Daily Archives: October 14, 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 6.1.5 – uNarththal Udal

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Full series >> Sixth Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki tells some swans “thiruvaNvaNdUr will make those who enter there forget everything else, and so, while you enter there, remember me too”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki sends some more swans towards the supreme lord who is complete in enjoyability and lordship.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

uNarththal Udal uNarndhu udan mEyum mada annangAL!
thiNarththa vaNdalgaL mEl sangu sErum thiruvaNvaNdUr
puNarththa pUndhaN thuzhAy mudi nam perumAnaik kaNdu
puNarththa kaiyinarAy adiyEnukkum pORRuminE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

uNarththal – the difficulty in communicating to the spouse [after a quarrel]
Udal – the suffering in romantic quarrel
uNarndhu – realising
udan – without separating
mEyum – grazing
madam – having attachment towards each other
annangAL – oh swans!
thiNarththa – well grown
vaNdalgaL mEl – on the sand banks
sangu – conches
sErum – reaching
thiruvaNvaNdUr – in thiruvaNvaNdUr
puNarththa – strung
pU – beautiful
thaN thuzhAy – having fresh divine thuLasi
mudi – one who is wearing divine crown
nam – our
perumAnai – lord
kaNdu – on seeing
puNarththa – performing anjali (joining the palms)
kaiyinarAy – having hands
adiyEnukkum – on behalf of me who am servitor for you
pORRumin – offer some words in praise of him.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh swans who are having attachment towards each other, grazing without separating, after realising the difficulty in communicating to the spouse and the suffering in romantic quarrel! Our lord is the one who is wearing divine crown having beautiful fresh divine thuLAsi strung around it and is residing in thiruvaNvaNdUr where the conches reach the well grown sand banks. On seeing such emperumAn,  performing anjali with your hands, on behalf of me who am servitor for you, offer some words in praise of him.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • uNarththal … – Realising well the nature of communication between them and romantic quarrels, the swans are roaming together. They are roaming together knowing well the sufferings in separation. Now, the way of enjoyment is in three forms. They are: thamizh scholars explained three results in love as said in thirukkuRaL 1109 “Udal uNardhal puNardhal ivai kAmam kUdiyAr peRRa payan” (romantic quarrel, compromising by sweet talks and reunion are the results obtained in love). In this Udal is – incidental fights when being united with the spouse. That is as seen in “You bathed without me, you looked at the flower without me, your body is having nice fragrance [may be due to uniting with some one else] and so on”. uNarththal is – sweet talks to resolve the quarrel such as “I bathed just for you”, “I looked at the flower to pick it up for you”, “I decorated myself just for you” and so on. Subsequent to these too is kalavi (puNardhal, reunion). These are seen in her lord too.
  • uNarththal Udal uNarndhu udan mEyum – thinking “who can separate, who can suffer in separation and who can try to compromise”, they roam around without separating. Their philosophy is “Only if one commits a mistake, one needs to try and correct it”.
  • udan mEyum – They said as in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.88 “idham mEthyam idham svAdhu” (this is pure and this is relishable). Among the three viz Udal, uNarththal and puNardhal, these swans are only engaged in puNardhal.  They are so close that they eat from the same vessel and will never eat in separation from each other. I did not realise what is coming. That is – when emperumAn said “this separation will improve our union”, I did not stop him saying “only for those who are capable of handling separation, such desire for enhanced enjoyment can exist”. These swans who lack intelligence are acting smartly, but I who have intelligence [being blessed by emperumAn himself with unblemished knowledge] did not act smartly.
  • mada annangAL – Their forms reveal the fatigue which came about due to enjoyment in union.
  • uNarththal … – Should those who are knowledgeable about the future and avoid the separation, not help those who are not knowledgeable and get caught in separation. By this, it is understood that Udal (romantic quarrel) is present in a subdued manner.
  • thiNarththal … – His not coming is not his fault. On raised sand banks. The conches reach the sand banks when the water bothers them.
  • sangu sErum – This town is so enjoyable that even achEthana (nonsentient) objects are so attached to it.
  • sErum – Not having any other refuge. Reaching the state of no return as said in chAndhOgya upanishath “na cha punar AvarthathE” (there is no return). The tenderness and coolness make one not to think about anything else.
  • sangu sErum – The town which retains even those who are not bound by SAsthrams [conches don’t have any knowledge to understand and abide by SAsthram]. The nature of the town which attracts even the veLLai [veLLai, white which means both conch and detached persons].
  • puNarththa … – On seeing emperumAn who is wearing the crown which has the attractive, invigorating thuLasi which is strung as a garland, and who made me exist exclusively for him. All you need to do is to go and inform me, he has already decorated and is ready to come to me. Alternative explanation [bhattar‘s view] – one who manifests his supremacy of captivating me by wearing garland on his crown.
  • pUm thaN thuzhAy mudi nam perumAnaik kaNdu – On seeing the one who manifests his decoration and supremacy to us.
  • puNarththa kaiyinarAy – [In line with bhattar‘s view] Instead of waiting to worship him after reaching there, start performing anjali (joining your palms) before reaching there. Perform anjali even while being on the way; otherwise, as said in mAhAbhAratham sabhA parvam “avaSA: prathibEthirE” (being emotionally charged, without their knowledge, they performed anjali etc [persons in the court of dhritharAshtra, worshipped krishNa even after dhuryOdhana stops them from doing so]), he will consider you also to be like them.
  • adiyEnukkum pORRuminE – Don’t forget me like he did; after reaching there, do remember me. That is – since that town will captivate all who enter there and engage them in it, there is no reason for you to think about me. It remains as explained in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran idham SarIram” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm).
  • adiyEnukkum pORRuminE – You should inform about my purpose too to him.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 14 – paNdip perum padhiyai

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that once it is known that emperumAn can be attained by everyone, don’t praise lowly persons who nurture only the life in this materialistic realm but praise emperumAn and make the entire world a purified one through your sojourns. Once knowing the nature of emperumAn, worship at the divine feet of emperumAn, recite his names and through your connection, purify the world.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

paNdip perum padhiyai Akkip pazhipAvam
koNdingu vAzhvAraik kURAdhE eNdhisaiyum
pErththa karam nAngudaiyAn pErOdhip pEdhaigAL
thIrththa kararAmin thirindhu

Word by Word Meaning

pEdhaigAL – Oh ignorant people!
paNdiyai – stomach
perum padhi Akki – filling it up [stomach] with everything as if it were a huge town
pazhi pAvam koNdu – going on accumulating sins through faulty activities carried out knowingly and unknowingly
ingu – in this world
vAzhvArai – those who dwell in this materialistic realm
kURAdhE – instead of praising them
eN dhisaiyum pErththa karam nAngu udaiyAn – thrivikrama’s puffed up divine shoulders which blew to smithereens the eight directions (when he measured the worlds)
pEr – divine names
Odhi – reciting continuously without expecting any gain in return
thirindhu – taking a sojourn all over the world
thIrththakarar Amin – purify all the lands (through your connection)

vyAkyAnam

paNdu ip perum padhiyai Akki – nurturing this old materialistic realm. Alternatively, paNdi also means stomach. Hence, nurturing the stomach to make it like a huge town. Earlier one person (nanjIyar?) mercifully said that “this body is a mobile celestial vehicle” (since emperumAn has pervaded the physical body, this body becomes a celestial vehicle for emperumAn). AzhwAr feels sad that this body is being nurtured without knowing emperumAn and AthmA (his SarIram) are being destroyed.

pazhi pAvam koNdu – Gathering ridicules and sins in order to nurture the body. People of this world, without realising that they are the repository for the ridicules which come without a reason and the sins which come with a reason, will gather the results of those [activities] which they do unknowingly and those which they do knowingly. Ridicule is something which is thrust on us by others and sin is the result of lowly acts which we carry out ourselves. Ridicule results  because we are beholden to someone else and sin, because of our own independence and thinking that “I am my Lord”.

ingu vAzhvAraik kURAdhE – instead of praising the people of this world who are like this [those who gather ridicule and sins]. Unless one thinks that there is something called as soul which is different from the body, he will not know that there is a world [SrIvaikuNtam] above and that one has to enjoy the happiness there. Since those who live here are people who think that there is nothing other than what is seen in this world, they will think that there is nothing other than living their lives for sometime here. It is better not to praise such people. It would be better not to praise them saying “can anyone ridicule you! can you accumulate any sin!”

ingu vAzhvArai – those who think that they are living here, while there is nothing called prosperity. One should not praise someone who thinks that sorrow is pleasure.

pEdhaigAL – Oh ignorant people! Those who think that there is nothing other than what is being seen with eyes. Those ignorant people who think that wealth which is seen by the eyes, is also a benefit!

eNdhisaiyum pErththa karam nAngu udaiyAn pEr Odhi – with the divine hands puffing up and growing in all the eight directions. The hands puffed up such that they wanted to destroy the existing directions and make new, larger directions. AzhwAr tells us to recite the divine names of emperumAn who measured the worlds to protect them.

thIrththakarar Amin thirindhu – go all over the world to make them auspicious. Has it not been divinely mentioned in perumAL thirumozhi 10-5 “thiridhalAl thavam udaiththu iththaraNidhAnE” (this world is fortunate because of those who go all over the place, with their hands folded and head bowed) and in perumAL thirumozhi 2-6 “thIdhil nanneRi kAtti engum thirundhu” (going to all places, manifesting their activities which are free from any faults)! Correct this world which cannot be set right by emperumAn himself, with his divine names. Just as people of this world spoil the others apart from spoiling themselves, those who recite emperumAn’s divine names will have noble activities themselves and will also make others to have noble activities. Has it not been mentioned in manu smirithi 8-92 “yamO vaivasvathO rAjA yasthavaiva hruthi sthitha: thEna chEdha vivAdhasthE mA gangAm mA kurUn gama:” (there is no need for you to go to gangA or kurukshEthram if emperumAn, who is the King residing amidst the solar galaxy, controlling everyone, stays in your heart and you do not have any argument with him [in other words, if you accept him and are well disposed towards him]).

thirindhu thIrththakarar Amin – make the world sanctimonious by your sojourns (according to tradition, there is an anecdote mentioned about people sanctifying the world – once dhEvappiLLai, elder (son?) to piLLAn had to go to a different town. He was very sad about it and told bhattar (elder son of kUraththAzhwAn) “while relatives like all of you are here, only I have to go outside. After reaching there, whose face shall I see when I wake up (meaning that they are all strangers)? bhattar responded by divinely saying “rAmapirAn (SrI rAma) gave mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam) even to grass. Yet, he left behind his sons lava and kuSa even though he had no difficulty in granting them mOksham, so that they could protect this world. In the same way, aren’t you going outside only to enable those who live there to get uplifted?”

We shall move on to the 15th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pUrva pItikA – Part 1

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Although not questioned, sage vaishampAyana – out of utter affection – volunteered to speak thus to janamEjaya, who had a very peaceful mind having heard repeatedly from various learned people about the glories of the Lord, in order to enlighten him on many more esoteric meanings as preached in the scriptures:

श्री वैशम्पायन उवाच –
श्रुत्वा धर्मान् अशॆषॆण पावनानि च सर्वशः
युधिष्टिरः शान्तनवं पुनरॆवाभ्यभाषत  ॥ १ ॥

SrI vaishampAyana uvAcha –
shruthvA dharmAn ashEshENa pAvanAni cha sarvasha:
yudhiShTira: shAnthanavam punarEvAbhyabhAShatha || 1 ||

Having heard fully about all purifying dharmas in detail in the battle field, yudhiShTira asked the glorious son of shAntanu [bhIshma pitAmaha] further.

dharmAn – all the dharmas that are of varied kinds, mentioned in the vEdhas and smrithis, which bestow upon the followers a multitude of auspicious spiritual and material benefits – such as the rAja dharma (duties of the king), mOksha dharma (duties to be observed by a seeker of salvation), dhAna dharma (duties of a donor), and many more.

ashEShENa – in entirety, meaning – as much as needed.

pAvanAni cha – along with purifying deeds such as penance, pilgrimage, worship, et al.

sarvasha: – in all respects; meaning – in terms of fruits, limbs, nature and authority of the prescribed actions.

shruthvA – having heard.

yudhiShThiraH – yudhiShTira, verily the son of dharma [yama dharmarAja]

shAnthanavam – unto bhIshma, the one with a high-class birth, born of shAnthanu from gangA

punarEva abhyabhAShatha – asked again. The reason for asking again was to know from bhIshma about the dharma that he held close to his heart as the highest of all. This can be known from the fact that he later asks bhIshma “which – of all dharmas – do you think is the supreme?” [Reference: the next two verses in series]. Also, yudhistira considered the fact that the wise men search and seek refuge of other learned men who are strongly rooted in the ancient good practices (sadhAchAra). Being subservient to them, the seekers also engage in similar practices that are most liked by their preceptors – the learned people. In the process, the seekers also develop a taste for those good deeds and fruits. That is to say, they do not engage in the most lofty deeds for the mere reason that it is stated in the scriptures, but because such deeds have been accepted and practiced by other learned men in the past.

It has been already stated [at the very beginning of the introduction post] that the wise men should distinctly identify the subjects of knowledge from the various sources available to them, and accept only those that prove to be conducive for their welfare. Such knowledge is of two types – upAya (means) and upEya (goal). The means and the goal can further be thought to be of three types: likeable, more likeable and most likeable ‘goals’; and beneficial, more beneficial and most beneficial ‘means’.

Of these, the goals usually have their own obstacles such as birth, growth, transformations, transient nature, the various effects on the soul namely sorrow, fruits of action, ignorance, desires etc. All these are considered to be the drawbacks of the goals. Similarly, they also have their share of positives such as being free from blemishes, developing taste for soul and body, permanence, abundant knowledge, bliss, wealth etc.

The means also have drawbacks such as deterioration, exhaustion, being long-routed, deception, being over-rewarding or under-rewarding etc. The good qualities of the means are: being definitive, safe, and easy to follow, being extremely rewarding etc.

The distinction in the aforesaid three types of goals and means is achieved keeping in mind the qualities and drawbacks of each of them, as discussed previously. When a seeker finds the ‘most beneficial’ way, he should give up the other two ways namely ‘beneficial’ and ‘more beneficial’, considering them as lowly in comparison to what he holds. Similarly, when he finds the ‘most likeable’ goal, he should give up the two other lower categories of goals namely ‘likeable’ and ‘more likeable’. The true seeker should understand the need for rightly judging between the various goals and the means and holding on to the best out of them.

Thus, in order to clearly differentiate between the various goals and means, yudhiShTira further classified his doubts into six questions, and posed them to bhIshma thus, as seen in the following two slokas:

युधिष्ठिर उवाच –
किमॆकं दैवतं लॊकॆ किं वाsप्यॆकं परायणम्
स्तुवन्तः कं कमर्चन्तः प्राप्नुयुर्मानवाः शुभम् ॥ २ ॥

yudhiShTira uvAcha –
kimEkam dhaivatham lOkE kim vApyEkam parAyaNam
sthuvantha: kam kamarchantha: prApnuyurmAnavA: shubham || 2 ||

कॊ धर्मः सर्वधर्माणां भवतः परमॊ मतः
किं जपन् मुच्यतॆ जन्तुः जन्मसंसारबन्धनात् ॥ ३ ॥

kO dharma: sarvadharmANAm bhavatha: paramO matha:
kim japan muchyathE janthu: janmasamsArabandhanAth || 3 ||

A question on The Supreme Entity as the Goal

Having known that the various means lead to an ultimate goal, yudhiShTira proceeded to inquire about the ultimate goal at first. Since the philosophies and scriptures have projected and preached about the ultimate goal in two forms namely ‘The Supreme Entity’ and ‘The Ultimate Destination’, he inquired about the ‘Supreme Entity’ at first.

yudhiShTira asked ‘Which is the Supreme Godhead shown by the scriptures? and who is the one whom we should attain?”. The words “Which” (kim) and “in the scriptures” (lOkE) are to be read along with every question that yudhiShTira has asked. Similarly, the phrase “the loftiest in your opinion” (bhavatha: paramO matha:) should also be applied to all the six questions that he has asked, according to the ‘simha-avalOkana nyAya’ (just as a lion looks back at the way it has treaded after walking a certain distance). The “vibhakthi”s in each of the questions need to be modified as required while applying these aforesaid phrases in all the questions. The word ‘lOka’ has an origin as: ‘lOkyathE anEna’ (through which everything is seen), which indicates that the word ‘lOka’ in this context doesn’t refer to the world as it normally does, but refers to the ancient scriptures such as vEdhas, smrithis, and other SAsthras using which we see the Supreme Reality.

The word ‘Ekam’ refers to the main entity that has no equivalent or superior power to it. This is in concord with the phrases “the Supreme One who is also the biggest effulgence”, “of that One who is the chief of the world” etc. This doesn’t stop at the nature alone (the word ‘Ekam’ doesn’t refer to the nature of being Supreme alone), but also represents the numeral ‘one’ as it normally does. The next word ‘dhaivatham’ – due to its connotation and the use of singular form of the word – does not eliminate its representation of the Supreme Godhead as well as singularity. No Godhead exists, which has no nature of its own or which is multiple in number (in other words, all Godhead entities are indeed one in number, and have their own nature). Thus, even though it is known that the Godhead being referred to is singular, the usage of ‘Ekam’ is made specifically, for which no other meaning can be deduced. So in this context, the word ‘Ekam’ holds a special meaning, which represents ‘the Supreme One’, and not just the numeral one.

The word ‘dhaivatham’ refers to the connotation of the Supreme Mastery of all worlds, as also the representation of extraordinary qualities. Yudhishitra meant to ask “which is the loftiest of such Godheads professed by the scriptures in your opinion?” The reason being: even some of the learned scholars, who know about the Supreme Entity from the various scriptures, have their own doubts regarding the natural superiority of that entity due to the various ill-effects on it driven by illusion, limitation, transformation etc, and also due to the differentiation seen among the divine trinity – hari, hara and hiraNyagarbha (Brahma) – due to various common and special causes. So, in order to get these doubts clarified by bhIShma, yudhiShTira asked unto him: “Which is that Supreme Godhead, which is professed by the scriptures, in your opinion?”

A question on The Ultimate Destination as the Goal

A similar confusion about the salvation (mOksha) can be found in the phala-SAasthras, the scriptures that detail about the ultimate goal. Many people are of the opinion that the destruction of the identity of self along with ignorance is itself called as salvation, while many others opine that the voidance of some special characteristics of the soul itself is mOkSham. While some more propound that attaining the status and powers of the Supreme Brahman itself is salvation, some others declare that attaining of the qualities of Bhagavan is salvation. Some also opine that attaining the abode of the Supreme Self and residing in his shelter is mOkSham. Many others think that attaining the eight qualities such as the Supreme Bliss and the like is mOkSham, whereas some others think that performing eternal service of all kinds to the Supreme Brahman itself is mOkSham. With so many people professing so many meanings for ‘salvation’, yudhiShTira – with a mind to know the truth – posed his second question unto bhIShma thus: “Which is the only ultimate goal?” (in other words, “what is mOkSham?”)

Further to this, he has asked for two things – ‘dhaivatham’ and ‘parAyaNam’ (Supreme Entity and Ultimate Goal). In order to know if the two are totally different from each other or refer to the same entity in different states, there is the usage of two conjunctions ‘vA’ and ‘api’ (‘or’ and ‘also’). The word ‘Ekam’, as before, refers to the entity (destination, in this case) being Supreme – with no equivalent or superior, untainted, and auspicious in nature, and hence being the ‘Most likeable’ goal. ‘ayanam’ refers to the goal/result; the one which should be attained. yudhiShTira, in this question, intends to inquire about the highest goal (parAyaNam) in everyone’s life that helps achieve immense benefits both in this world as well as the nether, in bhIShma’s opinion. Thus are the first two questions on the “Goal” (puruShArtha – the Supreme Entity and Destination) that needs to be attained by every soul.

Question on the means – simple/detailed means and pursuable/established means

Further, the various scriptures indicate three means of attaining the ultimate goal – namely karma yOga, jnAna yOga and Bhakthi yOga. There are again confusions about these means of attaining the highest goal. Some people say the three means are mutually exclusive. Some others say they should all be treated / practiced together. Some say that one of three is the main way, and the other two are just limbs of it. With all these confusions in mind, it is naturally the best to inquire about the different ways of achieving the highest goal of life from a learned scholar. The upAya or the means of attaining a certain result is of three types – sidhdha (established), sAdhya (pursuable) and sAlambana (supported). Of these, the ‘established’ way refers to verily the Godhead that provides the intended fruits upon due worship. This worship of the Godhead can further be classified into two subtypes, namely ‘simple worship’ (laghu) and ‘detailed worship’ (alaghu). Classifying thus, yudhiShTira asks in the second half of the SlOka thus: “praying to whom and worshipping whom, will the humans attain their welfare?”

‘kam sthuvantha:’ – pleasing whom by prayers alone (only by singing the glories, praising the qualities) –> refers to the simple worship

‘kam archantha:’ – worshipping whom – in the form of upAsana – with utmost devotion –> refers to detailed worship

‘mAnavA:’ – all ‘Humans’ – devoid of any restrictions in terms of race, clan, gender, age, etc

‘shubham’ – two types of auspicious results, namely ‘well-being in this world’, and ‘attainment of the Paramapadham (ViShNulokam)’

‘prApnuyu:’ – shall attain

Question on the ultimate pursuable means

The ‘sAdhya’ upAya or the pursuable means refers to an absolute involvement of the three prime faculties called speech, mind and body in terms of chanting, meditating and worshipping respectively, in order to please the respective Godhead and gain the benefits. When yudhiShTira asks “Which – of all dharmas – is the loftiest, in your opinion?” (SlOka 3), he means to ask “Of all the dharmas prescribed by the scriptures and connotative of all the aforesaid natures, which is the One – in your opinion – that is distinctly unique with no equal or superior dharmas to it, which is clearly proven and can be relied upon similar to Apaddhanam (wealth in times of dire need)?”

Question on the verbally supported means

Finally, he asks a question regarding the verbally supported means of achieving the goal. He inquires about the support of verbal chanting done along with the help of prayers, mantras, and the idol of the deity, sandal, flowers, and other things. He asks, “Having chanted which one, will all the born souls be released from the cycles of births and samsara?”

‘japa:’ – refers to the restricted and specialized repetitions of mantras and the like

The manu smruthi declares: “Only by japa will a brAhmaNa attain all benefits/fruits; there’s no doubt about it. Whether a person practices anything else or not, he will be considered as a brAhmaNa only by his friendly nature”.

The same scripture also says: “The worship with japa is ten times better than worship with physical objects”.

Krishna, in his SrI bhagavadhgIthA declares: “I am the japa-yajna among the modes of worship”.

Since the loftiness of verbal ‘japa’ has been established with such assurances, the other modes of worship with mind and action are not being inquired by yudhiShTira.

‘janthu’ – that which is born

‘janma’ – the cycle of aging, death, and birth, and other pains as an effect of samsAra are shown with this word, and

‘samsAra’ – refers to the main causes due to which the soul is bound in this creation, namely ignorance, fruits of action, habits, tastes / desires etc.

The ‘janma’ and ‘samsAra’ are the two obstacles that are stopping a soul from attaining the ultimate goal of life called paramapadham. These obstacles will be warded off with the help of japa. The ‘mOksha’ or salvation mentioned in this context is representative of all other auspicious benefits, since the various scriptures clearly mention both material as well as spiritual benefits in plenty for the japas that they prescribe.

Thus, beginning with phrases like “in entirety” (ashEShENa), “by all means” (sarvasha:) etc, and later on using more phrases such as “in the scriptures” (lOkE), “all humans” (mAnavA:), “auspicious material/spiritual benefits” (shubham), et al, these questions also clearly intend to highlight the best modes in terms of time, authority, limbs of action, and the fruits of action.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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