Monthly Archives: March 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 2.4.3 – irakka manaththOdu

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

srirama

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram – parAnkuSa nAyaki‘s mother is saying helplessly “My daughter desired you thinking about the acts you did towards King SrI janaka’s divine daughter and is suffering due to that; still you are not helping her; what can I do?”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnkuSa nAyaki‘s mother says “You who destroyed rAvaNa and lankA for sIthA pirAtti are not helping my daughter; what can be done?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram – parAnkuSa nAyaki‘s mother says “Today, you have decided not to show your mercy to my daughter; but why did you spend sleepless nights, crossed over the sea and do such acts (like destroying lankA etc) then (as SrI rAma)?”.

pAsuram

இரக்க மனத்தோடு எரி அணை,
அரக்கும் மெழுகும் ஒக்கும் இவள்,
இரக்கம் எழீர் இதற்கு என் செய்கேன்,
அரக்கன் இலங்கை செற்றீருக்கே

irakka manaththOdu eri aNai
arakkum mezhugum okkum ivaL
irakkam ezhIr idharku en seygEn
arakkan ilangai seRRirukkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

irakkam – filled with sorrow
manaththOdu – having such heart
ivaL – she
arakkum – sealing lacquer (a type of wax) – firm
mezhugum – soft wax
eri aNai okkum – just like they (firm and soft wax) will melt when contacted with fire, she lost her chastity and shyness
irakkam ileer – you are not manifesting your mercy
idhaRku – for this
arakkan – rAkshasa named rAvaNa’s
ilangai – lankA
seRRirukku – you who destroyed
en – what
seygEn – (I) will do?

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Having a heart filled with sorrow, she lost her chastity and shyness (after uniting with you) like firm or soft wax will melt when contacted with fire; but you who destroyed lankA, belonging to a rAkshasa named rAvaNa, are not manifesting your mercy; what will I do for this?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • irakkam … – irakkam means melting of heart, attachment, friendship; having a weak heart, she melted like firm/soft wax in contact with fire. piLLai thirunaRaiyUr araiyar explains Firm wax as an adjective to her heart and soft wax as an adjective to her. bhattar explains both firm and soft wax as adjectives to her since her heart is in her control also. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.18 “vishNunA sadhruSO vIryE…” (He is like vishNu in valour, like moon to be a treat to the eyes – Each aspect of SrI rAma has one example), there can be many examples for her situation (this is explanation for bhattar’s view). Wax will disappear when placed in fire; it will become hard when taken away from fire and will melt when in proximity of fire. She can neither die (and be relieved) nor can sustain herself – you are torturing her like this – this is her state.
  • irakkam ezhIr – Are we asking you to also melt like her? You are not even showing mercy towards those who are suffering. She is with a suffering heart; your compassion is not manifesting; if you are not showing mercy, at least give her a heart like yours (which does not have any attachment).
  • idhaRku en seygEn – Can there be any means other than your mercy for this goal?
  • en seygEn – Can I make you show mercy to her? Can I make her not long for you?
  • arakkan ilangai seRRirukkE – If you don’t have mercy, why did you perform an act which developed her attachment towards you? She became attached to you thinking “Would one who helped his beloved, not help me too?” She misunderstood your act (as if it were your genuine help to a dear one) like someone misunderstanding the marks of a worm to be writing and thus became very agonised.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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thiruvAimozhi – 2.4.2 – vAL nudhal

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Second Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-banasura

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram – parAnkuSa nAyaki‘s mother says “you who cut off the many shoulders (hands) of bANAsura and helped anirudhdhAzhwAne, ar not helping her even in her such pitiful state”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram – emperumAn asks “While you have lots of hurdles, is her craving enough?” and parAnkuSa nAyaki‘s mother says “are her hurdles greater than the bAhuvanam (many shoulders) of bANAsura?”.

pAsuram

வாள் நுதல் இம் மடவரல்,
உம்மைக் காணும் ஆசையுள் நைகின்றாள்,
விறல் வாணன் ஆயிரம் தோள் துணித்தீர்,
உம்மைக் காண நீர் இரக்கம் இலீரே

vAL nudhal im madavaral
ummaik kANum AsaiyuL naiginRAL
viRal vANAn Ayiram thOL thuNiththIr
ummaik kANa nIr irakkam ileerE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vAL – shining
nudhal – having forehead
immadavaral – this girl with abundance of humility
ummai – you (who are a treat to eyes)
kANum AsaiyuL – with the desire to see
naiginRAL – becoming weak
viRal – very prideful
vANan – bANAsura’s
Ayiram thOL thuNiththIr – oh the one who cut of the thousand shoulders!
ummai – you
kANa – to see
nIr – you
irakkam ileer – are merciless

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

This girl with shining forehead and abundance of humility is becoming weak due to desire to see you (who are a treat to eyes). Oh the one who cut off the thousand shoulders of the prideful bANAsura! You have no mercy to show your form (to her).

The important principle here – our desire is not the means to see him (it is only an intrinsic quality) and his mercy is the means to show himself to us.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vAL nudhal – this beauty of the forehead is the cause for grief instead of joy (for the mother).. That which is attractive to me who gave birth to this girl, is that which is causing you to ignore her. nampiLLai quotes SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 73.24 “iyam sIthA mama suthA sahadharmacharI thava | prathIchchachainAm bhadhram thE pANim gruhNIshva pANinA ||” (this sIthA, my daughter is well qualified to accompany you in the righteous path; you accept her; let there be all auspiciousness; you hold on to her hands with your hands) comparing parAnkuSa nAyaki to sIthA pirAtti.
  • im madavaral – having a very tender nature; cannot bear separation. The state of this divine mother of parAnkuSa nAyaki is the same as when thiruvadi (hanuman) saw sIthA pirAtti (in aSOka vanam). nampiLLai beautifully explains SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 15.53 here. dhushkaram kruthavAn rAma: – perumAL (SrI rAma) performed very difficult tasks while sustaining himself in her separation. hInO yadhanayA prabhu: – that is he sustained himself – which by itself is a great task. prabhu: – in his early days, he learned to ride horse, elephant etc and how to rule the kingdom; In separation from his beloved, he did not enjoy anything. When perumAL was in mAlyavAn, hanuman observed his agony in separation and since he was a renunciate, he thought about SrI rAma “he is Sishya of vaSishta (who is a great scholar/sage), but is suffering for a woman like this” and laughed [within himself] at perumAL; but on seeing sIthA pirAtti, since he is greatly knowledgeable, he thought “how can one sustain oneself in separation from sIthA pirAtti?”. dhArayathyAthmanO dhEham – is this a body which is acquired on loan (not one’s own) so that it can be sustained like this? is this body not present for enjoyment? is this body present for suffering? Her quality is not such that one can say “in separation, I will wait for the apt process to unite with her”.
  • ummai – I only need to explain her state to you; you know about yourself quite well such that you should know “those who are in separation from me will not survive”.
  • vAL nudhal immadavaral ummai – you both are as explained in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.5 “thulya SIla vayO vruththAm” (SithA and SrI rAma are perfect match in qualities, age, activities etc).
  • ummaik kANum AsaiyuL naiginRAL – one’s desire will match the object of such desire (you are great, so the desire is also great).
  • kANum AsaiyuL – Did she desire to embrace you? Why are you not even showing your form?
  • ummaik kANum AsaiyuL naiginRAL – Like being submerged in an ocean; desire is the ocean here; this craving is also acceptable.
  • viRal vANan Ayiram thOL thuNiththIr – if you are asking “is such craving sufficient when there are hurdles?”, let me say “are her hurdles not greater than the many shoulders of bANAsura?”. You are the one who united ushA and anirudhdha. Would you only help if it is your grandson or male? Should you not help this poor girl who united with you (previously)?
  • ummaik kANa – When someone desires for a karumugai garland [an exotic flower], it is to wear it, not to make it as summAdu (a cloth which is rolled up and kept on head to support heavy objects). Similarly, when she wants to see you, seeing is the purpose; she is not going to ask for something more after seeing. thirumazhisai AzhwAr says in nAnmugan thiruvanthAdhi 39 “azhaippan thiruvEnkataththAnaik kANa” (I call out for SrInivAsa to see him); thirumangai AzhwAr says in siRiya thirumadal “kArAr thirumEni kANumaLavum” (to see his cloud-like divine form); nammAzhwAr too said in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.5 “kaNgaLAl kANa varungolenRu” (arrive to be seen by my eyes). You are not having the mercy to make yourself visible.
  • nIr irakkam ileerE – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.42 “…naiva dhamSAn…” (in separation from you, SrI rAma was not even driving away forest-flies etc from his body) – you were so attached to sIthA pirAtti; but here you are not even showing basic compassion towards parAnkuSa nAyaki who is suffering in separation from you. parAnkuSa nAyaki’s mother feels “her agony/craving is not the means for the goal; his mercy is the means for the goal”. She also thinks “her agony/craving is part of the entourage for his mercy; his mercy is the means for the goal”. As said in katavalli upanishadh “nAyamAthmA pravachanEna labhyO na mEdhayA na bahunA SruthEna | yamaivEsha vruNuthE thEna labhayasthasyaisha AthmA vivruNuthE thanUm svAm ||” (This paramAthmA cannot be attained through contemplation, profound and repetitive meditation, lots of hearing etc; only those who are accepted by such paramAthmA can attain him; for such jIvAthmA, this paramAthmA  shows his true nature) – one can see him only when he himself makes him visible.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

Sriranga gadhyam – 2nd chUrNai

Published by:

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

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namperumal-thiruvadigal

avathArikai (Introduction):

In the previous chUrNai, SrI rAmAnuja prayed for kainkaryam (service). In this chUrNai, he says that he doesn’t have any other place to go, he doesn’t have anything in his hand , he has all the faults, yet he wants to surrender to bhagavAn so that he will be able to carry out kainkaryam thereafter.

chUrNai:
svAthma nithya niyAmya nithya dhAsyaikarasa – Athma
svabhAvAnusandhAna pUrvaka bhagavadhanavadhikAthiSaya
svAmyAdhyakila guNagaNAnubhavajanitha –  anavadhikAthiSaya
prIthikAritha – aSEshAvasthOchitha – aSEshaSEshathaikarathirUpa
nithya kainkarya prApthyupAya (bhUtha) bhakthi, thadhupAya samyak
gyAna, thadhupAya samIchInakriyA, thadhanuguNa sAthvikath 
AsthikyAdhi samasthAthma guNavihIna:, dhuruththarAnantha thadh
viparyaya gyAna kriyAnuguNa – anAdhi pApavAsanA
mahArNavAnthar nimagna:, thilathailavath dhAruvahnivath
dhurvivEcha thriguNa kshaNaksharaNa svabhAva – achEthana
prakruthi vyApthi rUpa dhurathyaya bhagavanmAyA thirOhitha
svaprAkaSa:, anAdhyavidhyA sanchitha – ananthASakya
visramsana karmapASa pragrathitha:, anAgathAnanthakAla
samIkshayApi adhrushta santhArOpAya:, nikhila janthu jAtha
SaraNya! SrIman! nArAyaNa! thava charaNAravindha yugalam
SaraNamaham prapadhyE II

Explanatory Notes: 
Sri rAmAnuja, in the first chUrNai of this gadhyam, had stated (a) his svarUpam (that he is always controlled by bhagavAn and that carrying out kainkaryam to bhagavAn is sweet to him), (b) bhagavAn’s auspicious qualities (3 qualities that he displays to all, 12 qualities that he displays only to his ASrithars (followers) and 3 qualities that he shows only to his and his ASrithar’s enemies) and (c) how he wishes to carry out kainkaryam to bhagavAn in all states, without interruption. In the 2nd chUrNai, he repeats these in the first part, starting from svAthma nithya niyAmya until nithya kainkarya. Why would he repeat something that he had just mentioned to bhagavAn? It is because of pArathanthriyam (dependence on bhagavAn) he wishes to restate his svarUpam; because of the superiority of bhagavAn, he wishes to restate bhagavAn’s auspicious qualities and because of the sweetness of carrying out kainkaryam he wishes to restate his desire for doing kainkaryam to bhagavAn. Not only that. In order to carry out this kainkaryam, he needs to make himself eligible for it. What is the enabler for doing kainkaryam? Is it not surrendering to bhagavAn? It is this that he is now asking for, from bhagavAn.

Let us briefly see the first part of this chUrNai, based on what we have seen in the first chUrNai (2nd part). SrI rAmAnuja says that being controlled by bhagavAn and being a servant to him are his svarUpam (basic nature). He then immerses himself in the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn (21 stated qualities that we have seen in detail). Born out of this experience is a loving desire (prIthi) to carry out  uninterrupted, unabated, exalted kainkaryam in all states, at all times, in all places.
Only one term is new in the repetitive words: anavadhikAthiSaya swAmy – bhagavAn is swAmy (master or lord or owner). What sort of swAmy is he? He is boundless and exalted. More than that, he is swAmy without any cause or reason. We have people on this earth who will be our swAmy for various reasons – be it giving us sustenance for living here (through employment) or our parents who take care of us for sometime, offering us protection or who give us gifts on festival occasions. But bhagavAn as lord or master is beyond all this. He takes care of all the needs of the jIvAthmA in this world; protects him in all ways; the relationship between bhagavAn and jIvAthmA is natural unlike the artificial ones that we have seen above as these last for specified period only.

In the first chUrNai, SrI rAmAnuja described all auspicious qualities of bhagavAn but did not mention the quality of bhagavAn which is being swAmy. Here he says that, indicating that this one quality is equivalent to all the other qualities mentioned in the earlier chUrNai.

prApthyupAya (bhUtha) bhakthi – prApthi – attained; upAya – through; bhUtha – being present; bhakthi – devotion. The kainkaryam that SrI rAmAnuja wishes to carry out is acquired through bhakthi.

thadhupAya samyag gyAnathadhupAya – that is attained through; samyag – well (defined); gyAna – knowledge.  bhakthi is achieved through gyAna (knowledge). It is that gyAna which differentiates between jIvAthmA (soul) and paramAthmA (bhagavAn) and not any ordinary gyAna. It is the knowledge which enables jIvAthmA to be pArathanthriyan (subservient) to paramAthmA.

thadhupAya samIchInakriyAthath – that; upAya – through; samIchIna – correct or proper; kriyA – deed. This gyAna is attained through proper deed. What is a proper deed? It is an act done knowing fully well about the AthmA‘s true knowledge and done with three renunciations – that I am the karthA (doer). that it is my duty, and that it is done with a benefit as its goal.

thadhanuguNa sAththvikadhAsthikyAdhi samasthAthma guNavihIna: – thath – that; anuguNa – suitable to; sAthvikath – having sAthvika (purely good) quality; Asthikya – believing in; samastha – all;  Athma – relating to AthmA (soul); guNa – quality; vihIna – deprived of. bhagavdh rAmAnuja lists a few qualities which are needed (basic) to carry out the previously stated deeds and ends up saying that he does not have these qualities. Let us look at these qualities;

thadhanuguNa – to be appropriate to the qualities mentioned in the previous sentence.

sAthvikath – full of sathva guNa (only good qualities, not mixed with unwanted qualities such as rajasic, passion or thamasic, ignorance)

Asthika – believing in bhagavAn/SAsthram and being faithful.

samasthAthma guNavihIna: – SrI rAmAnuja now says that he does not have any of these qualities related to AthmA.

dhuruththarAnantha thadh viparyaya gyAna kriyAnuguNa – anAdhi pApavAsanA
mahArNavAnthar nimagna: –  dhuruththara – not possible to cross; anantha – without end; thath – that; viparyaya – contrary to ; gyAna – knowledge; kriya – deed; anuguNa – appropriate to; anAdhi – from time immemorial; pApa – sins ; vAsanA – knowledge derived from memory; mahA – huge; ArNavam – ocean; anthar – right inside; nimagna: – sunk. SrI rAmAnuja says that contrary to the good knowledge and good deeds which are required for carrying out bhakthi and enjoying bhagavAn’s auspicious qualities, he possesses all the wrong knowledge and wrong deeds. Due to these, he has sunk right at the bottom of the huge ocean called samsAram. And, he doesn’t know how to come out of this endless ocean (here the reference is to the repeated births and deaths that an AthmA undergoes in its journey in samsAram).

thilathailavath dhAruvahnivath dhurvivEcha thila – sesame; thailavath – full of oil; dhAru – a type of wood; vahnivath – full of fire; dhurvivEcha – unable to separate. SrI rAmAnuja says that though AthmA is self-illuminating (due to his unbounded gyAna) it is not seen. It is not possible for him to separate AthmA from the physical body and see it separately. To understand this he quotes two examples: just as there is oil in sesame, but not seen by the eye; just as there is fire inside a type of wood but not seen by the eye. But why should he attempt to separate AthmA from body? In the previous sentence he mentioned that he is fully sunk in the deep ocean called samsAram and is unable to extricate himself from it. bhagavAn asks him as to why he can not separate himself from samsAram, also called as prakruthi (primordial matter). Responding to that, he says that only those who are desirous of separating the two (AthmA and body) and who can separate the two, can achieve it. Such people would have the mercy of bhagavAn and gyAna vAsanai ( deep impression in the mind about true knowledge). For the others, the body and soul can not be separated.

thriguNa kshaNaksharaNa svabhAvathriguNa –  three guNas; kshaNa – moment; ksharaNa – changing; svabhAva – basic nature. The AthmA which is inside the body, which in turn is composed of the three qualities of saththva (good), rajas (passionate) and thamas (ignorant), keeps changing every moment; i.e. keeps changing constantly.  This is its basic (the physical body’s) nature.

achEthana prakruthi vyApthi rUpaachEthana – insentient; prakruthi – primordial matter; vyApthi rUpa – pervading throughout. jIvAthmA has inseparable connection with prakruthi (samsAram) which is insentient and all-pervading.

dhurathyaya bhagavanmAyA thirOhitha svaprakASa:dhurathyaya – not able to cross; bhagavanmAyA – prakruthi; thirOhitha – hidden; sva – self; prakASa – illumination. jIvAthmA is hidden by prakruthi, due to which it is unable to emit its lustrous nature and is also unable to cross prakruthi (to reach SrIvaikuNtam).

anAdhyavidhyA sanchitha – ananthASakya visramsana karmapASa pragrathitha: anAdhi – without a beginning; avidhyA – ignorance; sanchitha – accumulated bundle; anantha – without an end; aSakya –  incapable; visramsana – to untie ; karma – deeds; pASa – rope; pragrathitha: – well tied down. SrI rAmAnuja says that he has been tied down properly by a rope. What is this rope? It is the rope of karma (deeds resulting in puNya (virtue) and pApa (sin)). What is it made of? It is made of ignorance that has been coming with him from time immemorial. Could it be untied? No, it is not possible for him to untie it. First he said that he is deeply sunk in an ocean which has the fine footprint of sins (pApa vAsanA mahArNavAnthar nimagna:). Then he said that his svarUpam has been totally hidden by prakruthi (bhagavanmAyA thirOhitha svaprakASa:). Now he says that he is well bound by the rope of karmA (karmapASa pragrathitha:). Thus the chain is anAdhi vAsanA (all the footprints carried from memory over long period of time or infinite births) – leading to agyAna (knowledge about bhagavAn is hidden) – leading to indulging  in wrongful actions or karma. In turn karma leads to janma (birth, carrying footprints from memory) and ends up in a vicious circle (anantha). Is there any path known to cross this samsAram?

anAgathAnanthakAla samIkshayApi adhrushta santhArOpAya: anAgatha – future; ananthakAla – endless time; samIkshyApi – even if looked at cautiously; adhrushta – not seen; santhAra- crossing; upAya – path. SrI rAmAnuja says that even if he were to look at the future, for a very long number of years, he is unable to see any way (path) by which he can cross this samsAram.

nikhila janthu jAtha SaraNya  – nikhila – without leaving leaving; janthu – all living beings; jAtha – born; SaraNya – refuge. SrI rAmAnuja confesses that not only does he not have good qualities, he also has all the bad qualities; despite this, he says that bhagavAn is the ultimate refuge for all people born in this samsAram. He implies that he too, having been born in the samsAram, qualifies to take refuge (surrender) under bhagavAn. This is similar to his saying in SaraNAgathi gadhyam “akhila jagath swAmin; asmath swAmin” (you are the lord and master of the entire universe; you are my swAmy too).

SrIman nArAyaNa thava charaNAravindha yugalam SaraNamaham prapadhyE  Sriman – consort of SrI (pirAtti, mahAlakshmi); nArAyaNa – protector; thava – your; charaNam – exalted feet; aravindham – lotus-like; yugalam – two of them; SaraNam – surrender; aham – I; prapadhyE – hold firmly onto. SrI rAmAnuja performs SaraNAgathi in this chUrNai, by surrendering to the exalted feet of bhagavAn. In the first chUrNai, he had prayed for kainkaryam. In this chUrNai, he carries out surrendering so that he will be granted kainkaryam.

SrIman – If the surrendering had been done only to nArAyaNan, he might have looked at all the faults and bad deeds that he had committed in earlier births. But SrI rAmAnuja is calling upon SrIman nArAyaNan – i.e. nArAyaNan who is always with mahAlakshmi.

nArAyana – when the AthmA was lying similar to achith during praLayam (deluge) bhagavAn had mercifully given him an opportunity to be born, learn about bhagavAn, carry out SaraNAgathi, and attain him ultimately. All these were possible because bhagavAn had decided to protect him somehow or the other. Thus, whether one looks at SrI (mahAlakshmi) or nArAyaNa, protection has to be granted.

thavacharaNAravindhayugalam – easily accessible, merciful, bhagavAn’s lotus-like two exalted feet are the means for attaining him. After attaining him, they are the unparalleled objects of desire too for carrying out kainkaryam. There can be no other path, apart from his exalted feet, for us to attain him.

SaraNam aham parapdhyE – As a path to attain you, I hold on to you firmly. This is not a physical action but an act carried out by mind (bhudhdhi).

This completes the 2nd chUrNai. We shall go forward to the 3rd chUrNai.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnujadhAsan.

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.4.1 – Adi Adi

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Fourth decad

Narasimha_Avatar1

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram – parAnkusa nAyaki‘s (AzhwAr in feminine mood) divine mother is grieving saying that my daughter is feeling sunken saying “emperumAn who incarnated as narasimha and helped SrI prahlAdhAzhwAn, is not helping me”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram – She is saying that parAnkusa nAyaki is feeling depressed saying “He has not helped me like he did for prahlAdha”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In the first pAsuram – parAnkusa nAyaki‘s mother is saying that her daughter is calling out for emperumAn who is of the nature of helping his devotees when they called for him keeping their danger itself as the reason (for his arrival).

pAsuram

ஆடி ஆடி அகம் கரைந்து,
இசை பாடிப் பாடிக் கண்ணீர் மல்கி,
எங்கும் நாடி நாடி நரசிங்கா என்று,
வாடி வாடும் இவ் வாள் நுதலே

Adi Adi agam karaindhu
isai pAdip pAdik kaNNIr malgi
engum nAdi nAdi narasingA enRu
vAdi vAdum iv vAL nudhalE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ivvAL nudhal (ivvANudhal) – one who is having a shining forehead
Adi Adi – running around many times (like a trained dancer whose dance is a treat to watch, out of her grief unable to stay in one place)
agam karaindhu – having a broken heart
isai pAdip pAdi – (out of that grief) lamenting by singing in many different ways
kaNNIr malgi – (like a melted heart will shed) tears from eyes
engum – everywhere
nAdi nAdi – looking out for him
narasingA enRu – calling out as narasimha! (who is present everywhere)
vAdi vAdum – (since he did not arrive even after that) became very exhausted

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My daughter who is having a shining forehead, is running around many times (like a trained dancer whose dance is a treat to watch, out of her grief unable to stay in one place), and is having a broken heart; she is thus lamenting by singing in many different ways and shedding tears from her eyes; she is looking for emperumAn calling out as narasimha! (who is present everywhere) and (since he did not arrive even after that) became very exhausted.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Adi Adi – The divine mother of parAnkusa nAyaki became attracted to her daughter’s restlessness/anxiety (in separation from emperumAn) which was manifested in her irregular state, walking and sleeping. Like SrI kausalyA suffering in (thinking about the) separation from SrI rAma as explained in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 40.45 “… nruthyanthImiva mAtharam” (Seeing kausalyA starting to cry constantly, in thinking about the separation of SrI rAma, lakshmaNa and sIthA – SrI rAma watched her like seeing a dancer). When someone is beautiful, all their actions would also be beautiful (and enjoyable for others). When sIthA was in separation from SrI rAma and not decorated, vAlmIki bhagavAn narrated her in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 29.1 “… subhAm …” (the one with an auspicious form).
  • Adi – Second “Adi” is not the same as first “Adi” (the tone becomes much lower due to her inability). Initially, though unable to sustain oneself, one would walk about waiting for perumAL [But subsequently, even that would not be possible, since one will be totally exhaused]. Since emperumAn is filled with auspicious qualities, one cannot easily give up on him. This is explained by quoting bharatha’s situation in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.38 “rAmAgamanakAngshayA” (desiring for SrI rAma’s arrival) – bharatha thinks “if I can see SrI rAma’s face one more time, why should I give up this life in a useless manner?” administered the kingdom, waiting for SrI rAma. Second “Adi” is recited in half the volume of first “Adi” – this can be understood based on the sound of the cymbal (like a sound being echoed).
  • agam karaindhu – Like the walk (action) is irregular, heart/mind too became weak like ice melting to become water. How did the mother know the daughter’s heart is melting? Just like the daughter’s actions are observed through her eyes, the daughter’s heart is  understood by her own heart. While it is said that “mana: pUrvO vAguththara:” (whatever is conceived in mind manifests in action subsequently), there is no such order in her behaviour. Her crying out in anxiety has naturally turned into a song. Just as it is said in thiruchchantha viruththam 105 “paNNai venRa insol mangai” (girl whose words are better than music), SrI rAma said to hanuman about sIthA in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 64.15 “madhurA madhurAlApA” (the beautiful one with beautiful voice). Just like her actions out of anxiety became a dance, her words out of anxiety became a song. Unlike the first time crying, subsequent crying will be a lot weaker.
  • kaNNIr malgi – Once the heart melted, it flowed like music and came out as tears.
  • malgi – abundance. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.4  “kimartham thava nEthrAbhyAm vArisravathi SOkajam” (Why are sad tears coming out of your eyes (which resemble lotus flower) where there should only be tears of joy?) – bhattar explained the meaning of this SlOkam and mercifully asked “Whose clan is going to be destroyed by these tears?”; piLLAn asked “Who is there to enjoy this form (no one)?” focusing more on “lotus like eyes shedding tears” (since emperumAn is not present there). nampiLLai says “Oh sinful me! I have not seen perumAL arriving to see my form”.
  • engum nAdi nAdi – having her danger (separation) alone as thAmrasAsanam (charter written on copper plate as evidence/reason), she would look around in all directions. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 31.19 is explained by nampiLLai here:
    • sA thiryakUrdhvancha thathApyadhasthAth (sIthA pirAtti looked across, up and down) – though she was unconscious, when she heard the divine names (of SrI rAma recited by hanuman), she started looking around everywhere across lankA, up and down. Why did she look down? Three explanations are given: 1) If one can come out of earth and recite the names, he can come out of everywhere – so she looked around everywhere; 2) one who was fasting for a month, upon hearing the word “food”, will look around everywhere with great desire – similarly she looked around everywhere; 3) it can be said as sIthA pirAtti looking at the SimSupA tree everywhere (across, top and bottom).
    • thamachinthyabhudhdhim dhadharSa – Before seeing hanuman’s form, she analysed his heart, thinking that he has arrived where she is and with the kind heart to help her.
    • pingAdhipathEr amAthyam – she understood that he is not independent and he is here on the orders of his king
    • vAthAthmajam – he looked like “the son of vAyu who is the one who provides life sustaining air to all” since he is going to help sustain pirAtti who is the life of SrI rAma
    • sUryamivOdhayastham – he laid the foundation for sunrise in lankA; like the aruNOdhayam (the early morning time before sunrise), hanuman was the aruNOdhayam before SrI rAma who is the sUryOdhayam. That is why inside lankA’s fort, it sounds “hari hari” (double meaning – hari means vishNu; hari also means monkey; the name “hari” is recited in the morning as soon as one wakes up to ward off their sins). So, why is she searching in places from where emperumAn may not arrive? Because, emperumAn arrives from any place; why is she not calling out for vishNu (generally)? After singing “paththudai adiyavar“, she would always stop at avathArams (incarnations) and not go beyond that.
    • engum nAdi nAdibhattar explained this as “she searched even in her own koysakam (saree-fold)” – this is based on emperumAn having AzhwAr‘s waist as his residing place as AzhwAr himself said in thiruvAimozhi 1.9.4 “kaNNan en okkalaiyAnE” (krishNa is on my waist).
    • narasingA enRu – Since she did not have a pillar like prahlAdha had. The one who appeared in front of prahlAdha who had pristine knowledge and said “maththassarvam aham sarvam” (SrIvishNu purANam 1.19.85 – everything is created from me, everything is me) – he is not appearing before this poor girl! Would you help only if the father becomes enemy? Would you not help if you yourself become enemy (by not uniting with her)? While you helped the one who is firm in gyAnam (knowledge), would you not help me who is firm in bhakthi (devotion)? While you helped men, would you not help girls (like me)? While you helped assuming form which is unnatural, would you not help with your natural form? Should she develop some qualification (like prahlAdha should be protected with a unique narasimha form), approach you at a particular time (since hiraNyakaSipu could not be killed at day, night etc), expect you to help her with a particular tool (like emperumAn was forced to use his nails to kill hiraNyakaSipu and protect prahlAdha)? Should you have to assume a particular face to protect her (like he assumed lion face to protect prahlAdha)?
    • vAdi vAdum – Like a stem which lost its supporting stick. First “vAdi” (sulking) is fresh, when we compare the second “vAdum” with that (she deteriorated quickly).
    • vAdum – It is in future tense. So she is sure that she will not die and will just crave for his arrival.
    • ivvANudhalE (ivvAL nudhalE) – having a shining forehead. She is going through such suffering which those who become attracted to her will go through. Are you staying away from her thinking that you can create someone like her if she dies? Are you planning to create (someone like her) again as said in thaiththirya upanishadh nArAyaNavalli “dhAthA yathApUrvamakalpayath” (brahmA created like it was present in previous times (before praLayam))? The signs of the union you had with her in “Unil vAzhuyir” has still not disappeared. Just like one who was destroyed by arrows and one who drowned in water will be clearly identified, she is suffering due to separation from emperumAn who has abundance of auspicious qualities.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.4 – Audio

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thiruvAimozhi –> Second centum

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paramapadham-nammzhwar-girl

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pAsuram 3

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.4 – AdiyAdi

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Full series >> Second Centum

Previous Decad

Audio

paramapadham-nammzhwar-girl

Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

AzhwAr having desired to enjoy emperumAn in the company of nithyasUris, did not get to experience that immediately and became very exhausted and for a moment could not even sustain himself – he attained a state where everyone looks who at him will feel sorry for him; AzhwAr [in the mood of a mother] at that time meditates upon the situation where his relatives are watching her [daughter’s] state and explaining her [daughter’s] state on her behalf to emperumAn; This is mercifully explained by AzhwAr as a mother who watches her daughter who desires for emperumAn and feels sunken due to not attaining him and says to emperumAn “you should quickly come and accept her before she dies”.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

Similar to piLLAn’s introduction. In addition, nanjIyar also highlights how AzhwAr thinks about emperumAn‘s incarnations such as rAma, krishNa  et al which are mainly focussed on his quality of his protecting his devotees; AzhwAr‘s mother (AzhwAr himself assuming the mood of the mother of a girl who is in separation from emperumAn) says to emperumAn “To match your quality of eliminating the enemies of your devotees and protecting them, you have to come and accept her before she dies”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth decad – AzhwAr became exhausted not having his desire (of being together with nithyasUris) fulfilled and vows “To remove my suffering, there is no one other than emperumAn who is the protector of all and most enjoyable person” and speaks in the mood of AzhwAr’s mother the following aspects:

  • how emperumAn helped his devotee prahlAdha
  • how he helped his grand-son anirudhdha
  • how he helped his most dear consort sIthA pirAtti
  • how he helped everyone in the world
  • his pure nature
  • unsurpassed sweetness
  • the relationship towards those who are protected by him
  • eliminating the enemies of those devotees
  • that which is used by him [implements] to protect his devotees
  • his valour which will destroy even if enemies are countless

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decad, AzhwAr became delighted saying “parugik kaLiththEnE” (I blissfully enjoyed) and desired to share such blissful experience with bhAgavathas  and realised that there is none qualified in this world to share such experience and so desired to reach paramapadham and be in the assembly of nithaysUris (thiruvAimozhi 2.3.10). But his desire did not get fulfilled so he became very perplexed and explains his state as SrIvaishNavas explaining that to emperumAn.

In “anjiRaiya madhnArAy“, he sent a messenger; in “vAyum thiraiyugaLum“, he felt that all visible entities are suffering in separation from emperumAn, felt their sorrow;  But now, overwhelmed by the suffering, he forgot his own self, assumed the form of a beloved, and further, unable to even express her situation and being dependent on those who are close to her to speak for her, having no order in her stature, walking, sleeping etc and suffered greatly. Observing her situation, her mother says to emperumAn “You incarnated as rAma, krishNa et al and eliminated the difficulties of your devotees, but why are you watching her suffer like this?” and since she belongs to the clan which fully depends on emperumAn only for everything, she placed her daughter at his divine feet and asked “What are you planning to do to her?” – AzhwAr reveals his state in these pAsurams in this manner.

The suffering of one who lost money, who lost gold and who lost precious gems will not be the same. In “anjiRaiya madhnArAy“, previously AzhwAr wanted to experience the lotus feet of thrivikrama (vibhava avathAram) as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.10perunilam kadandha nalladip pOdhu” (divine feet which measured the great earth) and could not experience it directly – so the suffering (this is like losing money). Next, AzhwAr desired to enjoy archAvathAra emperumAn (deity form) in thiruvAimozhi 1.10.9nambiyaith thenkuRungudi ninRa” (nambi who is in thirukkuRungudi) and could not experience it directly – so the suffering in “vAyum thiraiyugaLum” (this is like losing gold). Here, he desired to be in the assembly of nithyasUris who are like his life and since he did not attain that, his suffering is much more overwhelming (this is like losing precious gems) than previous two scenarios.

If he is suffering for not having reached the assembly of nithyasUris, instead of calling out for them, why is he calling out for emperumAn? That is because, when some one loses precious stones even in the forest, they will come to the kingdom, call out for the king and complain to him only. Since bhagavAn is the one who blesses us the association of bhAgavathas, AzhwAr calls out for him. Only in separation from bhagavAn, one will understand the separation from bhAgavathas.

This is seen in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam16.10 “kadhAnvaham samEshyAmi bharathEna mahAthmanA | SathrugnEna cha vIrENa thvayA raghunandhana ||” (hE lakshmaNa! When will I be together with the great soul bharatha, the brave Sathrugna and yourself). Because of separation from bharathAzhwAn and SathrugnAzhwAn, SrI rAma did not feel he was with lakshmaNa too (though he was right there with him). SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam1.29 “guhEna sahithO rAmO lakshmaNEna cha sIthayA” (when SrI rAma met guha, he felt he was together with lakshmaNa and sIthA too) – perumAL (SrI rAma) felt the togetherness with iLaiya perumAL (lakhsmaNa) and (sIthA) pirAtti only after meeting SrI guhap perumAL. So, for bhagavAn too, togetherness and separation (with one devotee) is when he is with other devotees too. The desire to be with devotees and not getting that led to AzhwAr pleading for togetherness with bhagavAn himself which was lost too. Also, since the joy of uniting with emperumAn after the suffering in “vAyum thiraiyugaLum” is short-lived, this suffering is too overwhelming for AzhwAr.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.11 – kuzhAm koL

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

nammAzhwAr as SrI rAmanammAzhwAr in SrI rAma’s form (pagal paththu uthsavam day 5)

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end – AzhwAr says “Those who are exclusively involved in enjoying bhagavAn, should enjoy this decad together unlike me who enjoyed it alone”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr explains the result saying “Sing this decad together in association with mutual affection”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

குழாம் கொள் பேர் அரக்கன் குலம் வீய முனிந்தவனை
குழாம் கொள் தென் குருகூர்ச் சடகோபன் தெரிந்து உரைத்த
குழாம் கொள் ஆயிரத்துள் இவை பத்தும் உடன் பாடி
குழாங்களாய் அடியீர் உடன் கூடி நின்று ஆடுமினே

kuzhAm koL pEr arakkan kulam vIya munindhavanai
kuzhAm koL then kurugUrch chatakOpan therindhu uraiththa
kuzhAm koL AyiraththuL ivai paththum udan pAdi
kuzhAngaLAy adiyIr udan kUdi ninRu AduminE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kuzhAm koL – having many groups(of rAkshasas who are hindering (others))
pEr – rAvaNa who has greatness (of having such armies of rAkshasas)
arakkkan – rAkshasa’s
kulam – whole clan
vIya – to be destroyed
munindhavanai – one who mercifully showed his anger
kuzhAm koL – having many groups (of SrIvaishNavas)
thenkurugUr – the controller of thirunagari
SatakOpan – nammAzhwAr
therindhu – analysed
uraiththa – mercifully spoke
kuzhAm koL – in the form of decads (collection of 10 pAsurams)
AyiraththuL – in the thousand pAsurams of thiruvAimozhi
ivai paththum – these ten pAsurams
udan – agreeing (to the meanings)
pAdi – sing (to reveal the joy)
kuzhAngaLAy – in many groups (sharing the joy with each other)
adiyIrudan – being like minded devotees matching your true nature
kUdi – associate
ninRu – staying together (without break)
Adumin – try to dance

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

SrI rAma destroyed the clan of rAvaNa who has the greatness of having many groups of rAkshasas (who are hindering others); nammAzhwAr who is the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which is filled with many groups of SrIvaishNavas has analysed and mercifully spoken/sung this decad which is in one among the thousand pAsurams which have many such decads.  You sing this decad (to reveal your joy) agreeing with the meanings (of the pAsurams) in many groups of devotees together and try to dance in joy.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kuzhAm koL …. – rAvaNa had many groups of sons, grand sons, relatives et al to support him; he was also well established due to his own strength and the strength acquired through boons. Such rAvaNa was destroyed along with his clan by chakravarathi thirumagan (son of emperor dhaSaratha). This is explained by SrI rAma himself in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 64.66 “karishyE maithileehEthOr apiSAcham arAkshasam” (Having SithA as reason, I will free this earth from devils and demons).
  • kuzhAm koL thenkurugUrch chatakOpan – Just like the rishis entered dhaNdakAraNyam after the rAkshasas (kara, dhUshaNa et al) were destroyed in janasthAnam, many SrIvaishNavas arrived at AzhwArthirungari to see nammAzhwAr who survived the agony of separation in “vAyum thiraiyugaLum” padhigam (decad). AzhwAr himself declares in thiruviruththam 100 “nallAr navil kurugUr” (AzhwArthirungari where many good persons reside).  If there is a place where there are many good persons (devotees) who are engaged in glorifying (emperumAn), would they not assemble there together?
  • therindhuraiththa – meditated and spoke as it is
  • ivai paththum – these ten pAsurams, with which the assembled devotees sustain themselves
  • kuzhAm koL Ayiram – As said in thiruvAimozhi 9.4.9 “thoNdarkku amudhuNNa” (to be consumed as nectar for the devotees), ten pAsurams make one decad, ten decads make one centum and ten such centums make this thiruvAimozhi which has thousand pAsurams. This thiruvAimozhi is the livelihood for the devotees.
  • ivai paththum udanpAdi – singing along, agreeing with the principles
  • kuzhAngaLAy – Instead of saying “kaLitthEnE” (I enjoyed – singular) like me and subsequently searching for the assembly of devotees, be in the assembly first and sing along together.
  • adiyIrudan kUdi ninRu AduminE – You who are all fully pledged to him, who are quite few in numbers (in comparison to those who are not devotees) are going to be here in this world for a short span of time; in such time, instead of holding on to worldly wealth and desire and fighting with each other, enjoy this experience together here until you reach the great assembly in paramapadham.

nampiLLai, gives a brief summary of the whole decad at the end.

  • In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr praised his divine heart.
  • In the second pAsuram, he praised sarvESvaran who convinced his divine heart (to surrender).
  • In the third pAsuram, he highlighted a favour that was done by emperumAn.
  • In the fourth pAsuram, he submitted his own self as a return to such favour and subsequently repented for that.
  • In the fifth pAsuram, he said that since emperumAn is the primary good-deed for him, he already attained emperumAn‘s lotus feet.
  • In the sixth pAsuram, he said “Did I achieve this today? When you first blessed me – at that time itself I have attained your lotus feet”.
  • In the seventh pAsuram, he meditated upon his sweet nature and said “I cannot sustain separation from you”.
  • In the eighth pAsuram, he said “I attained such unsurpassed sweet person through easy means”; it can also be said as, “I followed him and easily attained him instead of having to perform austere penance for a long time to get that great result”.
  • In the ninth pAsuram, he said “I enjoyed so that all my difficulties are eliminated and became blissful”.
  • In the tenth pAsuram, he asked “when will I be in the assembly of such persons who enjoy emperumAn so much?”.
  • In the end, he said “Meditate upon and recite this thiruvAimozhi with its meaning;  you are few in numbers and are going to live for a short span of time only, so try to experience it (instead of fighting among yourselves)”.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIranga gadhyam – 1st chUrNai Part 2

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SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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lord-rama

We have so far seen 6 qualities of bhagavAn that he shows to everyone and 12 qualities that he exhibits only to his ASrithars (followers).  We shall now see the three guNas (qualities) that he exhibits only to his virOdhis (enemies).

dhairya Saurya parAkrama

dhairya – daring; he does not bother about his or his ASrithars’ enemies. In SrI rAmAyaNam, SrI rAma conducted pattAbhishEkam (coronation) for vibhIshaNa at thiruppullANi (near sEthu), before even crossing the ocean and knowing the strength / weakness of enemy (rAvaNa). This is his dhairyam. vAlmiki (the sage who composed SrI rAmAyaNam) writes that SrI rAma heaved a sigh of relief for having achieved the objective of what he set out to do on completion of vibhIshaNa’s coronation! Another example quoted by SrI periyavAchchAn piLLai in his vyAkhyAnam is in the battle ground in lankA when rAvaNa‘s mUlabhalam (his special army, capable of inflicting extensive damage to enemy’s army) came to the battle field.  On seeing such an army, SrI rAmA, without any change in his countenance, got ready to annihilate it. This is his dhairyam.

Saurya – the feeling that one would get when, on piercing the enemy’s vyUha (battle formation), looks around the enemy’s army and behaves as if he is amidst his own army, but goes on to create panic among the enemy’s warriors.

parAkrama – when he goes around his army before leaving for battlefield giving dharSan (audience) to his soldiers and checking last minute details, if his opponents see him at that time, they will not view him as an opponent but as their own leader. That is his parAkrama which literally means courage/valour/enterprise/heroism/strength etc.

Next SrI rAmAnuja lists four qualities of bhagavAn which are related to (a) his ASrithars (followers), (b) the fact that he is the upAyam (the path to attain bhagavAn) (c) the fact that he is the upEyam (objective or goal to be attained). These are:

sathyakAmasathya – true; kAma – desire; Here, sathya means nithya (forever; permanent). The meaning for sathyakAma is that he has qualities and wealth (nithya vibhUthi and leelA vibhUthi) which are there for ever and which his ASrithars are desirous of. Another meaning for sathyakAma is based on bhagavAn’s point of view. bhagavAn feels that he should protect his ASrithars and this becomes his desire. Since there is no one to prevent him from carrying this out, it becomes his permanent desire or sathyakAma.

sathyasankalpa – Whatever he vows, will happen. He keeps changing himself constantly to appear new to his ASrithars so that they can enjoy him better and better. Another meaning here is that in order for his ASrithars to see him, he takes various avathArams (incarnations) such as dhEva (celestial being), manushya (human being) etc through his sankalpam (vow)

kruthithva – When he gives something to his ASrithars and they get it, bhagavAn feels as if he himself has got it and feels happy. This guNa (quality) is called as kruthithvam. Doing what the ASrithar is expected to do, himself, is also kruthithvam.

kruthagyathA – to be thankful. We would have surrendered to him once, long time back. After that whatever mistakes we commit (unknowingly), he does not bother about these and thinks only about the act of surrender. Even after he gives quite a lot to the ASrithar who has surrendered, he feels that he has not done or given anything to him. He feels so thankful for having surrendered. This is his kruthagyathA.

Adhi – similar such qualities.

asankhyEya kalyANa guNAgaNaugha mahArNavamasankhyEya – countless; kalyANa – auspicious;  guNa – qualities; gaNa – bundles of such qualities; augha – flood or wave; mahArNavam – great ocean.

What has been stated among bhagavAn’s qualities is just a few. But there are countless auspicious qualities of bhagavAn which are like trying to count the particles of water in a great ocean.

parabrahmabhUtham purushOththamam – these are words which are widely quoted in vEdhAntham (upanishaths). parama – supreme; brahmam – absolute; bhUtham – being (entity). parabrahmabUtham – He is huge and he makes those who take refuge in him (surrender to him) huge. He gives his ASrithars the same level of happiness that he enjoys. He shares his 8 supreme qualities with those who attain mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam). Thus he is parabrahmabhUtham.

purushOththamam – supreme among purushas (jIvAthmA, mukthAthmA, nithyAthmA). In bhagavadh gIthA, krishNa says that he is different from achith (insentient) and chith (sentient – bhadhdhAthmA, mukthAthmA and nithyAthmA) and superior to them all. Also, purusha is defined as one who keeps on giving. Since he gives away everything to others, he is purushOththaman.

SrIrangaSAyinam – Instead of staying in some place where no one can see him, bhagavAn takes a simple form which can be seen by everyone. Thus he comes to SrIrangam and lies on the bed of AdhiSEsha.

asmathswAminam – my swAmy (my lord or one who owns me). He is not merely parabhramabhUthan or purushOththaman or SrIrangaSAyee. He is my swAmy. He is so beautiful and so simple. This defines the closeness of SrI rAmAnuja with bhagavAn. In SrI rAmAyaNam, lakshmaNa tells that he is servitor to SrI rAmA. Here, SrI rAmAnuja, who is punaravathAram (reincarnation) of lakshmaNa says that bhagavAn is his swAmy (lord), which means the same.

prabhudhdha nithyaniyAmya nithyadhAsyaikarasa AthmasvabhAvOhamprabhudhdha – high level of knowledge; nithya – for ever; niyAmya – controlled by bhagavAn; dhAsyaika – like a servant; rasa – being a servant is sweet too; Athma – soul; svabhAva – basic nature;  aham – I.

Here SrI rAmAnuja starts mentioning his qualities to carry out kainkaryam. He says that he knows fully well that he is completely controlled by bhagavAn and that he is his servant for ever. Being a servant to bhagavAn is very sweet to him. And this, he says, is his basic nature.

thadhEkAnubhava:thath – that; Eka – one; anubhava: – experience. Making only bhagavAn’s experience as a matter for gyAna (knowledge) (i.e. relevant to his knowledge). Nothing else matters. This is like the state of parabhakthi.

thadhEkapriya: – making bhagavAn’s experience as a matter for bhakthi (devotion). When gyAna matures, it becomes bhakthi. These words (anubhavam and prIthi) are born out of parabhakthi, paragyAna and paramabhakthi states, as we have seen several times in SaraNAgathi gadhyam. To recapture briefly, parabhakthi means having knowledge about bhagavAn; paragyAna means having vision of bhagavAn; paramabhakthi is attaining him. Another explanation for these three is: when one is with bhagavAn, one becomes happy. When bhagavAn leaves, that person becomes sad. This is parabhakthi. This is mere knowledge. paragyAna is craving constantly and taking efforts to be with bhagavAn. paramabhakthi is being always with bhagavAn, after attaining him.

paripUrNam bhagavantham viSadhathamAnubhavEna nirantharamanubhUyaparipUrNam – fully, completely; bhagavantham – to bhagavan; viSadhathama – very clearly; anubhavEna – that experience; nirantharam – without hurdles; anubhUya – having experienced.

bhagavAn is full of gyAna (knowledge) etc (gyAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakthi, thEjas etc that we have seen several times). SrI rAmAnuja wishes to enjoy that bhagavAn, in a very clear way (we shall see the meaning of this shortly). And, that experience should be without any hurdle. Thus, he is praying for having uninterrupted experience of bhagavAn, who is full of auspicious qualities, in a very clear way. Let us now look at some of the subtle meanings of these terms.

pUrNa anubhavam is subjecting bhagavAn’s svarUpa (basic nature), rUpa (physical form), guNa (auspicious qualities), vibhUthi (wealth, comprising nithya and leelA vibhUthis) to one’s experience. viSadha anubhavam is the experience of seeing bhagavAn right in front; this is equivalent to parabhakthi. viSadhathara anubhavam is equivalent to paragyAna anubhavam which is seeing bhagavAn when one closes one’s eyes. bhagavAn will disappear when eyes open; this happens when one is travelling in archirAdhi (bright) path towards SrIvaikuNtam. viSadhathama anubhavam  is paramabhakthi anubhavam which takes place when one reaches SrIvaikuNtam (being always with bhagavAn). niranthara anubhavam is having the experience without any hurdles. Here hurdles refer to the (five) sensory experience.

thadhanubhavajanitha anavadhikAthiSaya prIthikAritha aSEshAvasthOchitha aSEsha SEshathaikarathirUpa nithyakinkarO bhavAnithath – that; anubhava – experience; janitha – born out of; anavadhika – without limit; athiSaya – exalted; prIthikAritha – induced by love; aSEsha – without leaving anything; avastha – state; uchitha – appropriate; aSEsha SEshathaika – carrying out service without leaving anything; rathi rUpa – full of desire or love; nithya kinkarO bhava – make me a servitor forever.

bhagavadh rAmAnuja prays for being a servitor to bhagavAn to carry out kainkaryam (service) to him. This comes out of the love that is born out of paripUrNa, viSadhathama anubhavam (clear experience of bhagavAn who is full of auspicious qualities) that we have seen in the previous sentence. This experience should be there in all appropriate states, leaving out nothing. What are these states? When emperumAn is sitting, lying, standing, walking, speaking to nAchchiyArs (his consorts); in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in the night; whether he goes to his antha:puram (retiring house, private quarters), thiruvOlakkam (public assembly), garden, lake etc. One may wonder, what kainkaryam can be done when bhagavAn retires in the night, to his antha:puram. nammAzhvAr says that when bhagavAn goes to antha:puram, he would be the cot, or lamp, or mattress, or flower used for decorating his bed, anything – i.e. achith (insentient) entity. This means, doing kainkaryam in all states, at all times, in all places, leaving out nothing. And this kainkaryam is carried out with loving desire because it is being rendered to bhagavAn and pirAttis (his consorts). While doing this kainkaryam, only one thought should be in the mind of the servitor, that he is the SEshabhUthan, SEshabhUthan, SEshabhUthan. The basis for all these is: gyAna (knowledge) about bhagavAn, mainly through kAlakshEpam and upanyAsam (listening to bhagavAn’s stories, his incarnations, his auspicious qualities etc) in our sampradhAyam; experiencing bhagavAn after acquiring this knowledge; leading to desire or love for bhagavAn, which ultimately takes one to carrying out kainkaryam. Hence knowledge or parabhakthi is the starting point. SrI rAmAnuja keeps stressing on this, every time he prays to bhagavAn. When he, who is such a gyAni, asks for gyAna, what can we say of ourselves!!    lakshmaNa, in SrI rAmAyaNam, did kainkaryam to SrI rAma in ayOdhyA (city), in dhandakAranyam (forest), in kishkinthA (mountainous region), in thiruppullANi (sea shore), while walking on sEthu (on the sea), while fighting (on the battle field), when rAma was alone, when he was with his sIthAppitAtti, when he was in court assembly, when he was in the battlefield, in the morning, in the evening, in the night, leaving out nothing. The same lakshmaNa, now re-born as  SrI rAmAnuja, asks for all these kainkaryams which he carried out in an earlier yuga (earlier age). The same was prayed for by nammAzhvAr in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.1 (ozhivil kAlamellAm udanAy manni…).

Do we need to wait till we reach SrIvaikuNtam to carry out kainkaryam to bhagavAn and pirAtti? No, we can do all these in our place itself, even in our house – doing nithya thiruvArAdhanam with love, decorating bhagavAn and pirAtti in our house itself. Going to the temple, sweeping the premises, cleaning it, making kOlam (patterns), stringing flowers for bhagavAn to make a garland, helping bhattar (priest) or parichArakar (one who cooks thiruvamudhu (food) for bhagavAn) or adhyApakas (those who recite pAsurams and vEdha in front of bhagavAn), accompanying uthsavar when he goes around town during uthsavams etc are the kainkaryams which one can do in this vibhUthi itself. For all these, despite being repetitive, the starting point is gyAna.

This brings us to the end of first chUrNai.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnujadhAsan.

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