rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 30

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

When those who heard amudhanAr’s prayer asked him, ‘Is that all you want? Now, getting paramapadham etc., are not required?’, he replies, “After emperumAnAr has gotten me as his servant and I have gotten his grace, what is there about the ever-joyful mOksham or the ever-sorrowful hell?”.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram he longed for the time when he would get the opportunity to be able to see and love the assembly of the noble ones who truly knew the auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr; those who saw this ask him, ‘Is that all you wish for, isn’t there anything more?’, he replies, ‘For the beings that are stuck in the sea of material world for ever, emperumAn is the svAmi (lord/master), and He is the one with wonderful acts and qualities, He is the rival – so divined emperumAnAr through SrIbhAshyam, and helps everyone without any trace of thought of getting something (back) – such emperumAnAr graced me as his servant. So after this, what is there if the ever-joyful place (SrIvaikuNtam) is attained, or innumerable sorrows are obtained – do I consider them as anything’ – thus amudhanAr shows his strength of attachment (to emperumAnAr).

inbam tharu peru veedu vandhu eydhilen eNNiRandha
thunbam tharu nirayam pala sUzhilen thollulagil
manpal uyirkatkiRai(ya)van mAyan ena mozhindha
anban anagan irAmAnusan ennaik kAththananE                  30

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

thol ulagil  – In this world that is ever continuing to exist (in cycles)
man – (manniya)with ever existing groups of
pal – innumerable
uyirkatu – AthmAs,
iRai(ya)van(their) Lord (SEshi)
mAyan enais the sarvESvaran who is wonderful due to his natural qualities –
mozhindha – – (emperumAnAr) explained (the aforementioned) through SrIbhAshyam
anban he who is compassionate,
and imparts knowledge through this, and –
anaganhe not having any connection with the sins caused by fame, wealth, etc. :-
iramAnusan – he is emperumAnAr;
ennai ANdanan  he graced me by making me his servant;

After that,

inbam tharu ever-joyful, and unlike having enjoyment of own AthmA
peru veedu  – liberation to the place that is most sought-after attainable goal (SrIvaikuNtam) –
vandhu eydhilen (I am) not concerned whether such place is attained;
eNNiRandha thunbam tharu(nor if), innumerable sets of sorrows
nirayam pala – of many places of hell
sUzhilencame and surrounded without allowing to escape – not concerned about that either;

That is. after emperumAnAr has gotten me to serve under his divine feet, I would not give importance to SrIvaikuNtam or hell – is the point.

vyAkyAnam

thol ulagil man pal uyirkatku – As said in ‘Evam samsrudhi chakrasthE brAmyamANE svakarmabhi:’ (~ like the rotating wheel, we are in continuing cycle due to karmas, etc.), – due to lack of true’ knowledge, presence of karma, vAsanA (impressions of earlier deeds), and ruchi (taste for repeating them), connection with matter (achith – non-sentient) – such many existing AthmAs who are innumerable (chith – sentient);  For them,

iRai(ya)van – As said in ‘yas sarvEshu bhUthEshu thishtan sarvEshAm bhUthAnamanthara:, yam sarva bhUthAn avindhathi, yassarvE bhUthASSareeram, yassarvEshAm bhUthAnamantharOyamayathi, na tha AthmA antharyAm amrutha:’ (~ He is being inside the AthmA of all the beings, governs everything, directs everything, all the AthmAs are his body – that brahmam is antharyAmi, and is referred as amrutham);  (Isvaran)

As said in ‘SarvEsmai dhEva balimAvahnthi (dhEvas who are directed by emperumAn), ‘bhIshAsmAth vAdha:bhavathE, bhIshOdhEdhi sUrya:, bhIshAsmAth agnischa indhraScha, mrthyurthAvathi panchama ithi’ (vAyu (wind) blows by being obedient to His commands, the sun rises by being obedient to His commands, agni (fire) burns by being obedient to His commands, indhra doing his duties, mruthyu (yama) doing his duties – He is brahmam (emperumAn)).

As said in ‘antharbahiScha thathsarvam vyApya nArAyANa sththitha:’ (being present everywhere inside (as antharyAmi (to direct everything), and outside (as who supports everything));

and as said in other such pramANams, emperumAn is the Lord of everything.

mAyan ena  – Came in the forms of thrivikrama, nrusimha,  etc., gave mOksham to jatAyu, built sEthu bridge, gave mOksham even to the trees, etc., that were in ayOdhyA, lifted gOvardhana mountain, etc., – such amazing acts of the sarvESvaran

mozhindha anban so said emperumAnAr about Him through SrIbhAshyam and gave it to the people of the world and preached to them about this – such emperumAnAr who has got love towards us.

anagan – In these speech and advice, if there was some interest in gaining fame, wealth, etc., it would have ended up effectless; unlike that, since he helped everyone as directed by his love, amudhanAr is calling him anagan.

irAmAnusan  – that is, emperumAnAr,

ennai – (got) me who does not have eligibility; me who had been against till now.

ANdananE – He by himself got me, and rules me. He made me subservient to devotees and saved me.

emperumAnAr_mElkoteanban anagan irAmAnusan  (melkOtE)

After getting the pinnacle of true goal (of serving the devotees) by emperumAnAr’s grace,

inbam tharu peru veedu vandhu eidhilen – As said in ‘ amruthasaishasEthu:’ , ‘rasOvaisa:, rasamhyEvAyam labhdhvAnandhee bhavathi’, (~ paramapadham is the nectar; it is a great likeable one that lets us enjoy emperumAn;  He makes us experience it) and, ‘nirasthAdhisayAhlAtha sukhagavaikalakshaNA’ (~it removes the unwanted, it is of great level, it gives great comfort, and joy at all times), and, ‘nalam antham illadhOr nAdu [thiruvAimozhi – 2.8.4](divine place of immeasurable joy), and ‘, andham il pEr inbam [thiruvAimozhi – 10.9.11]’ (endless extreme joy), that which is full of joy, unlike enjoyment of own AthmA which is limited, the great goal of mOksham (to SrIvaikuNam) (is of unlimited one, and sorrow would not come again -> inbam tharu)  – It does not matter even if such a place came and fell on me; am I considering it as happiness?

eNNiRandha thunbam –  Sorrows that cannot be fully enumerated/counted. As said in ‘yAmcha kinkara pAsAdhi grahaNam dhaNda thAdanam | yamasya dharSanancha ugram ugramArga vilOkanam || karambavAlu kAvahni yanthra SasthrAdhi bheeshaNai: | prathyEka narakEyAScha yAdhanAth vijadhussahA: | krakaSai:pAtyamAnAnAm mUshAyAnchAbhithahyathAm | kutArai kruthyamAnAnAm bhUmauchAbhi nikanyathAm || SUlairArOpyamANAnAm vyAgravakthrai: pravESyathAm | kruthraissambakshyamANAnAm dhvibhibhiScha upabhujyathAm|| kvAdhyathAm thailmadhyEcha klathyathAmkshArakruththamE | uchchAnnipAdhyamAnAnAm kshipyathAm kshEpayanthrakai: || narakEyAnithu:kAni pApa hEthUthbhavAnicha | prApyanthE nArakErviprathEshAm sankyA navidhyathE’ (hits with stick, seeing of yama, remembrance of the scary path to it, burns in a lighted fire, machines and harmful ones are used, based on the bad deeds they use appropriate ones (like pig/dog, etc.) to bite, cuts using axe, hangs one upside down on a trident (thrisUlam), shoves inside the mouth of a tiger for it to have a bite, drops upside down from above, and so on – there is no count of sorrows of hell, and there are several types of hell),  

–  such countless sorrows which cannot be even imagined by the mind.

tharu nirayam pala sUzhilen  – It does not matter even if all such sorrow-giving hells, without absence of any of them came and surrounded me. Am I thinking of such hells as sorrowful? saying so he (amudhanAr) is showing his staunchness (on subservience to emperumAnAr).

embAr too divined, ‘thruNeekrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: | rAmAnuja padhAmbhOja samASrayaNasAlina:’  (~ for ones who have gotten to the divine feet of emperumAnAr,  even the sathyalOkam that is the abode of brahma is like a grass/straw (insignificant)).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI U.Ve. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’:

vidu (leave) -> morphed to veedu -> mOksham (liberation).

peru veedu -> veedu might imply kaivalyam (liberation but enjoy one’s’ own AthmA only); so amudhanAr says ‘peru’ veedu to imply liberation to SrivaikuNtam.

Now, since ‘peru veedu’ is full of happiness, would it not be a useless presence of the adjective of it as ‘inbam tharu’ (gives happiness)?  No, it would not be useless;  ‘veedu’ only shows liberation from the world of karmas; so saying about it with interest that it gives happiness, would not be useless addition of the phrase. Since it enables reaching the joyful state and removal of hindrances, it is being said in this way.

Now, as per the rule called ‘bhAvAntharamabhAva:’ (absence of one thing would be in the form presence of another thing), wouldn’t the absence of sorrows imply presence of happiness? So what is the use of saying it separately that it gives happiness? Shall explain that – it is possible in this world that the absence of hindrance/sorrow might imply presence of a different type of hindrance/sorrow, or might imply presence of something that is neither hindrance nor happiness. But in mOksham since all the hindrances/sorrows are removed, everything in the future would be only of what is wished for. So, he is saying it specifically about the removal of earlier sorrows, and the presence of reaching of SrIvaikuNtam, etc.

Now, unlike the benefits of other places of heavens, peru veedu gives only happiness; it does not have any trace of sorrows; so to imply that, he adds ‘inbam tharu’ peru veedu.

Now, to exclude the implying of mOksham of advaithis, he qualified it as ‘inbam tharu’.  In their philosophy, ‘inbam’ itself is ‘peru veedu’.  Happiness is not given. amudhanAr considers that since SrIvaikuNtam gives happiness, he used the word ‘tharu’ to remove the implication of mOksham of adhvaithis.  This is explained in SrIbhAshyam that their explanation of vEdhAntha Sasthram cannot stand when considering that there would not be anyone who would be wishing for the means of getting mOksham since according to them there is no ‘me’ in getting mOksham.

So their idea that removal of hindrances and just being without any emotions etc., is mOksham – has been rejected by amudhanAr.

thunbam tharu nirayam – since nirayam itself implies giving of sorrows, why add ‘thunbam tharu’? It is to imply that it does not have any trace of happiness and it is the opposite form of complete happiness.

thollulagil … mozhindhaamudhanAr is providing a summary explanation of SrIbhAshyam here:

‘thollulagu’ -> the material world is eternal; it comes streaming like a river;  it comes in the changed forms of ‘prakruthi’ (matter), gets destroyed and comes in another form, and so it flows; by this, it has talked about the ever changing nature of it, and which belongs to emperumAn, that is achith (non-sentient).

‘man pal uyir’  -> this is about chith (sentient).  Since it (AthmA) does not undergo any change, it is ever present, sentient, and of very small dimension.

‘man’ -> AthmA’s nature is to be ever present (nithyam).

‘pal uyirgaL’ -> jeevAthmAs called chith are distinct from each other, and they are many in number. Even though the plural form ‘uyirgaLcan imply that there are many, the additional word ‘pal’ (many) is included also in order to reject the argument of the school of ‘Eka Athma vAdhis’  who said that there is only one Athma thathvam but since there are many bodies the Athma thathvam in them appear to be different/many.

iRaivan -> SEShi -> that is, he can make use of everything as per His wish. So this has talked about the ‘ISvara thathvam’. The experts in SrIbhAshyam say that this nature of Him is given as essence in SrIbhAshyam.

So by this it (this pAsuram) has talked about the three thathvams (thathva thrayam) of chith, achith, and ISvaran.

SruthapraSikAchAryar equates SrIbhAshyam to praNavAkAra vimAnam of SrIrangam. praNavam includes the three words – ‘a’, ‘u’, ‘ma’.  SrIbhAshyam include these in the first, in-between, and ending parts: ‘akhila bhuvana ..’,  ‘uktham’ (in the beginning of 3rd chapter, 3rd line), and ends it with ‘samanjasam’, and thus bhAshyakArar has implied that his grantham includes the true meaning of praNavam.

anagan (samskrutha word)
agam -> Sin.
anagam -> Absence of it. Since emperumAnAr does not expect money, fame etc., in return (which are said as sins), he is not having any such sins, so he is anagan.

Now, whereas nammAzhvAr too, after the realization that everything is under the wishes of emperumAn, said that it does not matter to him if he gets ‘peru veedu’ or ‘narakam’,  he said that since the hell that is the samsAram is the enemy of knowledge, he is afraid to be here. And he begs emperumAn to take him to paramapadham. This is a meaning in ‘yAnum nee thAnE … aruLu nin thALgaLai enakkE [thiruvAimozhi 8.1.9].

So amudhanAr’s staunchness is more wonderful compared to that of nammAzhvAr.

amudhanAr’s grandson ‘piLLaip perumAL iyengAr’ also said like amudhanAr in ‘thiruvarangak kalampakam’, – it does not matter whether I end up in SrIvaikuNtam or fall in hell, now that I have got arangan.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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