Daily Archives: August 27, 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 3.4.10 – yAvaiyum yavarum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

antharyami

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr says “though bhagavAn is pervading all chEthana (sentient entities) and achEthana (insentient objects), their defects do not touch him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

yAvaiyum yavarum thAnAy avar avar samayam thORum
thOyvilan pulan aindhukkum solappadAn uNarvin mUrththi
Avi sEr uyirin uLLAl Adhum Or paRRilAdha
bAvanai adhanaik kUdil avanaiyum kUdalAmE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

yAvaiyum – all achEthana (insentient objects)
yavarum – all chEthana (sentient entities)
thAnAy – being himself
avar avar – those sentient entity’s
samayam thORum – in their various situations [bodies] such as being dhEva (celestial) et al (when united with achith (matter))
thOyvilan – has no binding unlike them
pulan aindhukkum – through the five sensory organs
solappadAn – is not spoken [understood]
uNarvin mUrththi – one who is naturally self-illuminating;

Hence,
Avi – body which is the abode of prANa (vital air)
sEr – together with
uyirin – AthmA’s
uL – in the nature
Adhum – qualities such as jadathva (being inanimate), pariNAmithva (changes) etc
Or – in any one
paRRu – attachment
ilAdha – not applicable
bAvanai – aspect
adhanai – that true nature,
kUdil – if affected
AdhumOr paRRilAdha – the aspect of not being affected (in the attributes of all chEthana and achEthana)
avanaiyum – Iswara (who was spoken about previously and is explained as self-illuminating)
kUdalAm – will be applicable
E – certainly

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

bhagavAn is the one who is himself being all achEthana (insentient objects) and chEthana (sentient entities); though he is [present along with the souls] in various situations [bodies] such as being dhEva (celestial) et al (when united with achith (matter)), he has no binding unlike those souls; he is is not spoken [understood] through the five sensory organs and is naturally self-illuminating; Hence, it is certain that, if the true nature of AthmA that is  together with body which is the abode of prANa (vital air), is not affected by qualities such as jadathva (being inanimate), pariNAmithva (changes) etc which are not attached to it [the true nature of the AthmA], the aspect of Iswara (who was spoken about previously and is explained as self-illuminating) not being affected (in the attributes of all chEthana and achEthana) will be applicable.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yAvaiyum yavarum thAnAybhagavAn being prakAri (entity) and all chEthana and achEthana being prakAra (attribute/form), such that they are contained in the word “thAn” (I – bhagavAn) [bhagavAn means the paramAthmA who has the entire spiritual realm and material realm, as his body].
  • avar avar … – “avar avar” implies the plurality of jIvAthmAs. Since previously both sentient and insentient are identified as “yAvaiyum [plurality of insentient] and yavarum [plurality of sentient]”, here too “avai avai” should be assumed to be implicitly present, since this is reinforcing previous phrase. But why is not explicitly stated? That is because achEthana is not as important as chEthana and also since in the context of what is being discussed, it is automatically implied [so need to explicitly state it]. samayam means vyavasthA [states]. This highlights the ever changing nature of achEthana and the feeling of joy and sorrow in chEthana.
  • thOyvilan – Though chEthana and achEthana are so inseparable from him that they are identified by the word “thAn” (I – bhagavAn), still, their faults which do not affect him. Though chEthanas (souls) do not have the defect of pariNAma (change/transformation) etc., which are natural for achith, yet the souls acquire joy and sorrow due to being together with achith; so, when bhagavAn is pervaded in all these chEthana and achEthana, would their defects not affect him? No, they would not affect him. Though there is no joy/sorrow for AthmA independently, only because of AthmA being together with achith, he acquires joy/sorrow. Would that same principle be applicable for bhagavAn too? No, that principle cannot be applied to him. That is due to the reason for the presence of bhagavAn and AthmA within achith [any particular body]. bhagavAn is not present inside a body due to his karma unlike a jIvAthmA; instead he is present due to his mercy [to sustain the body, since nothing exists without bhagavAn’s presence and to help/guide the jIvAthmA by accompanying him everywhere]. In a prison, both the prisoner and the prince (of the kingdom) are present. Since the prisoner entered the prison due to his karma (unlawful activity) he is suffering. But since the prince entered the prison out of his own desire, it is joyful for him. This principle is explained in rig vEdham “dhvA suparNA sayujA sakhAyA samAnam vruksham parishasvajAthE | thayOranya: pippalam svAdhvaththi anaSnannanyO abichAkaSIthi ||” (There are two related (servant and master) birds (jIvAthmA and paramAthmA) residing in a tree (body). One bird (jIvAthmA) enjoys the fruits of its actions (karma) and the other one (paramAthmA) being detached is radiantly witnessing that).
  • pulan aindhukkum solappadAn – He cannot be comprehended by the five sensory organs starting with ears etc. Alternatively explained as – only if we can think about him, we can go on to explain. He cannot be comprehended by such thoughts.

Then, what is his nature?

  • uNarvin mUrththi – He is the embodiment of radiance.

But since the connection between these [chEthana and achEthana] and bhagavAn is real, how is that their defects do not affect him?

  • Avi sEr … – Avi – body which is the abode of prANa (vital air), is present. uyir – AthmA (soul), that is connected to the body is also present, When it is considered that the childhood, youth, old age etc that are related to the body, are unrelated to the AthmA, there is nothing wrong in applying similar principle to bhagavAn [being unaffected by the defects of chith and achith].

Beyond this, two other explanations are given for the second half of the pAsuram.

  • If one has devotion towards bhagavAn, one can attain him.
  • If one gives up all other means and fully surrender unto him, one can attain him.

Another explanation is also given – if one meditates upon him during his final moments, one  can attain him.

emperumAnAr heard these different explanations and said “Since previously emperumAn‘s all pervading nature is explained, this must be explained in the context of the defects of the pervaded entities not affecting emperumAn who is pervading them all; so, this should be the best explanation”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 48

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As amudhanAr said that there is no equal to him, emperumAnAr looks at him and says – if you get interested in some matter other than me, or if I liked some matter other than you, then your happiness would not be long lasting. amudhanAr replies – for my lowliness, your kindness is there, and, for your kindness, my lowliness is there; so what reason would be there for us to unnecessarily leave each other?.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

As amudhanAr said that emperumAnAr entered his mind and is present day and night, and there is no equal to himself, emperumAnAr looks at him and says – if you leave me and wish for something else over time, and if I leave you and support some other matter, then this happiness would not last long isn’t it? amudhanAr replies – for my lowliness, your kindness is there, and, for your kindness, my lowliness is there as the only shelter; so what reason would be there for us to unnecessarily leave each other and become engaged with some other matter?

nigar inRi ninRa en neesadhaikku un aruLin kaN anRip
pugal onRum illai arutkum ahdhE pugal punmaiyilOr
pagarum perumai irAmAnusA ini nAm pazhudhE
agalum poruL en payan iruvOmukkum Ana pinnE              48

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

nigar inRi ninRa– In this world if you analyzed each one separately, that is those not having noble qualities (Athma guNam) and having plenty of ignoble qualities, there is no one like me who does not have an iota of noble qualities and is complete in ignoble qualities – in this way it stands that there is no one comparable to –
en neesadhaikku – me; for such lowness of me;
un – your highness who accepts that lowness itself as my offering, your –
aruLin kaN anRi – other than under (your) kindness
pugal onRum illai – there is no shadow to shelter under;
arutkum – for that kindness (of yours) too
ahdhE – only such very lowly ones
pugal – are the most suitable receivers; so there is no shelter (for your kindness) other than my lowliness;
irAmAnusA – Oh emperumAnAr!
perumai – You having the greatness
punmaiyilOr pagarum – which is talked about by those not having any blemishes,
(your taking me up) being the gain for my true nature, and the gain for your qualities, in this way,
iruvOmukku – for us both
payan Ana pin – this has been beneficial; there after
nAm – for us who have understood this,
poruL en – what reason would be there
ini – in the future
pazhudhE agalum – in unnecessarily leaving (each other).

That is, there is no reason to leave.

vyAkyAnam

nigar inRi ninRa en neesadhaikku – As said in ‘neesanEn niRaivu onRum ilEn [thiruvAimozhi – 3.3.4]’ (in the matter me who am the lowliest and not having any good qualities), and ‘ahamasmi aparAdhAnAm Alaya:’(I am the abode of all mistakes), and, ‘adhyApi vanchanapara:’ (am not being truthful in any ways), etc., even if you analyzed each individual who are low in noble qualities and are rich in ignoble qualities in this world, no one could be found matching me in complete absence of noble qualities and saturation of ignoble qualities, so, as said in ‘kOnyOsthi sadhruSOmayA’ (there is no one equal to me), for my state of lowness of me which does not have another example;

un aruLin kaN anRiAs said in ‘vyasanEshu manushyANam bhruSam bhavathi dhu:kitha: [SrI rAmAyaNam] (if any ones is sad in His kingdom He gets sad first, and if any one is happy then like a father He becomes very happy (people of ayOdhyA about SrI rAman)), other than your kindness which would not be able to tolerate when seeing the sorrows of others,

pugal onRum illai – there is no other shelter (for my lowness). That is, there is no shelter other than your kindness which considers such lowliness itself as the offering to accept.

Like vEdhAnthAchAryar said in ‘aparAdha gaNai: apUrNa kukshi: kamalAkAntha dhayE katham bhavithree’ (When I am here who has done innumerable sins among the sinners, you are avoiding me and looking for those who have done fewer sins, and so your stomach would not be fed well, so I wonder what would happen to you Oh the kind one who is the wife of the lover of kamalA!), one goes around on the look out for complete mistakes to do to satiate his hunger (for committing such mistakes), and where sarvESvaran corrected kAkAsuran who was a worst sinner, and where He said ‘yadhivA rAvaNassvayam [SrI rAmAyaNam]’ (even if one who has come is rAvaNan (bring him to me if he is here to surrender/to become a friend)), it is done such that if He protects the sinners then that would fit His glorious esteem, and since the sins of devotees are target of kindness of the lord,  it is apt for amudhanAr to say that for his lowliness there is no shelter other than emperumAnAr’s kindness.

arutkum ahdhE pugal – For the quality of kindness of your highness, my bad ways only would be the target. Since there is no use of the quality of kindness when applied to those who do not have any blemishes/sins, and since only those who are having blemishes can be the target of it, and since there is no sinner equal to me, it is only my lowliness is the shelter for your kindness.

thiruvarangathu-amudhanar.emperumAnAr-at-heartshelter for emperumAnA’s kindness

As ALavandhAr said in “nimajjatha: anantha bhavArNa vAntha: chirAyamE kUlam iva adhi labdha:’ (I was immersed in the sea (that is this material world) and could not find the shore, for a long time; I got you like finding the shore); ‘thvayAbhi labdha: bhagavan idhAneem anuththamam pAthram idham dhayAyA:’ (~ I was obtained by you also – as you were looking to save someone from the sea; now, bhagavAn! (being the one who knows everything), for your kindness I being the lowly target for saving), bhagavan -> you are the know-all, should I have to tell you; thvayAbhi -> in this way for you who got us, idhAneem -> for this day now; dhayAyA: for the kindness of yours; anuththamam pAthramidham -> I am the correct receiver (of your kindness) as I am the lowly one;

and as vEdhAnthAchAryar said in ‘mayithistathi dhushkruthAm pradhAnE mitha dhOshAnitharAn vichinvathee thvam | aparAdha ghaNairapUrNa kukshi: kamalAkAnthadhayE! katham bhavithree ||’ (I being the lowly target for saving; I am the complete target, for you I was available and you were able to attain the unattainable (me)); and ‘aparAdha chakravarthee’, and ‘pApAnAm prathamOsmyaham’, (I am the foremost of sins), that I being the full target of your kindness, I was obtained for you, like how one wishes to obtain something which is most difficult to obtain.

As ALavandhAr said in ‘anantha bhavArNa vAntha:’ it is possible to count the known oceans, but there is no end to the count of seas that is my samsAram (material world);

Since time is also eternal, births are also many, karmas (sins) are also new and incomprehensible, and since they are so many, this material world is having no end;

In such big ocean whose depth cannot be determined, ‘nimajjatha:’ -> I am immersed;

sirAya -> As said in ‘kEvalam svEchchayaivAham prEkshE kanchith kadhAchana [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’ (~ Due to your interest only I should be protected), for the time that is eternal;

mE -> for adiyEn (me the servant)

kUlamiva -> like the shore

labhdhOhi -> It is well known that if someone drowns in a sea then within a few hours sea would leave the body in its shore; In this material world, I was immersed, and was like ‘asannEva’ (~ like non-existent), for a long time, and you made me something significant (made me understand my true nature), and you brought me to the shore.

abhiyukthar (madhurakavi AzhvAr) too said that it was beneficial for both, as in ‘kaNdu koNdu ennaik kAri mARap pirAn paNdai val vinai pARRi aruLinAn [kaNNinuN chiruth thAmbu – 7]’ (koNdu is good for me; kaNdu is good for nammAzhvAr; also, paNdai val vinai pARRI aruLi  is good for me, kaNdu kONdu  is good for him);

nammAzhvAr too said, ‘andho adiyEn una pAdham agalakillEn iRaiyumE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.9]’ (I cannot be separated from your divine feet even for a second), and ‘pugal onRillA adiyEn un adikkeezh amarndhu pugundhEnE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10]’ (I who does not have any other shelter has surrendered under your divine feet and am well settled there).

It is said too as ’parama kAruNika: na bhavath para: parama sOchyathamO nahi math para:’ (you who is very kind, there is no one above you in such kindness; there is no one above me in lowliness);

punmaisource of blemishes, that is the material world, the samsAram that is in the form of eternal ill-knowledge, trace of karmas, taste of them, connection with material world;

ilOr(those not having the aforementioned blemishes) – this cannot be about those in this world who have vowed to be tied to material relations; and even though mukthas reached the shore (paramapadham) as said in ‘karai kaNdOr’, and are immersed in the qualities of emperumAn after living in this world and were tied in to this material world for some time, since this word (ilOr) is saying it in absolute terms, it cannot be about mukthas either; now, as said in ‘parisEshAth’, and ‘yathra pUrvE sAdhyAs santhi dhEvA:’ (they worship emperumAn eternally), and ‘thathviprAsO vipanyavO jAgurvaham sassamindhathE’ (the nithyasUris who are always awake and worshiping Him), ilOr is about nithyasUris who do not have any touch of this material world.

pagarum perumai – Since they live in the same place there, and since they are involved in enjoying the same One, since time eternal they fully know emperumAnAr’s greatness (as AdhSEshan), that greatness of emperumAnAr who is praised by such nithyasUris;

irAmAnusA – Oh emperumAnAr!

payan iruvOmukkum Ana pinnE – for your highness, and me the servant, the two of us, after attaining the ultimate benefit of being true nature and attaining the benefit of qualities; as this (your taking me up and entering into my heart) is being of use for both of us; then,

ini nAm pazhudhE agalum poruL en – for us who have understood the above, what would be the reason for us to unnecessarily leave each other in the future?  nAm -> us -> himself and emperumAnAr; Or, since it is sound of multi-plural, it implies nAm -> us -> emperumAnAr and all those related to him and those related to them and so on, every one of them (All, together with emperumAnAr).

nAm pazhudhE agalum poruL en – As said in ‘poruL allAdha ennaip poruL Akki adimai koNdAy [thiruvAimozhi – 5.7.3] (You took me as your servant and made me create thiruvAimozhi, I who was a nothing, You made me understand my true nature), and in ‘ennaith thee manam keduththAy [thiruvAimozhi – 2.7.8]’ (You made me have the mind that does not have anything bad), ‘maruvith thozhum manamE thandhAy [thiruvAimozhi – 2.7.7]’ (You gave me the mind that would focus and do services to You), ‘aRiyAdhana aRiviththa aththA nee seydhana adiyEn aRiyEnE [thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.2]’ (You helped me as an AchAryan, and I cannot measure the level of your help), (so) instead of being thankful to you, is there is any purpose for us in moving away from you?

As maNavALa mAmunigaL said in ‘pAvaththAl yAn piRappEnElum ini endhai ethirAsan thAn piRakkum ennai uyppadhA [Arththi prabandham – 9]’ (~ even if I am born again due to my karma, my lord emperumAnAr would also be born at each such time to save me), since moving away would be lowly for you, and since you are taking us up like attaining the unattainable, other than accepting us as your shadow and keeping under your feet, other than keeping us to be dedicated only for you, is there any benefit in your leaving us – is what is conveyed here.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

arutkum ahdhE pugal – there is no greatness in accepting those who do not have blemishes; it is great for your kindness when you accept those having blemishes;

rAman saying that he would accept even if it was rAvaNan (instead of vibhIshaNan who had come to surrender), shows the greatness of His kindness; seethA pirAtti who forgave and saved the servant women of rAvaNan– Her kindness is even greater.

Unlike the lowly ones like rAvaNan, I who do not have any one equal in lowliness was accepted by you – so the greatness of your kindness is the best.

So there is equivalence in my being the greatest in my sins and your being the greatest in your kindness; so why can’t these two be together?

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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