thiruvAimozhi – 7.2.1 – kangulum pagalum

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Second decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s mother informs her daughter’s unconscious state to periya perumAL and asks him “What are you going to do to her?”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


kangulum pagalum kaN thuyil aRiyAL kaNNa nIr kaigaLAl iRaikkum
sangu chakkarangaL enRu kai kUppum thAmaraik kaN enRE thaLarum
enganE dharikkEn unnai vittennum iru nilam kai thuzhAvirukkum
sengayal pAy nIrth thiruvarangaththAy ivaL thiRaththen seyginRAyE?


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kangulum – night (when worldly people sleep)
pagalum – day (when those who are in love sleep)
kaN – eyes
thuyil – to sleep
aRiyAL – does not even realise;

(since her eyes are filled with tears of sorrow to stop her from sleeping and similar to one trying to empty out water from ocean with hands)
kaNNa nIr – tears

(to stop)
kaigaLAl – with her hands
iRaikkum – removing them

(thinking that he would take pity on her teary eyes, he would arrive as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.1kUrArAzhi veN sangEndhi” as she desired)
sangu chakkarangaL – Sanka (conch) and chakra (disc)
enRu – saying
kai kUppum – she would perform anjali which she would do upon his arrival;

(thinking about the eyes which would throw a cool glance)
thAmarai – lotus like
kaN – eye
enRE – saying that

(due to not seeing that)
thaLarum – would become tired;
unnai – you (who have such beautiful weapons and limbs)
vittu – without
enganE – how
dharikkEn – will I sustain?
ennum – will say;

(due to her great sorrow)
iru nilam – the whole ground

(as he touched with his foot, she would)
kai – with her hand
thuzhA – search
irukkum – will remain in an inactive state (due to not having strength for searching the land too);
sem – reddish due to youthful state
kayal – fish
pAy – jumping around
nIr – having water
thiruvarangaththAy – oh one who is residing in kOyil (SrIrangam)!
ivaL thiRaththu – this girl who is having these amazing emotions

(towards her who is unable to sustain in separation from you like the fish separated from water)
en – what
seyginRAy – are you planning to do?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My daughter’s eyes do not even realise to sleep in night and day; she is removing the tears from her eyes with her hands; saying Sanka and chakra, she would perform anjali which she would do upon his arrival; saying “lotus like eye”, she would become tired; she would say “how will I sustain without you”; she would search the ground with her hand and will remain in an inactive state; oh one who is residing in kOyil (SrIrangam) which is having water bodies in which youthful, reddish fishes jump around! What are you planning to do for this girl who is having these amazing emotions?  Implies “are you planning to eliminate the sorrow or increase the same?”

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kangulum pagalum kaN thuyil aRiyAL – When are you planning to make her sleep? The boundary of day and night was set up to give a break to the continuous sorrow of those who are suffering in separation; that is not helping her. In the night, one would spend the time by engaging in the pleasures, and in the day, one would spend time thinking “it is getting closer to night”; since she is saying “enganE dharikkEn unnai vittu” (How can I sustain without you?) she cannot sustain herself like that. She does not even realise the day and night which are meant to pacify her. Even the day became useless like the night.
  • pagal – (for those who are in love) when they enter the adolescent stage, as they are constantly engaging with their beloved person, they would not sleep in the night; to compensate for the lack of sleep in the night, they would sleep well in the morning! She is not even getting such sleep. emperumAn made her to be like him as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.44 “anidhras sathatham rAma:” (SrI rAma never sleeps). This is how he gave his sAmyApaththi (equivalence) to her as said in muNdaka upanishath 3.1.3 “niranjana: paramam sAmyam upaithi” (jIvAthmA attains equality (in eight qualities) with supreme lord). Instead of saying “kaN thuyil koLLAL” (she would not sleep), here it is said as “kaN thuyil aRiyAL” (she would not know about sleep) because, in samSlEsham (union), he would not let her sleep and in viSlEsham (separation) her sorrow in separation will not let her sleep; so, in both cases, she does not get to sleep [hence, she does not even know about sleep]. Even if she would have slept during union, the mother who observes her current suffering, would not consider that sleep as significant! The mother would not consider that sleep as significant since it is a rehearsal for her subsequent suffering. Just as someone who was born in a prison cell and was raised there, would think about that suffering even after getting released and living comfortably.
  • aRiyAL – While being together with SrI rAma in the forest, lakshmaNa considering sleep to be a hurdle, gave it up. This is the distinguished nature of parAnguSa nAyaki even more than such servitors. Though AdhiSEsha [previous form of lakshmaNa] never knew sleep, to play the role of lakshmaNa properly, he pretended to give up the sleep.
  • kaNNa nIr kaigaLAl iRaikkum – But her ignorance is not manifested all the times! Thinking “at this stage, my lord will certainly come, and I cannot be with teary eyes or have tired posture when he comes; I should see from the time he enter this place” she is trying to hide her tears. How amazing! She thinks that she can stop her tears and starts working on it. It is said in thiruviruththam 18 “kadal koNda kaNNIr” (tears like ocean). She is thinking that she can fetch the water from the ocean using a kOkuL leaf and empty the ocean! She is trying to empty the tears using her own hands. It is as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.4 “kimartham thavanEthrAbhyAm” (why are tears flowing from the eyes of your highness?).
  • sangu – She is thinking about the divine form which will appear in front of her, once she stops the tears. She is desiring to see him with his divine weapons as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.5.1thavaLa oN sangu chakkaram” (white coloured radiant conch and chakra)! Only for those unfavourable ones, emperumAn should remain two-handed. arjuna who desired to his original form, said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 11.46thEnaivarUpENa chathurbhujEna” (your original four handed form). She desires to say “kUrArAzhi veN sangEndhi” , but is unable to complete that due to her weakness; just as a thirsty person would request water using sign language [being unable to speak], here parAnguSa nAyaki performs an anjali [to indicate her desire to see him with his weapons].
  • thAmaraik kaN enRE thaLarum – While trying to say how his eyes expand up to those AzhwArs [Sanka, chakra et al are all nithyasUris who are known as AzhwArs (immersed in bhagavath anubhavam) with certain forms] and manifest their beauty, she became weakened. Setting out to say as in thiruvAimozhi 9.2.1 “un thAmaraik kaNgaLAl nOkkAy” (you glance at me with your lotus eyes), she became weakened. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 26.37 “rAmam rakthAntha nayanam apaSyanthI dhu:khithA” (I have become anguished due to not seeing SrI rAma’s eyes which are red in their ends).

Why are you becoming weakened? Why can’t you spend your time doing something else? ..

  • enganE dharikkEn unnai vittu ennum – Can I be pacified that I desired for param (bhagavAn’s form as paravAsudhEva in SrIvaikuNtam) or vyUham (bhagavAn’s form in kshIrAbdhi) [and rightfully did not get to see them due to the distance]?
  • unnai vittu enganE dharikkEn ennum – She is asking if she was caught in worldly pleasures in the absence of which she could engage in [casual] gambling, chess etc? [No. She is caught in the most distinguished emperumAn, so she cannot sustain herself in his absence]. If you knew your own greatness “Should you not know that those who get separated from me will not survive?”
  • unnai vittu enganE dharikkEn ennum – Have you not seen yourself in the mirror? If you have seen yourself, you will not separate [from yourself]; if you separated, you too will suffer like her.

As emperumAn did not arrive even after saying “enganE dharikkEn” (how will I survive?),

  • iru nilam kai thuzhA irukkum – (due to the mud which was created from the tears) the great earth became a semi-solid state like sandalwood paste in a small container.
  • sem kayal – Even the animals (fish in this case) are well nourished! They are healthy and active; but she lost her complexion. One which held on to nAra (water) is living happily; but why is my daughter who held on to nArAyaNa in distress?
  • sem kayal – Beautiful fish. Only if that fish can survive without water, she can survive without you. She is mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 53.31 “muhUrtham api jeevAva: jalAn mathsyA vivOthruthau” (if we separate from you, we will die like a fish out of the water).
  • ivaL thiRaththu – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 6.16 “Ehi paSya SarIrANi” (Look at our bodies), since her state is not explainable through words, the mother is showing her body to emperumAn. Just as the rishis (sages) showed the bodies which were partly consumed by rAkshasas [reference here is to SrI rAma when he came for the first time to dhaNdakAraNya forest], here the mother is showing her daughter’s body which is consumed by the sorrow in separation.
  • en seyginRAyE – What are you planning to do for her? Should she not become as happy as the creatures [like fish] in your town, for seeking you?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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