srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:
krishNa and nammAzhwAr
Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction for the decad.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In this world, one can be seen through the eyes and served through the hands. But how can we who are most insignificant worship sarvEsvaran who is beyond our senses? When someone develops desire to worship emperumAn hearing his glories, emperumAn would himself manifest as rAma, krishNa et al avathArams yuga after yuga to fulfil their desires and accept their worship. Though he is born in human form, he descends with his most auspicious qualities, divine spiritual body etc, out of his unlimited mercy, to protect his devotees and to annihilate the enemies of such devotees. His auspicious qualities shine in his avathArams even more than parathva state (in paramapadham). No one can understand the greatness of his avathArams and the purpose of the same. When some kind-hearted persons dig a lake/pond, it will be beneficial for some and tragic for others. Similarly, these avathArams of emperumAn are uplifting for the devotees and destructive for their enemies. nammAzhwAr starts with these principles which are explained in srI bhagavath gIthA 4th adhyAyam and tells “since he is so easily approachable, he can be approached and you approach him now”.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
In the first decad 10th pAsuram, meaning of nArAyaNa sabdham (word) is hinted in “nIrdhoRum parandhuLan” (pervaded in every drop of water) and in the second decad 10th pAsuram “nArAyaNa” word itself is revealed in “vaNpugazh nAraNan” (nArAyaNa who has great qualities). So, in line with all of sAsthram which declares in “thathvam nArAyaNa: para:” (nArAyaNa is ultimate truth) and “dhyEyO nArAyaNas sadhA” (always meditate upon nArAyaNa), it is established firmly that srIman nArAyaNan is the thathva (truth) and hitha (process/means). nammAzhwAr starts enjoying the glories of emperumAn‘s avathArams in this decad.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction
- In the first decad, nammAzhwAr said “emperumAn is the supreme lord”. In the second decad, he said “worship him because he is supreme”. Can a person who does not have both hands climb an elephant? Similarly, can the most insignificant jIvAthmA who is bound in this world approach sarvEsvaran who has no unfulfilled desires? If the elephant itself facilitates the person who does not have hands, then he can climb on the elephant. Similarly, if emperumAn facilitates himself to accept the worship of the jIvAthmA, then the jIvAthmA can worship him.
- avathArams (incarnations) are common for both unfortunate and most fortunate ones – the unfortunate ones treat him like a normal human being and become losers; the most fortunate ones being amazed at him (for being born as a human being out of great compassion even though he is supreme), areuplifted. emperumAnAr told embAr “If we say ‘sarvEsvaran is supreme’ many people shy away from him out of fear, so we explained his easy approachability. Some gave up on him considering ‘he is so simple’. But you are the only one who greatly appreciates his simplicity”.
- When a kind-hearted person digs a lake/pond, some may drown and kill themselves while others may quench their thirst and be fulfilled. When a lamp is lit, some fire-flies fall in it and kill themselves while others benefit from the light given by the lamp. emperumAn too is glorified as light (knowledge) giving lamp in many pAsurams such as periya thirumozhi 4.3.8 “vEdha nal viLakku” (the auspicious lamp revealed in vEdham), thiruppAvai 5 “Ayar kulaththinil thOnRum aNi viLakku” (the shining lamp of the cow-herd clan), perumAL thirumozhi 10.1 “venkadhirOn kulaththukkOr viLakku” (the shining lamp of solar dynasty). Even in these avathArams (where he presents himself in such a simple manner), sisupAla, pUthanA et al fought with him and were destroyed. But many were uplifted by him in his avathArams.
- Someone asks AzhwAr, “you told us to worship him many times”. But we cannot see him unless we worship him and we cannot worship him unless we see him. What is the solution for this? Here, AzhwAr is not talking about sAdhana bhakthi which is explained in muNdaka upanishath “…thasmin dhrushtE parAvarE” (When that supreme lord who is well-known from vEdham is seen, the attachments for worldly pleasures in our heart will be removed and all our doubts will be cleared. The karmA of such jIvAthmA who has seen emperumAn will be removed) and srI bhagavath gIthA 18.55 “…visathE thadhanantharam” (One who fully understands my nature and qualities through parabhakthi (full devotion), he realizes me through such devotion and reaches me subsequently). This sAdhana bhakthi is very difficult to practice. Here AzhwAr is talking about having the minimum desire to worship emperumAn and emperumAn being available for them to accept their devotion.
- When he descends into the material world as human et al he is not bound by karmA. Instead he descends out of his own desire/will. He himself explains that he descends in many many forms in srI bhagavath gIthA 4.5 “bahUni mE vyathIthAni…” (Oh destroyer of enemies (arjuna)! I have also taken many births and you have too. I remember all my births but you do not). He further explains his avathAra rahasyam (the purpose of his incarnations) in gIthA 4.9 “janma karma cha mE dhivyam …” (My birth and activities are divine) – my births are not out of karmA but out of my desire. Even when I am born I am unborn. Even when I am born in these simple forms, my supremacy remains with me. I have imposed my divine body in these material forms. One who knows any of these will not be born again in this material realm. Do they have to be born even after my birth (my birth is to eradicate their birth)? Are there two supreme persons (i.e., can others override my desire/will)?” – It is highlighted in arumpadham that nampiLLai explains this sequence keeping gIthA slOkam 4.6 “ajOpisan“) Thus, depending upon the principles explained by kaNNan emperumAn in 4th adhyAyam of srI bhagavath gIthA, AzhwAr explains that emperumAn descends in avathArams such as srI rAma, krishNa et al and is most easily approachable. So, you all, approach him.
- Even amongst the avathArams, krishNAvathAram is the pinnacle of nIrmai/saulabhyam (simplicity – easy approachability). Even in that, skipping those aspects which reveal his supremacy, AzhwAr is focussing fully on nagarakshOba (disturbances in the town) due to his navanIthachaurya (his habit of stealing butter). Though AzhwAr was focussed on instructing others, due to having a tender heart, he became mesmerized in krishNa’s act of stealing butter and became speechless.
- After meditating on his parathvam (supremacy) in the first padhigam, AzhwAr was clear (about the philosophy etc) and instructed others in the second padhigam. But starting to think about his saulabhyam (simplicity), AzhwAr became bewildered and fainted immediately.
Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.
- pAsuram 1
- pAsuram 2
- pAsuram 3
- pAsuram 4
- pAsuram 5
- pAsuram 6
- pAsuram 7
- pAsuram 8
- pAsuram 9
- pAsuram 10
- pAsuram 11
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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