thiruchchandha viruththam – pAsuram 34 – AdhiyAdhi Adhi nI

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavara munayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr enjoyed SrI rAmapirAn’s great quality of showering his mercy on vibhIshaNan, without looking at his lowliness of having been born as a demon. In this pAsuram, he says “How amazing is it that you, who are controlling the causative and effective entities, the authentic texts which cultivate good knowledge, the supreme entity who is known through those authentic texts, incarnated as a cowherd boy, kaNNan, in order to create interest among cowherd people who do not have interest in any of the four ultimate benefits of righteousness, opulence, worldly pursuits and liberation!”

AdhiyAdhiyAdhi nIyor aNdamAdhi AdhalAl
sOdhiyAdha sOdhi nI adhu uNmaiyil viLanginAy
vEdhamAgi vELviyAgi viNNinOdu maNNumAy
AdhiyAgi AyanAya mAyam enna mAyamE

Word-by-Word Meanings

AdhiyAdhiyAdhi – the one who is the material, efficient and instrumental causative factor
nI – you alone, are the one
or – being uniform
aNdam – oval shaped universe
Adhi – you become
nI – you alone
AdhalAl – Since you are the causative factor for all
sOdhiyAdha – without the need to analyse
sOdhi nI – you are the supreme effulgence
adhu – like that
uNmaiyil – in vEdham which is forever
viLanginAy – Oh one who is splendorous!
vEdhamAgi – being the controller of vEdham
vELviyAgi – as one who is worshipped in the rituals which are mentioned in those vEdhams
viNNinOdu – along with paramapadham
maNNumAy – being the controller of leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm) too
AdhiyAgi – being the controller of the taste which develops in attaining [you]
AyanAya – incarnated as a cowherd boy
mAyam – this wondrous deed
enna mAyam – how amazing is it!

Simple Translation

You alone are the material, efficient and instrumental causative factors. You alone are the uniform group of universes. Thus, being the causative factor, you are the supreme effulgence, not requiring any analysis. Oh one who is splendorous in the vEdhams which exist forever! How amazing is it that you, who are controller of the vEdhams, who are worshipped in all the rituals mentioned in the vEdhams, who are the controller of both the leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm) and nithya vibhUthi (spiritualistic realm), who control the development of taste in attaining you, incarnated in the clan of cowherds!

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

Adhi Adhi Adhi nI – Just as it has been mentioned in chAndhOgya upanishath 6-2-1 “sadhEva sOmya idhamagra AsIth EkamEva adhvithIyam” (Oh child! brahmam, which is also called as sath [that which exists] (which is now seen with names and forms for all entities) was only one (since it was without names and forms for entities) during the time of deluge (and since it was without an identical entity) it was without a second entity), you are the causative factor in three ways: similar to a potter (one who determines) making pots with clay (material), using rod and wheel (implements), you are the materialistic cause (similar to clay), efficient cause (similar to the potter) and implement cause (similar to the rod and wheel), for all the prAkrutha (primordial) entities. Just as SrI vishNu purANam 1-2-53 says “mahadhAdhyA viShEshAnthA hi aNdam uthpAdhayanthi thE” (twenty-three entities starting with mahAn (great), the five senses etc create the universe), for all the entities which are derived from prakruthi, you, who are together with prakruthi, are the materialistic cause, through your solemn vow, the efficient cause and through your knowledge and power, the implement cause. This has been seen in chAndhOgya upanishath 6-2-3 “thadhaikshatha bahusyAm prAjAyEyEthi l thaththEjO’srujatha” (that para brahmam (supreme entity) took a sankalpam (vow) – let me become manifold; let me be born; it created effulgence).

or aNdamAdhi – you, who are together with these entities such as mahAn etc, become the collection of universes. Just as it has been said in SrI vishNu purANam 2-7-27 “aNdAnAnthu sahasrANAm sahasrANyayuthAni cha I IdhruSAnAm thathA thathra kOti kOti SathAni cha ll” (The essence is “In that prakruthi, there are several hundred crores of universes like this”), aren’t these universes uniform? While oraNdam (one universe) refers to the universe in singular, here it means the collection of universes. The implied meaning is that you create, from a brahmA to an ant, in each of these universes, permeate them and control each of them.

AdhalAl sOdhiyAdha sOdhi nI – Since you are the causative factor for all the worlds, you are the splendorous entity to be meditated upon, without the need for an analysis. The implied meaning is that unlike brahma sUthram which had to contend with a counter hypothesis that the thrividha mahAbhUtham (ethereal layer, fire and wind) of fire or lord of fire or Adhithya (sun) or vaiSvAnarAgni (or the ethereal layer or wind) is the splendorous entity, before confirming that paramAthmA alone, who controls all these, is that splendorous entity, we do not have to determine anything like that. chAndhOgya upanishath 3-13-7 says “atha yadhatha: parOdhivO jyOthir dhIpyathE” (the splendorous entity who has mercifully taken residence in paramapadham). muNdakOpanishath 2-2-10 says “hiraNmayE parElOkE virajam brahma nishkaLam l thachchubhram jyOthishAm jyOthisthadhyadh AthmavidhO vidhu: ll” (There is a brahmam (supreme entity) without rajOguNam (quality of passion) and without limbs in the golden hued world which is above. It is sacred. paramAthmagyAnis (sages who are knowledgeable about the supreme entity) know that most splendorous of all splendorous entities). thaiththirIya upanishath nArAyaNavalli 11 says “nArAyaNa param brahmathathvam nArAyaNa: para: l nArAyana parOjyOthirAthmA nArAyaNa: para: ll” (nArAyaNan alone is the supreme brahmam; nArAyaNan alone is the supreme entity; nArAyaNan alone is the supreme effulgence; nArAyaNan alone is the supreme soul). In line with these authentic texts, are you not the most splendorous entity, more than the brightest entity?

adhuNmaiyil viLanginAy – Since that splendorous entity is mentioned by vEdhams, which are without any fault, you are more distinguished than all the rest.

vEdhamAgi – It was you who took a solemn vow that vEdhams will be forever and will be without any fault. In other words, even when all the rest are destroyed during deluge, the vEdhAksharams (words from vEdham) remain in your divine thoughts and are indestructible. Just as it has been said in SvEthAsvathara upanishath 6-18 “yO brahmANam vidhadhAthi pUrvam yO vai vEdhAmScha prahiNOthi thasmai l tham ha dhEvam Athmabudhdhi prasAdham mumukshurvai SaraNam aham prapadhyE ll” (I, desiring to attain mOksham (SrI vaikuNtam), surrender to that supreme entity, who initially created brahmA and who instructed him all the vEdhams), you were one who instructed vEdhams at the beginning of creation, to brahmA. Hence, you are the reason for the permanency of vEdhams.

vELviyAgi – Oh one who is the controller of the first part of vEdhams too, which deals with conduct of yAgams (rituals)! In other words, you are the one, worshipped through the yAgams and you are the one, giving the benefits too, for those rituals, just as it has been mentioned in bhagavath gIthA 9-24 SlOkam “aham hi sarvayagyAnAm bhOkthA cha prabhurEvacha l na thu mAmabhijAnanthi thathvE nAthaS chyavanthi thE ll” (I am the enjoyer of all the yagyams; I shower all the benefits of such yagyams; those who are firmly engaged with other deities, do not know me truly; hence, they slip away from me).

viNNinOdu maNNumAy – you are the controller for mOksham (SrI vaikuNtam) which is the ultimate benefit for those who have detachment towards worldly pursuits and worship you through yAgams; you are also the controller of the bhOgabhUmi (earth which is to be enjoyed) which is the ultimate benefit for those who have attachment towards svargam (heaven) and other worldly pursuits and who worship you through yAgams. The term viN refers to paramapadham while the term maN refers to the fourteen worlds enjoyed by the jIvan (soul). Would the same yAgam be the single means for contradicting benefits of mOksham and bhOgabhUmi? If the yAgam is conducted with the true knowledge about jIvan and paran (soul and supreme entity, respectively), without attachment towards worldly pursuits, it would lead to mOksham. If it is conducted without that knowledge and with attachment towards worldly pursuits, it will lead to bhOgabhUmi. Hence there is no contradiction here.

AdhiyAgi – these two benefits of mOksham and bhOgabhUmi will accrue to one who has taste in these. Hence, emperumAn acts to create that taste in the jIvan. Since he is the cause for creating the interest, the word Adhi refers to taste, here.

AyanAya mAyam enna mAyamE – you transformed your aprAkrutha (not made of primordial matter), divine, auspicious form into the form of a cowherd, kaNNan. You created interest in those who did not have interest in mOksham and bhOgabhUmi [cowhered people] through instructing bhagavath gIthA etc. How amazing is your incarnation as a cowherd!

Next, we will consider the 35thpAsuram of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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