srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In the second pAsuram – AzhwAr says “Who am I to say I am not qualified to glorify you? Only brahmA, rudhra et al can say that they are not qualified to glorify you”.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
Subsequently – AzhwAr considering that emperumAn is asking him “How would your relationship with me cause disrepute to me?” replies “Even if the great dhEvas et al approach you with the sole aim of serving you [which in itself is a rarity], for your distinct greatness, it is a disgrace” (even if they come with pure thoughts, that is no match for your greatness).
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Second pAsuram – Previously , AzhwAr said “I committed a mistake (causing disrepute to you) by thinking in my mind (about you), by speaking (about you) and by becoming physically depleted”. Here he says “I committed the mistake of saying that I caused disrepute to you. My saying that I am unqualified and leaving you is like a chaNdALa (abominable person) saying that he is not qualified (he is not even qualified to say that). Because, only brahmA et al who have overflowing love for emperumAn can say that they are not qualified to glorify him”. AzhwAr is now cursing himself for claiming his disqualification and leaving emperumAn (since he considers himself most lowly even to do that).
ninanidhu naindhu uL karaindhu urugi imaiyOr palarum munivarum
punaindha kaNNi nIr sAndham pugaiyOdu Endhi vaNanginAl
ninaindha ellAp poruLgatkum viththAy mudhalil sidhaiyAmE
manam sey gyAnththu un perumai mAsUNAdhO mAyOnE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
imaiyOr – dhEvas starting with brahmA, who don’t blink their eyes (ever)
munivarum – those great sages who are constantly meditating on you – such as sanaka kumAras
palarum – many more
ninaindhu – thinking (about your auspicious qualities in their hearts/minds)
naindhu – body becoming weak/depleted due to such constant meditation
uL karaindhu – being heart-broken
urugi – becoming melted
punaindha – prepared/made (with such great love)
kaNNi – garland
nIr – water for arghyam (washing hands), etc.
sAndham – sandalwood paste
pugaiyOdu – with fragrant incense sticks
Endhi – holding them (for your acceptance)
vaNanginAl – when they worship (you for having accepted their offerings)
mAyOnE – Oh the one who is always present together with the magnificent and distinct realm!
ninaindha – (out of mercy during creation) thought upon
ellAp poruLgatkum – for all entities
viththAy – being the upAdhAna kAraNa (raw-material cause)
mudhalil sidhaiyAmE – without any change in your true nature
manam – in heart/mind
sey – performed
gyAnaththu – having knowledge in the form of sankalpam (vow)
un – your
perumai – glories
mAsUNAdhO? – would they not be tarnished?
Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
Oh the one who is always present together with the magnificent and distinct wealth (realm)! dhEvas who don’t blink their eyes, the sanakAdhi (sanaka et al) rishis who are always meditating upon you, and many more, are on constant meditation upon your auspicious qualities, becoming depleted (due to great emotions out of such meditation) and becoming heart-broken and totally melted for you. They stand seeking your acceptance holding garlands which were prepared with great love/affection, water (for washing hands etc), sandalwood paste, fragrant incense sticks and worship you gratefully on your acceptance. But even when such great personalities worship you, who out of great compassion became the material-cause for all entities through your knowledge in the form of a vow, without any transformation to your true nature, would that not tarnish your glories?
The inner meaning is – bhagavAn is worshipped by nithyasUris and mukthas who are free from any bondage in parampadham. In such case, though the dhEvathas, rishis et al are great, since they are conditioned souls with ignorance etc., they cannot do full justice in worshipping bhagavAn to match his lofty glories.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
For emperumAn‘s compassion during srushti (creation), periyavAchchAn piLLai quotes srIrangarAja sthavam uththara sathakam 41 “achidhavisEshithAn praLayasImani samsaratha: karaNakaLEbarair gatayithum dhayamAnamanA: …” (During praLayam (annihilated state), AthmAs were in the state of achith (matter), i.e., in a subdued/inactive state; out of your compssion, to engage them in activities (which will lead them to mOksham), you provided them body and senses by mercifully transforming subtle matter into gross matter, just out of your sankalpam (vow)).
- ninaindhu… – When brahmA et al come to worship emperumAn, they come prepared with garland etc.
- ninaindhu – They think “When we bring these items for worship, he will mercifully glance at us”. First they will think just as it is said in srIvishNu purANam 5.17.12 “mAmakrUra vakshyathi” (he will enquire me with care calling me ‘you faultless akrUra‘”).
- naindhu – subsequently, unable to sustain themselves, they become emaciated
- uL karaindhu – will become totally melted for you
- urugi – become completely depleted that they cannot even regain their composure
- imaiyOr palarum munivarum … – Who are they? dhEvas starting with brahmA and the four kumAras (sanaka, sanandhana, sanAthana and sanath kumAra). Just as when they are engulfed in the qualities of rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) they think so high of themselves, when their sathva (goodness) guNam (quality) is predominant, they would melt by meditating on the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn. In such times, they prepare garland, water for washing emperumAn‘s hands, sandalwood paste to anoint emperumAn and fragrant incense sticks etc. With these, they come and fall at the divine feet of emperumAn without an iota of pride.
- Endhi vaNanginAl – They feel great satisfaction when emperumAn accepts those offerings with great interest. emperumAn feels great satisfaction in just seeing them carrying those offerings to solely satisfy him. Just like it is explained in thiruviruththam 21 “sUttu nanmAlaigaL thUyana Endhi” (Holding pure garlands which are to be worn by emperumAn) with respect to nithyasUris, here too, same logic is applied.
- ninaindha … – While subsequently AzhwAr says “manam sey gyAnam” (knowledge in the form of vow) – what does this term “ninaindha” (thinking) indicate? Here this thinking relates to emperumAn‘s merciful thought to help jIvAthmAs. When everything was in subtle state as mentioned in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.2.1 “sadhEva” (sath/bhagavAn only existed at that time of praLayam), like a person who lost his children or a person who is in separation from his son who has travelled to a different country, bhagavAn too is thinking about the loss of jIvAthmAs (being in subtle state unable to perform any action towards liberation).
- ninaindha ellAp poruLkatkum viththAy – ninaiththal also indicates kalaththal, kUdal etc., in thamizh which means being together – so this indicates the chith (jIvAthmAs/souls) and achith (matter) which are attached to him and emperumAn being the cause for the same – this is the explanation given by piLLai amudhanAr. Another explanation – being the cause for such jIvAthmAs which are mercifully thought about.
- mudhalil sidhaiyAmE … – While engaging in creation, there is no impact on his true nature. When clay becomes pot, lamp etc., clay itself has transformed to pot, lamp etc., and the clay is no longer existing in its original form. But here, emperumAn’s prakAram (attribute/form) has only changed – emperumAn (the substratum) has remained without any change. This indicates that, what is seen here in this world as “material cause” (where the raw material itself becomes the object and the raw material is no longer existing) is no comparison for bhagavAn being upAdhAna kAraNam (material cause). Another question arises here. In that case, is the sankalpam (vow) the cause? Is sUkshma chidhachidhvisishta brahmam (brahmam with souls and matter in subtle form) not the cause? Though bhagavAn with sankalpam is (the efficient) cause, since it is said as in thaiththiriya upanishath “bahu syAm” (let me become many), the sankalpa visishta brahmam (bhagavAn with the knowledge in the form of vow) is the efficient cause – but the material cause is sUkshma chidhachidhvisishta brahmam (bhagavAn with souls and matter in subtle form). So bhagavAn is both upAdhAna kAraNam (material cause) and nimiththa kAraNam (efficient cause) (In fact, he is also the sahakArikA kAraNam – ancillary cause). bhagavAn has this greatness of creating everything through his sankalpam (vow) in an effortless manner – for such greatness, brahmA et al can think “How can we, who are created simply by his vow, be qualified to worship him, to justify his greatness?”. AzhwAr thinks “I am not qualified even to be considering my disqualification”.
- mAyOnE – Most amazing person. AzhwAr tells emperumAn “You are so fascinating that even brahmA et al are seen in front of you as commoners”.
Note: To understand the mood of AzhwArs towards other dhEvathAs, the following articles would be very helpful.
- part 1 – http://ponnadi.blogspot.in/2013/02/dhivya-prabhandha-pramanya-samarthanam-1.html
- part 2 – http://ponnadi.blogspot.com/2013/02/dhivya-prabhandha-pramanya-samarthanam-2.html
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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