Daily Archives: January 24, 2016

upadhESa raththina mAlai – 53

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pAsuram 53

anna pugazh mudumbai aNNal ulagAsiriyan
innaruLAl seydha kalai yAvaiyilum – unnil
thigazh vachana bhUdaNaththin seermai onRukkillai
pugazhalla ivvArththai mey ippOdhu.                                               53

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Word by word meaning

pugazh – Having greatness
anna – of such nature,
mudumbai – the chief of the city called mudumbai
aNNal – the most auspicious swami
ulagAsiriyan(piLLai) lOkAchAryar, (he)
seydha – divined, (out of his)
ini – sweet
aruLAl – grace, (many)
kalai – granthams / SAsthrams;
yAvaiyilum – among all of them,
unnil – if thought through,
seermai – the greatness of
thigazh – the shining
vachanabhUdanaththin – SrI vachana bhUshaNa mahA SAsthram
illai – is not present at all
onRukku – in other SAsthrams;
ippOdhu – now
ivvArththai – this statement that I say
pugazh alla – is not a flattery
mey – but it is sathyam (the truth) only.

vyAkyAnam

In the beginning of this prabandham, he (maNavALa mAmunigaL) had divined about ‘thAzhvAdhumil kuravar [upadhESa raththinamAlai – 3]’, and ‘avargaL uraiththavaigaL [upadhESa raththinamAlai – 3]’, and divined as explanation of that in the pAsuram ‘avargaL seydha viyAkkiyaigaL uLLadhellAm [upadhESa raththinamAlai – 34];

the remaining is talking about piLLai lOkAchAryar’s greatness, and the greatness of what he divined – that is, as said in ‘vakuLa bhUshaNa SAsthra sAram’, and ‘SAngAkhila dhravida samskritha rUpa vEdha sArArtha sangraham [SrIvachana bhUshanam thaniyan]’ (summary of meaning of essence of thamizh and samskritha vEdhams), SrIvachana bhUshaNam reflects the meanings of thiruvAimozhi and other aruLichcheyal (dhivya prabandhams), and it includes the meanings of these aruLichcheyal, and is divined by him (piLLai lOkAchAryar) who is of greatness of being an incarnation of emperumAn and so gives the idea that these are the opinions of emperumAn himself, is giving the meaning of dhvayam in the order of its words, is having the culmination as charama parva nishtai (subservience to AchAryan) so having that as its head, and because of that it is being incomparable;

so as he (maNavALa mAmunigaL) sets out to divine in many ways about the greatness of the aforementioned, in this pAsuram, he divines that – in this way who is known popularly in this world as (piLLai) lOkAchAryar, for the world to reach true goal, out of his kindness divined many rahasya prabandhams, out of which SrIvachana bhUshaNam is of greatness, with this pAsuram as ‘anna pugazh mudumbai aNNal ulagAsiriyan’.

As said in ‘thasya nAma mahadhyasa: [thaiththirIyam ambasya praSNam]’ (name of that is grand greatness), he who is having countless honour based on his divine name, being chief of the city named mudumbi, as said in ‘mudumbai iRaivan [SrIvachana bhUshaNam thaniyan]’, – is (piLLai) lOkAchAryar.

Or, can say as ‘mudumbai ulagAsiriyanAna aNNal’ (lOkAchAryar of mudumbai who is the most auspicious/generous person); mudumbai – name of his clan. Like saying ‘eeyuNNi mAdhavar [upadhEsa raththina mAlai – 48]’ in earlier pAsuram, saying him as mudumbai ulagAsiriyan here. Anything related to a noble person also would be of great value isn’t it?

ulagAsiriyan innaruLAl seydha kalai yAvaiyilum – It is by his grace without any reason as means, and without anyone requesting, that he divined all the (rahasya) prabandhams, isn’t it? It is due to him being ‘aNNal’ (most auspicious/generous person), that he was authoring these due to his sweet kindness, isn’t it?

piLLai_lOkAchAryarpiLLai lOkAchAryar

Since they (what he authored) are many, the pAsuram says yAvaiyilum.

unnil – if researched well and proved,

yAvaiyilumamong the eighteen rahasya prabandhams that he divined, not one of them is –

thigazh vachana bhUdanaththin seermai onRukku illai – of equal greatness compared to the most radiant SrIvachana bhUshaNam.

Though there are many of them, would there be any one of them that can equal the greatness of this which is complete in its message/meanings?

That is, more than the words of sages regarding jeeva/paramAthma SAsthrams, more than the aruLichcheyal (dhivya prabandhams) of AzhvArs who got unblemished knowledge (mayarvaRa mathinalam [thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1]), even more than the commentaries of aruLichcheyal by AchAryas who got the grace of AzhvArs, above the divine rahasya prabandhams that are like manthras which he (piLLai lOkAchAryar) authored by the grace of AchAryas

having significance of wonderful meanings compared to those others, and as said in ‘ithihAsa SrEshta [SrIvachana bhUshaNam – 5]’ etc., (talks about significance of SrI rAmAyaNam and mahA bhAratham), it shines light on meanings of such earlier ones and also related ones; it is having that greatness, so it is apt to say that SrI vachana bhUshaNam is being significant compared to others. Isn’t that why he divined it unparalleled?

Compared to Acharyas‘ dhivya sUkthis, his prabandhams are significant – because we are having to understand the meanings of those using his prabandhams only.

pugazhala ivvArththai – Like said in ‘pugazhvillai [thiruvAimozhi 8.4.9]’ (not a sugary praise (but true that everything is under your control)), praising this prabandham (SrI vachana bhUshaNam) is not just words of praise;

mey ippOdhu – Now these words that are showing proved about the greatness of the matter of this prabandham, are the truth only.

Since he is ‘poy ilAdha maNavALa mAmuni [maNavALa mAmunigaL vAzhi thirunAmam]’ (~ not having falsities), he is divining with oath that this is the truth as mey ippOdhu’, as part of his faith in these words.

vachana bhUdanaththin seermai onRukkillai – (none are having the greatness of SrI vachana bhUshaNam) – this is ‘mey’ (true) – Like saying ‘sathyam sathyam’ [vEdha vyAsa’s declaration] (It is truth and truth only that there is no scripture greater than the vEdhas and no god superior to kESavan (emperumAn))).

So it is shown that he (piLLai lOkAchAryar) authored many granthams, and that among them SrI vachana bhUshaNam is of unparalleled greatness.

– – – – – – – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dhAsan

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SaraNAgathi gadhyam – 14th & 15th chUrNais

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krishna-ramanuja

14th and 15th chUrNais are short ones and hence we shall see them together, First, the 14th chUrNai:

avathArikai (Introduction)

In the earlier chUrNai, SrI rAmAnuja prayed for gyAna, which is the prerequisite for parabhakthi, paragyAna and paramabhakthi. In this chUrNai, he is praying for  parabhakthi, paragyAna and paramabhakthi which are the prerequisites for kainkaryam (carrying out service to bhagavAn).

chUrNai: 

purushas sa para: pArtha bhakthyA labhyas thvananyayA
bhakthyA thvananyayA Sakya: madhbhakthim labhathE parAm
 – ithi sthAnanathrayOdhitha parabhakthi yuktham mAm kurushva II

Explanatory Notes

Here too, bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja quotes from 3 SlOkas (verses) of bhagavadh gIthA, but taken from different Chapters. The first line is taken from the 22nd SlOka of 8th Chapter, the 1st half of second line from 54th SlOka of 11th Chapter and the second half from the 54th SlOka of 18th Chapter. Let us look at the meanings of these verses:

purushas sa para: pArtha bhakthyA labhyas thvananyayA: pArtha – arjun!  sa – that; para: purusha – the highest among the purushas (we have seen the meanings of these words in earlier chUrNais, there are 5 different types of purushas, the achith (apurusha), badhdhAthmA, the mukthAthmA, the nithyAthmA and bhagavAn, who is purushOththama); bhakthyA – through devotion; thu – only; labhya: – can be attained; ananyayA – not by any other means. SrI krishNa tells arjun that the supreme being can be attained only through bhakthi and through no other means.

bhakthyA thvananyayA Sakya:bhakthyA – through devotion; thu – only; ananyayA – not by other means; Sakya: – possible.

madh bhakthim labhathE parAmmadh – my; bhakthim – devotee; labhathE – attains; parAm – highest.

SrI krishNa further says that it is only through bhakthi (devotion) and not by any other means does my devotee attain the highest position.

ithi sthAnathryOdhitha parabhakthi yuktham mAm kurushva –  ithi – this; sthAna – place; thraya – three; udhitha – said; parabhakthi – high level of devotion; yuktham – to be with; mAm – me; kurushva – make. SrI rAmAnuja now pleads with bhagavAn to make him as one who has parabhakthi, paragyAna, paramabhakthi  just as he had mentioned of his devotee in 3 different places (in 8th, 11th and 18th Chapters) of the bhagavadh gIthA.

Let us now move on to the 15th chUrNai.

parabhakthi paragyAna paramabhakthyEka svabhAvam mAm kurushva II

Explanatory Notes

parabhakthi paragyAna paramabhakthyEka svabhAvam mAm kurushva – parabhakthi – to know about bhagavAn; paragyAna – to envision bhagavAn; paramabhakthi – to attain bhagavAn; Eka – only; svabhAvam – basic nature; mAm – me; kurushva – make. While SrI rAmAnuja had already prayed for being  granted parabhakthi, paragyAna and paramabhakthi, here he wants these three to be part of his svabhAvam (nature). It should be clearly understood here that he is asking for these three levels of bhakthi as a prerequisite for carrying out kainkaryam and not as upAyam (path to attain mOksham). One may wonder as to why he is asking for all three when paramabhakthi alone would be enough to carry out kainkaryam in SrIvaikuNtam. Let us look at it this way. We have food every day. The quality of food as prepared in the house would be  almost the same. The type of food is also almost the same. But every day before we sit down to eat, there is an expectation as to what is going to be served today, even though we know what would be as we have been eating for ages. Why do we have this feeling of expectation? It is because of the change in the type of hunger that we have each day. First we imagine what the food prepared for the day would be; then we see the actual food when we sit and are served food; the third is the pleasure that we get after partaking of the food. Every day all these three ingredients, the imagination, the actual seeing and the feeling of satisfaction after eating, are there in us. And we need all three to enjoy the food served. Now let us look at what happens (or will happen) in SrIvaikuNtam. Here bhagavAn, who is simile for food, is  not constant like food, but keeps changing. One day he will give dharshan (view) like varAha, one day like vAmana, one day like nrusimha, et al (varAha, vAmana, nrusimha are all various avathArams (incarnations) of bhagavAn on earth). And the expectation from nithyAthmAs and mukthAthmAs will be very high to know how bhagavAn would show himself up each day. Thus it is not enough to have only paramabhakthi, but it is equally important to have parabhakthi and paramagyAna to fully appreciate bhagavAn’s various forms and do kainkaryam to each of these [Thanks to vELukkudi SrI krishNan swAmy for explaining this lucidly in his upanyAsam on gadhya thrayam].

We shall now move on to the 16th chUrNai, which is the last chUrNai in which bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja speaks to SrI ranganAtha. After that, from 17th chUrNai, till the 23rd chUrNai, it is only bhagavAn who speaks and SrI rAmAnuja only listens. It will be a wonderful experience to know what bhagavAn tells SrI rAmAnuja.

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Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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