thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.10 – yAvaiyum yavarum

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

antharyami

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “though bhagavAn is pervading all chEthana (sentient entities) and achEthana (insentient objects), their defects do not touch him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

yAvaiyum yavarum thAnAy avar avar samayam thORum
thOyvilan pulan aindhukkum solappadAn uNarvin mUrththi
Avi sEr uyirin uLLAl Adhum Or paRRilAdha
bAvanai adhanaik kUdil avanaiyum kUdalAmE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

yAvaiyum – all achEthana (insentient objects)
yavarum – all chEthana (sentient entities)
thAnAy – being himself
avar avar – those sentient entity’s
samayam thORum – in their various situations [bodies] such as being dhEva (celestial) et al (when united with achith (matter))
thOyvilan – has no binding unlike them
pulan aindhukkum – through the five sensory organs
solappadAn – is not spoken [understood]
uNarvin mUrththi – one who is naturally self-illuminating;

Hence,
Avi – body which is the abode of prANa (vital air)
sEr – together with
uyirin – AthmA’s
uL – in the nature
Adhum – qualities such as jadathva (being inanimate), pariNAmithva (changes) etc
Or – in any one
paRRu – attachment
ilAdha – not applicable
bAvanai – aspect
adhanai – that true nature,
kUdil – if affected
AdhumOr paRRilAdha – the aspect of not being affected (in the attributes of all chEthana and achEthana)
avanaiyum – Iswara (who was spoken about previously and is explained as self-illuminating)
kUdalAm – will be applicable
E – certainly

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

bhagavAn is the one who is himself being all achEthana (insentient objects) and chEthana (sentient entities); though he is [present along with the souls] in various situations [bodies] such as being dhEva (celestial) et al (when united with achith (matter)), he has no binding unlike those souls; he is is not spoken [understood] through the five sensory organs and is naturally self-illuminating; Hence, it is certain that, if the true nature of AthmA that is  together with body which is the abode of prANa (vital air), is not affected by qualities such as jadathva (being inanimate), pariNAmithva (changes) etc which are not attached to it [the true nature of the AthmA], the aspect of Iswara (who was spoken about previously and is explained as self-illuminating) not being affected (in the attributes of all chEthana and achEthana) will be applicable.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yAvaiyum yavarum thAnAybhagavAn being prakAri (entity) and all chEthana and achEthana being prakAra (attribute/form), such that they are contained in the word “thAn” (I – bhagavAn) [bhagavAn means the paramAthmA who has the entire spiritual realm and material realm, as his body].
  • avar avar … – “avar avar” implies the plurality of jIvAthmAs. Since previously both sentient and insentient are identified as “yAvaiyum [plurality of insentient] and yavarum [plurality of sentient]”, here too “avai avai” should be assumed to be implicitly present, since this is reinforcing previous phrase. But why is not explicitly stated? That is because achEthana is not as important as chEthana and also since in the context of what is being discussed, it is automatically implied [so need to explicitly state it]. samayam means vyavasthA [states]. This highlights the ever changing nature of achEthana and the feeling of joy and sorrow in chEthana.
  • thOyvilan – Though chEthana and achEthana are so inseparable from him that they are identified by the word “thAn” (I – bhagavAn), still, their faults which do not affect him. Though chEthanas (souls) do not have the defect of pariNAma (change/transformation) etc., which are natural for achith, yet the souls acquire joy and sorrow due to being together with achith; so, when bhagavAn is pervaded in all these chEthana and achEthana, would their defects not affect him? No, they would not affect him. Though there is no joy/sorrow for AthmA independently, only because of AthmA being together with achith, he acquires joy/sorrow. Would that same principle be applicable for bhagavAn too? No, that principle cannot be applied to him. That is due to the reason for the presence of bhagavAn and AthmA within achith [any particular body]. bhagavAn is not present inside a body due to his karma unlike a jIvAthmA; instead he is present due to his mercy [to sustain the body, since nothing exists without bhagavAn’s presence and to help/guide the jIvAthmA by accompanying him everywhere]. In a prison, both the prisoner and the prince (of the kingdom) are present. Since the prisoner entered the prison due to his karma (unlawful activity) he is suffering. But since the prince entered the prison out of his own desire, it is joyful for him. This principle is explained in rig vEdham “dhvA suparNA sayujA sakhAyA samAnam vruksham parishasvajAthE | thayOranya: pippalam svAdhvaththi anaSnannanyO abichAkaSIthi ||” (There are two related (servant and master) birds (jIvAthmA and paramAthmA) residing in a tree (body). One bird (jIvAthmA) enjoys the fruits of its actions (karma) and the other one (paramAthmA) being detached is radiantly witnessing that).
  • pulan aindhukkum solappadAn – He cannot be comprehended by the five sensory organs starting with ears etc. Alternatively explained as – only if we can think about him, we can go on to explain. He cannot be comprehended by such thoughts.

Then, what is his nature?

  • uNarvin mUrththi – He is the embodiment of radiance.

But since the connection between these [chEthana and achEthana] and bhagavAn is real, how is that their defects do not affect him?

  • Avi sEr … – Avi – body which is the abode of prANa (vital air), is present. uyir – AthmA (soul), that is connected to the body is also present, When it is considered that the childhood, youth, old age etc that are related to the body, are unrelated to the AthmA, there is nothing wrong in applying similar principle to bhagavAn [being unaffected by the defects of chith and achith].

Beyond this, two other explanations are given for the second half of the pAsuram.

  • If one has devotion towards bhagavAn, one can attain him.
  • If one gives up all other means and fully surrender unto him, one can attain him.

Another explanation is also given – if one meditates upon him during his final moments, one  can attain him.

emperumAnAr heard these different explanations and said “Since previously emperumAn‘s all pervading nature is explained, this must be explained in the context of the defects of the pervaded entities not affecting emperumAn who is pervading them all; so, this should be the best explanation”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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