiLar oLi sEr – having shining radiance
kIzh uraiththa – and previously explained
pERu – purushArtham (goal/result)
kidaikka – to attain
vaLar oLi mAl sOlai malaikkE – for thirumAlirunjOlai which is the residence of emperumAn who has growing radiance
thaLarvu aRavE – without getting tired
nenjai vaiththu – with the heart
sErum ena – one who mercifully said to reach
nIdu pugazh – having great glories
mARan – AzhwAr‘s
thAL mun – in front of the divine feet
em mudi – our head
seluththuvOm – will place

Simple Translation

To attain the previously explained purushArtham which is having radiance, AzhwAr mercifully said to reach thirumAlirunjOlai which is the residence of emperumAn who has growing radiance, with our heart, without getting tired; we will place our head in front of the divine feet of the greatly glorious AzhwAr.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • kiLar oLi sEr kIzh uraiththa pERu kidaikka – To attain the greatly radiant goal which was spoken about in previous decad “emmA vIdu“.
  • vaLar oLi mAl sOlai malaikkE – For thirumAlirunjOlai hill only which is the divine abode of sarvESvaran, who is “kiLar oLi mAyOn” (the amazing lord with growing radiance) as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.7.1 “payilum sudaroLi mUrththiyai“, who is having radiance which grows along with time;
  • thaLarvu aRavE nenjai vaiththuch chErum enum – would mercifully say “without the fatigue of not thinking about bhagavAn, place your mind on thirumalai which is his residence and take refuge of it”.
  • thaLarvu – mental weakness.
  • aRavE – Without such weakness, for the goal as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.9.1pAdhapaRpu” (lotus feet), he ordains “thennan uyar poruppu” (the high mountain of thennan, the king, periya thirumadal) as the means. As it is said in thiruviruththam 31 “van thAL simayam” (mountain having very strong foot), it has sufficient base to give refuge. Saying as in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.7saman koL vIdu tharum thadangunRamE” (the divine hill which gives liberation).
  • nenjai vaiththuch chErum enum – The source for this phrase is the first pAsuram “kiLar oLi iLamai“. It was mercifully explained as “before the faith in mind changes”. It is said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 94 “uyththuNarvennum oLi koL viLakku” (radiant lamp of knowledge which is readily available). sErum is primarily as per AzhwAr‘s merciful explanation in “kiLar oLi iLamai keduvadhan munnam” (before losing youthfulness) [1st pAsuram] up to “pOdhavizh malaiyE puguvadhu poruLE” (entering the flower blossoming mountain is the goal) [10th pAsuram]. That is, as said in “sArvadhu sadhirE” (it is best to reach the mountain) [1st pAsuram], “ayan malai adaivadhu adhu karumamE” (reaching a mountain near thirumalai is a natural activity [for the AthmA] and must be done) [3rd pAsuram], “thirumalai adhuvE adaivadhu thiRamE” (to reach that thirumalai itself is that which is to be done) [4th pAsuram], “neRipada adhuvE ninaivadhu nalamE” (to meditate upon entering the path to such thirumalai is the goal) [6th pAsuram]. Also, as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 113.3 “pradhakshiNam cha kurvANaSchithrakUtam mahAgirim” (They circumambulated the great chithrakUta mountain), AzhwAr said “valam seydhu nALum maruvudhal vazhakkE” (engage in favourable acts such as circumambulation etc ) [8th pAsuram], “thozhak karudhuvadhE thiNivadhu sUdhE” (have full faith in the mind to worship such thirumalai) [9th pAsuram]. AzhwAr enjoyed thirumalai, the hill which was attached to it, the neighbouring mountain, the dhivyadhESam, the path which leads to the hill and the firm faith to go there, and considered them all as part of the goal, and instructed the same to others. All of these are explained in this pAsuram by mAmunigaL. nAyanAr explained the sacred hill in the context of upAyam (means) in AchArya hrudhayam “anthargatha guNOpasAnaththai madhiththup perukki mUzhgi azhum kIzhmai valam sUdhu seydhu iLamai kedAmal seyyum kshEthra vAsa sankIrthana anjali pradhakshiNa gathi chinthanAdhi angamAkkugiRAr iraNdAm paththil“. Hence, thirumalai can be explained as both means and goal.
  • nenjai vaiththuch chErum enum nIdu pugazh mARan thAL – As AzhwAr gives instructions seeing the suffering of others, his glory increases forever and is ever lasting; on such AzhwAr’s divine feet.
  • mun seluththuvOm em mudi – Let us work to place our head in front of his divine feet. It is said in AzhwAr‘s thaniyan “SrImath thadhangri yugaLam praNamAmi mUrdhnA” (everything is nammAzhwAr’s divine feet for us, and we hold his divine lotus feet on our head) – now all we need to do is to know his divine feet. Alternatively it is explained as – before AzhwAr’s divine feet comes and touches our head, we should direct our head towards his divine feet.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 19 – emmA vIdum vENdA

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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namperumal-thiruvadi

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 2.9

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of determining the goal and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? While AzhwAr was explaining emperumAn to be mOksha pradhan (one who grants liberation), he was also greatly glorifying mOksham in the beginning, middle and the end [of the decad], ISvaran thought “It seems AzhwAr is desirous of mOksham”, and decides to grant him that; AzhwAr rejected it considering “mOksham given to me for my pleasure is filled with ahankAram (self-interest, ego) and hence it is apurushArtham (not the result)”; AzhwAr subsequently says “Let me live in paramapadham joyfully or in material realm with grief, I have no relationship with that; you mercifully make me exist in that particular state which is pleasing to you” and determines the goal in thiruvAimozhi 2.9emmA vIttu“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “emmA vIdum vENdA“.

pAsuram

emmA vIdum vENdA enRankkun thALiNaiyE
ammA amaiyum ena Ayndhuraiththa – nammudaiya
vAzh mudhalA mARan malarth thALiNai sUdik
kIzhmaiyaRRu nenjE kiLar

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word-by-word meanings

ammA – Oh lord!
emmA vIdum vENdA – not even mOksham, which is superior in all aspects, is required
enRanakku – for me
un thAL iNaiyE – your highness’ divine feet only
amaiyum ena – saying, suffficient
Ayndhu uraiththa – analysed and mercifully spoke
nammudaiya vAzh mudhalAm mARan  – AzhwAr who is the cause for our sustenance, his
malarth thAL iNai – divine lotus feet
sUdi – placing on our head
kIzhmai aRRu – without desire for lowly results
nenjE – Oh heart!
kiLar – you shall rise more and more

Simple Translation

Oh heart! Placing the divine lotus feet of AzhwAr who is the cause for our sustenance, who mercifully spoke saying “Oh lord! It is sufficient to have the divine feet of your highness”, on our head, without any desire for lowly results, you shall rise more and more.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • emmA vIdum vENdA enRankkun thALiNaiyE ammA amaiyum ena Ayndhuraiththa – I don’t need mOksham which is distinguished in any manner; mercifully spoken by AzhwAr who determined to have emperumAn‘s divine feet on his head, after analysing liberation in the context of nature of jIvAthmA (self, SEshabhUtha, the servitor) and paramAthmA (SEshi, the lord), saying “the divine feet of your highness are sufficient” as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 98.8 “yAvanna charaNau – SirasA dhArayishyAmi” ((I will not be at peace until I hold the divine feet of SrI rAma on my head). Instead of Ayndhu, it can also be seen as vAyndhu, meaning “being fixed in this principle”. This is following AzhwAr’s “emmA vIdu” from the beginning. AzhwAr started with “nin semmA pAdha paRputh thalai sErththu” (joining your great divine lotus feet on my head) [1st pAsuram] and ended it with “un ponnadi sErththu” (uniting with your golden feet) [10th pAsuram]. thALiNaiyE indicates what is said by AzhwAr in “thanakkEyAga enaik koLLum IdhE” (he should have me for his own sake only) [4th pAsuram]; having the head to be the seat for emperumAn’s divine feet, is total subservience.
  • nammudaiya vAzh mudhalA mARanAzhwAr, who is the cause for the wealth which matches our nature. AzhwAr’s sustenance is based on ISvaran as said in “thaniyEn vAzhmudhalE” (primary cause for living to me who is lonely); mAmunigaL‘s sustenance is based on AzhwAr.
  • malarth thALiNai sUdi – Wearing flower like divine feet of AzhwAr just as those who wear fresh flowers as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.3.6kOlamAm en sennikku un kamalam anna kurai kazhalE” (your infinitely enjoyable lotus flower like divine feet which make sounds of bravery are the shining radiant decoration for my head) and in “pAdha paRputh thalai sErththu” (joining your lotus feet with my head) [1st pAsuram].
  • kIzhmai aRRu nenjE kiLar – Oh heart! Eliminating the lowliness of worshipping others, without getting bewildered, rise more and more, on sustaining yourself after worshipping AzhwAr.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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