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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 61 (Names 601 to 610)

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601) vrushabhAksha: (वृषभाक्षः)

bhagavAn maintains the cycle of fruits of karma through dharma. Thus, he is called ‘vrushabhAksha:’. The one who bestows (rains) fruits of karma is called ‘vrushabha:’. He is verily the dharma, and acts as the pivot to this wheel of samsAra. Thus, he is himself called ‘vrushabhAksha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn, who is verily the form of dharma, acts as the pivot to this wheel of samsAra, he is called ‘vrushabhAksha:’.

यतॊsक्षॊ वृषभॊ धर्मॊ वृषभाक्षः स उच्यतॆ |

602) vrushapriya: (वृषप्रियः)

In this way (as explained in these previous divine names), bhagavAn holds both pravruththi dharma (that which enhances experiences in samsAra) as well as nivruththi dharma (that which instigates liberation from this samsAra) close to his heart.

Thus, he is called ‘vrushapriya:’ – the one who likes dharmas.

Although pravruththi dharma contains acts that bind a soul in this samsAra, yet it is called ‘dharma’ only because bhagavAn holds it close to his heart. Similarly the nivruththi dharma is also ‘dharma’ or righteous.

Even the scriptural injunctions clearly indicate that both of these are likeable to bhagavAn.

It is shown thus in the brahma sUthras by bhagavan vEdhavyAsa: “Fruits are begotten from bhagavAn, for it is proven so”

dhramidAchArya has also reinforced this further by saying “Individual souls who desire of certain outcomes act accordingly and only please bhagavAn. That bhagavAn, who is pleased with such righteous actions, bestows the desired fruits upon the seekers. Even the scriptures hail thus”

Thus, the schools of thought that propound the bestowing of fruits by karma (action itself), its samskAra (its sacredness), its power, the apUrvas (entities said to be born out of scriptural actions, believed to bestow the fruits by other schools of thought), etc are clearly refuted (meaning, none of these insentient entities grant the fruits. It is only bhagavAn who is pleased with such actions in accordance with his commandments who bestows the fruits, according to this divine name).

Etymology: The pravarthaka and nivarthaka dharmas are very dear to bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘vrushapriya:’. This eight syllable manthra bestows all fruits upon the seekers.

धर्मौ प्रियौ तावस्यॆति प्रवर्तकनिवर्तकौ |
वृषप्रियः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णः फलदॊ मनुः ||

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अनिवर्ती निवृत्तात्मा संक्षॆप्ता क्षॆमकृच्छिवः ।
श्रीवत्सवक्षाः श्रीवासः श्रीपतिः श्रीमतांवरः ॥ ६४ ॥
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603) anivarthI (अनिवर्ती)

Of the two categories, bhagavAn binds the souls who are inclined towards pravruththi dharma in this samsAra by putting them on the path of repeated cycles of birth and death in the dhUmAdhi mArga (the route leading to lowly planets). Thus, he is called ‘anivarthI’ – the one who causes the souls not to return.

By grammatical rules, the ‘Nini:’ (णिनिः) adjunct is used in this divine name. The same rule applies to other divine names such as ‘kAmI’ कामी (659), etc.

That is how the souls desiring material pleasures are bound in this samsAra.

This is shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “When the soul traverses the path of dhUma (smoke), rAthri (darkness), dhakshiNAyanam (the six months of dakshiNAyana), etc (which is collectively called ‘dhUmAdhi mArgam’), then the practitioner of such dharmas shall attain the effulgence of the moon for a certain period of time and return to this world”
  • “Having travelled to different worlds and enjoyed the fruits of various karmas, the individual soul returns to this world in order to exhaust the remnant karmas”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn clearly binds the souls desiring material pleasures in this samsAra, thereby preventing them from returning, he is called ‘anivarthI’. This eight syllable manthra confers fear of samsAra among the chanters.

पितृयाणप्रवृत्तानां संसारादनिवर्तनात् |
अनिवर्ती समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ भयदॊ मनुः ||

604) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also repeated in 231, 453, and 780)

Although bhagavAn himself establishes the pravruththi dharmas and promotes it, yet he holds those individual souls very close to his heart – who practice the nivruththi dharma (leading to mOksham).

Such souls practicing nivruththi dharma by disengaging from actions that lead to lowly fruits (and desire only for bhagavAn and nothing else) are so dear to him that he considers them as verily his souls!

Thus, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

Etymology: He, who holds all such individuals who practice the nivruththi dharma as verily his souls, is called ‘nivruththAthmA’. This eight syllable manthra destroys all effects of bad karmas of the chanter.

सर्वॆ निवृत्तिधर्माणॊ यस्यात्मानः स तु स्मृतः |
निवृत्तात्मॆत्यष्टवर्णॊ दुष्कर्मफलमॊचकः ||

605) samkshEpthA (संक्षॆप्ता)

bhagavAn causes the natural knowledge of such individual souls who pursue lowly material benefits to shrink, thereby causing them to cycle in this wheel of samsAra. Thus, he is called ‘samkshEpthA’ – the one who causes to shrink.

This is hailed in the vishNu purANa thus: “…The Sakthi called ‘avidhyA’ or ignorance is the third type of Sakthi that bhagavAn possesses, with which the true knowledge of an individual soul is bound in this samsAra”.

Etymology: He – who possesses the quality of preventing the spreading of the otherwise naturally unbounded knowledge among the practitioners of pravruththi dharma – is called ‘samkshEpthA’. The chanting of this six lettered manthra causes one’s knowledge to be expanded.

स्वाभाविकासङ्कुचित-मॆधायाश्चाप्रस्रारणम् |
प्रवृत्तिधर्माणां कर्तुं शीलं यस्यास्ति सर्वदा |
स संक्षॆप्तॆति कथितः षडर्णॊ धीविकासदः ||

606) kshEmakruth (क्षॆमकृत्)

On the other hand, bhagavAn also prevents the shrinking of such knowledge in the mumukshus treading the path of nivruththi dharmas. He always safeguards such knowledge so that it is always expanded, thereby granting full knowledge upon the souls desiring liberation. Thus, he is called ‘kshEmakruth’ – the one who is beneficial.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn looks after the welfare of noble men (mumukshus) by causing their knowledge to expand fully, he is called ‘kshEmakruth’.

असङ्कॊचज्ञानरूप-क्षॆमस्य करणात् सताम् |
क्षॆमकृच्चापि सर्वॆषाम् |

607) Siva: (शिवः) (also repeated in 27)

Thus, bhagavAn always confers all favourable fruits to all souls who desire material benefits as well as liberation. Thus, he is called ‘Siva:’.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “bhagavAn is the cause for both binding in samsAra as well as liberation to mOksha”
  • “He rules over the world of pithrus”
  • “He is auspicious to the noble men and inauspicious to the corrupt”, et al.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the benefactor of auspiciousness (to all kinds of souls), he is called ‘Siva:’.

शिवस्य करणात् शिवः |

608) SrIvathsavakshA: (श्रीवत्सवक्षाः)

Thence, the forthcoming divine names show how bhagavAn achieves such bestowal of favourable outcomes upon all souls. He takes care of all souls because of his eternal relation with his divine consort SrI mahAlakshmi.

bhagavAn has a mark on his chest, which is called ‘SrIvathsa’ (श्रीवत्सः), which gives away his sole lordship over all worlds, as well as his eternal relation with SrI mahAlakshmi, and hence acts as a mark of utmost prosperity. Thus, he is called ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’.

Sri mahAlakshmi has verily this ‘SrIvathsa’ as Her seat on his chest.

The SrImath rAmAyaNam itself gives this divine name ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’ to bhagavAn.

Etymology: The sign of utmost prosperity showing the eternal relation of bhagavAn with SrI mahAlakshmi, ‘SrIvathsa’ by name – is seen on bhagavAn’s chest. Hence, he is called ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’.

लक्ष्मीवाल्लभ्यसौभाग्यचिह्नं श्रीवत्सनामकम् |
श्रीवत्सवक्षाः अस्यास्ति वक्षसीति स तु स्मृतः ||

609) SrIvAsa: (श्रीवासः)

The attribute of bhagavAn by which he is called ‘nithyaSrI:’ (नित्यश्रीः) is shown in this divine name ‘SrIvAsa:’. bhagavAn’s divine chest is verily the beautiful garden filled with all auspicious trees such as kalpavruksha and other nice floral plants for SrI mahAlakshmi, where she relaxes at all times.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (his divine chest) is verily the pleasure garden for SrI mahAlakshmi, he is called ‘SrIvAsa:’.

श्रियॊ विहारस्थानत्वात् श्रीवास इति चॊच्यतॆ |

610) SrIpathi: (श्रीपतिः)

Just as SrImath rAmAyaNa celebrates the divine couple by saying “Befitting in all ways such as character, age and deeds, and also in the ways they protect their devotees, that SrI rAma is befitting of this vaidhEhi and she also rightly deserves that SrI rAma as her consort”, that bhagavAn is the most deserving consort of SrIdhEvi SrI mahAlakshmi.

The vEdhas also glorify this divine relation thus:

  • “Oh bhagavAn, SrIdhEvi and bhUdhEvi (and NeeLA dhEvi) are your divine consorts”
  • “…(SrI mahAlakshmi is) the mistress of all worlds, and the divine consort of vishNu”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is verily the divine consort of SrIdhEvi, he is called ‘SrIpathi:’.

स्वयं श्रियःपतित्वॆन वृत्तत्वात् श्रीपतिः स्मृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 60 (Names 591 to 600)

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591) SAnthi: (शान्तिः)

Among such firmly placed devotees, bhagavAn causes them to forget all their false identities with lower deeds and soothes them by fixing their minds in himself. Thus, he is called ‘SAnthi:’.

Etymology: Since all other engagements of the devotees of bhagavAn who have firmly fixed their minds in him are purged in their deep state of meditation called ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SAnthi:’. This six lettered manthra is capable of conferring highest devotion towards bhagavAn unto the chanters.

सर्वाधिकाराः शाम्यन्ति समाधौ परमॆ यतः |
अतः शान्तिरिति प्रॊक्तः ऋत्वर्णॊ भक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

592) parAyaNam (परायणम्)

Not just that; bhagavAn further enhances true devotion towards himself – which confers the supreme abode – amongst such souls who have stabilized their minds thus (as shown in the previous divine names). Thus, he is called ‘parAyaNam’ – the one who shows the way to the supreme abode.

bhagavAn himself declares this in the bhagavath gIthA thus:

  • “He who gives up the ills of wrong perception of self, strength, ego, desire, anger and greed, and meditates without even a trace of selflessness and with a completely calmed mind, is fit to enjoy the supreme brahman. Such a seeker has a happy mind, and neither desires for any pleasure nor worries for any sorrows. He treats all beings alike, and eventually attains the supreme devotion towards me, which will uplift him”
  • “Oh arjuna, I am not accessible otherwise to such persons who are not equipped with such pure devotion unto me. Such souls (who do not possess such pure devotion) can neither know me, nor see me; they cannot attain me either”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself instigates the highest devotion towards himself, which eventually becomes the tool to attain him, he is called ‘parAyaNam’.

यस्मात्तु परमाभक्तिः चरमा प्रापिका मता |
तस्मात् परायणमिति स्मृतॊ ह्यष्टार्ण उत्तमः ||

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शुभाङ्गः शान्तिदः स्रष्टा कुमुदः कुवलॆशयः ।
गॊहितॊ गॊपतिर्गॊप्ता वृषभाक्षॊ वृषप्रियः ॥ ६३ ॥
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593) SubhAnga: (शुभाङ्गः) (also repeated in 788)

For such a focused devotion / bhakthi, since bhagavAn himself bestows the eight limbs of yOga right from ‘yama’ up till ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SubhAnga:’ – the one who bestows the auspicious limbs of yOga.

He only takes care of attainment and safeguarding of the needs of his devotees in reaching him.

Etymology: He who bestows the auspicious eight limbs of yOga such as yama, niyama etc in order to instigate devotion towards himself (as seen in previous divine names) is called ‘SubhAnga:’. This seven lettered manthra bestows the power to meditate unto its chanters.

स्वभक्त्युद्भव-कल्याण-यमाद्यष्टाङ्गसम्भवः |
यः स्यात् शुभाङ्गः स प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णॊ ध्यानदायकः ||

594) SAnthidha: (शान्तिदः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn bestows eternal peace unto those souls who have developed such pure devotion towards him, by keeping them united with him at all times in his supreme abode, and thus relieving them from the sorrows of the cycles of birth and death.

Thus, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’ – the one who bestows peace.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “Knowing that auspicious entity SrIman nArAyaNa, who solely pervades all of the worlds, he (the individual soul) attains eternal peace”

bhagavAn also declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “With my grace, you shall attain the supreme abode, which is both eternal and peaceful”

The vEdhas also hail thus: “Having realized that supreme soul bhagavAn, who is the sole master of all worlds and the bestower of desires, the individual soul attains eternal peace”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestows the highly blissful and eternal peace unto those souls who have thus (as shown in the previous divine names) developed pure devotion towards him, which comes from their eternal association with bhagavAn in SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’.

एवं निष्पन्नभक्तिभ्यः शान्तिं सायुज्यसंज्ञिकाम् |
महानन्दां ददातीति शान्तिदः परिकीर्तितः ||

595) srashtA (स्रष्टा) (also repeated in 990)

Even while liberating the ‘mumukshu’s (souls desiring liberation) thus (as shown in the previous divine name), bhagavAn continues to make the other souls (who desire to be in this samsAra) to be born in this samsAra according to their previous karma. Thus, he is called ‘srashtA’ – the creator.

The root ‘sruj’ सृज् (to create) gets the ‘am’ (अम्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who makes the souls who are not interested in liberation to be born in this samsAra according to their karma is called ‘srashtA’.

कर्मवैचित्र्यतः सृज्यान् स्रष्टा स्यात् सृजतीति यः |

596) kumudha: (कुमुदः) (also repeated in 813)

The letter ‘ku’ (कु) refers to the prakruthi maNdalam (this leelA vibhUthi), which is the land of enjoyment of both higher as well as lower sensations (as per karma) like sight, sound, touching, etc for all souls who desire to continue in this samsAra. Since bhagavAn satisfies such souls in this leelA vibhUthi by giving them such enjoyments, and thus enjoys himself, he is called ‘kumudha:’.

As per the grammatical rules, the ‘ka:’ (कः) adjunct is used in this divine name.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus:

  • “The servile individual soul gets tied up (in this samsAra) in order to enjoy (the fruits of karma)”
  • “The supreme soul and the individual soul are both eternal, and are respectively the most knowledgeable and the ignorant. They are also respectively the master and servant by nature”, etc.

Etymology: He, who himself always enjoys by making the individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham) enjoy the fruits of their actions in this prakruthi maNdalam (ku), is called ‘kumudha:’.

कौ प्राकृतॆ मण्डलॆsस्मिन् स्वभॊक्तॄनपि भॊजयन् |
मॊदतॆ यः सर्वकालं कुमुदः स तु गीयतॆ ||

597) kuvalESaya: (कुवलॆशयः)

In this divine name, the letter ‘ku’ (कु) means ‘condemned’. The root ‘valanthE’ (वलन्तॆ) means to keep coming around in a certain enclosure, which is this ‘samsAra’. Thus, the word ‘kuvala:’ (कुवलः) refers to a condemned individual soul who does not take interest in liberation and keeps cycling in this wheel of samsAra. Such fallen souls consider themselves as the masters of their own body, senses, etc. Thus, they are contextually called as ‘kuvalESA:’ (कुवलॆशाः).

Since bhagavAn is the one who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them, he is called ‘kuvalESaya:’. The word ‘yAthi’ (याति) refers to attainment of such souls.

Etymology: The individual souls whose boundaries are condemned (whose boundary is this samsAra) are called ‘kuvalA:’. Since they consider themselves as the masters of their body, senses, etc, (and are driven by material pursuits), they are called ‘kuvalESA:’. He who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them is called ‘kuvalESaya:’.

वलं यॆषां कुत्सितं तॆ कुवलाः जीवसंज्ञिताः |
दॆहॆन्द्रियादॆरीशास्तॆ कुवलॆशा इति स्मृताः |
यस्तान् नियच्छन् यात्यॆष कुवलॆशय उच्यतॆ ||

598) gOhitha: (गॊहितः)

The word ‘gO’ (गॊ) in this divine name refers to ‘prakruthi’. It is the place (field) where bhagavAn sows the seed of samsAra. Since he maintains the welfare of this prakruthi, he is called ‘gOhitha:’.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “He who establishes all these various births in this samsAra, and in whom all these entities merge at the time of deluge, that sole master of all entities must be meditated upon”

It is said thus in other scriptures:

  • “The word ‘gau:’ (गौः) refers to the primordial nature (प्रकृतिः), which has no beginning or no end to it. It is the cause (material cause) for all these creations, and it is the place where all these entities are nurtured”
  • “All of these worlds are established by him, and all the end results are also established by him”, etc.

Etymology: He who establishes (makes manifest) the primordial nature or prakruthi, which is the field of cultivation for the seed of samsAra, (and thus looks after its welfare) is called ‘gOhitha:’.

संसारबीजक्षॆत्रस्य प्रकृतॆः स्थापकश्च यः स गॊहितः |

599) gOpathi: (गॊपतिः) (also repeated in 497)

bhagavAn is also the master of swarga, which is the land of superior enjoyments (in comparison to our own world). Thus, he is called ‘gOpathi:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘gOpathi:’ owing to his mastership over the swarga lOka as well.

स्वर्गभूमॆः पतित्वात् गॊपतिः स्मृतः |

600) gOpthA (गॊप्ता) (also repeated in 498)

bhagavAn further protects this cycle of the fruits of karma (namely birth and death) for all individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham). Thus, he is called ‘gOpthA’.

Etymology: He is called ‘gOpthA’, who looks after maintaining the cycle of fruits of karma.

गॊप्ता स यः कर्मफलचक्रस्य परिपालकः |

Thus ends the sixth centum (shashta Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The sixth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 59 (Names 581 to 590)

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581) thrisAmA (त्रिसामा)

The three types of sAmas namely bruhath (बृहत्), rathanthara (रथन्तरः) and vAmadhEvya (वामदॆव्यः) sing the glories of bhagavAn, he is called ‘thrisAmA’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thrisAmA’ since he is glorified by the three sAmas such as bruhath and others.

प्रॊक्तस्त्रिसामा यस्मात् सः बृहदादि त्रिसामकः |

582) sAmaga: (सामगः)

With utmost delight in enjoying himself, since bhagavAn himself sings those sAmas (shown in the previous divine name), he is called ‘sAmaga:’. As per the grammatical rules, the root ‘gA’ गा (to sing) gets the ‘tak’ (टक्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘ga:’ (गः) to mean ‘the one who sings’.

With such delighting experience only does bhagavAn make the individual souls sing the sAma at his supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam. This is shown in the thaiththirIya upanishath thus: “Thence they keep singing this sAma thus… hA vu hA vu hA vu…”

Etymology: He who sings the sAmas with utmost delight by enjoying himself is called ‘sAmaga:’.

स्वयं स्वानुभवप्रीत्या गायतीति च सामगः |

583) sAma: (सामः)

Also, bhagavAn wards off all the sins of the ones who sing his glories with such sAmas. Thus, he is called ‘sAma:’.

The root ‘shO’ (षॊ) gets the meaning of ‘ending’ and gets the ‘manin’ (मनिन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: The one who destroys the blemishes of those who sing his glories (with the sAmagAna) is called ‘sAma:’.

स्वगायकानां कालुष्यं स्यति यः साम कथ्यतॆ |

584) nirvANam (निर्वाणम्)

Even in this way, since bhagavAn becomes the cause of attainment of the supreme abode unto those who are ridden of their sins (and thus all karma), he is called ‘nirvANam’.

This follows the rule of pAnini’s aphorism that reads “निर्वाणॊsवातॆ” (ashtAdhyAyi), to mean ‘the one who has left (this samsAra) forever’.

Etymology: The one who is the cause of attainment of the supreme abode for those who are ridden of all sins is called ‘nirvANam’.

निर्वाणं स्यात् परगतॆः निमित्तं निर्गतैनसाम् |

585) bhEshajam (भॆषजम्)

Thus, bhagavAn himself acts as the supreme medicine for the dreaded disease called ‘samsAra’.

The bhishma sthavarAja hails thus: “With his grace, the rishis, sidhdhas, great serpent gods, dhEvas, dhEvarishis et al know him to be the medicine for all sorrows”

Etymology: He who is the best medicine for the dreaded disease of ‘samsAra’ is called ‘bhEshajam’.

असाध्य भवरॊगस्य भॆषजं यत्सदौषधम् |

586) bhishak (भिषक्)

bhagavAn is the one who knows very well regarding the best treatment for eliminating this disease of samsAra from its root. Thus, he is called ‘bhishak’ – the divine physician.

Etymology: The one who knows the diagnosis and remedy for our disease of samsAra is called ‘bhishak’.

भवरॊगनिदानज्ञॊ यॊsसौ भिषगुदीरितः |

587) sanyAsakruth (संन्यासकृत्)

How does bhagavAn treat this disease of samsAra? By growing the sAththvik ‘sanyAsam’ (detachment from wordly pleasures) in his devotees, he destroys rajas and thamas in them. Thus, he is called ‘sanyAsakruth’ – the one who inculcates detachment.

What exactly is ‘sanyAsa’? It is nothing but giving up responsibility of one’s own self to the master (bhagavAn). That itself is the treatment to this disease of samsAra.

The vEdhas say “…those who surely know the true purport expounded by the vEdhanthas practice ‘sanyAsa’, and thus attain the state of pure saththva (at the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam)”

Etymology: With the sAththvika thyAga (detachment), he who destroys the qualities of rajas and thamas in his devotees is called ‘sanyAsakruth’.

त्यागॆन सात्त्विकॆनाशु रजसस्तमसः पदम् |
यः कृन्तति स संन्यासकृत् नवार्णॊ मनुः स्मृतः ||

588) Sama: (शमः)

In order to grow such saththvika nature (as seen in the previous divine name), bhagavAn also shows the ways to pacify the pangs of desire, fear and anger in his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘Sama:’ – the pacified / pacifier.

This is shown in the bhagavath gIthA also, thus: “arjuna, my devotees know me as the enjoyer of all offerings made in yajnas, and as the supreme master of all worlds. They also know me as the most benevolent towards all souls. Knowing me thus, they attain utmost tranquility”

Etymology: He who is not agitated is called ‘Sama:’.

अनुद्रिक्तः शमः प्रॊक्तः |

589) SAntha: (शान्तः)

bhagavAn not only pacifies his devotees, but is also pacified himself. Although he is filled with an abundance of auspicious qualities that could otherwise trigger excitement in others, he is as calm as a deep ocean free from waves. With such unfathomable calmness, he also inspires those who see him thus.

For the same reason, pathanjali maharishi hailed bhagavAn’s calmness thus in his yOga suhtras: “One forgoes hostility in his presence”

Even the scholar of recent times – bhAravi – also says thus in his work ‘kirAtArjuneeya’:

“Just with the effulgent vision of vEdha vyAsa, all animals around him attained peace and gave up their natural animosity.”

Etymology: He is called ‘SAntha:’, who possesses a composed mind without undulations.

शान्तॊsविकृतमानसः |

590) nishtA (निष्ठा)

Thus, the wandering minds of the excited souls find solace in the auspicious shelter of bhagavAn’s divine body. Hence, he is called ‘nishtA’ – the auspicious refuge for the minds.

The ‘ang’ (अङ्) adjunct is used in this divine name as per the grammatical rules.

Etymology: He – in whom (in whose divine body) the minds of all elevated souls in yOga are firmly placed – is called ‘nishtA’.

निष्ठीयतॆ च यॊगॊत्थैः यत्र निष्ठा स कथ्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 58 (Names 571 to 580)

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571) gathisaththama: (गतिसत्तमः)

The same bhagavAn nArAyaNa also preaches the most revered path of dharma to all his devotees. Hence, he is called ‘gathisaththama:’. Thus this divine name gives the meaning of “the trustworthy one who can show the right way”.

SrI mahAbhAratha also says thus in the SAnthi parva: “Behold! The supreme path of dharma was shown by bhagavAn to all dhEvas!”

Etymology: He who is most trustworthy in showing the rightful path of dharma (as an AchArya) is called ‘gathisaththama:’.

धम्रॆ प्रत्ययिततमॊ गतिसत्तम उच्यतॆ |

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सुधन्वा खण्डपरशुर्दारुणॊ द्रविणप्रदः ।
दिविस्पृक् सर्वदृग्व्यासॊ वाचस्पतिरयॊनिजः ॥ ६१ ॥
=================================

572) sudhanvA (सुधन्वा)

When the dhEvas and asuras fought against each other for the sake of nectar, bhagavAn held his divine bow to end the fight. Thus, he is called ‘sudhanvA’ – the one with a beautiful bow.

The ‘anang’ (अनङ्) adjunct is used with the word ‘dhanu:’ धनुः (bow), resulting in the word ‘dhanvA’ (धन्वा).

The scriptures say thus in this regard:

  • “…Having seen the divine bow in the hands of nara”
  • “…Then, nara – bedecked with superior ornaments – controlled the movement of air completely with his great bow”, etc.

Etymology: He who holds a very beautiful bow is hailed as ‘sudhanvA’.

सुशॊभनं धनुर्यस्य सुधन्वा परिकीर्तितः |

573) khaNdaparaSu: (खण्डपरशुः)

Since bhagavAn annihilated his war with rudhra with an axe, he is called ‘khaNdaparaSu:’.

In the same SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, bhagavAn declares thus: “Then, nara took a blade of grass in order to destroy rudhra. He empowered it with manthras due to which it turned into a great axe. He threw the axe at rudhra with all his might. The axe broke at that instant. Thus, I am called ‘khandaparaSu:’ because I broke my axe”

Etymology: With extreme anger, since bhagavAn ended his war with rudhra using an axe (which broke in the pursuit), he is called ‘khaNdaparaSu:’. This nine lettered manthra is capable of destroying all sorrows of the chanter.

तीव्रकॊपात् परशुना रौद्रसङ्ग्रामखण्डनात् |
प्रॊक्तः स खण्डपरशुः नवार्णः शॊकनाशनः ||

574) dhAruNa: (दारुणः)

As seen thus in the previous divine names, since bhagavAn tears apart the enemies – both internal as well as external to us, he is called ‘dhAruNa:’.

The ‘dhru’ दृ (to cut) gets the ‘unan’ (उनन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhAruNa:’ since he tears apart all our enemies – both internal as well as external to us.

बाह्याभ्यन्तरशत्रूणां दारणादपि दारुणः |

575) dhraviNapradha: (द्रविणप्रदः)

Thence the vyAsa avathara of bhagavAn is hailed.

bhagavAn vyAsa gives away the highest wealth in the form of most esoteric meanings of all Sasthras, and hence called ‘dhraviNapradha:’ – the bestower of wealth.

The dhyAna SlOka of vyAsa bhagavAn hails thus: “Holding all SAsthras in his left hand as a comprehensive collection, he who gives the true purports of such SAsthric injunctions with his right hand with careful selection…” (In this SlOka, vyAsa bhagavAn is hailed as holding the SAsthras in his left hand in the form of palm leaves, and the chinmudhra / upadhESa mudhra in his right hand – as if to show that he selectively chooses the right purports from a huge heap of SAsthric injunctions and gives them to us).

Etymology: That SrI hari, who – in the form of vyAsa bhagavAn – bestows the wealth of SAsthras and their true meanings to all seekers, is called ‘dhraviNapradha:’.

शास्त्रं तदर्थं द्रविणं प्रददाति जनाय़ यः |
व्यासॊ भूत्वा हरिः साक्षात् द्रविणप्रद उच्यतॆ ||

576) dhivispruk (दिविस्पृक्)

With his highest knowledge, since vyAsa bhagavAn touches (knows) his well hidden original form in the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘dhivispruk’ – the one who touches the supreme sky.

The root ‘spruS’ स्पृश् (to touch) gets the ‘kvin’ (क्विन्) adjunct, which changes to ‘aluk’ (अलुक्) as per the grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

The manthra varNa hailing vyAsa bhagavAn says thus: “…the one who possesses the highest knowledge”.

Etymology: He who touches (knows) his original form in the supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam with his highest form of knowledge (in this world) is called ‘dhivispruk’.

परया विद्यया यः स्वं स्पृशतीति परॆ पदॆ |

दिविस्पृक् प्रॊच्यतॆ नित्यम् |

577) sarvadhruk (सर्वदृक्) (also repeated in 201)

At the same time, he also sees all other grandeurs (in this world). Thus, he is called ‘sarvadhruk’.

The root ‘dhruS’ दृश् (to see) gets the ‘kvin’ (क्विन्) adjunct as in the previous divine name, which results in the letter ‘ku’ (कु) as per grammatical rules. This transformation results in this divine name.

The same manthra varNa hailing bhagavAn vyAsa also says: “unto him who is omniscient”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn vyAsa sees everything (and hence knows everything), he is called ‘sarvadhruk’.

सर्वदृक् सर्वदर्शनात् |

578) vyAsa: (व्यासः)

In order for the people to understand vEdhas in their true purport in every yuga, bhagavAn vyAsa divided the single text of vEdhas into four parts. Thus, he is called ‘vyAsa:’ – the one who divided.

The scriptures hail this feat thus: “Having divided the single vEdha into four, that vyAsa – the knower of all three times (past, present and future)….”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn divided the vEdhas into four parts, he is called ‘vyAsa:’ by the learned men.

त्रय्याश्चतुर्धाकरणात् व्यास इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

579) vAchaspathi: (वाचस्पतिः) (also repeated in 218)

The master of words in SrI mahAbhAratha, which is hailed as the fifth vEdha, is called ‘vAchaspathi:’.

Etymology: The master of words in the fifth vEdha (SrI mahAbhAratha) is remembered as ‘vAchaspathi:’.

वाचः पञ्चमवॆदस्य स्वामी वाचस्पतिः स्मृतः |

580) ayOnija: (अयॊनिजः)

When bhagavAn vyAsa was born as sArasvatha: (सारस्वतः), he was born from the words of bhagavAn. Thus, since he did not originate from a mother’s womb, he is called ‘ayOnija:’.

The SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha hails thus: “Then, after having created the worlds, bhagavAn uttered the word ‘bhO’ भॊ (in addressing a person). That sound resonated, and with that utterance of bhagavAn, sArasvatha appeared there”

Etymology: In his incarnation as sArasvatha, since he appeared from bhagavAn’s own words (and hence not from a mother’s womb), he is called ‘ayOnija:’. This eight syllable manthra destroys all karma of the chanter.

सारस्वतावतारॆ हि भगवद्वाक्भवत्त्वतः |
स्मृतॊ ह्ययॊनिज इति वस्वर्णः कर्मनाशकः ||

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त्रिसामा सामगः साम निर्वाणं भॆषजं भिषक् ।
सन्यासकृच्छमः शान्तॊ निष्ठा शान्तिः परायणम् ॥ ६२ ॥
===================================

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 57 (Names 561 to 570)

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561) pushkarAksha: (पुष्कराक्षः) (also repeated in 40)

Since bhagavAn nurtures all of his dear devotees (who have taken refuge under the tree of supreme brahman, as stated in the previous divine name) by showering grace upon them through his glance, he is called ‘pushkarAksha:’ – the one with a nurturing glance.

The root ‘push’ (पुष्) means to nurture. It gets the ‘karan’ (करन्) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who possesses eyes that nurture his devotees by showering his grace (with his glance) is called ‘pushkarAksha:’. The chanting of this eight syllable manthra enhances love towards other beings.

सतां प्रसादवर्षॆण पॊषकॆ यस्य चाक्षिणी |
पुष्कराक्षः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ प्रीतिवर्धकः ||

562) mahAmanA: (महामनाः)

Since bhagavAn shows an extremely compassionate and broad mind towards his devotees, he is called ‘mahAmanA:’.

Etymology: He who possesses an unquantifiable, generous and an open mind (towards his devotees) is called ‘mahAmanA:’.

अगाधॊदारविस्तारं मनॊ यस्य महामनाः |

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भगवान् भगहा नन्दी वनमाली हलायुधः ।
आदित्यॊ ज्यॊतिरादित्यः सहिष्णुर्गतिसत्तमः ॥ ६० ॥
=================================

563) bhagavAn (भगवान्)

As seen till now, since bhagavAn is devoid of all blemishes and possesses abundance of all auspicious qualities, and since he is thus the most revered one, he is called ‘bhagavAn’.

Etymology: He who is most revered due to his being devoid of all blemishes and possessing all auspicious qualities is called ‘bhagavAn’.

सर्वहॆयप्रत्यनीक-कल्याणगुणवत्तया |
पूज्यात्पूज्यतमॊ यॊsसौ भगवानिति कथ्यतॆ ||

564) bhagahA (भगहा)

bhagavAn is also called ‘bhagahA’ for the same reason that he possesses auspicious qualities.

The word ‘bhaga’ (भगः) refers to six auspicious qualities namely mastership, power, capability to succeed, wealth, knowledge and detachment. bhagavAn possesses all these qualities. The word ‘hanthi’ (हन्ति) in this divine name is used in the context of ‘movement’ (गमनकर्मा).

Alternately, the six qualities denoting the word ‘bhaga’ can also be known from the sixth amSa of vishNu purANa, where the word ‘bhagavAn’ is defined in great detail.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘bhagahA’ since he possesses all the auspicious qualities that are denoted by the word ‘bhaga’. This six lettered manthra confers happiness upon the chanter.

भगशब्द्यान् स कल्याणगुणान् हन्ति तु गच्छति |
इत्यसौ भगहा प्रॊक्तः षडर्णः सुखदायकः ||

565) nandhI (नन्दी)

Having taken the form of sankarshaNa in among the vyUha forms, bhagavAn accepted nandhagOpa as his father in his incarnation as balarAma. Thus, he is called ‘nandhI’ – the son of nandha.

He is also called nandhI since he found happiness in enjoying nectar and the cowherd womenfolk.

Etymology: The one (balarAma) who had nandhagOpa as his father is called ‘nandhI’. Alternately, the one who was always full of joy is called ‘nandhI’.

नन्दगॊपॆन पितृमान् नन्द्यान्दीति वा तथा |

566) vanamAlee (वनमाली)

Furthermore, bhagavAn always wears the fragrant vaijayanthi garland (वैजयन्तीमाला) – also called ‘vanamAlA’ (वनमाला), which is the ‘abhimanini dhEvathA’ of the five subtle elements that he creates. Thus, he is called ‘vanamAlee’ – the one who adorns the vanamAlA.

Etymology: bhagavAn is always associated with the vaijayanthi garland or vanamAlA, which is the essence of the five subtle elements created by him; hence he is called ‘vanamAlee’. This eight syllable manthra confers ornaments upon the chanter.

स्वसृज्यभूतसूक्ष्माणां मालया नित्ययॊगतः |
वनमाली समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ भूषणप्रदः ||

567) halAyudha: (हलायुधः)

bhagavAn is also the farmer who holds a plough in order to grow the sentient and insentient entities in abundance. Hence, he is called ‘halAyudha:’.

The vishNu dharma also hails bhagavAn’s holding of plough thus: “In order to reap abundant harvests, one must meditate upon balarAma at the time of plowing the fields”.

Etymology: He who holds a plough at all times, in order to reap abundant harvests (of sentient and insentient entities), is called ‘halAyudha:’.

हलं च सततं सीरं धत्तॆ यॊsसौ हलायुधः |
सीरकार्यसमृद्ध्यर्थॆ वस्वर्णॊ मन्त्रनायकः ||

568) Adhithya: (आदित्यः) (also repeated in 39)

The syllable ‘A’ (आ) represents bhagavAn. Since he is attained (itya: इत्यः) through the syllable ‘A’ (Atha: आतः), he is called ‘Adhithya:’ (आतः इत्यः प्राप्यः इत्यादियः). This divine name is born out of the ‘kyap’ (क्यप्) adjunct.

It is a well known fact that the syllable ‘A’ (आ) is the bIja manthra of bhagavAn sankarshaNa.

Alternately, bhagavAn was born to dhEvaki, who was in turn born as ‘adhithi’ in her previous birth. Thus also he is called ‘Adhithya:’ – the son of adhithi.

This is supported in the vaishNava dharma, where bhagavAn himself declares thus: “Oh dhEvaki, you were indeed the daughter of dhaksha prajApathi in your earlier birth. You were then born as adhithi in this world. You have always been a support to this world. Thus, I have come to grace you”

Etymology: He who is attained by the syllable ‘A’ is hailed as ‘Adhithya:’. Alternately, the one who is born as the son of dhEvaki, who in turn was ‘adhithi’ in her previous birth, is called ‘Adhithya:’.

आवर्णादॆव यः प्राप्यः स आदित्यः प्रकीर्तितः |
अदितिर्दॆवकी तस्याः वाsदित्यॊsपत्यभावतः ||

569) jyOthirAdhithya: (ज्यॊतिरादित्यः)

Then on, the speaker elaborates on ‘nArAyaNa’ in the forthcoming names. bhagavAn nArAyaNa is characterized by unsurpassed divine and astounding effulgence, and hence he is called ‘jyOthirAdhithya:’. The effulgent sun ‘Adhithya:’ (आदित्यः) that we see with our eyes is popularly known. But nArAyaNa nullifies this sun’s effulgence with his own effulgence, as much as to say that “the sun is just a ball of darkness”!

In the nArAyaNIyam (SrI mahAbhAratha), this is hailed thus: “While nara and nArAyaNa fought with Siva, all those who possessed effulgence lost their effulgence. Even brahmA fell from his position”

Etymology: He who shines forth with astounding effulgence that dulls all other entities is indeed called ‘jyOthirAdhithya:’. This nine lettered manthra confers knowledge upon the contemplators.

समस्ततॆजॊहरणज्यॊतिषा दीप्यतॆ च यः |
स वै स्याज्ज्यॊतिरादित्यॊ नवार्णॊ ज्ञानदायकः ||

570) sahishNu: (सहिष्णुः) (also repeated in 146)

In the fight between Siva and nArAyaNa (illustrated in the previous divine name from nArAyaNIyam), since bhagavAn patiently tolerated Siva’s faults, he is called ‘sahishNu:’.

In the same context, it is said further in nArAyaNIyam thus: “At the end, Siva pleased nArAyaNa – the supreme godhead and the master of all, the sole refuge for all souls, the one who removes sins and grants the wishes of his devotees – by singing his praise. Immediately, the granter of boons – nArAyaNa – controlled his anger and became pleased with rudhra, and joined him”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sahishNu:’ since he tolerated the faults of brahmA and other dhEvas.

ब्रह्मादिमन्तुसहनात् सहिष्णुरिति कथ्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 56 (Names 551 to 560)

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551) vEdhA: (वॆधाः)

As shown thus in the previous divine names, bhagavAn manifests with a variety of unlimited auspicious qualities at all times. Thus, he is called ‘vEdhA:’.

As shown before, the SrImath rAmAyaNa hails bhagavAn as “the one who has transcended the darkness of ignorance”.

Etymology: He who shows great variety of supreme auspicious qualities at all times to his devotees is called ‘vEdhA:’. This six syllable manthra is capable of conferring all auspiciousness to the chanter.

महाविभवकल्याणं सततं विदधाति यः |
भक्तॆभ्यः परमं वॆधाः षडर्णॊ मङ्गलप्रदः ||

552) svAnga: (स्वाङ्गः)

bhagavAn shows his absolute supremacy by means of all of his characteristic paraphernalia such as chathram छत्रम् (the white umbrella), chAmaram चामरम् (a fanning gear made from the bushy tail of a yak) and other such similar royal insignia, which indicate his superiority over others. Since he possesses all of these at all times, he is called ‘svAnga:’.

Etymology: He who possesses all royal insignia such as the white umbrella and others as his characteristic paraphernalia at all times is called ‘svAnga:’. This six lettered manthra confers retinue upon the chanters.

स्वासाधारणमङ्गं हि छत्रादि परिबर्हणम् |
यस्यास्ति नित्यं स स्वाङ्गः षडर्णः परिवारदः ||

553) ajitha: (अजितः)

Furthermore, the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam is not affected by natural effects such as birth and death as seen in this world. Not just that, it also houses entities that are made of five upanishadhic elements which are purely saththvik in nature. Since that abode is not won over by lowly nature, it is called ‘ajithA’ अजिता (the unconquered).

Since bhagavAn owns such a supreme abode, he is called ‘ajitha:’.

The vEdhas quote thus: “brahmA entered that aparAjithA (bhagavAn’s abode), which is fully made of gold”

Etymology: He who owns the town of ‘ajithA’ (SrIvaikuNtam) – which is not affected by lowly nature in this world – is called ‘ajitha:’. This seven syllable manthra is capable of conferring mOksha to the chanter.

प्राकृतैर्न जिता या सा यस्यास्तीत्यजिता पुरी |
अजितस्तॆन विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ मुक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

554) krishNa: (कृष्णः) (also repeated in 58)

Further, bhagavAn possesses a beautiful deep dark hue like the water-bearing dark clouds. Thus, he is called ‘krishNa:’ – the dark one.

The learned men have also concluded based on various scriptural statements that the same beautiful dark hued form could be seen in all of his incarnations such as varAha, et al.

This divine attribute of bhagavAn showing his supernatural beautiful form is supported by the scriptures thus:

“arjuna, I plow this earth by being a massive plough. Also, I am extremely dark in color. For all these reasons, I am called ‘krishNa’”

“Five elements together make up the divine body of bhagavAn. Although he is omnipotent, he does not give up his divine form due to his supreme nature of showing utmost compassion. The five elements making up his divine body are said to be ‘paramEshtI’ (परमॆष्ठी), ‘pumAn’ (पुमान्), ‘viSva:’ (विश्वः), ‘nivruththa:’ (निवृत्तः) and ‘sarva:’ (सर्वः).”

Furthermore, sage parASara says “Oh maithrEya! Know the divine body of bhagavAn in his various incarnations as the great fish, the great tortoise, the great wild boar, et al to be made of the same five supernatural elements (unlike our natural bodies), because our knowledge would be opposed to the scriptures otherwise”

Etymology: The one who possesses a supernatural form with an extremely pleasing dark-cloud like hue is called ‘krishNa:’.

अप्राकृतातिरुचिरमॆचकः कृष्ण ईरितः |

555) dhruda: (दृढः)

Even in the vyUha form, bhagavAn shines forth with the same beauty and splendor in order to grace his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘dhruda:’ – the manifest one.

This divine name comes from the root ‘dhruh’ (दृह्), which is used in this context to mean ‘manifest’. The grammarians have defined the meaning of ‘dhruda:’ to be ‘manifest’ or ‘strong’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s beautiful forms are manifest and powerful (even in the vyUha forms), he is called ‘dhruda:’.

स्थूलत्वात् बलवत्वाच्च दृढ इत्यभिदीयतॆ |

556) sankarshaNa: (सङ्कर्षणः)

Who is the one who is both manifest as well as powerful as shown in the previous divine name? he is ‘sankarshaNa’.

bhagavAn is called sankarshaNa: because he pulls all the sentient and insentient entities in this samsAra into himself at the time of destruction.

The mauLa samhitha justifies this name by showing that this act of drawing all entities into himself at the time of destruction is even (equal among all entities).

Etymology: He who draws all sentient and insentient entities equally into himself at deluge is called ‘samkarshaNa:’.

सङ्कर्षणः संसृतौ यः समं चिदचितौ कृषॆत् |

557) achyutha: (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 101, 320)

Even in his vyUha form, the scriptures hail the divine attribute of bhagavAn thus: “Oh bhagavAn! You do not falter from your high position like the lower dhEvas such as brahmA, indhra, varuNa et al – who are subject to the cycle of birth and death, and thus falter from their positions. Thus, you are called ‘achyutha’”.

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘achyutha:’ – the one who does not move from his position (or, the unshakeable one).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t falter from his position like brahmA and other dhEvas, he is called ‘achyutha:’.

ब्रह्मादिवन्न च्यवतॆ स्थानादित्यच्युतः स्मृतः |

558) varuNa: (वरुणः)

The vEdhas say “He, by whom all of the space, swarga lOka and the earth are pervaded…”

Thus, since everything is pervasively covered by bhagavAn, he is called ‘varuNa:’.

The root ‘vrunj’ (वृञ्) means to cover. It gets the ‘unan’ (उनन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who stands covering all the worlds is called ‘varuNa:’.

यः स्थितः सर्वमावृत्य वरुणः स तु कथ्यतॆ |

559) vAruNa: (वारुणः)

The word ‘varuNa’ also means the one who chooses bhagavAn as his master. Since bhagavAn resides in the minds of such people (varuNa), he is called ‘vAruNa:’.

In the bhagavath gIthA, bhagavAn himself declares thus: “I am equal to all entities, and there is no one whom I hate or love (without any rhyme or reason). They who sing my praise with all devotion shall reside in me, and I also shall reside in their minds firmly”

Etymology: The one who resides in the minds of people who accept him as their master is called ‘vAruNa:’.

स्वामित्वॆन वृणानॆषु स्थितॊ वारुण ईरितः |

560) vruksha: (वृक्षः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn stands as a big tree providing shelter to all of his dear devotees in all ways, thus giving them life. He provides shelter to all such devotees bearing all their thousands of misdeeds. Thus, he is called ‘vruksha:’ – the protector.

This divine name is also derived from the root ‘vrunj’ वृञ् (to cover) similar to ‘varuNa:’.

The scriptures support this attribute thus:

  • “For all the sages contemplating upon bhagavAn, that rAma is indeed their resting place. He is the tree that gives shelter to them in all their times of distress. He is their ultimate refuge.”
  • “He stands still like a tree – alone – in the supreme sky”
  • “Those who take shelter under the tree called ‘brahman’ – the supreme lord – shall surely beget unlimited ripe fruits”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘vruksha:’ since he is the refuge of all his dear devotees, and since he tolerates all of them and supports their lives.

साधूनामाश्रयत्वाच्च सर्वैनःसहनादपि |
सर्वॊपजीव्यः सर्वस्वॊ वृक्ष इत्यभिदीयतॆ ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 55 (Names 541 to 550)

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541) kruthAnthakruth (कृतान्तकृत्)

hiraNyAksha, who was like yama for all mortals, was slain by bhagavAn in the form of varAha. Thus, he is called ‘kruthAnthakruth’.

The scriptures hail thus: “The great demon hiraNnyAksha was killed by varAha bhagavAn”

Alternately, bhagavAn propounded his philosophy through various scriptures such as varAha smruthi and purANas. Thus also he is called ‘kruthAnthakruth’. In this context, ‘kruthAntha’ refers to the highest philosophy.

Etymology: The one who slew hiraNyAksha – who was like yama in prowess – is called ‘kruthAnthakruth’. Alternately, bhagavAn propounded the highest philosophy in the varAha Smrithi and varAha purANas. Thus also he is called ‘kruthAnthakruth’. This eight syllable manthra is capable of conferring all the desires of a devotee.

अन्तकाभं हिरण्याक्षं कृत्तवान् यः कृतान्तकृत् |
वाराहयॊः स्वसिद्धान्तकृतॆ स्मृतिपुराणयॊ: |
कृतान्तकृदिति ख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊsभीष्टदायकः ||

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महावराहॊ गॊविन्दः सुषॆणः कनकाङ्गदी ।
गुह्यॊ गभीरॊ हगनॊ गुप्तश्चक्रगदाधरः ॥ ५८ ॥
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542) mahAvarAha: (महावराहः)

The vishNu purANa hails the varAha avathAra in a glorious statement thus: “Thence, the great wild boar ‘mahAvarAha’ – having wide lotus like eyes – lifted up the earth with his tusk from the rasAthaLa, and rose from the waters like a great blue mountain”.

As hailed thus, bhagavAn is called ‘mahAvarAha:’ – the great wild boar.

Etymology: He who lifted up the earth from rasAthaLa in a moment is called ‘mahAvarAha:’. This manthra bestows land unto the chanters.

रसातलगतामुर्वीं यश्चॊद्धृत्यॊत्थितः क्षणात् |
महावराह इति सः स्मृतॊ ह्युर्वीप्रदॊ मनुः ||

543) gOvindha: (गॊविन्दः) (also repeated in 189)

bhagavAn himself claims thus in the SAnthi parva of mahAbhAratha: “Having lost bhUmi earlier, I rescued her (as varAha) and united with her again. Thus, I am called ‘gOvindha:’”.

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘gOvindha:’ – the one who is united with bhUmi.

Etymology: The one who reunited with bhUmi (in the form of varAha), who was lost earlier, is called ‘gOvindha:’.

नष्टां च धरणीं पूर्वं गॊविन्दः लब्धवान् इति |

544) sushENa: (सुषॆणः)

Thence the ensuing divine names reveal some secrets about the supremacy of bhagavAn. Since bhagavAn possesses an auspicious divine body made of five upanishath manthras – which is full of Sudhdha sathva, and which bhagavAn uses as an army to win over all the bounded, liberated and ever liberated souls, he is called ‘sushENa:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s divine form is made of five upanishath manthras (which he uses like an army to win over everyone), he is called ‘sushENa:’.

पञ्चॊपनिषदङ्गत्वात् सुषॆणः परिकीर्तितः |

(Note: All of our bodies – humans or animals or any other object in this world – are made of five elements namely earth, water, fire, air and ether. All of these have a mixture of qualities of sathva, rajas and thamas. Unlike these, bhagavAn’s divine body is made of five elements different from ours, namely ‘panchOpanishath’ पञ्चॊपनिषत् consisting of paramEshti: परमॆष्ठिः, pumAn पुमान्, viSvam विश्वम्, nivruththa: निवृत्तः and sarva: सर्वः, which are all purely sAthvik in nature – without even a small trace of rajas and thamas)

545) kanakAngadhI (कनकाङ्गदी)

bhagavAn is also ever associated with divine ornaments made of gold, which befit the beauty of his supernatural (अप्राकृत – which is beyond this lowly nature that we can see) divine body – as stated in the previous divine name. Thus, he is called ‘kanakAngadhI’ – the one with golden ornaments.

The ‘ini:’ (इनिः) adjunct is used in this divine name, indicating eternal association with such divine jewelry.

The word ‘kanaka’ in this divine name indicates the distinction of a supernatural material that is different from all that we can see in this world (meaning, the ‘kanaka’ doesn’t imply the lowly gold that we know of; rather, it is indicative of supernatural gold befitting bhagavAn’s divine body, that cannot be seen in this world otherwise).

Etymology: He who is always bedecked with supernatural divine ornaments made of gold is called ‘kanakAngadhI’.

अप्राकृतानि दिव्यानि भूषणानि च नित्यशः |
रौक्माणि सन्ति यस्यासावुच्यतॆ कनकाङ्गदी ||

546) guhya: (गुह्यः)

Since such a supernatural and distinct divine body of bhagavAn is made of five upanishadhic elements, it is esoteric in nature. Hence, he is called ‘guhya:’ – the one with a divine body concealed from the lower mortals.

The root ‘gu:’ गुह् (concealment) gets the ‘kyap’ (क्यप्) adjunct by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: Since his divine body is made of five upanishadic elements, he is hidden from the public view; and hence called ‘guhya:’.

पञ्चॊपनिषदङ्गॆन गूढत्वात् गुह्य उच्यतॆ |

547) gabhIra: (गभीरः)

Befitting his absolute supremacy over all entities, bhagavAn possesses profound dignity. Thus, he is called ‘gabhIra:’.

The word ‘gabhIra:’ (गभीरः) is same as ‘gambhIra:’ (गम्भीरः), both of which stem from the root ‘gA:’ (गाह्), suffixed with the ‘Iran’ (ईरन्) adjunct and a little transformation per grammatical rules.

Just as water gets purified by adding the clearing nut (called ‘nirmalee’), so also every bounded soul gets ridden of its blemishes of ignorance – which is accumulated from time immemorial – just by its association with bhagavAn. What, then, can be spoken of about the dignity of bhagavAn himself, who is naturally radiant and devoid of all blemishes?

Etymology: The one whose divine body itself is a manifestation of profound dignity is called ‘gabhIra:’.

तद्वपुर्व्यङ्ग्यगाम्भीर्यॊ गभीर इति कथ्यतॆ |

548) gahana: (गहनः) (also repeated in 384)

Furthermore, bhagavAn’s supreme nature and qualities are unfathomable. Even if the oceanic waters were very clear and everything beneath the waters could be seen, yet the depth of the ocean wouldn’t reduce to one’s knee’s level. It would still remain extremely deep. Similarly, bhagavAn’s divine nature and qualities can be seen to some extent by everyone. Yet, that never qualifies anyone to know him in his entirety! Thus, he is called ‘gahana:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn cannot be known fully by everyone, he is called ‘gahana:’.

अन्यैर्दुरवगाहत्वात् गहनः परिकीर्तितः |

549) guptha: (गुप्तः)

He is carefully protected (concealed from others) by the fore preceptors (pUrvAchAryas) who know of his profound nature and qualities. Thus, he is called ‘guptha:’ – the well concealed one.

Etymology: He who is concealed by the preceptors who know his profoundness is called ‘guptha:’.

तद्गौरवज्ञैर्गुप्तः स गुप्त इत्यभिदीयतॆ |

550) chakragadhAdhara: (चक्रगदाधरः)

Where and how does this bhagavAn – who is well concealed by AchAryas – manifest? This is shown in this divine name chakragadhAdhara: – the wielder of divine weapons.

maNdOdhari hails rAma in the SrImath rAmAyaNa thus: “Oh lord, you are beyond the darkness of ignorance and the wielder of the conch and discus”

This indicates that bhagavAn possesses an eternal divine body which is made of five upanishadhic elements, and holds divine weapons like the chakra, etc.

Etymology: He who wields the divine powerful weapons (such as the conch, discus, mace, bow and the sword) is called ‘chakragadhAdhara:’.

यः शक्तिमद्दिव्यहॆतिः स स्यात् चक्रगदाधरः |

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वॆधाः स्वाङ्गॊsजितः कृष्णॊ दृढः सङ्कर्षणॊsच्युतः ।
वरुणॊ वारुणॊ वृक्षः पुष्कराक्षॊ महामनाः ॥ ५९ ॥
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adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 54 (Names 531 to 540)

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531) nandha: (नन्दः)

Thus, bhagavAn is replete with infinite objects of enjoyment, bliss derived thereof, the tools in deriving such bliss etc. Thus, he is called ‘nandha:’. Since he is in possession of all such entities, the ‘ghanja’ (घञ) adjunct is used per grammatical rules.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is always replete with objects of enjoyment, tools for enjoyment, the experience of enjoyment, the souls who enjoy etc, he is called ‘nandha:’.

भॊग्यैर्भॊगॊपकरणैः भॊगैर्भॊक्तृभिरॆव च |
तस्मिन् समृद्ध्यतॆ नित्यमिति नन्दः प्रकीर्तितः ||

532) sathyadharmA (सत्यधर्मा)

As explained till now, bhagavAn sincerely keeps up his vow of protecting his devotees – right from their first step towards bhagavAn till their attainment of bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘sathyadharmA’ – the one who follows his ‘dharma’ religiously.

Etymology: The one who devoutly carries out his vow (which is also his ‘dharma’) of protecting his devotees right from their initiation up till their attainment of mOksha is called ‘sathyadharmA’. This eight lettered manthra enhances honesty and righteousness amongst devotees.

आप्रक्रमादास्वप्राप्तॆरार्जवात् सत्यवर्तनः |
यः स्यात् स सत्यधर्मा च वस्वर्णॊ सत्यधर्मदः ||

533) thrivikrama: (त्रिविक्रमः)

With such divine glories, bhagavAn pervades all of the three vEdhas. Hence, he is called ‘thrivikrama:’.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “The word ‘thri’ (त्रि) is referred to as the three vEdhas by the learned men. Since bhagavAn pervades all of them, he is called ‘thrivikrama’”
  • “…he, in whom all the vEdhas converge…”
  • “All vEdhas glorify nArAyaNa only”, etc.

Etymology: With his unbounded glories, the one who pervades all of the three vEdhas is called ‘thrivikrama:’.

(NOTE: The ‘three vEdhas’ referred to in this divine name actually represent the three types in vEdhas namely ‘Rk’, ‘yajus’ and ‘SAma’. These three types only make up the four vEdhas that we know, viz rig vEdha, yajur vEdha, sAma vEdha and atharvaNa vEdha)

त्रीन् वॆदान् क्रमतॆ यॊ हि महिम्ना स त्रिविक्रमः |

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महर्षिः कपिलाचार्यः कृतज्ञॊ मॆदिनीपतिः ।
त्रिपदस्त्रिदशाध्यक्षॊ महाशृङ्गः कृतान्तकृत् ॥ ५७ ॥
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534) maharshi: (महर्षिः)

In his incarnation as kapila, bhagavAn knew the true purport of vEdhas. Thus, he is addressed as ‘maharshi:’ – the one who realizes/visualizes the true purport of vEdhas.

The dhyana SlOka for kapila maharishi says thus: “…then one must remember him, who orally expounded the meanings of vEdhas, such as Rk and others”

Other scriptural statements also hail thus:

  • “…that great kapila, who was born as a rishi (knowledgeable by birth)”
  • “That expounder of SAnkhya – kapila – is known as ‘parama rishi’”, et al

Etymology: bhagavAn, as kapila – who visualized the true purport of vEdhas, is called ‘maharshi:’.

साक्षात् द्रष्टा स वॆदानां महर्षिः कपिलः स्मृतः |

535) kapilAchArya: (कपिलाचार्यः)

bhagavAn – in his incarnation as kapila muni – possessed a radiant hue. Hence he is called ‘kapila:’. Also, he propounded the tenets of vEdhas and became an AchArya. Hence he is called ‘AchArya:’. These two attributes together form the divine name ‘kapilAchArya:’.

The root ‘kabru’ कबृ (hue) gets the letter ‘pa’ substituted in place of ‘ba’, and is suffixed with the ‘ilach’ (इलच्) adjunct, resulting in the divine name ‘kapila’ (कपिलः).

This feature of bhagavAn is hailed in the scriptures thus:

  • “…unto that kapila muni, who has the hue of smokeless fire, with garlands of Sankha and padhmAksha adorning him”

Further, the dhyana SlOka of kapila muni says thus: “…unto him who promulgates his philosophy”.

As seen here, kapila maharishi promulgated his school of philosophy, and hence called as ‘AchArya:’.

Etymology: Only since bhagavAn promulgated his philosophy as kapila, he is called ‘kapilAchArya:’.

तत्त्वप्रवचनादॆव कपिलाचार्य उच्यतॆ |

536) kruthagya: (कृतज्ञः) (also repeated in 83)

Although the sixty thousand sons of sagara (सगरः) offended him, bhagavAn kapila maharishi forgave them at once when amSumAn (अंशुमान्) saluted him on their behalf. Thus, he considers even small noble deeds as great things, which is why he is called ‘kruthagyna:’.

It is said thus in the vishNu purANa:

“When amSumAn approached kapila maharishi and pleased him by devoutly prostrating before him, that bhagavAn commanded amSumAn to seek a boon in return”

Etymology: He who considered the small noble deed of amSumAn – of humble submission – with great compassion is called ‘kruthagyna:’.

स्वाभिनमृत्वसुकृतं किञ्चिदंशुमता कृतम् |
विदितं यॆन कारुण्यात् कृतज्ञः सॊsभिदीयतॆ ||

537) mEdhinIpathi: (मॆदिनीपतिः)

The SrImath rAmAyaNa hails thus: “That vAsudhEva, unto whom all of these worlds belong, bears all of these at all times, taking the form of kapila”.

Thus, he is called ‘mEdhinIpathi:’ – the master of all worlds.

Etymology: The one who bears all the worlds in the form of kapila is called ‘mEdhinIpathi:’. This nine syllable manthra is known to bestow land unto the worshipper.

कापिलं रूपमास्थाय यॊ धारयति मॆदिनीम् |
स मॆदिनीपतिः ख्यातॊ नवार्णॊ भूप्रदॊ मनुः ||

538) thripadha: (त्रिपदः)

bhagavAn preaches about the three entities symbolizing the enjoyer (भॊक्तृ), the enjoyed (भॊग्यः) and the controller (नियन्ता), respectively meaning the sentient (चित्), insentient (अचित्) and the supreme lord (ईश्वरः). Thus, he is called ‘thripadha:’ – the one who shows the three entities with his words.

The scriptures say thus:

“In order to help the noble souls, I shall show them (make them realize) the three entities namely insentient nature, sentient soul and the supreme soul in their world in the form of kapila”.

Alternately, bhagavAn shows this truth through the three syllables in the praNava manthra.

Also, as seen earlier (62nd divine name), varAha bhagavAn had three humps on his back. Thus also, he is called ‘thripadha:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn preaches about the three entities namely achit, chit and ISvara to all his devotees. Alternately, he is represented by the praNava manthra, which in turn expounds the three entities. Also, in his incarnation as varAha, the word ‘padha’ refers to the hump on his back. varAha bhagavAn had three such humps on his back. For all these reasons, he is called ‘thripadha:’.

भॊक्तृ-भॊग्य-नियन्तॄणि ज्ञाप्यान्यस्य पदान्यतः |
प्रणवॆ त्रीणि वाsप्यॆतद्वाचकानि पदान्यतः ||

वाराहरूपस्यास्थानॆ पदानि ककुदानि वा |
त्रीणि सन्ति ततॊ वाsसौ त्रिपदः परिकीर्तितः ||

539) thridhaSAdhyaksha: (त्रिदशाध्यक्षः)

Thence the varAha avathAram of bhagavAn is hailed. Since bhagavAn protected brahmA and other dhEvas during their fear of deluge, he is called ‘thridhaSAdhyaksha:’.

Etymology: The one who protected brahmA and others during their fear of deluge is called ‘thridhaSAdhyaksha:’.

सखा स्यात् त्रिदशाध्यक्षॊ ब्रह्मादॆः प्रलयापदि |

(Note: This is not the real deluge that is being spoken of. Rather, when a demon named hiranyAksha hid the land or bhUmi under water, there was no place for brahmA to create any object. This instilled in the dhEvas a fear of deluge, which was evaded by bhagavAn in the form of varAha by killing hiranyAksha)

540) mahASrunga: (महाशृङ्गः)

As varAha, bhagavAn held bhUmi at the tip of his tusk. Hence, he is called ‘mahASrunga:’ – the one with a magnificent tusk.

The scriptures establish this fact in various places, thus:

  • “…that varAha, who possesses a single tusk…”
  • “Oh lord, all of these entities making up the bhUmaNdalam (भूमण्डलम्) are held at the tip of your tusk as effortlessly as a lotus leaf bears a drop of marsh”, etc.

Etymology: He who has the entire bhUmi at the tip of his tusk is called ‘mahASrunga:’.

मही यस्य च शृङ्गाग्रॆ महाशृङ्गः स कथ्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 53 (Names 521 to 530)

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521) ananthAthmA (अनन्तात्मा)

Furthermore, he also stands as the indweller of the giant serpent ‘anantha’ (अनन्तः) atop the kUrma base, which also constitutes the supporting structure for the entire creation. Thus, he is called ‘ananthAthmA’.

The jaya samhitha hails thus:

“One must submit himself unto that anantha, who is resplendent atop the tortoise base (AdhAraSakthi pItam (आधारशक्तिपीठः) with a faultless form holding the conch and the discus along with a mace, and who is surrounded by hundreds of flames”

Etymology: The one who is situated in the form of a serpent (as its indweller) atop the tortoise (that was said in the previous divine name), supporting the entire creation, is called ‘ananthAthmA’.

कमठस्यॊपरि जगदाधारस्तम्भ-भॊगिनः |
स्वरूपॆण स्थितॊ यॊsसावनन्तात्मा प्रकीर्तितः ||

522) mahOdhadhiSaya: (महॊदधिशयः)

The same bhagavAn further sleeps on the same serpent bed of anantha in the vast ocean during the great deluge. Hence, he is called ‘mahOdhadhiSaya:’ – the one who sleeps in the vast ocean on a serpent bed.

The root ‘Si’ शि (to sleep) gets the ‘ach’ (अच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. The same rule is also applied in other divine names such as ‘bhUSaya:’ भूशयः (634), et al.

Etymology: He who reclines on the serpent bed (anantha or Adhi-SEsha) in the vast ocean is popularly called ‘mahOdhadhiSaya:’.

तस्मिन्ननन्तपर्यङ्कॆ समुद्रॆ शयनाच्च यः |
महॊदधिशयः ख्यातॊ दशार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

523) anthaka: (अन्तकः)

During such deluge, since he ends everything, he is called ‘anthaka:’.

SrImath rAmAyaNa hails thus: “At the end of creation, you are seen in the water as a great serpent”

The vishNu purANa glorifies thus: “The great serpent ‘SEsha’ (or ‘AdhiSEsha’) resides in the pAthALa, being worshipped by dhEvas. All of these worlds shine like small gems on his hoods, adorning him like a beautiful flower garland. Since even the gandharvas, apsaras, sidhdhas, kiNNaras, mahOragas (great serpent gods) and others who worship him cannot see the end of his divine qualities, he is called ‘anantha’ in that form.  His valor, effulgence, divine nature and forms cannot be described or comprehended even by dhEvas. At the end of creation, he spits out mighty fire burning poisonous air, from which the destructor rudhra (Siva) emanates – with bhagavAn SankarshaNa indwelling him – and eats all of these worlds”

Etymology: He who ends the worlds (destroys / consumes them and keeps them in his belly) during the great deluge is called ‘anthaka:’.

अन्तं करॊति जगतॊ यॊsसावन्तक ईरितः |

==================================
अजॊ महार्हः स्वाभाव्यॊ जितामित्रः प्रमॊदनः ।
आनन्दॊ नन्दनॊ नन्दः सत्यधर्मा त्रिविक्रमः ॥ ५६ ॥
==================================

524) aja: (अजः) (also repeated in 66, 206)

Furthermore, at the time of deluge, bhagavAn is contemplated upon as the object of the syllable ‘a’ (अ) in the praNava (OmkAra, which is made of three syllables ‘a’ अ, ‘u’ उ and ‘ma’ म). This ‘akAra’ (अकारः) or the syllable ‘a’ (अ) is the root of praNava. bhagavAn is denoted by the syllable ‘a’ in the praNava.

The thaiththirIya nArAyaNam (upanishath) says this: “He who is represented by the syllable ‘a’, which is the root of praNavam that is expounded both at the beginning as well as the end of vEdhas, is the supreme lord”

(NOTE: Readers are requested to learn from their respective Acharyas for a detailed knowledge of praNava. That would greatly serve to understand this set of five divine names (524 – 528), dwelling on ‘praNava’, and appreciate the commentaries better. At this time, only that which is said by SrI parASara bhattar in his glorious commentary is being translated, with no addendum)

Etymology: At deluge, since bhagavAn is contemplated upon as the object of syllable ‘a’ (in praNava), he is called ‘aja:’.

तत्त्वावसानॆ प्रणवप्रकृतॆः सत्त्वकारतः |
स्मर्तव्यत्त्वादजः प्रॊक्तः षडर्णॊ ह्यूर्मिनाशकः ||

525) mahArha: (महार्हः)

When the dear devotees of bhagavAn submit themselves to him by dwelling on the meaning of such praNava, bhagavAn accepts it with complete eligibility for such high submission. Thus, he is called ‘mahArha:’ – the one who is eligible for a lofty submission.

The mahOpanishath preaches the individual souls to submit themselves unto bhagavAn with praNava (meditating on its divine meanings).

Etymology: By knowing the nature of self clearly through praNava, when a devotee completely surrenders to bhagavAn, since bhagavAn befittingly accepts such high submission/worship (since he is eligible of such high submissions), he is called ‘mahArha:’.

स्वरूपादिकृतार्थॆन तारॆणात्मनिवॆदनम् |
महं पूजामर्हतीति महार्ह इति कथ्यतॆ ||

526) svAbhAvya: (स्वाभाव्यः)

Also, all the souls who have realized their subservience unto bhagavAn by meditating on the meaning of the praNava manthra treat him as their true lord and approach him. Thus, he is called ‘svAbhAvya:’. The ‘Nyath’ (ण्यत्) adjunct is used here with the root.

The vishNu thathva says thus: “If you have the desire to become a realized soul and thus uplift yourself from this samsAra, then always remember your eternal servitude and hari’s eternal mastership, both of which are natural”

The SvEthASvathara upanishath also says thus: “There is no particular reason for bhagavAn’s mastership on all entities other than his natural mastership”

To sum up, it must always be remembered that the relationship between bhagavAn and ourselves is that of ‘owner and the owned’, which is natural. Thus, he is called ‘svAbhAvya:’.

Etymology: Having realized their true nature from the praNava manthra, since all his dear devotees essentially revere him as their sole master, he is called ‘svAbhAvya:’.

मन्त्रॆणानॆनात्मभिस्तु स्वभूतैराभिमुख्यतः |
अवश्यं भावनीयत्त्वात् स्वाभाव्यः परिकीर्तितः ||

527) jithAmithra: (जितामत्रः)

bhagavAn helps his devotees who meditate upon the praNava manthra (dwelling on its meanings) to win over their internal enemies namely “ahamkAra” (considering the insentient body to be ‘self’, instead of realizing that we are the sentient soul different from the body), “mamakAra” (considering the soul to be independent, or in other words – considering the soul to be the property of its own self, rather than realizing that all souls are solely owned by bhagavAn), “kAma” (desiring for pleasures for one’s own enjoyment, instead of realizing that all souls are naturally meant for bhagavAn’s enjoyment only), etc. Thus, he is called ‘jithAmithra:’ – the one who wins over the enemies.

In this case, the enemies are indeed the internal qualities of ahamkAra, mamakAra, kAma etc, and not external to any individual.

In the bhagavath gIthA, bhagavAn begins preaching to arjuna by saying “the qualities of kAma (desire) and krOdha (anger) are the outcomes of rajOguNa”, and finally instructs thus: “Oh mighty one! Kill your enemy which is in the form of kAma, which is otherwise dangerous for you”.

Etymology: Since the obstacles to the esoteric knowledge (expounded in the praNava manthra) – such as mamathA (or mamakAra) and others – are won over by bhagavAn for his dear devotees, he is called ‘jithAmithra:’.

(NOTE: In other words, since the devotees win over such obstacles with the help of bhagavAn, he is called ‘jithAmithra:’)

एतद्रहस्यविज्ञान-विरॊधि-ममतादयः |
जितास्तॆषामनॆनॆति जितामित्रॊsष्टवर्णकः ||

528) pramOdhana: (प्रमॊदनः)

bhagavAn also bestows bliss upon his devotees who meditate upon the praNava manthra, right from the first instant. Thus, he is called ‘pramOdhana:’ – the bestower of joy.

Etymology: He who creates joy amongst those devotees who are absorbed in meditating upon the praNava manthra is called ‘pramOdhana:’.

ध्यानासक्तॆषु भक्तॆषु मॊदमानः प्रमॊदनः |

529) Anandha: (आनन्दः)

Thence, the kapilAvathAra or incarnation of bhagavAn as ‘kapila maharishi’ (कपिलमहर्षिः) is expounded.

In his incarnation as kapila, bhagavAn was verily the embodiment of supreme bliss as expounded in the Anandhavalli chapter of thaiththirIya upanishath. Thus, he is called ‘Anandha:’ – the blissful one. The ‘ach’ (अच्) adjunct is in use in this divine name.

Etymology: He who is in an inexpressible (beyond words and thoughts) eternal blissful state as expounded in the Anandhavalli chapter is called ‘Anandha:’.

आनन्दवल्ली मीमांस्यस्त्ववाङ्मनसगॊचरः |
आनन्दॊ ह्यस्य नित्यॊsस्तीत्यानन्दः परिकीर्तितः ||

530) nandhana: (नन्दनः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn also engages the liberated souls in the same bliss in the state of mOksha and derives happiness thereof. Thus, he is called ‘nandhana:’.

The vEdhas declare thus:

  • “He is indeed the one who bestows the supreme bliss”
  • “It is from bhagavAn’s supreme bliss alone that every other individual soul derives its own happiness in just a small fraction”

Etymology: He who always bestows the same bliss (as in the previous divine name) upon liberated and ever-liberated souls in the state of mOksha and keeps them ever happy is called ‘nandhana:’.

तमानन्दं यथॊक्तायां मुक्तौ प्रापय्य यः सदा |
मुक्तान्नित्यान् नन्दयति नन्दनः स तु कीर्तितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 52 (Names 511 to 520)

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511) jaya: (जयः)

bhagavAn is very easily won over by those who have completely surrendered unto him. Thus, he is called ‘jaya:’ – the one who lets his devotees win over him.

The scriptures say thus:

  • “I am the one who must be commanded by the sages who have mastered ‘thapas’ ”
  • “Thence, that nArAyaNa – the all pervading self – was delegated by the dhEvas”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is easily won over by his devotees who have completely surrendered unto him, and since he is completely obedient to them, he is called ‘jaya:’.

आश्रितैः जीयतॆ यस्मात् विधॆयीक्रित्यतॆ जयः |

512) sathyasandha: (सत्यसन्धः)

The word ‘sandhA’ (सन्धा) refers to pledge. bhagavAn’s words of assurance to his devotees are ever truthful. Hence, he is called ‘sathyasandha:’ – the one whose words are true.

rAma himself says thus in SrImath rAmAyaNa: “Oh SIthA, even if I have to give up my life, or you, or even my dear brother lakshmaNa, I shall do so. But I will never go back on my words to those who have surrendered unto me – especially these brAhmanas”

Even sage vAlmIki praises rAma thus: “rAma is very honest, and has controlled the senses fully”.

Etymology: he whose assertions are true is called ‘sathyasandha:’.

सत्या प्रतिज्ञा यस्यॆति सत्यसन्धः स उच्यतॆ |

513) dhASArha: (दाशार्हः)

The word ‘dhASa:’ (दाशः) refers to donation. The devotees of bhagavAn submit themselves completely unto him. Alternately, bhagavAn submits himself unto those devotees who have truly surrendered unto him. Since bhagavAn is eligible for both of these offerings/donations, he is called ‘dhASArha:’ – the one befitting for donations.

The word ‘arha:’ (अर्हः) is used with the ‘ach’ (अच्) adjunct in this divine name as per the grammatical rules. The same rule applies to other divine names such as ‘mahArha:’ महार्हः (525) etc.

If this divine name must be attributed to the krishNAvathAra, it can be said thus: the word ‘dhaSArha’ (दशार्हः) refers to yadhu’s clan. Since bhagavAn was born in the yAdhava clan, he is called ‘dhASArha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is eligible for offerings – in both ways as the devotees submitting themselves unto him, as well as bhagavAn submitting himself unto those devotees, he is called ‘dhASArha:’.

आत्मनॊ वाsर्पणं भक्तैः तॆभ्यॊ वा स्वात्मनॊsर्पणम् |
दाशस्तमर्हतीत्यॆषः दाशार्हः परिकीर्तितः ||

514) sAthvathAm pathi: (सात्त्वतां पतिः)

The word ‘sath’ (सत्) refers to the supreme godhead who is eternal. he is himself called ‘sathvam’, which is indicated by the usage of ‘mathup’ (मतुप्) adjunct, which tells that the quality of saththva (as explained in divine name 479) is abundant in bhagavAn. The one who knows and realizes such ‘sathvam’ is called ‘sAthvika’. The noble act of such sAthvikas is termed as ‘sAthvatham’. Thus, ‘sAthvathas are the dear devotees of the lord, also called ‘bhAgavathas’. The lord of such sAththvathas is called ‘sAthvathAm pathi:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in another place: “Oh king among the noble ones, know that I created those noble souls who discharge their prescribed duties with utmost renunciation and are thus established in the highest knowledge with which I am seen”

This declaration of bhagavAn clearly reinforces the aforesaid derivation of the divine name.

Alternately, the word ‘sAthvatha’ refers to the yAdhavas. Thus, again, as explained in the previous divine name, since bhagavAn incarnated in the yAdhava clan and ruled them later, he is called ‘sAthvathAm pathi:’.

Etymology: The one who is the master of all sAthvikas or noble souls who are devoted to bhagavAn, otherwise called ‘bhAgavathas’, is called ‘sAthvathAm pathi:’. He is indeed the protector of all such souls.

सात्त्वतां भगवद्भक्तजनानां पतिरीश्वरः |
सात्त्वतांपतिरित्युक्तॊ नवार्णः साधुरक्षकः ||

=================================
जीवॊ विनयिता साक्षी मुकुन्दॊsमितविक्रमः ।
अम्बॊनिधिरनन्तात्मा महॊदधिशयॊsन्तकः ॥ ५५ ॥
================================

515) jIva: (जीवः)

bhagavAn delivers such bhAgavathas (as explained in the previous divine name) from the destruction of nature of self by bestowing upon them his eternal servitude. Thus, he supports them, which is why he is called ‘jIva:’.

It is said thus in the scriptures in this regard: “Oh dhEvi, bhagavAn is verily the embodiment of bliss, and is worshipped by people of all three worlds. He doesn’t stand the sight of slightest discomfort for his dear devotees”

Etymology: He who delivers the bhAgavathas from loss of nature of self by bestowing upon them his eternal servitude and thus restores them is called ‘jIva:’. He cannot stand the sight of suffering for his devotees.

तानात्मनाशात् व्यावर्त्य सत्त्वान् यश्च स्वसॆवया |
उज्जीवयति जीवः स भक्तक्लॆशासहॊ मनुः ||

516) vinayithA (विनयिता)

Not just stopping at bestowing servitude upon his devotees, bhagavAn goes further and looks after (protects and nurtures) them like royal princes. Thus, he is called ‘vinayithA’.

The root ‘naya’ (नय) gets the meaning of movement as well as protection.

Etymology: With the root ‘nayathi’ meaning ‘protection’ in this context, since bhagavAn always protects and looks after his dear devotees like royal princes, he is called ‘vinayithA’.

भक्तान् नित्य राजपुत्रलालन-न्यायतः सुखम् |
रक्षत्यतॊ विनयिता नयतॆः रक्षणार्थतः ||

517) sAkSI (साक्षी) (also repeated in 15)

For the sake of protecting his devotees, since bhagavAn acts as a direct witness to all their enjoyments, he is called ‘sAkSI’.

Etymology: The one who directly witnesses the actions of his devotees in order to protect them (as explained in the previous divine name) is called ‘sAkSI’.

साक्षात्करॊति यः साक्षी तद्वृत्तं रक्षणाय सः |

518) mukundha: (मुकुन्दः)

Having been requested by such dear devotees with their faultless devotion, bhagavAn goes out and grants the highest land of mOksha (SrIvaikuNtam) to them. Thus, he is called ‘mukundha:’ – the bestower of mOksha.

Etymology: With the devotees requesting him, he who bestows the highest land of mOksham to such devotees is called ‘mukundha:’.

तैः प्रार्थितः स्वयं मुक्तिं मुकुन्दः स्यात् ददाति यः |

519) amithavikrama: (अमितविक्रमः) (also repeated in 647)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is himself the bearer of all the power required for supporting the contemplation, worship and all other practices of his dear devotees in the form of various entities (thathvas).

SrI paushkara samhitha says thus: “He is kAla (time). He is indeed the fire within all creatures. He is the indweller of all of them. He resides in all creatures with an imperceptible form. He is thus called ‘AdhAraSakthi’ – the supporting power. He takes on the forms of his choice and acts as per his whims”.

Etymology: He who possesses immense power with which he (effortlessly) bears the mass of entities that are contemplated upon by such devotees is called ‘amithavikrama:’.

तॆषां ध्यानानुसन्धॆय-तत्त्वसन्दॊहधारिणीम् |
तां शक्तिं धृतवान् यॊsसौ स्मृतॊ ह्यमितविक्रमः ||

520) ambOnidhi: (अम्बॊनिधिः)

Further, bhagavAn resides in the waters in the pAthALa as the supporting base for the entire creation (consisting of all fourteen worlds above) in the form of the great tortoise (Readers please note that this form of tortoise is different from the popularly known ‘kUrma avathAram’). Thus, he is called ‘ambOnidhi:’. He is called ‘AdhAraSakthi’ in this form, since he is the supporter of the entire creation in this form.

The manthra varnas hail this form of bhagavAn thus: “…unto that bhagavAn who possesses infinite power, and who bears the entire creation in the form of a tortoise”

Etymology: He who stands in the waters in the pAthALa in the form of a tortoise, supporting the entire creation, is called ‘ambOnidhi:’.

आधारशक्तिकमठः स्वरूपॆणार्णवाम्भसि |

निधीयतॆ स्वयं यॆन स ह्यम्बॊनिधिरुच्यतॆ ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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