Monthly Archives: September 2018

thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.6 – kEttum uNarndhavar

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Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth pAsuram, AzhwAr is meditating upon the great quality of emperumAn giving up his supremacy and accepting alms, which is greater than previously enjoyed qualities and the act of mercifully digging out the earth with his ability.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully speaks about emperumAn‘s arthithva sAmarthyam (ability to seek alms), where he has lowered his natural quality [supremacy] which is beyond just assuming a humble form.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kEttum uNarndhavar kEsavaRkAL anRi AvarO?
vAttamilA vaN kai mAvali vAdhikka vAdhippuNdu
Ittam koL dhEvargaL senRirandhArkkidar nIkkiya
kOttam kai vAmananAych cheydha kUththukkaL kaNdumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vAttam ilA – never diminishing
vaN – having magnanimity
kai – having hand
mAvali – mahAbali
vAdhikka – (out of pride) torment
vAdhippuNdu – suffered
Ittam koL – grouped together, without any enmity between each other
dhEvargaL – dhEvas, who are generous
senRu – went (where emperumAn was mercifully seated)
irandhArkku – those who surrendered through their prayers (as said in “SaraNam thvAm anuprApthA:“)
idar nIkkiya – eliminating the sorrow in their mind (by vowing to act)

(considering mahAbali’s magnanimity as the only hold, going to him as a seeker, even more than his being the giver of all results)
kOdu – due to accepting alms
am – acquiring beauty
kai – having hand
vAmananAy – attracting him with his vAmana (dwarf) form

(bewildering mahAbali’s heart with his words, effortlessly performing while growing and measuring)
seydha – performed
kUththukkaL – acts
kaNdum – meditating as if seeing physically
kEttum – hearing (this incident, through purANas etc)
uNarndhavar – those who are sentient
kEsavaRku – for vAmana who is having beautiful locks of hair which are elegantly swaying
anRi – other than

(for anyone else)
AL – servitor
AvarO – will they become?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The generous dhEvas, having suffered by the torment of mahAbali, who has never diminishing magnanimous hand, grouped together, without any enmity between each other, went to emperumAn and surrendered to him through their prayers; eliminating the sorrow in their mind, emperumAn having a hand which acquired beauty due to accepting alms, attracting mahAbali with his vAmana (dwarf) form, performed acts; will those sentient beings who are meditating as if seeing physically, and hearing these acts, become servitor for anyone other than vAmana who is having beautiful locks of hair which are elegantly swaying? kEsavan (kESava) also means the master of brahmA and rudhra, with one [brahmA] washing his divine feet and the other [rudhra] accepting that holy water on his head.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kEttum uNarndhavar – When an AchAryan instructs a meaning, hearing that and remaining with clarity as said in “Evam gyAthvA bhavithum arhathi” (after knowing that, acting accordingly).
  • kEsavaRku AL anRi AvarO – Would they become servitor of anyone other than the one who became the refuge, without letting anyone else to be the refuge? kESava means as in mahAbhAratham harivamSam “ka ithi brahmaNO nAma ISOham sarva dhEhinAm | AvAm thavAngE sambhUthau thasmAth kESava nAmavAn ||” (both of us, brahmA (ka) and rudhra (ISa), originated from the divine body of your highness; thus you are called kESava” and due to having beautiful locks.
  • vAttam ilA vaN kai – Instead of giving and withdrawing after sometime, the hand which keeps giving. emperumAn did not severe his [mahAbali’s] head like he did to rAvaNa et al since there is a reason [of mahAbali being magnanimous].
  • mAvali vAdhikka vAdhippuNdu – Having this [magnanimity] as the reason, he tormented the dhEvas and they suffered.
  • Ittam koL dhEvargaL – Like village-heads, they will not tolerate one another’s greatness, and are of the nature that one person [rudhra] severs another person’s head and another person [brahmA] has his head severed; as great danger loomed, such envious people gave up their pride, came together and fell at the divine feet of emperumAn.
  • senRu irandhArkku idar nIkkiya – [reason for “senRu” – they went to emperumAn, is explained here] When maNiyakArar (administrative chief) is in the temple, he would think “what is wrong if the ISvaran (lord) himself has to come to me?”; similarly, these dhEvas think “everyone should come to us”, but the great danger which was looming, made them unite and come here – thinking like this in his divine heart, emperumAn eliminated their sorrow. [Would the dhEvas think like that?] When emperumAn broke a weak bow, the dhEvas thought him to be great as said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 75.19 “adhikam mE nirE vishNum” (they thought vishNu to be superior to rudhra); at other times they remain as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16-14ISvarOham” (I am the controller of everything). When such dhEvas come begging, emperumAn eliminated their sorrow.
  • kOttam kai vAmananAy – Having beautifully cupped hands to accept the water; as said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 11.5 “pollAk kuRaL uruvAy poRkaiyil nIrERRu” (in the form of a beautiful dwarf, emperumAn accepted water in his golden hands), since mahAbali is troubling the dhEvas, he should be killed; but since he has noble qualities, emperumAn won’t kill him; so, emperumAn, the protector, should find out an apt means to satisfy both situations. poRkai – hand which acquired beauty. Beautiful hand. The hand which grew, by giving; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21.7 “gO sahasra pradhAthAram” (the hand which grew, by donating thousands of cows) and in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.25 “dhadhyAn na prathigruhNIyAth” (perumAL (SrI rAma) would give but not accept any charity).
  • seydha kUththukkaL kaNdumE – For AzhwAr, his (emperumAn as vAmana) acts of being born on one day, growing up on the same day, setting out to seek alms on the same day, and going all the way to the sacrificial arena of mahAbali, walking in a tense manner to cause disturbance to the earth and entering there, standing there humbly with krishNAjinam (deer skin), yagyOpavIdham (sacred thread) and munji (dharbA grass) and asking childishly “I will accept”, and showing little feet but measuring with huge feet etc appear like dance by expert dancers. In comparison to his simplicity of becoming an alms-seeker while having all the supremacy and being Sriya:pathi (husband of SrI mahAlakshmi), to protect his followers, is protecting the earth from the deluge, a match?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 82 – kalandhAn en uLLaththu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr is wondering whether it was just that emperumAn created a desire for AzhwAr in thamizh language and prevented him from having a wavering heart. He says aloud to the entire world, in this pAsuram, that there cannot be a greater benefit, which emperumAn did for him, than his mingling with AzhwAr’s heart despite his being a supreme being.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kalandhAn ennuLLaththuk kAmavEL thAdhai
nalandhAnum IdhoppadhuNdE alarndhalargaL
ittEththum Isanum nAnmuganum enRivargaL
vittEththa mAttAdha vEndhu

Word for Word Meanings8

kAmavEL thAdhai – one who is manmatha’s (cupid’s) father
alarndha alargaL ittEththum Isanum – sivan who praises emperumAn after offering blossomed flowers
nAnmuganum – brahmA
enRa ivargaL – (distinguished) dhEvas such as these
vittu Eththa mAttAdha – one who cannot be praised completely
vEndhu – dhEvAdhidhEva (lord of all dhEvas) [emperumAn]
en uLLaththu – in my heart
kalandhAn – mingled
Idhu oppadhu nalam thAnum uNdE – is there any benefit equalling this benefit? (no, there is none).

vyAkyAnam

kalandhAn en uLLaththu – emperumAn mingled, like water mingles with water, with my heart which has been engaged with lowly worldly matters.

Who is such an entity?

kAmavEL thAdhai – one who is called as manmatha (cupid) among manmatha since he gave birth to manmatha (lord of love) who attracts others towards him because of his beauty. Such manmatha who is most beautiful desired a lowly entity such as I (AzhwAr) and mingled. kAmavEL thAdhai – father of manmatha.

kAmavELkAman – one who creates desire in others. vELbeautiful person. kAman is samskrutha word and vEL is thamizh word.

Is it that he has only beauty?

alarndhalargaL . . . vEndhu – Siva and brahmA who think of themselves as ISvara (one who controls all) offered freshly blossomed flowers at the divine feet of emperumAn and praised him to their hearts’ content. Such emperumAn who cannot be fully praised by brahmA, Siva et al mingled with me, says AzhwAr.

Isanum nAnmuganum enRivargaL – this indicates the prominence of Siva and brahmA who are heads of dhEvas.

vittEththa – Praising handsomely. Praising with full throat [loudly]. Praising totally.

vEndhu kalandhAn en uLLaththu – one who is supreme, mingled with a very lowly person due to his desire.

Idhu oppadhu nalandhAnum uNdE – Is there any benefit which is equal to this?

alarndhalargaL . . .vittEththa mAttAdha vEndhu kalandhAn; Idhoppadhu nalandhANum uNdE – rudhra, brahmA et al worship emperumAn with just blossomed flowers and praise emperumAn on their own with the aim of attaining emperumAn through their efforts just like people pick up grains from fields with difficulty for their sustenance. On the other hand, emperumAn, of his own accord, enters AzhwAr’s heart, head over heels. AzhwAr asks whether there could there be any equivalent to this experience.

We will move on to the 83rd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.5 – sUzhalgaL sindhikkil

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram, AzhwAr is meditating upon the great quality of emperumAn who assumed the form of an animal [boar] as per the need and saved the earth instead of abandoning it thinking “let me create a new universe like this”,  when the universe, created by him, was consumed by deluge.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully explains the incident of SrI varAha, who is the friend-in-need, who transformed himself to save the earth, beyond recreating the universe after deluge.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

sUzhalgaL sindhikkil mAyan kazhal anRich chUzhvarO?
Azhap perum punal thannuL azhundhiya gyAlaththai
thAzhap padAmal than pAl oru kOttidaith thAn koNda
kEzhal thiru uru AyiRRuk kEttum uNarndhumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

peru – boundless
punal than uL – in the ocean [water] of deluge
Azha – deep at the shell of the universe
azhundhiya – submerged
gyAlaththai – earth
thAzhap padAmal – not to lose its form, due to the delay in time
than pAl – a small area in his divine form
Or kOttidai – on the tusk

(without my request, out of his own divine desire)
koNda – (dug it out and) kept
kEzhal – SrI varAha as said in “kOla varAham” (beautiful boar)
thiru – beautiful
uru – form
AyiRRu – one who is having
kEttum – even after hearing through vEdham, ithihAsa, purANa etc
uNarndhum – even after meditating upon
sUzhalgaL –  noble paths which will be the means for salvation
sindhikkil – when thinking to analyse
mAyan – the one with the varAha form, who performs amazing acts (as said in thiruviruththam 99 “gyAnap pirAnai allAl illai nAn kaNda nalladhuvE“, helping during the danger of deluge and also the one who uplifts us from the ocean of samsAra)
kazhal – divine feet
anRi – other than
sUzhvarO – will consider as refuge?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn appeared in the beautiful form of SrI varAha as said in “kOla varAham“, dug out the earth, not to lose its form due to the delay in time, which went deep down to the shell of the universe, being submerged in the boundless ocean of deluge, with his tusk which is a small area in his divine form and kept it there. Even after hearing about this through vEdham, ithihAsa, purANa etc and even after mediating upon the noble paths which will be the means for salvation, when thinking to analyse, will one consider as refuge anything other than the divine feet of the one with the varAha form, who performs amazing acts?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • sUzhalgaL sindhikkil – When thinking about the means to eliminate self-dependence and to be uplifted. [Alternative explanation] When thinking about the means to fulfil one’s desires.

(There are many upAyams (means), but for an adiyAn (servitor), the scope is limited to adi [his thiruvadigaL – divine feet])

  • mAyan kazhal anRich chUzhvarO – When all the entities to be protected are together [in a helpless state], emperumAn will ignore about caring for himself and will focus on protecting others. Will they seek as refuge anything other than such emperumAn’s divine feet?
  • Azhap perum punal than uL azhundhiya gyAlaththai – Saying “earth being submerged in deep ocean”, “deeply submerged in the vast ocean”.
  • azhundhiya gyAlaththai – The earth which went and got stuck to the wall of the universe.
  • thAzhap padAmal – not to hit the ocean bed; not to lose its form. After having submerged inside and losing some portions, not desiring to lose the existence itself.
  • than pAl oru kOttidaith thAn koNda – One who kept the expansive universe on his tusk like a blue gem; placing the earth in a small area on his tusk. Just as a generous person will cook for hundred persons while desiring to feed only forty persons, the tusk is so great that it is much larger than what is to be protected; instead of protecting through someone else, emperumAn protected the earth himself.
  • thAn koNda – It was not done by him as a result of a prayer from the earth which was losing its portions [done by him on his own desire].
  • kEzhal thiru uru AyiRRu – The form emperumAn assumed to cause disrepute to himself, became so beautiful that one has to ward-off evil eyes. As emperumAn cares less for his appearance for the protection of his devotees, that itself gives him more radiance; as said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 11.8 “mAnam ilAp panRiyAm thEsu” (radiance due to his assuming the form of a humble pig). “mAsudambil nIr vArA” (muddy water dripping from his dirty form) – assuming a form, where all the dirt is on his body. “mAnam ilAp panRiyAm” – his supremacy is not even visible slightly. emperumAn is having such internal emotions that when other pigs get closer to him, and smell him, they become convinced that “this is one among our herd”. When mArIcha assumed the form of the mystical deer, other deer which smelt it, ran away sensing the demoniac smell. “panRiyAm thEsudaiya dhEvar” – Had he not assumed this form, he would have lost all the hard earned radiance/fame. The greatness of lowering himself which is greater than presenting himself for the nithyasUris in paramapadham.
  • kEttum uNarndhumE – Will those who analyse the means, by hearing and meditating, surrender unto anything other than the divine feet of mAyan (amazing emperumAn)? In comparison to giving up his own divine form and assuming a lowly form, to save the earth which was consumed by deluge, is the act of creating the universe with his divine vow, without minimising any of his qualities such as being the cause of the universe etc, a match?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 81 – kadhavu manam enRum

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avathArikai

As soon as AzhwAr mentioned “viraindhadaimin” (attain emperumAn soon), all the people in the world became inclined towards bhagavAn. Becoming very pleased after looking at this rare deed of AzhwAr, emperumAn asked him “AzhwIr! Is there anything that I can do in return for what you have done?” AzhwAr replies “When you, who are the source for my doing such deeds, are there and had rectified my mind to enable it to reap rich harvest, what else is there to be done for me?”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kadhavu manam enRum kANalAm enRum
kudhaiyum vinaiyAvi thIrndhEn vidhaiyAga
naRRamizhai viththi en uLLaththai nI viLaiththAy
kaRRa mozhiyAgik kalandhu

Word for Word Meanings

nI – you (who have no shortcoming in knowledge, power etc)
kaRRa mozhiyAgi – being the meaning for the thamizh words that I have learnt
kalandhu – mingling with me, like water mingling with water
nal thamizhai – the distinguished language of thamizh
vidhaiyAga viththi – sowing it as seed
en uLLaththai – my heart
viLaiththAy – you made (this prabandham [divine hymn]) to grow

(due to that)
manam – mind
kadhavu enRum – thinking ( on a few occasions) to be the hurdle for attaining emperumAn
(manam) kANalAm enRum – thinking (the mind) to be the aid in seeing emperumAn (on a few other occasions)
kudhaiyum vinai Avi thIrndhEn – I avoided the heart which had unsteadiness (in swinging between these two extremes) as its business

vyAkyAnam

kadhavu manam enRum . . . . thIrndhEn – AzhwAr says that he avoided something which was a huge hurdle for others in attaining emperumAn.

What is that hurdle?

kadhavu manam enRum kANalAm enrum kudhaiyum vinai Avi – Just as it is mentioned in SrI vishNu purANam 6-7-28 “mana Eva manushyANAm kAraNam bandha mOkshayO: I bandhAya vishayAsangi mukthyai nirvishayam mana: II” (it is the heart alone which is the reason for people getting chained to samsAram as well as getting liberated from it; if it is engaged with Sabdha (sensory objects such as sound) etc it is chained and if it is not engaged with Sabdha etc, it is liberated), it is heart alone which acts as a hurdle like a door in seeing the supreme being and it is heart alone which is the means for seeing him. AzhwAr says that he avoided getting an unsteady heart.

kadhavu manam enRum kANalAm enRum – did not kaNNan (krishNa) say in SrI bhagavath gIthA 6-5Athmaiva hyAthmanO bandhurAthmaiva ripurAthmana:” (it is the heart alone which is friendly towards AthmA (soul) and it is the heart alone which is inimical towards the AthmA)!

kudhaiyum vinai Avi thIrndhEn – I avoided getting a heart which was unsteady. The meaning behind this is that AzhwAr obtained a heart which was fully focussed on matters relating to emperumAn.

Avi – the word Avi which refers to prANa (breath) indicates heart which is the seat for breath. In the gIthA SlOkam shown above (6-5) the word AthmA, as well as the word uyir in thiruvAimozhi 2-3-1Unil vAzhum uyirE” refer to heart. In the same way, the word Avi refers to heart.

In the rest of the pAsuram AzhwAr says the reason for his avoiding the unsteadiness which others are afflicted with.

vidhaiyAga nal thamizhai viththi – sowing the seed of beautiful thamizh language, without any fault in its literature and grammar, in my heart.

kaRRa mozhiyAgik kalandhu – entering inside me as the meaning for the thamizh language that I am habituated with, from the time of my birth.

mozhiyAgi – as the meaning for the language

en uLLaththai nI viLaiththAy – Just as it is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 5-3-4nenjapperum sey” in the heart which is the arable land, you, who are without any shortcoming in knowledge or power, sowed the seed of thamizh language as the cultivating farmer and made these pAsurams (hymns) which are like the crop, to grow.

We will move on to the 82nd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.4 – thanmai aRibavar

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth pAsuram, AzhwAr is meditating upon emperumAn‘s great quality of recreating the universe after it was in a subdued state with the [collective] offenses [of everyone] during deluge, which makes his quality of accepting SiSupAla, who already existed, with his transgressions, look inferior.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr mercifully meditates upon his greatness of recreating the universe which became subdued.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction. There are many samsAris who are equal to SiSupAla.

pAsuram

thanmai aRibavar thAm avaRkAL anRi AvarO?
panmaip padar poruL Adhumil pAzh nedum kAlaththu
nanmaip punal paNNi nAnmuganaip paNNith than uLLE
thonmai mayakkiya thORRiya sUzhalgaL sindhiththE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

panmai – having variations such as dhEva (celestial beings) etc
padar – expansive in the form of puNya (virtues) and pApa (vices)
poruL – entities
Adhum – any
il – not present
pAzh – remained as SUnya (void)
nedum kAlaththu – for a long period stretching thousand chathur yugas
nanmai – having goodness (of being together with other bhUthas [creations] and being the cause for subsequent creation)
punal – causal water
paNNi – created (as said in “apa Eva sa sarjAthau“)

(as per “thadhaNdamabhavatdhdhaimam – thasminjagyE svayam brahmA“, in the oval shaped universe which was created in that water)
nAnmuganai – brahmA
paNNi – created

(after this samashti srushti (initial creation))
thonmai – to erase the previous inclinations
than uLLE – in a small portion of his svarUpam (true nature)
mayakkiya – (as said in “EkIbhavathi“) all the entities which were in a subdued state inside him
thORRiya – (through creation, to become manifold) created
sUzhalgaL – ways/efforts (such as merciful glance, creation, pervading, giving name and form etc)
sindhiththu – meditated (through vEdhAntha)
thanmai – his nature (distinguished identity, of being the cause)
aRibavar – those who know
thAm – their

(in line with the glory of knowledge of truth)
avaRku – for krishNa, who is the cause of universe (as said in “krishNa Eva hi lOkAnAm uthpaththi:“)
anRi – other than

(for anyone else)
AL AvarO – will they become servitor?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

When none of the entities which are expansive in the form of puNya and pApa, having variations such as dhEva etc is present and everything remained void for a long period stretching thousand chathur yugas, emperumAn created water which is having goodness, and then brahmA and subsequently created all the entities which were in a subdued state inside him in a small portion of his svarUpam, having erased the previous inclinations; having meditated upon the ways/efforts of his nature, will they [materialistic people] become a servitor of anyone other than krishNa, who is the cause of universe?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • thanmai aRibavar thAm – Those who know the nature of truth. That is, those who understand that this creation is for his purpose; similar to SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 40-5 “srushtathvam vanavAsAya” (you were sired by me only to follow SrI rAma to the forest). Those who know that the cause of the universe is the one to be meditated upon; it is said in chAndhOgya upanishath “kAraNam thu dhyEya:” (meditate upon the origin/cause); in brahma sUthram too, after saying in 1.1.1 “athAthO brahma jigyAsA” (then, one enquires into brahmam), the rishi said in 1.1.2 “janmAdhi asya yatha:” (that which is the cause for creation etc).
  • avaRku AL anRi AvarO – He gave the senses and body, only to use them in his service.
  • panmaip padar poruL Adhum il pAzh nedum kAlaththu – being manifold, differentiated by being dhEva etc [dhEva, manushya, thiryak, sthAvara], having entities which are expansive due to their karma; during the time when such variations don’t exist for a very long time. ISvaran will annihilate the universe and keep it void for a long time just to hear the sound of voidness. Just as a farmer will store water on a field for a long time, to eliminate the saltiness in the cultivable land, emperumAn will keep them [various sentient and insentient entities] in their subtle forms to eliminate the evil inclinations, for the same duration that was spent in manifested [created] state [While brahmA’s day is engaged in creation, his nights are quiet, with no such activity]. In that time, when there is not even a small piece of matter, as far as one can see, and everything is in the state of “sath” (existence only).
  • nanmaip punal paNNi – This is not like the water during deluge. As said in manu smruthi “apa Eva sasarjAthau“ (first, he created water). Until then, he directly engages with achith [this state of samashti srushti, where emperumAn performs adhvAraka srushti, direct creation; subsequently he creates sadhvAraka srushti, variegated creation, through others] and thinks “now that these two work according to my will, let me engage chith too in creation”, and creates brahmA [i.e. selects the most pious AthmA and gives him the post of brahmA]. Both chith and achith are subservient to emperumAn as said in “yasya AthmA SarIram” (All AthmAs are my bodies), “yasya pruthivI SarIram” (this material nature is my body) and so on. Like those who say “he has made a doll” [effortless accomplishment], as said in SvEthAsvathara upanishath “yO brahmANam vithadhAdhi pUrvam” (one who created brahmA first), “nanmaip punal paNNi, nAnmuganaip paNNi“.
  • than uLLE – In a tiny fraction of his divine will.
  • thonmai … – Back then, how he encompassed everything to be implied by the term “sadhEva” (sath only) and subsequently, engaged in creation as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “bahu syAm” (let me become many) and the ways through which he manifested. Will those who know his true nature, become servitor of anyone other than krishNa? thanmai – uNmai (truth). punal (water) is representative of other elements. thORRiya – created.

Previous pAsuram stated that he gave his divine feet to his enemy SiSupAla – is this great? Or is his greatness of having simplicity [magnanimity] to create the enemies and let them trouble himself, great?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 80 – viraindhu adaimin

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avathArikai

When AzhwAr was told “Let the knowledgeable consider their bodies as disease. For us the connection with samsAram (materialistic realm) is not ending”, he responds “If you attain kaNNan (krishNa) who protected the world when it was under deluge, you can also uplift yourselves”.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

virandhadaimin mElorunAL veLLam parakkak
karandhulagam kAththaLiththa kaNNan parandhulagam
pAdina Adina kEttup padunaragam
vIdina vAsaR kadhavu

Word for Word Meanings

parandhu – pervading everywhere
Adina – dancing
ulagam – distinguished followers
pAdina – the divine names recited
kEttu – since they were heard
padunagaram vAsal – at the entrance of hell
kadhavu – doors
vIdina – fell down
mEl oru nAL – at an earlier point of time
veLLam parakka – when the flood due to deluge spread
ulagam – all the worlds
karandhu – hiding (inside his stomach)
kAththu aLiththa – removed the sorrow and protected
kaNNan – kanna pirAn (krishNa)
viraindhu adaimin – go soon and bow down to him.

vyAkyAnam

viraindhadaimin – Looking at (the extent of) your sins, shouldn’t you attain him fast? Who should we attain? AzhwAr says we should attain the one who has protection of those who are caught in deluge as his duty.

mEl oru nAL – just as the flood of samsAram (materialistic realm) is surrounding you today, the flood of deluge had surrounded the worlds then.

ulagam karandhu kAththu – hiding all the worlds inside his divine stomach; even if deluge came searching for a long time, hiding and protecting them inside his divine stomach so that deluge wouldn’t know their (worlds’) whereabouts.

aLiththa kaNNan – attain such kaNNan who protected, fast. Also, kaNNan who showered his mercy on hearing the worlds singing about him (which comes later in the pAsuram)

When the fear of hell is troubling us, how do we attain him?

parandhu Adina ulagam pAdina kEttu – hearing the divine names of emperumAn from SrIvaishNavas who have pervaded all over the world and who are dancing. As the saying goes “ulagam enbadhu uyarndhOr mAttE” (world is with those who are distinguished), the word ulagam refers to followers of emperumAn who are greater than nithyasUris.

parandhu Adina ulagam Adina kEttunammAzhwAr mercifully mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 5-2-4kidandhum irundhum ezhundhum gIdham palapala pAdi nadandhum paRandhum kuniththum nAdagam seyginRanavE” ((followers of emperumAn) were lying down, sitting, standing, walking around, singing many songs on emperumAn, dancing without their legs touching the ground and joyfully going around) and in thiruvAimozhi 5-2-6nanRisai pAdiyum thuLLiyAdiyum gyAlam parandhAr” ((followers of emperumAn were) singing songs happily, jumping up and down, pervading all over the world ).

kEttu padu naragam – after hearing the divine names of emperumAn [through these songs etc], hell became heaven as mentioned in thirumAlai 12namanum muRgalanum pEsa naragil ninRArgaL kEtka naragamE suvargamAgum nAmangaLudaiya nambi” (emperumAn. the benefactor, has such sweet names that once when yama and mudhgala [a soul which had reached hell] were talking about the divine names of emperumAn, hell got transformed into heaven).

naragam vIdina vAsal kadhavu – the doors at the entrance to hell broke down completely. The implication is that there is no need for you (samsAris) to fear anything.

kaNNan ulgam parandhu pAdina Adina kEttup padu naragam vIdina vAsaR kadhavunammAzhwAr explained the meanings of this pAsuram in his thiruvAimozhi 5-2-1kadalvaNNan bhUdhangaL maNmEl maliyappugundhu isaipAdi Adi uzhidharak kaNdOm” (we saw the followers of emperumAn who has the complexion of ocean, pervading all over this world, singing sweet songs [on emperumAn] and dancing here and there).

Alternatively, we can consider that (thirumazhisai) AzhwAr was mercifully telling this pAsuram to the messengers of yama.

vIdina vAsal kadhavu viraindhu adaimin – after hearing the divine names of emperumAn, those who were inside hell, broke the doors of hell and went out. Oh messengers of yama! Come fast and bolt the doors of hell. poygai AzhwAr, in his mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 87 mercifully said “ini yAr puguvAr ezhu naraga vAsal muniyAdhu mUriththAL kONmin” (Oh messengers of yama! Who will henceforth enter the gates of hell? Without getting angry, close the gates of hell with a strong latch).

We will move on to the 81st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.3 – kEtpArgaL kEsavan

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Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, AzhwAr is meditating upon emperumAn‘s acceptance of SiSupAla which is greater than bringing along those who don’t think about anything other than emperumAn himself.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr explains emperumAn‘s greatness of liberating SiSupAla who performs unfavourable acts, beyond just eliminating the unfavourable aspects and protecting [the followers].

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram. AzhwAr says “Will those who have heard and known about emperumAn‘s great compassion of even accepting SiSupAla at his divine feet, hear anything other than the glories of kESi hanthA (krishNa who killed kESi)?”

pAsuram

kEtpArgaL kEsavan kIrththi allAl maRRum kEtparO
kEtpAr sevi sudu kIzhmai vasavugaLE vaiyum
sEtpAl pazham pagaivan sisupAlan thiruvadi
thAL pAl adaindha thanmai aRivArai aRindhumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kEtpAr sevi – for the ears of those who are desirous to hear about defects in bhagavAn’s qualities
sudu – to cause burning sensation of fire
kIzhmai – causing lowliness
vasavugaLE – saying harsh words
vaiyum – scolding

(Starting with hiraNya, rAvaNa births)
sEtpAl – from distant past
pazham pagaivan – being an age-old enemy
sisupAlan – SiSupAla
thiruvadi – the unconditional lord, krishNa, his
thAL pAl – at divine feet
adaindha – attained sAyujyam (eternal togetherness)
thanmai – distinguished nature
aRivArai – those very wise persons
aRindhum – even after knowing
kEtpArgaL – those who are supposed to be hearing (about the path for salvation)

(at those wise persons)
kEsavan – krishNa, the killer of kESi (the demoniac horse), his
kIrththi – greatness (of liberating the one who kept committing offenses birth after birth)
allAl – other than
maRRum – any other entity who liberated those who did not avoid his help
kEtparO – will they hear?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

SiSupAla, an age-old enemy from distant past kept saying lowly, harsh words and scolded krishNa, the unconditional lord, to cause burning sensation for the ears of even those who are desirous to hear about defects in bhagavAn’s qualities; [yet] he attained sAyujyam at the divine feet of such krishNa; even after knowing those very wise persons who know the distinguished nature of krishNa, will those who are supposed to be hearing (about salvation), hear the greatness of any other entity who liberated those who did not avoid his help, than that of krishNa, the killer of kESi?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kEtpArgaL – Previously, AzhwAr said “kaRparO” (will they learn?). That is, to ensure that he is firmly placed in the heart, in the beginning, during the course and at the end; now, hearing means when someone who has him firmly placed in his heart [AchArya] instructs, faithfully pondering upon it and accepting it. Though one may not have full clarity in the heart during the course of time, at the end, the result will be the same for both [the AchArya who instructs and the Sishya who hears]. Even if one is not learned, at least he should have heard it [kuRaL 414 reflects this same meaning]. Being faithful upon hearing what was learnt and fully understood. Though one is not fully learned and not engaged in the kainkaryam which is the culmination of such learning, at least if one hears these principles from an AchArya, it will help when one is in danger. Now [during the course of time here], the loss for self is to be unable to explain these principles to others and not having full clarity in the heart.
  • kEtpArgaL – One who has an opening in the ear [i.e. everyone]. The only purpose of ears is to hear bhagavath vishayam; it is said in periya thirumozhi 11.7.2 “kELAch chevigaL cheviyalla kEttOmE” (we have heard that, those ears which do not hear bhagavath vishayam, are not considered as ears); it is only like a rat hole.
  • kEsavan kIrththi allAl – Would they hear the glories of anyone other than krishNa who is the eliminator of enemies? He did not wait until becoming a youth to eliminate the enemies; right from the toddler stage he started eliminating enemies such as pUthanA et al. He did not eliminate the enemies intentionally, but it was an act of sustaining himself. Poison kills not due to having knowledge [it is just its nature]. SrI vishNu purANam 5.16.14 “vyAdhithAsyO mahAraudhras sOsura krishNabAhunA …” (having widely open mouth, and looking very frightening, the demon horse fell down being torn apart by krishNa, like a tree felled by thunder strike) – kESi had his mouth open and appeared to instill fear on those who saw him. Toddlers usually place their hand in any hole, playfully. In that manner, krishNa stretched his hand into its mouth, and due to the new experience, the hand grew; at that time, kESi fell down in two pieces like a tree which was struck down by thunder.
  • maRRum kEtparO – Would they even listen to the incidents of SrI rAma’s life which was explained previously? How amazing is AzhwAr’s nature! Previously he said “irAma pirAnai allAl maRRum kaRparO” (would one learn anyone other than SrI rAma, the benefactor?) Here, he is saying “kEsavan kIrththi allAl maRRum kEtparO”; what is the reason for this? When AzhwAr enjoys rAmAvathAram he says in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.8thayaradhaRku magan thannai anRi maRRilEn thanjamAga” (other than such SrI rAma, who appeared as the son of dhaSarathi chakravarthi, I will not have any one, even another form of bhagavAn, as my refuge); when he enjoys krishNAvathAram he says in thiruvAimozhi 2.2.1nam kaNNan kaNNallathu illai Or kaNNE” (krishNa is the supreme controller for the universe and there is no other controlling entity that exists); in this manner, he is the only one who is capable of immersing in the particular incarnation he enjoys. Just as when one immerses in one quality of emperumAn, he cannot pursue other qualities of same emperumAn, when one immerses in a particular incarnation, he cannot pursue other incarnations as well.
  • kEtpAr sevi sudu kIzhmai vasavugaLE vaiyum – Here, it is not explained in the same way as “kEtpAr” was explained previously [i.e. as all those who have ears]; here, this means, those who are interested to hear the lowly scoldings only. Speaking such harsh words that even those lowly people who would pay to accuse bhagavAn, would become disturbed, would close their ears and say “You are speaking so harshly; you cannot speak like this”.
  • vasavugaLE vaiyum – Even the followers of emperumAn, due to being associated with a [material] body and due to forgetfulness, would sometimes engage in unfavourable acts; similarly, would he sometimes, accidentally say a good word? With the “EvakAram” [i.e. the long syllable E in vasavugaLE], it is emphasised that, there is no such possibility.

The reason for this is explained further.

  • sEtpAl pazham pagaivan – Having great enmity right from his birth; not just this birth, even from previous births, he has been an enemy; there is no end to the offenses he committed in every birth; there were many such births. Due to long standing enmity, the lengthy duration of each of such births and the abundance of offenses committed in those births are considered. Even if he is speaking unknowingly, due to his vAsanA (inclination), it will end up being offensive only.  A new born calf will itself seek the udder of the mother cow, due to the inclination from previous births; similarly, his enmity in this birth is due to the inclination from previous births.
  • thiruvadi thAL pAl adaindha – Attained proximity to the divine feet of sarvaswAmi (lord of all). It is defining the nature of sAyujya mOksham. That is to engage in eternal kainkaryam, without any break, being in close proximity of the divine feet. sAyujya does not mean merging of AthmA and brahmam – that [principle of merging] is not what is explained in muNdaka upanishath 3.2 “brahma vEdham brahmaiva bhavathi” (one who knows brahmam, becomes similar to that), muNdaka upanishath 3.1.3 “paramam sAmyam upaithi” (he attains supreme equivalence), periya thirumozhi 11.3.5 “thammaiyE nALum vaNangith thozhuvArkku thammaiyE okka aruL seyvar” (emperumAn  will bless those who worship him to become similar to him), SrI bhagavath gIthA 14.2mama sAdharmyam AgathA:” (having attained equanimity with me) and bOdhAyana vruththi “samAnO jyOthishA” (Similar to paramAthmA); instead it speaks about the equivalence in the resulting enjoyment between emperumAn and the AthmA; since it is said in brahma sUthram 4.4.17 “jagath vyApAra varjam” (they (nithyas, mukthas) have all capabilities except engaging in activities related to material realm) and brahma sUthram 4.4.21 “bhOga mAthra sAmya lingAthcha” (Having similar identity in enjoyment only), sAyujyam does not mean as in rAmAnusa nURRandhAdhi 58avanOdu onRAm” (becoming one with  him), but it means “serving his divine feet” as it is also said in parama samhithA “sAyujyam prathipannAyE thIvra bhakthAsthapasvina: | kinkarA mama thE nithyam bhavanthi nirubathravA:” (Those great devotees, who performed upAsana and who became uplifted attaining equivalence with me, will be freed from all hurdles and will always be my servitors).
  • thanmai aRivArai aRindhumE – Identifies the target for those who should hear. Will those who know persons with such knowledge and hear from them, hear anything other than kESava’s glories? How did SiSupAla attain emperumAn‘s divine feet? He angrily shouted saying the divine names, and could have remembered the beautiful posture of emperumAn with his divine chakra in his hand, at the final moment [before being killed by krishNa using his chakra]. If we superficially analyse, we could highlight some reasons in this manner. If we try to highlight a reason for this, that will minimize the greatness of his krupA (mercy). AzhwArs, rishis and everyone would explain “SiSupAla attained sarvESvaran’s divine feet by his grace”. Even if he acquires up to parama bhakthi (ultimate state before liberation), weren’t the faculties given by ISvaran himself? As even this reason becomes irrelevant, it is not meant for us to try and highlight a non-existing reason. [Another view point on SiSupAla’s attaining mOksham] ALavandhAr mercifully said “SiSupAlan did not get liberated”. When asked “How do you say that?’, he mercifully replied “since he did not have the means [i.e. desire] to go to paramapadham; to stop him from harming the world, emperumAn picked him up and threw him into a corner [of paramapadham, as a criminal would be banished and thrown out from the kingdom]”. Here it is simply saying that the vastness of emperumAn’s qualities [mainly krupA] will become minimized, if we say that SiSupAla angrily recited emperumAn’s divine names and hence got mOksham, or kAkAsura was pardoned due to falling at his divine feet, since it is said in SrIrangarAjasthavam 3.97 “balibhuji SiSupAlE thAdhrugAkaskarE vA guNalavasahavAsAth thvathkshamA sankuchanthI” (Your patience which became minimised due to some good aspects in kAkAsura and SiSupAla). periyAzhwAr too said in 4.3.5 “pala pala nAzham sollip pazhiththa sisupAlan thannai – alaivalaimai thavirththa azhagan” (The beautiful emperumAn who eliminated the blabbering of SiSupAla who accused emperumAn in many ways). thiruchchandha viruththam 111 “vaidhu ninnai vallavA pazhiththavarkkum” (attainable even for the one accused you with faults). The greatness in this pAsuram – Is it great to say that SrI rAma took along those who could not live without him or is it great to say that emperumAn gave the same result to even SiSupAla who committed grave offense against him?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 79 – Ayndhu koNdu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr had mentioned that the joy of those who see him directly is huge. When asked if engagement with this SarIra ( body) will not be a hurdle to this joy, he says that those who have the zeal to reach paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) thinking of sarvESvara constantly, will think of the SarIra as a disease as mentioned in the saying “SarIram vraNavath paSyEth” (let him see the body as a wound) and hence engagement with this body will not be a hurdle to the joy born out of experiencing emperumAn.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

Ayndhu koNdu AdhipperumAnai anbinAl
vAyndha manaththiruththa vallArgaL Eyndha tham
meykundhamAga virumbavarE thAmum tham
vaigundham kANbAr viraindhu

Word for Word Meanings

Adhi – one who is the cause for the universe
perumAnai – sarvESvara (lord of all)
anbinAl – with affection
Ayndhu koNdu – meditating
vAyndha manaththu – (their) apt hearts
iruththa vallAr thAmum – those who are capable of establishing
tham vaigundham – the paramapadham which is there for them
viraindhu – quickly
kANbAr – desirous of seeing
Eyndha – fitting with the soul
tham mey – their bodies
kundham Aga – as disease
virumbuvar – will consider

vyAkyAnam

Ayndhu koNdu AdhippirAnai anbinAl – meditating on sarvESvara, who is the cause for the universe, with love. Has it not been said in atharvaSikai “kAraNam thu dhEya:” (only the entity which created the universe is apt for meditation)?

vAyndha manaththiruththa vallArgaL – those who are capable of keeping in their hearts, which will not say “No” when they wish to keep emperumAn in their hearts

vAyndha manam – it is the mind which will be ahead of the person himself in attaining emperumAn as mentioned in periya thiruvandhAdhi 1 “mundhuRRa nenjE” (Oh heart which is ahead of me!) and in thiruvAimozhi 1-7-8ennai negizhkkilum ennudaiya nannenjam thannai agalvikkath thAnum killAn ini” (even if he could separate from me, he is not capable of separating from my heart). It is the heart on which emperumAn falls head over heels, as mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 10-8-6 “iruppEn enRu en nenju niRaiyap pugundhAn” (he entered my heart completely saying that he would like to stay there).

AdhipperumAnai vAyndha manaththiruththa vallArgaL – those who are capable of firmly establishing the causative entity in their hearts as mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 2-6-7muzhuvEzh ulagumuNdAn ugandhu vandhu adiyEnuL pugundhAn agavalvAnumallan ini” (the one who swallowed all the worlds, entered my heart desirously and will not separate from it, henceforth).

manaththiruththa vallArgaLAzhwAr emphasises that it is very difficult to keep emperumAn in the mind which always prevaricates as mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 6-34chanchalam hi mana:” (mind always prevaricates) and in periya thirumozhi 1-1-4 “ninRavA nillA nenju” (heart which is not steady).

vallArgaL thAmum – this describes the greatness of those who are capable of achieving this feat.

vallArgaL thAmum – these people who have the interest in matters relating to emperumAn who is the means (to attain him).

tham vaigundham viraindhu kANbAr – those who are desirous of reaching soon that paramapadham wherein there will be no hurdle for experiencing emperumAn.

tham vaigundham – that paramapadham which sarvESvara, the eternal prince of SrIvaikuNtam, has created for his followers as mentioned in purusha sUktham “marIchInAm padham” and in thiruvAimozhi 3-9-9vAnavar nAdu”.

viraindhu kANbAr – instead of patiently waiting, saying  “we will attain it when it comes”, being in a hurry to see, just like hurrying to see something which has been lost.

Eyndha  tham meygundhamAgavE virumbuvar – because of that desire (to see SrIvaikuNtam) they will consider their physical bodies, fitting with them, as disease only.

Eyndha tham mey – even after getting knowledge, considering their bodies which are united together with souls

kundhamAgavE virumbuvar – they will consider their bodies as hurdles in attaining SrIvaikuNtam. Instead of thinking of bodies as cause for joy or cause for joy and sorrow, they will consider their bodies as cause for only sorrow. kundham – disease.

We will move on to the 80th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.2 – nAttil piRandhavar

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Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, AzhwAr highlights SrI rAma’s greater quality in comparison with what was explained in the previous pAsuram. While in the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr explained how SrI rAma captivated everyone in ayOdhyA with his qualities, in this pAsuram, AzhwAr explains how SrI rama did not leave anyone behind while ascending to paramapadham and how he took them there along with him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr explains how emperumAn protected by remaining in ayOdhyA for eleven thousand years instead of ascending to paramapdham immediately after accomplishing the task cut out for the particular avathAram.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. Some explain the greatness of the qualities explained in the subsequent pAsurams as “Desiring to speak about the qualities [of emperumAn] which are explained in the subsequent pAsurams, AzhwAr says that the quality explained in the previous pAsuram is not so great”.

In this pAsuram, AzhwAr says “Is it just that he made the residents of SrI ayOdhyA to be fully sustaining themselves by SrI rAma’s qualities? Did he not eliminate the hurdles of the residents of SrI ayOdhyA and protect them?” [Implying that his subsequent act/quality of uplifting everyone is greater]

pAsuram

nAttil piRandhavar nAraNaRkAL anRi AvarO
nAttil piRandhu padAdhana pattu manisarkkA
nAttai naliyum arakkarai nAdit thadindhittu
nAttai aLiththuyyach cheydhu nadandhamai kEttumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nAttil – in the place where his greatness is not understood
piRandhu – taking birth (based on the request of the followers, just as those who are bound by karma take birth)

(as said in “rAjyAth bhramSa:” etc)
padAdhana pattu – going through sufferings which even they (the samsAris) do not undergo
manisarkkA – for those ungrateful men who blame him subsequently
nAttai – the place where they live
naliyum – torment
arakkarai – rAkshasas
nAdi – seeking them in their own places
thadindhittu – killing

(subsequently, as said in “dhaSavarusha sahasrANi dhaSa varusha SathAniva“, presenting his qualities, form and activities for eleven thousand years)
nAttai – the place
aLiththu – protecting
uyyachcheydhu – uplifting them to spare them from rebirth
nadandhamai – (as said in “saSarIras sahAnuga:“, with that form and paraphernalia)  the way he presented himself
kEttum – after having heard through SrI rAmAyaNam
nAttil – in the abode (where his qualities are observed)
piRandhavar – those who are born
nAraNaRku – (as said in “bhavAn nArAyaNa dhEva:“) to chakravarthi thirumagan (SrI rAma, the divine son of emperor dhaSaratha) who has unconditional relationship

(similar to iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) who said “paravAnasmi kAkuthstha:“)
AL – to become a servitor
anRi – other than
AvarO – will they become servitor of anyone else?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

After having heard through SrI rAmAyaNam about emperumAn taking birth in the place where his greatness is not understood, going through sufferings which even they do not undergo, for those ungrateful men who blame him subsequently, seeking the rAkshasas who torment them where they live, in their own places and killing them, protecting the place and uplifting them to spare them from rebirth and the way he presented himself, will those who are born, become the servitor of anyone else other than chakravarthi thirumagan, who has unconditional relationship?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nAttil piRandhavar – Everyone takes birth in some place. Here, the emphasis is on having taken birth in the abode where SrI rAma’s qualities are observed. [Should he say where perumAL’s qualities are observed?] But there is no place outside the boundary of perumAL’s kingdom. SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 18.6 “ikshvAkUNAm iyam bhUmis saSaila vana kAnanA” (This earth with mountains, forests are under the reign of ikshvAku dynasty). sIthAp pirAtti too said to rAvaNa in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.20 “vidhithassa hi dharmagya:” (Have you not heard of perumAL’s qualities?) If only there is a place where his qualities are not observed, that place will be outside his reign. Being born in the kingdom means being born within the boundary of his kingdom and taking shelter under his shoulder.
  • nAraNaRku AL anRi AvarO – Implies “Would they not become a servitor of perumAL?” Even brahmA et al praised perumAL in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 120.13 “bhavAn nArAyaNO dhEva:” (You are that lord nArAyaNa). As said in “Would those who lived off a person, serve someone else?”
  • naraNaRku – The name “nArAyaNa” implies the following qualities in perumAL – mingling with everyone without any restriction, placing himself for the sake of his followers, accepting arrows on his chest for their sake, eliminating their enemies, being like a mother for the followers, not leaving them on seeing their defects. Due to these qualities, it is apt to call perumAL as “nArAyaNa” [here the term perumAL refers to SrI rAma].
  • AL anRi AvarO – In the previous pAsuram, it was said “kaRparO” (will they learn?), and in this pAsuram it is said “AL anRi AvarO” (will they not become servitor?) – this implies that the result of learning, is to become a servitor.
  • piRandhavar – AL anRi AvarO – as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 40.5 “srushtasthvam vanavAsAya” (the purpose of your birth is to send you to the forest [along with SrI rAma]; saying “would those who have taken birth, lose the purpose of that? For AzhwArs who know the greatness of emperumAn, they will consider total dependence on emperumAn, the apt lord, as the goal; [for us] due to having engaged in inapt aspects, it [total dependence] looks impractical and makes us wonder “is this the goal?”
  • nAttil piRandhu – One who is totally untouched by the samsAra [bondage], taking birth in the place which is hated by even those who are bound by karma. [SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 1.7 is explained here] sa hi dhEvai: …
    • sa: jagyE hi – One who is well known from the authentic scriptures that he has no birth due to karma, has taken birth which is beyond the imagination of even those bound by karma. What is the reason for his birth?
    • arthitha: – due to the prayer of the dhEvas; their prayers caused his desire since it is said that he took birth out of his own desire in SrIvishNu purANam 6.5.84 “ichchA gruhItha” (he incarnated out of his desire).
    • dhEvai: – He took birth for those who begged him for fulfilling their task and one the task was completed, would say “ISvarOham” (I am the lord)! They prayed as in thiruviruththam “nIL nagar nIL eri vaiththaruLAy” (mercifully burn down this great lankA).
    • udhIrNasya rAvaNasya – The lowly rAvaNa who caused fear in them; emperumAn himself had to descend and kill rAvaNa who became very powerful due to the boons he acquired.
    • vadhArthibhi: – due to the sufferings they went through, they requested him to do what is not acceptable to his divine heart. He only killed him thinking “if we killed this one person, the whole place will survive”.
    • arthitha: – He felt their prayer until he returned to his divine abode of paramapadham.
    • arthitha: – they did not perform any upAsana, but just prayed.
    • mAnushE lOkE – The dhEvas who were created [by bhagavAn], would hate the smell of humans, vomit on looking at them and with great dislike to step on earth, remain one and half yOjanA (about 15 miles) from the ground and accept the offerings given to them in yagyas (rituals); emperumAn in front of whom those dhEvas look like manushyas in front of them, himself descended here. It is said in thiruvAimozhi 8.1.5 “manisarkkuth thEvar pOla dhEvarkkum dhEvAvO” (just as dhEvas are for manushyas, you are dhEva for the dhEvas).
    • jagyE – It was not mere AvirbhUtham (manifesting directly); if the worldly people go through ten months in the womb, he spent twelve months in the womb; it is said in Sri rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 18.10 “thathaScha dhvAdhaSE mAsE” (subsequently, on the twelfth month of chaithra, SrI rAma took birth) and SrIvishNu purANam 5.3.14 “jathOham yaththavOdharAth” (I was born from your womb).
    • vishNus sanAthana: – the eternal lord, vishNu.
  • nAttai aLiththu – “nAttil piRandhu … manisarkkA” – [A summary up to this point] emperumAn, who is not bound by karma, took birth in this world along with the souls who are bound, went through sufferings which are even beyond their sufferings such as being separated from the daughter of janakarAja, with his soul on the other side of the ocean [along with sIthA] and his mere body remained here, lost jatAyu, etc. Further, for the sake of the ungrateful people, going to the places of demoniac enemies such as rAvaNa et al who harm the harmless people, as said in perumAL thirumozhi 9.5 “porundhAr kai vEl nudhi pOl paraRpAya melladigaL kurudhi sOra – virumbAdha kAn virumbi” (desiring the undesirable forest where the sharp stones would tear his tender feet to let the blood flow out from there) and perumAL thirumozhi 9.2 “evvARu nadandhanai em irAmAvO” (Oh my dear rAma! how did you walk in the forest?). Subsequently, when he mercifully stood victorious at the entrance of lankA, all the dhEvas starting with brahmA arrived there and said as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 117.29 “thadhidham na: krutham kAryam – prahrushtO dhivamAkrama:” (purpose of your birth is accomplished – return to your divine abode with joy) – indicating “Your highness have fulfilled our prayers without seeing our lowliness; now, you can return to your splendorous abode”; at that time rudhra said “the whole of SrI ayOdhyA is greatly suffering in separation from you; you should return to SrI ayOdhyA and spend some loving time with your divine mothers, divine brothers and the residents of the sacred abode and protect them”; “nAttai aLiththu” implies emperumAn‘s loving reign of his kingdom stretching for eleven thousand years as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.8.5kadal gyAlaththu aLi mikkAn” (with great compassion towards the world surrounded by ocean). Due to this reason,vAlmikI maharishi called the three-eyed rudhra as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 117.3 “shadardha nayanaSrImAn” (the three-eyed SrImAn (wealthy person)) [here the wealth in him was to desire for emperumAn’s presence in this world, beyond the selfish interest of dhEvas]; otherwise, there is no reason to call a bhikshuka (mendicant) as SrImAn.
  • uyyach cheydhu – this is talking about how emperumAn cared for them [the residents of SrI ayOdhyA] for a long time being together to make them unsustainable in his absence and took them along [to paramapadham] instead of leaving them behind, and uplifted everyone.
  • nadandhamai kEttumEAzhwAr is talking about perumAL taking everyone along with him as said in SrI rAmAyaNam uththara kANdam 109.22 “thiryak yOni gathASchApi sarvE rAmamanuvrathA:” (all the animals followed SrI rAma), “vivESa vaishNavam thEjas saSarIrassahAnuka:” (emperumAn ascended to paramapadham with a spiritual form along with the residents of SrI ayOdhyA). kulaSEkarAzhwAr has mercifully eliminated all doubts about the place where they reached; taking them along to paramapadham as said in perumAL thirumozhi 10.10 “anRu sarAsarangaLai vaigundhaththERRi” (lifting all the mobile and stationary entities to SrIvaikuNtam on that day [when he ascended there]).
  • nadandhamai kEttumE – Even after hearing this travelogue. That is taking along those who are hungry [for bhagavath vishayam] and helpless [in attaining him]. The companion for the pilgrimage is “puNdarIkAksha nAma sankIrthanAmrutham” (the nectarean names of lotus eyed lord). Travelling along saying as in jithanthE sthOthram 1″jithanthE puNdarIkAksha” (lotus eyed lord has won us over). It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 35.8 “rAma: kamalapathrAksha:” (SrI rAma who has eyes like lotus petals). Would one not become the servitor of nArAyaNa even after hearing how he uplifted everyone as SrI rAma? In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr said that emperumAn descended and captivated the samsAris (materialistic people) who were engaged in worldly pleasures and who would hear about sarvESvara from anyone [without proper analysis of the principle/source], with his beauty and qualities and transformed them to be fully dependent on him; in this pAsuram – was that great? After transforming someone to be totally dependent on him and leaving them behind, is as good as being a cruel murderer; instead of doing that, the quality of taking them along with him and protecting them is such a great quality – says AzhwAr.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 78 – kAndu vaNanginArkku

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avathArikai

Let the unseen benefit of removal of sins be there; AzhwAr wonders at the joy that those who see him and worship him have. If we look at the transformation in rudhra, who is full of thamO guNam (ignorance, laziness etc) and who is always angry, on hearing the divine names of emperumAn by  chance, should we say anything about those who see him directly and worship him?

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kaNdu vaNanginarkku ennAngol kAmanudal
koNda thavaththARku umai uNarththa vaNdalambum
thAralangal nINmudiyAn than peyarE kEttirundhu angu
Aralangal AnamaiyAl Ayndhu

Word for Word Meanings

kAman – manmadhan’s
udal – body
koNda – one who turned it into ashes
thavaththARku – Siva who carries out the penance
umai – (his wife) pArvathi
uNarththa – as she indicated
vaNdu alambum thAr alangal nIN mudiyAn than peyarE kEttirundhu – on hearing the divine names of emperumAn who dons garland on his long crown, and on which beetles keep swarming
angu – at that moment itself
Ar alangal Anamai – becoming transformed
AyndhAl – if one were to analyse
kaNdu vanaginArkku – those who see and worship
en Am kol – what sort of transformation will take place?  (cannot be said easily)

vyAkyAnam

kAman udal koNda thavaththARku – to rudhra who carries out penance, and who burnt the body of kAma (manmadha) who created love (in him) towards his wife (pArvathi). To rudhra who has such a cruel nature that he would spend the strength of all his penance in destroying the person who created desire in him.

udal koNda thavaththARku – the benefit of carrying out penance is to destroy someone. One who is so hard hearted. The implied meaning is that such a hard hearted person melted on hearing the divine names of emperumAn.

umai uNarththa – pArvathi says. This narrative is as follows: Once when rudhra was meditating, pArvathi asked him “kam thvamarchayasE dhEva!  kim dhaivamadhikam thava I japahOma namaskArai: tham vadhasva mahESvara II” (Oh Lord! Who are you worshipping through japa (prayers), hOma (ritual by growing fire), namaskAra (salutation)? Who is the deity who is superior to you? mahESvara! Please tell me about him). She started singing the divine names of emperumAn in a way which was sweet to the ears. rudhra asked her to sing the divine names more and more and became very emotionally weak.

umai uNarththa – hearing her recite the divine names of emperumAn as pArvathi was asking him doubts by chance, rudhra started hearing from her, matter relating to emperumAn, thus changing the order of teacher – student (the student became teacher and teacher became student).

vaNdalambum thAralangal nINmudiyAn than peyarE kEttirundhu – the moment he heard and meditated on the divine names of emperumAn, on whose long crown thuLasi garlands were decorated and on which beetles came to swim in the nectar.

vaNdalambum thAralangal nINmudiyAnnammAzhwAr mercifully said in thiruvAimozhi 1-9-7sudar mudi mElum punaindha thaNNandhuyAyudai ammAn” (my lord who has cool thuLasi on his resplendent crown); vaNdalambu – some interpret this as beetles humming.

nIN mudiyAnemperumAn has a long crown which manifests his supremacy, as mercifully mentioned by kUraththAzhwAn in SrI varadharAja sthavam “AdhirAjyamadhikam bhuvanAnAmISa thE piSunayan kila mouli:” (your crown bears the tale that you are the lord of all the worlds).

angu AralangalAnamai AyndhAl kaNdu vaNanginArkku ennAngol – as soon as one hears emperumAn’s divine name, just as mercifully sung by various AzhwArskAlAzhum nenjazhiyum kaN suzhalum” (I will be unable to stand as legs will wobble, heart will sink, eyes will roll), “uLLelAmurugi kural thazhuththozhindhEn” (heart melted and voice stammered), “AhlAdhaSItha nEthrAmbU:  pulakIkrutha gAthravAn sadhA paraguNAvishta:” (the devotee on hearing the divine names of emperumAn, will have tears of joy and goose pimples, being enslaved by the superior qualities of emperumAn). When one analyses these situations, in all of which the devotee hears the divine names of emperumAn, what will be the state of those who see emperumAn directly and worship him? alangal – weariness; faintness.

AralangalAnamai – becoming very weary; alternatively, alangal could also mean garland, hence people would interpret this as – devotees withering and falling down like a garland which has dried up fully.

We will take up the 79th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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