SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavara munayE nama:
In the previous pAsuram, it was said, just as it had been said in SrI vishNu purANam 5-22-15 “manasaiva jagath srushtim samhArancha karOthi ya: l thasyAripakshakshapaNE kiyAnudhyamavisthara: ll” (For one who is able to create and destroy the world through his mind, what great effort needs to be taken to kill his enemies?) that emperumAn is capable of creating and destroying the world through his sankalpam (thought or vow) and that such emperumAn will take many avathArams (incarnations) even for easy deeds due to his mercy towards his followers. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr says that the reasons for his doing this are: (a) the completeness brought about by his parathvam (supreme eminence), (b) the simplicity brought about by being the consort of thiru (SrI mahAlakshmi) and (c) the strong relationship [with his followers] which cannot easily be given up. He says that due to emperumAn’s such mercy, he takes many incarnations in vyUha (emperumAn’s state in thiruppARkadal (milky ocean) and vibhava (his state on earth) states and that none can estimate that his mercy is “like this”.
paraththilum paraththaiyAdhi pauvanIr aNaikkidandhu
uraththilum oruththi thannai vaiththu ugandhadhanRiyum
naraththilum piRaththi nAdha gyAna mUrthi AyinAy
oruththarum ninAdhu thanmai innadhenna vallarE
paraththilum – more than the three classes of AthmAs, which are superior to prakruthi
paraththaiyAdhi – you have distinguished svarUpam (basic nature)
uraththilum – on your divine chest too
oruththi thannai – periya pirAttiyAr (SrI mahAlakshmi) who is unique and the main consort
vaiththu – making her reside permanently
ugandhu – enjoying the togetherness with her
pauva nIr – water of the ocean
aNai – on the mattress
kidandhu – reclining in the form of anirudhdha
adhanRiyum – further
naraththilum – (despicable) human species too
piRaththi – you incarnated in the forms of Sr rAma, krishNa et al
nAdha – Oh lord, without any reason!
gyAnamUrthi AyinAy – Oh one who has knowledge as svarUpam (basic nature)
oruththarum – none among even vEdhams or those who are with knowledge, and who follow vEdhams
niNadhu thanmai – your one nature of mercy
innadhenna – to estimate and say that it is ‘like this’
vallarE – is capable?
Oh lord, [who is the lord] without any reason! Oh one who has knowledge as basic nature! You have a distinguished svarUpam which is beyond the three classes of AthmAs (badhdhAthmAs, those who are bound to samsAram, mukthAthmAs, who were earlier in samsAram but have got liberated from it and reached SrI vaikuNtam and nithyAthmAs, the permanent dwellers of SrI vaikuNtam, who have never had any contact with samsAram). You have periya pirAttiyar, who is unique and your main consort, permanently on your divine chest, enjoying her proximity. You recline on the waters of thiruppARkadal, as a mattress, in the form of anirudhdha. You have incarnated as SrI rAma, krishNa et al in the human species, which is despised by celestial entities. No one, among vEdhams and those who follow vEdhams and are knowledgeable, could estimate your quality of mercy and say that ‘You are like this’
paraththilum paraththai Adhi – Just as it has been said in SrI vishNu purANam 1-2-10 “para: parANAm parama: paramAthmAthma samsthitha: l rUpavarNAdhi nirdhESa viSEshaNa vivarjitha: ll” (paramAthmA (supreme entity) who is greater than the greatest, who is without anyone superior to him, does not have the distinctions which are common to prAkrutha (made from primordial matter) entities such as colour, form etc and name), emperumAn is more eminent than the three types of AthmAs (badhdha, muktha and nithya) which are, in themselves, superior to mUla prakruthi which is an achEthanam (without knowledge). This [being superior to all] is emperumAn’s svarUpam.
Next, we should consider the verse uraththilum oruththi thannai vaiththu ugandhu. Isn’t being the consort of periya pirAttiyAr, a greater eminence to emperumAn’s svarUpam than the Athma svarUpam mentioned in the first part!
uraththilum – through the usage of um (also), it is shown that periya pirAttiyAr is together with emperumAn in his svarUpam also. Since she is the svarUpa nirUpaka bhUthai (the entity who identifies emperumAn’s basic nature), periya pirAttiyAr’s svarUpam will be together in all the contexts of emperumAn’s svarUpam. Further, for the other consorts of emperumAn, residing permanently in his divine chest is not mentioned and is mentioned only for periya pirAtti. Hence, the term uraththilum manifests periya pirAttiyAr’s exclusive distinction, which is not seen with other consorts.
oruththi – unparalleled. Just as nammAzhwAr has mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 9-2-10 “vadiviNai illA malar magaL” (SrI mahAlakshmi, born on a lotus flower, is without match in her form), among the consorts of emperumAn, she is without match in her divine form and basic nature. Since she is the head of the three classes of AthmAs and is the reigning consort of emperumAn, she is referred to as oruththi (unique).
thannai vaiththu – She resides permanently in the divine chest of emperumAn without leaving even for a moment due to emperumAn’s sweetness, just as it has been said by nammAzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 6-10-10 “agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu” (I will not leave [emperumAn] even for a moment). Since she is so totally engaged with him, he too cannot separate from her even for a moment and hence keeps her in his chest always.
ugandhu – just as it has been mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16-5 “thulya SeelA vayOvruththAm thulyAbhijanalakshaNAm l rAghavO’rhathi vaidhEhIm tham chEyam asithEkshaNA ll”
(SrI rAma is well suited to sIthAp pirAtti with her well-matched character, age and conduct; with well-matched lineage and characteristics, this black-eyed sIthA is also suited to him), you have enjoyed togetherness with periya pirAtiyAr who has well-matched auspicious qualities, age and conduct.
pauva nIr aNaik kidandhu – protecting chEthanas, who are to be protected, happens as an outlet for the happiness which results from affection towards periya pirAttiyAr. Thus, you have incarnated as anirudhdha and reclined on thiruppARkadal, using the water of the ocean as your mattress. Just as vishNu dharmam 41-30 says “andhakArE’thithIvrE cha narasimham anusmarEth l tharathyakhila dhu:kkhAni thApArthIO jalaSAyinam ll” (In pitch darkness, let the chEthana think of narasimha perumAL. When suffering from sorrows, let him think of the supreme entity who is reclining in thiruppARkadal; (by thinking this way), he crosses all hurdles), this talks about the great quality of reclining in thiruppARkadal, even when had desired it, to be the refuge for those who are suffering from sorrows. Reference to anirudhdha here is representative of SankarshaNa and pradhyumna too, who are the other two incarnations in vyUham (thiruppARkadal).
adhanRiyum – when chith (with knowledge) entities were lying together with achith (without knowledge) entities during deluge, without any knowledge, you had given them forms and names, when creation started. Through your mercy, you gave them SAsthras (sacred texts which tell them what they should and what they should not do). When brahmA, Siva et al were troubled by monsters and demons, you removed their troubles. Thus, not being satisfied with protecting them through your three vyUha forms, going beyond….
naRaththilum piRaththi – chAndhOgya upanishath 3-14-2 says of emperumAn “sarva gandha: sarva rasa:” (he is the repository of the good fragrances and all the good tastes). You, having such an aprAkrutha divine form, incarnated in the form of a human being, a species detested by brahma et al, as one among them, with the divine forms of SrI rAma, krishNa et al. Reference to human species is representative of celestial, animal and plant species too. kUraththAzhwAn [one of the prominent disciples of SrI rAmAnuja] mercifully says in his varadharAja sthavam 17 that emperumAn has incarnated in many species: “iyam vai vaiyUhI sthithratha kilEchchAvihruthayE vibhUthInAm madhyE suranarathiraSchAmavatharan l sajAthIyas thEshAmithi thu vibhavAkyAmapi bhajan karISa! thvam pUrNO varaguNagaNais thAn sthagayasi ll”
(Oh varadharAja! The regulation of your auspicious qualities is apt only for your vyUha state. Beyond that, when you incarnate as celestial, human, animal species, in order to play just as you like, with a name of vibhavAvathAram (incarnating as SrI rAma, krishNa et al), even though you are complete with your auspicious qualities, you hide those qualities since you want to be one among the respective celestial, human or animal species).
nAdha – Oh one who has all the entities with you! The implied meaning is that you incarnate in various species since the owner cannot give up on his possessions.
gyAna mUrthiyAyinAy – you have gyAnam as your svarUpam. This speaks about the abundance of knowledge in him, in order to know the path for protecting chEthanas, mentioned earlier. Even if one were the owner, if he does not know the way to protect his possessions, could he protect them? Is it so difficult to know the path to protect the chEthanas? Since the tastes of the chEthanas are varied, in order to correct them, emperumAn has to deploy several methods such as giving them SAsthram, instructing them through an AchAryan (guru, preceptor), manifesting his divine beauty, manifesting his auspicious qualities etc. These could be carried out only by emperumAn and by no one else.
oruththarum ninAdhu thanmai innadhu enna vallarE – could vEdhams or the knowledgeable ones who follow such vEdhams, measure and say that your mercy is to this extent? The implied meaning is that it is impossible for anyone to know the extent of emperumAn’s mercy when he undertakes lowly incarnations, which are incongruent with his eminence, in order to protect the samsAris, when they destroy their svarUpam of SEshathvam (being servile to emperumAn) and sever their relationship with emperumAn.
Next, we will take up the 30th pAsuram of this prabandham.
adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan
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