Category Archives: sahasranAmam

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 79 (Names 781 to 790)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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781) dhurjaya: (दुर्जयः)

bhagavAn cannot be controlled by either the dhEvas or the human beings or any other life forms. As the scriptures hail, he is the one who is not seen by everyone. What more, then, needs to be said about being searched or sought by the individual souls?

Thus, he is called ‘dhurjaya:’ – the invincible one.

Etymology: He, who can neither be sought nor controlled by the mere mortals such as the demigods, human beings, et al, is called ‘dhurjaya:’.

 शक्त्या दॆवमनुष्याद्यैः वशीकर्तुं न शक्यतॆ |
अन्वॆष्टुं वाsपि यः सः स्यात् दुर्जयः सप्तवर्णकः ||

782) dhurathikrama: (दुरतिक्रमः)

With the next divine name ‘dhurathikrama:’, it is shown that no soul can transgress bhagavAn’s lotus feet. Indeed, there is no other means to attain him (by burning all sins) other than surrendering at his lotus feet. Thus, he is called ‘dhurathikrama:’.

The scriptures popularly say thus:

  • “Only when people become capable enough to bind themselves with the open sky itself as their skin do they become eligible of crossing the sorrowful samsAra without even knowing about bhagavAn” (meaning, it is impossible to end the sorrows without taking refuge in his feet)
  • “Who can ever attain mOkSha without worshipping that supreme lord vAsudhEva?”
  • “There is indeed no means of attaining mOksha other than to worship vishNu. This is how the vEdhas sing his glories at all times”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhurathikrama:’, since there is no means to destroy all sins (and thereby attain him) other than his own lotus feet.

अतिक्रम्य स्वपादाब्जं सर्वॆषां प्रापकान्तरम् |
नास्तीति सर्वपापघ्नः स स्मृतॊ दुरतिक्रमः ||

783) dhurlabha: (दुर्लभः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn cannot be attained by those who have not controlled their senses. The scriptures have spoken thus in this regard:

  • “When a person is focussed on material benefits, then attaining janArdhana is indeed out of his reach”
  • “Oh king! The supreme lord kESava is highly inaccessible to those people who have not won over their senses”, etc.

Etymology: He who is inaccessible to those who have not controlled their senses is called ‘dhurlabha:’.

अजितॆन्द्रियदुष्प्रापॊ दुर्लभः स च कथ्यतॆ |

784) dhurgama: (दुर्गमः)

Just as people who have a weak vision cannot see the shining sun at noon, so also people with weak minds can never know bhagavAn due to his unfathomable effulgence. Thus, he is called ‘dhurgama:’.

Etymology: Just as the sight of afternoon sun is intolerable to people who have a weak vision, so also bhagavAn is out of reach for people with weak minds due to his unassailable effulgence, which is why he is called ‘dhurgama:’.

नॆत्रदुर्बलवृत्तीनां मध्याह्नद्युमणॆर्यथा |
दुष्प्रापाधृष्यतॆजस्त्वात् दुर्गमः परिकीर्तितः ||

785) dhurga: (दुर्गः)

bhagavAn stands hidden from the view of such sinful souls (with a weak mind as stated in the previous divine name) by virtue of their own sinful actions which separate them from bhagavAn like a fortress. Thus, he is called ‘dhurga:’ – the hidden one.

The root ‘gam’ (गम्) gets the ‘dhur’ (दुर्) and ‘da:’ (डः) as its prefix and suffix respectively by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhurga:’ since he is absolutely inaccessible to the sinful souls (by virtue of their own sinful actions which hide bhagavAn like a thick fort).

दुष्प्रवॆशतया दुर्गः पापिभिः सर्वथैव सः |

786) dhurAvAsa: (दुरावासः)

Since bhagavAn is thus well hidden behind a fort of ignorance, he is called ‘dhurAvAsa:’ – the one whose abode is highly inaccessible.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s supreme abode is inaccessible to the ignorant souls, he is called ‘dhurAvAsa:’.

दुष्करावासभूमित्वात् दुरावास इतीरितः |

787) dhurArihA (दुरारिहा)

bhagavAn exploited his inaccessibility due to ignorance (spoken till the previous divine name) in order to destroy the sinful souls by incarnating as budhdha. Thus, the ensuing divine names expound the ‘budhdha’ avathAra of bhagavAn. The first in the series is ‘dhurArihA’.

The sinful souls treading the evil paths are called ‘dhurAri’s (दुरारिणः). bhagavAn hatches umpteen plots such as convincing them to give up the path of vEdhas completely and the like in order to destroy them altogether. Thus, he is called ‘dhurArihA’.

This is hailed in the vishNu purANa thus:

“Using the veil of ignorance, bhagavAn devised many ways of turning the asuras away from the vEdhas. As a result, those ignorant asuras failed to develop a taste for the vaidhika path. Therefore the asuras – who were obstacles in the righteous path of virtuous souls – were destroyed by bhagavAn”

Etymology: The ignorant souls treading the evil path are called ‘dhurAri’s. He who destroys such ignorant souls by various means such as disengaging them from the vEdhic path and the like is called ‘dhurArihA’.

दुरारिणस्तु दुर्मार्गगामिनस्तान् निहन्ति यः |
त्रयीमार्गत्याजनादैः स स्यान्नित्यं दुरारिहा ||

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शुभाङ्गॊ लॊकसारङ्गः सुतन्तुस्तन्तुवर्धनः ।
इन्द्रकर्मा महाकर्मा कृतकर्मा कृतागमः ॥ ८४ ॥
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788) SubhAnga: (शुभाङ्गः)

How does bhagavAn enter the enemy camp with ease? It is because he is ‘SubhAnga:’ – the one with a bewitching form.

bhagavAn manifests with such a deceitful – yet beautiful form that the asuras fall for his beauty and take him to be the most knowledgeable preceptor for them.

Etymology: He, who is considered as the most knowledgeable (authentic preceptor) by the asuras et al due to his mere deceitful yet bewitching divine form, is called ‘SubhAnga:’.

मायामॊहनवॆषॆण विप्रलभ्यासुरानपि
स्थितः प्रत्ययितस्तॆषां शुभाङ्ग इति विश्रुतः

789) lOkasAranga: (लॊकसारङ्गः)

How does bhagavAn deceive the asuras as budhdha? This is said in this divine name ‘lOkasAranga:’. bhagavAn leads the asuras via the path of mean pursuits which are unopposed to logic, and considered as the very essence of materialism. Thus, he is called ‘lOkasAranga:’. The word ‘sAram’ सारम् (essence) is added to the root ‘gam’ गम् (to go), which further gets the ‘khach’ (खच्) adjunct and the ‘didhvath’ (डिद्वत्) bhAva, thus evolving into the word ‘sAranga:’. Thus is derived the divine name.

The vishNu purANa quotes bhagavAn himself as having said thus: “If you desire to go to mOksha, do as I say”

Etymology: bhagavAn always leads the evil minded souls (asuras) on the path of extreme materialism, which is unopposed to pure logic though, thus being called as ‘lOkasAranga:’.

न्यायानपॆतं यत्सारं भॊगनिर्वाणवर्त्म सः |
तद्गच्छति सदा लॊकॆ लॊकसारङ्ग ईरितः ||

790) suthanthu: (सुतन्तुः)

bhagavAn’s words in his budhdhAvathAra were very sweet, and couldn’t be overruled by the asuras. bhagavAn had thus knit a close web with his nectarine words. He also showed a superficially peaceful form to them in order to trap them.

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘suthanthu:’.

Etymology: The deceit of bhagavAn with his artificially peaceful forms is shown by the word ‘thanthu:’. Since bhagavAn made such forms very attractive only in order to attract the asuras towards his trap, he is called ‘suthanthu:’. This seven syllable manthra removes all blemishes of the chanter.

तन्तुः कृत्रिमशान्त्यादिरूपस्तद्ग्रहणाय वै |
शॊभनॊsस्य सुतन्तुः स सप्तार्णॊ दॊषनाशकः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 78 (Names 771 to 780)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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771) chathurmUrthi: (चतुर्मूर्तिः)

Even during his incarnation in the vibhava form, bhagavAn reminds us of his vyUha forms by taking up four forms (corresponding to vyUha vAsudhEva, SankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha). Thus, he is called ‘chathurmUrthi:’ – the one with four forms.

The four forms attributed to bhagavAn during his incarnation in the yadhu clan are: balarAma (as SankarshaNa), krishNa (as vAsudhEva), pradhyumna (krishNa’s son, as pradhyumna), and anirudhdha (krishNa’s grandson, as anirudhdha).

Etymology: He, who possesses four forms as balarAma (balabhadhra), krishNa (vAsudhEva), pradhyumna and anirudhdha, is called ‘chathurmUrthi:’.

बलभद्रॊ वासुदॆवः प्रद्युम्नश्चानिरुद्धकः |
चतस्रॊ मूर्तयॊ यस्य स चतुर्मूर्तिरुच्यतॆ ||

772) chathurbhAhu: (चतुर्बाहुः)

bhagavAn was born to dhEvaki with his ‘para’ form (the form that bhagavAn sports in his supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam) with four hands, which is the origin of the four vyUha forms discussed before, and which itself is primordial and has no other origin. Thus, he is called ‘chathurbhAhu:’ – the one with four arms.

It is a well known fact that dhEvaki pleads to bhagavAn thus: “Oh lord of all entities! Kindly hide this four armed divine form and take the form of a normal human child with just two arms; for kamsa must not know that you are an incarnation”

Etymology: He, who was born with the ‘para’ form – which is the origin of vyUha forms, and which is itself primordial and has no other origin, and hence possessed four hands, is called ‘chathurbhAhu:’.

व्यूहमूल-परावस्था-निरुपाधिक-रूपतः |
चत्वारॊ बाहवॊ यस्य स चतुर्बाहुरुच्यतॆ ||

773) chathurvyUha: (चतुर्व्यूहः) (also seen in 140)

Even in the four forms in his krishNAvathAra (as krishNa, balarAma, pradhyumna and anirudhdha), bhagavAn possessed all the six divine qualities (gynAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakthi and thEjas) as in his vyUha forms. Thus, he is called ‘chathurvyUha:’.

Etymology: The one who is vested with all six divine qualities in their entirety in his four forms during his incarnation – just as in his vyUha forms – is called ‘chathurvyUha:’. This manthra grants all four kinds of desired fruits upon the chanters, namely dharma, artha, kAma and mOksha.

समस्तव्यस्तषाड्गुण्यव्यूहावस्थाचतुष्टयः |
चतुर्व्यूह इति ख्यातः चतुर्वर्गप्रदॊ मनुः ||

774) chathurgathi: (चतुर्गतिः)

Depending on the kind of worship by his devotees and the intensity therein, bhagavAn bestows four levels of fruits (destinations) upon them namely indhra lOka, brahma lOka, kaivalya and mOksha. Thus, he is called ‘chathurgathi:’ – the bestower of four destinations.

Etymology: He who has four destinations to be bestowed upon his devotees is called ‘chathurgathi:’.

चतस्रः प्राप्तयॊ यस्मिन् भक्तानां स चतुर्गतिः |

775) chathurAthmA (चतुरात्मा) (also seen in 139)

With the same distinction amongst the devotees (on the basis of their level of maturity of devotion), bhagavAn further manifests in four forms – both gross as well as subtle – each corresponding to the four phases of knowledge namely ‘jAgrath’ (जाग्रत् awakened), ‘svapna’ (स्वाप dreaming), ‘sushupthi’ (सुषुप्ति deep slumber) and the fourth state or ‘thurIya’ (तुरीय enlightened). [NOTE: These four forms correspond to the four vyUha forms of bhagavAn, as seen earlier (divine name 139, 140, etc)]

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests in four forms – both gross as well as subtle) – in four different states namely waking, dreaming, deep slumber and fully enlightened, he is called ‘chathurAthmA’. This eight lettered manthra is considered as one of the finest manthras.

जाग्रदादि स्थूलसूक्ष्मचातुरात्म्यप्रकाशनात् |
चतुरात्मा स विज्ञॆयः वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

776) chathurbhAva: (चतुर्भावः)

With such four states and four forms as seen in the previous divine names, bhagavAn manifests in sixteen ways, and conducts various activities such as protection of the worlds (including creation, sustenance and destruction), bestowing the souls with SAsthras or scriptures, etc – in both gross as well as subtle states. He has this itself as his greatest cause. Hence, he is called ‘chathurbhAva:’. The word ‘bhAva:’ or ‘bhAvanA’ means ‘to manifest’. Thus, he manifests four fold in each of his vyUha forms.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests (in four fold forms of each of his vyUha forms) in both gross as well as subtle states, and conducts various activities such as bestowing of SAsthras and the like (totally sixteen in number), he is called ‘chathurbhAva:’. This manthra bestows good positions in the nether world.

शास्त्रदानादिकृत्याभिव्यञ्जनात् स्थूलसूक्ष्मतः |
चतुर्भावः समाख्यातः मन्वर्णश्च गतिप्रदः ||

777) chathurvEdhavith (चतुर्वॆदवित्)

From the ocean of greatness of bhagavAn in these vyUha and vibhava forms (as seen till now), only a small droplet is only known even to those who have mastered all four vEdhas and who have thereby tried to realize the supreme entity. Thus, he is called ‘chathurvEdhavith’.

Etymology: He who is known (albeit very less) by those who are learned in all four vEdhas is called ‘chathurvEdhavith’. This nine lettered manthra grants the knowledge of vEdhas.

चतुर्वॆदप्राज्ञनिष्ठावित्तिर्यद्विषयॆ स तु |
चतुर्वॆदविदित्युक्तः नवार्णॊ निगमप्रदः ||

778) EkapAth (एकपात्)

bhagavAn is called ‘EkapAth’ in his incarnation. This is because he incarnated as krishNa (and all other incarnations) with just a small fraction of his unfathomable splendour.

That is why it is hailed thus in many places in the scriptures such as vishNu purANa, SrI rAmAyaNa, etc:

  • “Oh brahmarishi! Know this incarnation of krishNa as just a portion of his real splendour”
  • “Having born out of just a small fraction of his real glory in this world…”
  • “The glories of vishNu cannot be fully known whatsoever”
  • “He is indeed one quarter of vishNu himself”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn incarnated with just a small portion of his real splendour, he is called ‘EkapAth’.

एकांशॆनावतीर्णत्वात् एकपादिति कथ्यतॆ |

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समावर्तॊ निवृत्तात्मा दुर्जयॊ दुरतिक्रमः ।
दुर्लभॊ दुर्गमॊ दुर्गॊ दुरावासॊ दुरारिहा ॥ ८३ ॥
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779) samAvartha: (समावर्तः)

With such divine incarnations and forms, bhagavAn completely shows his divine glories of his vyUha forms repeatedly in his incarnations. Thus, he is called ‘samAvartha:’ – the one who keeps cycling back.

Etymology: In this way (seen till the previous divine name), bhagavAn manifests with his divine glories of vyUha forms at all places, at all times and in all ways. Thus, he is called ‘samAvartha:’ [The one possesses such glories of vyUha forms, which are shown repeatedly is called ‘samAvartha:’]. This eight syllable manthra destroys our cycle of births.

एतादृशं हि सर्वत्र सर्वदा सर्वथाsपि च |
व्यूहस्य विभवस्यापि यस्यास्त्यावर्तनं स तु |
समावर्तः समाख्यातः वस्वर्णॊ जन्मनाशकः ||

780) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also seen in 231, 453)

Although bhagavAn is in control of all the worlds out of his sheer compassion, he still doesn’t mix with this lowly world, and stays aloof. Thus, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’ – the one whose mind is aloof from this lowly world.

The chAndhOgya upanishath says: “bhagavAn is ever silent and indifferent…”

Etymology: He whose mind is aloof from this lowly world at all times is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

निवृत्तात्मा मनॊ यस्य सदा जगदमिश्रितम् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 77 (Names 761 to 770)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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761) sathyamEdhA: (सत्यमॆधाः)

bhagavAn has said thus to the yAdhavas in many instances:  “I have born in your womb…”, “Know me as your close relative…”, etc.

As seen in these words, bhagavAn didn’t incarnate as krishNa just for the sake of it, with all hypocrisy. Rather, he heartily took birth in the clan of yAdhavas, and identified himself very closely with them as the son of vasudhEva, a close associate of the cowherd folks, etc.

Thus, he is called ‘sathyamEdhA:’ – the one with an honest mind.

bhagavAn himself says thus to the cowherd folks:

  • “If you all have true love towards me, and if I am respected amongst you folks, then know me also to be one amongst you, without differentiating me on any grounds”
  • “I am no dhEva; I am not a gandharva; I am no yaksha; nor am I a dhAnava. I am one amongst you, born as a cowherd. Therefore, you must not set me apart from yourself”, etc.

Etymology: He, who is honest in his heart in identifying himself with the cowherd folks, vasudhEva, and others, is called ‘sathyamEdhA:’.

वल्लवीवसुदॆवादि साजात्यस्याभिमानिनी |
मॆधा यस्यास्ति सत्या सः सत्यमॆधाः प्रकीर्तितः ||

762) dharAdhara: (धराधरः)

When indhra got angry at krishNa for taking away his share of food and started raining hailstones (some say only ‘stones’), bhagavAn decided to protect the innocent cowherds.

The bhAgavatha purANa shows this incident thus:

“bhagavAn then decided that he must protect the cowherds from the onset of hail rains. He thus decided to daringly lift the mountain which was next to them (gOvardhana) and hold it as an umbrella under which all the cowherds could seek shelter from the rain.”

Thus, bhagavAn lifted the gOvardhana mountain, which is why he is called ‘dharAdhara:’ – the one who holds the mountain.

Etymology: The one who instantly bore the gOvardhana mountain (with his little finger) is called ‘dharAdhara:’.

धरं गॊवर्धनं शीघ्रं धृतवान् स धराधरः |

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तॆजॊवृषॊ द्युतिधरः सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः ।
प्रग्रहॊ निग्रहॊ व्यग्रॊ नैकशृङ्गॊ गदाग्रजः ॥ ८१ ॥
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763) thEjOvrusha: (तॆजॊवृषः)

In this way, bhagavAn showers his effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘thEjOvrusha:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thEjOvrusha:’, since he showers his divine effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees. This eight lettered manthra bestows kinsmen among the chanters.

तॆजॊsभिवर्षति यतः सुहृत्पालनलक्षणम्  |
तॆजॊवृषः समाख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ मित्रवृद्धिदः ||

764) dhyuthidhara: (द्युतिधरः)

For the same reason (of showering effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees), bhagavAn possesses extraordinary effulgence which can even pacify the ego of indhra although krishNa is in his youth. Thus, he is called ‘dhyuthidhara:’.

Etymology: The one who possesses extraordinary effulgence that can tame even the egotistic feeling of indhra is popularly called ‘dhyuthidhara:’. This eight lettered manthra confers effulgence upon the seekers.

अमानुषीं यॊ धृतवान् द्युतिमैन्द्राभिभावुकम् |
ख्यातः स हि द्युतिधरः वस्वर्णः कान्तिदॊ मनुः ||

765) sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara: (सर्वशस्त्रभृतांवरः)

bhagavAn showed that he is the best among the wielders of weapons while fighting against narakAsura, jarAsandha, et al. Thus, he is called ‘sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara:’ – the best among the wielders of all weapons.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “That act of wielding various kinds of weapons at his enemies is a divine sport of that lord of all worlds in his human incarnation”

Etymology: He, who proved to be the best amongst all wielders of various weapons in fighting against jarAsandha and others, is popular in all worlds as ‘sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara:’.

जरासन्धादिसमरॆ श्रॆष्ठः शस्त्रभृतां च यः |
स ख्यातः सर्वलॊकॆषु सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः ||

766) pragraha: (प्रग्रहः)

arjuna was controlled by krishNa through his words, just as the horses pulling his chariot were controlled by the reins held by krishNa. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘pragraha:’ – the one who holds the reins.

Etymology: With bhagavAn as his charioteer, arjuna was controlled by his words just as much as the horses pulling his chariot were controlled by the reins held by him. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘pragraha:’.

पार्थः सारथिनानॆन सदश्व इव रश्मिभिः |
प्रग्रह्यतॆ यतस्तस्मात् प्रग्रहः समुदाहृतः ||

767) nigraha: (निग्रहः)

Without even depending on arjuna’s valour, bhagavAn oppressed the entire enemy camp single handed – just by his skilful charioteering. Thus, he is called ‘nigraha:’ – the oppressor of all enemies.

Etymology: He – by whom the enemies were subdued by mere virtue of skilful charioteering – is called ‘nigraha:’. This seven lettered manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.

यॆन सारथ्यवैचित्र्यात् निगृह्यन्तॆ स्म शत्रवः |
स निग्रहः समाख्यातः सप्तार्णः शत्रुनाशकः ||

768) vyagra: (व्यग्रः)

bhagavAn is called ‘vyagra:’ because he was impatient to wait till arjuna fought the battle and destroyed his enemies. The root ‘aga’ (अग) means to traverse a crooked path. It gets the ‘ran’ (रन्) adjunct and the ‘vi’ (वि) upasarga, resulting in this divine name. This means bhagavAn took to alternate ways to destroy the enemies in the battle.

This is shown in SrI mahAbharatha; where bhagavAn himself says thus while charging towards bhIshma:

“Oh sAthyaki! Those who are gone are gone forever. Those who are remaining here shall also go soon. Now behold bhIshma who shall fall from his chariot giving away to my charge. Also see for yourself how dhrONa and others shall be busted by me in this battle”.

Having said thus, bhagavAn jumped from his chariot leaving the reins of the horses. He took the mighty chakra in his hands and charged towards bhIshma and others.

Etymology: He who was impatient to wait till arjuna fought the battle to win over his enemies (and who himself jumped into the war field to ruin the enemy camp) is called ‘vyagra:’. This six syllable manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.

युद्धकर्मासहिष्णुत्वात् पार्थविद्विड्विनिग्रहॆ |
यॊsसौ व्यग्रः समाख्यातः षडर्णॊ वैरिनाशकः ||

769) naikaSrunga: (नैकशृङ्गः)

bhagavAn possessed a multitude of means of oppressing the enemies in the battlefield, such as his intellect, his charioteering skills, his vow of never taking up any weapon on the war field, yet taking up his chakrAyudha when needed, etc. In this way, he took to several ways of defeating the enemies of his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘naikaSrunga:’ – the one who has a multitude of oppressing ways.

The root ‘Sru’ (शृ) means to cause suffering. It gets the ‘gan’ (गन्) adjunct, with an import of ‘kith’ (कित्) and ‘nut’ (नुट्), resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He is called ‘naikaSrunga:’, who possesses a multitude of ways of oppressing his enemies.

नैकशृङ्गॊ यस्य नैकं स्यात् शृङ्गं वैरिबाधकम् |

770) gadhAgraja: (गदाग्रजः)

bhagavAn krishNa was born as the elder brother of gadha (गदः), who was the son of vasudhEva and sunAmA. Thus, he is called ‘gadhAgraja:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn was the elder brother of a person named ‘gadha’, he is called ‘gadhAgraja:’.

गदनाम्नश्चाग्रजत्वात् गदाग्रज इतीरितः |

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चतुर्मूर्तिश्चतुर्बाहुश्चतुर्व्यूहश्चतुर्गतिः ।
चतुरात्मा चतुर्भावश्चतुर्वॆदविदॆकपात् ॥ ८२ ॥
=============================

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 76 (Names 751 to 760)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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751) achala: (अचलः)

bhagavAn was invincible to all wicked people such as dhuryOdhana and all his men. Thus, he is called ‘achala:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘achala:’ since he was invincible to dhuryOdhana and other bad elements.

दुर्यॊधनाद्यभॆद्यत्वात् अचलः परिकीर्तितः |

752) chala: (चलः)

In order to help the pANdavas and others who had surrendered unto him, bhagavAn allowed himself to slip from his promises. Hence, he is called ‘chala:’ – the fickle one, or the one who went back on his promise!

bhagavAn had vowed not to touch any weapon during the mahAbhAratha war. But later he took up the chakrAyudha or his divine discus in order to slay bhIshma.

(NOTE: bhagavAn had vowed not to touch any weapon. But bhIshma had vowed that he would make bhagavAn take up his divine weapon. During the war, arjuna was brutally attacked by bhIshma. In order to save arjuna and other pANdavas including dhraupadhi for their act of surrender, and in order to save his dear devotee bhIshma’s vow, bhagavAn went back on his own vow and took up his divine weapon – the chakrAyudha – not caring the least bit for his own credence of keeping up promises!)

This unique feat of bhagavAn is hailed in various scriptures in many ways. Some of them are as below:

  • “At that moment when krishNa got angry and took up the chakra in his hands shouting loudly, all the creatures immediately started screaming with the fear of extinction of the entire kuru clan.”
  • “That vAsudheva – holding the chakra – jumped from his chariot. It was as though he was rushing to clear all the worlds of all creatures. At that moment, he looked like a fierce comet that was about to extinguish all life forms from the face of all worlds”

Etymology: In order to save the pANdavas and others (who are his dear devotees), bhagavAn is ready even to go back on his own vows. Hence, he is called ‘chala:’.

सत्यादॆः पाण्डवार्थॆ स चलतीति चलः स्मृतः |

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अमानी मानदॊ मान्यॊ लॊकस्वामी त्रिलॊकधृत् ।
सुमॆधा मॆधजॊ धन्यः सत्यमॆधा धराधरः ॥ ८० ॥
===============================

753) amAnI (अमानी)

bhagavAn never shows his ego before his devotees. Thus he is called ‘amAnI’ – the humble one. That is why he readily walked as a messenger of pANdavas to the court of dhritharAshtra, without the least bit of hesitation

(NOTE: walking as a messenger with a palm leaf tied in the neck while everyone else is witnessing was considered as a very lowly job. Yet, bhagavAn enjoys his identity as the messenger of pANdavas rather than being identified as the supreme master. He has a huge temple built in kAnchipuram, where he is worshipped as ‘pANdavadhUtha’)

Etymology: He who never shows his ego before his devotees is called ‘amAnI’.

अमानी यॊsनहङ्कारी भक्तॆष्वॆव स ईरितः |

754) mAnadha: (मानदः)

bhagavAn bestowed the respectful positions to his dear ones, such as mastership of chariot (rathithva रथित्व) to arjuna and rule of a kingdom (AdhirAjya आधिराज्य) to ugrasEna and yudhishtira, et al. Thus, he is called ‘mAnadha:’.

Etymology: He is called ‘mAnadha:’, who re-established the lost respect and kingdom upon his dear ones such as arjuna and others.

स मानदॊsर्जुनादिभ्यॊ मानं राज्यं च दत्तवान् |

755) mAnya: (मान्यः)

In all these ways, bhagavAn shows his happiness in being subservient to his dear devotees (by being their messenger, charioteer, et al). He considers such subservience itself as a great respect to himself. Thus, he is called ‘mAnya:’.

The scriptures say thus: “None of the kauravas can escape the anger of that charioteer of pANdavas today” (the scriptures here identify krishNa as a charioteer rather than the supreme self)

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘mAnya:’, since he shows his belongingness to his devotees at all times (by being subservient to them) and takes that itself as their greatest respect.

मान्यस्तदीयत्वॆन स्यात् संमन्तव्यः सदॆति सः |

756) lOkasvAmI (लॊकस्वामी)

Who is that who does such wondrous deeds and acts so fascinatingly? It is bhagavAn – who is the master of all worlds. Thus, he is called ‘lOkasvAmI’. This means that he does not give up his identity or his nature of being the supreme lord of all worlds although he stoops down to our level in his incarnations.

Etymology: Since all the worlds are his property, bhagavAn is called ‘lOkasvAmI’.

लॊकस्सर्वस्स्वमस्यॆति लॊकस्वामीति कथ्यतॆ |

757) thrilOkadhruth (त्रिलॊकधृत्)

How does such a supreme soul mix with lowly souls? It is because he is ‘thrilOkadhruth’. This divine name means that, no matter what, bhagavAn is the one who bears the entire creation, nurtures them and thus takes up the entire responsibility of all souls in all the worlds.

bhagavAn says thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “I stand bearing all of this creation”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bears all three worlds, he is called ‘thrilOkadhruth’.

लॊकत्रयस्य धरणात् स त्रिलॊकधृदीरितः |

758) sumEdhA: (सुमॆधाः)

bhagavAn has a very favourable mind towards all those who worship him. Thus, he is called ‘sumEdhA:’.

The word ‘mEdha’ gets the asich (असिच्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘mEdhA’.

Etymology: He whose thoughts (mind) are auspicious is called ‘sumEdhA:’.

बुद्धिः सुशॊभना यस्य सुमॆधाः परिकीर्तितः |

759) mEdhaja: (मॆधजः)

bhagavAn was born as krishNa in one such worship (mEdhas मॆधस्) which was carried out by dhEvaki for begetting bhagavAn as her child. Thus, he is called ‘mEdhaja:’.

bhagavAn himself says thus to dhEvaki, immediately after he is born to dhEvaki.

“Oh dhEvaki, just as you had requested me, I have now born as your son. Your prayers are now fulfilled”

The same incident is recorded in the vishNu dharma thus: “Oh dhEvaki, your acts of worship stand fulfilled today, for I am pleased by your worship. I am now born as your son”

Etymology: He, who has had a birth in effect of dhEvaki’s worship for begetting a son, is called ‘mEdhaja:’. This seven lettered manthra grants progeny to the chanter.

दॆवकीकृत-पुत्रीयव्रतयज्ञॆ च यस्य वै |
जनिस्तु मॆधजः स स्यात् सप्तार्णः पुत्रदायकः ||

760) dhanya: (धन्यः)

bhagavAn treats such birth unto his dear devotees itself as a great fortune. Thus, he is called ‘dhanya:’ – the fortunate one.

The word ‘dhana’ धनः (wealth) gets the ‘yath’ (यत्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. This means he is the one who possesses such wealth.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhanya:’ since he treated his birth in dhEvaki’s womb itself as a great fortune.

धन्यस्तु दॆवकीजन्मधनलाभादयं स्मृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 75 (Names 741 to 750)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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741) mAdhava: (माधवः) (also repeated in 73, 169)

The unbreakable bondage with every individual soul is further elucidated in this divine name ‘mAdhava:’. Since bhagavAn – along with SrI mahAlakshmi – manifest as the divine parents of every single entity in this creation, he is called ‘mAdhava:’ – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi (and hence the father of every individual).

Alternately, since he was born in the clan of madhu, he is called ‘mAdhava:’.

The udhyOga parva of SrI mahAbhAratha says thus: “That mAdhava must be known by observing silence, meditation and communion”. Thus also he is called ‘mAdhava’.

Etymology: The attribute of bhagavAn being the sole master of all worlds comes due to his eternal relationship with SrI mahAlakshmi, due to which he gets the divine name ‘mAdhava:’ (in this context). Alternately, since he was born in the clan of ‘madhu’, he is called ‘mAdhava:’.

लॊकनाथत्वसम्बन्धः श्रीमतश्चॆति माधवः |
मधॊर्वंशॊद्भवत्वाच्च माधवः परिकीर्तितः ||

742) bhakthavathsala: (भक्तवत्सलः)

bhagavAn is extremely pleased with his devotees who have realized their unbreakable relationship with him (as his eternal servants, his children, etc – all nine types of relationships ought to be considered here). Thus, he is called ‘bhakthavathsala:’.

This divine name means the one who forgets everything else when he is united with such a realized devotee, and enjoys his company.

Etymology: He who is very loving towards his dear devotees (who have realized their eternal relationship with him) is called ‘bhakthavathsala:’.

विशॆषं वक्ति भक्तॆषु यॊsसौ स्यात् भक्तवत्सलः |

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सुवर्णवर्णॊ हॆमाङ्गॊ वराङ्गश्चन्दनाङ्गदी ।
वीरहा विषमः शून्यः घृताशीरचलश्चलः ॥ ७९ ॥
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743) suvarNavarNa: (सुवर्णवर्णः)

Just as with the said faultless qualities, bhagavAn’s divine form is also covered with a faultless glorious golden hue. Hence, he is called ‘suvarNavarNa:’.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “…when the yOgis see that golden hued lord…”
  • “…him, who has the shine of gold, and who is seen only with the mind”
  • “…him, who has the hue of the sun”
  • “That purusha is completely golden… he possesses golden hair, golden moustache… he is of a golden hue all over – from the head to toe”, etc.

Etymology: Akin to his faultless divine qualities, since bhagavAn also possesses a faultless and radiant hue like tested gold (representing beauty as well as supremacy), he is called ‘suvarNavarNa:’. This nine lettered manthra is capable of conferring devotion towards bhagavAn as well as all desired fruits upon the chanter.

गुणवत् स्वर्णनिकषनिर्दॊषॊज्ज्वलवर्णतः |
सुवर्णवर्ण इत्युक्तः नवार्णॊ भक्तिकामदः ||

744) hEmAnga: (हॆमाङ्गः)

bhagavAn possesses eternal, divine, and saththvik limbs of body which are all verily the seat of the bright golden hue. Thus, he is called ‘hEmAnga:’.

The thaitthirIya nArAyanIya hails thus: “That purusha (bhagavAn) is seen with a golden form”

Etymology: Since each of bhagavAn’s divine and saththvik limbs are all golden hued, he is called ‘hEmAnga:’. This seven lettered manthra confers beauty upon the chanters.

वर्णाधिष्ठानमङ्गं च दिव्यं सत्त्वमयं यतः |
अतॊ हॆमाङ्ग इत्युक्तः सप्तार्णॊ हॆमवर्णदः ||

745) varAnga: (वराङ्गः)

bhagavAn – who is attributed with such glorious attributes by the upanishaths (as seen in these previous divine names) – was born as the son of dhEvaki for her satisfaction. While being born thus, he showed his divine attributes manifestly – which would otherwise be well hidden from the view of commoners. Thus, he is called ‘varAnga:’ – the one with an exquisite body.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “vasudhEva and dhEvaki rejoiced at the sight of their son – who had the complexion of a fully blossomed blue lotus, with four hands and the glorious SrIvathsa mark on his chest”

Etymology: He, who was born with a beautiful form with all the divine and auspicious attributes hailed by the upanishaths – which would otherwise be concealed – in order to fulfil dhEvaki’s desire, is called ‘varAnga:’.

दॆवकीप्रीतयॆ गुप्तं मङ्गलं दिव्यलाञ्छनम् |
आविष्कृतं यॆन रूपं वराङ्गः स तु कथ्यतॆ ||

746) chandhanAngadhI (चन्दनाङ्गदी)

Even without any ornaments, bhagavAn’s limbs are most charming merely due to his association, and thus please the minds of the beholders. Thus, he is called ‘chandhanAngadhI’ – the one who has charming limbs.

Alternately, bhagavAn is bedecked with divine ornaments such as armlets and the like. Thus also he is called ‘chandhanAngadhI’ – the one with charming bracelets. The bracelets mentioned here are connotative of all other divine ornaments of bhagavAn.

Etymology: He who possesses divine ornaments such as bracelets / bangles and the like, which are ever charming, is called ‘chandhanAngadhI’.

भूषणान्यङ्गदादीनि सदाह्लादकराणि च |
सन्ति यस्य हि नित्यं तु स स्मृतश्चन्दनाङ्गदी ||

747) vIrahA (वीरहा) (also repeated in 168, 927)

Even while in his infancy with all innocence, bhagavAn eliminated all evil forces by root – such as pUdhana, Sakata, arjuna (yamalArjuna – the twin trees that were broken by krishNa), which were all deceptive in nature. Thus he is called ‘vIrahA’.

Etymology: He who eliminated pUthana and others (commissioned by kamsa) by root is called ‘vIrahA’.

समूलं पूतनादीन् वै यॊ जघान स वीरहा |

748) vishama: (विषमः)

In this way, bhagavAn shows his discrimination between noble souls who tread the righteous path and the ignorant souls who possess crooked minds by being their benefactor and by instilling fear in their minds respectively. Thus, he is called ‘vishama:’ – the one who discriminates.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn generates a sense of fear and security in the minds of wicked and noble souls respectively, he is called ‘vishama:’.

भीतिक्षॆमकरत्वाद्धि कुटिलाकुटिलात्मसु |
विषमः स तु विख्यातः |

749) SUnya: (शून्यः)

Even while having born as a human (as krishNa), bhagavAn was free from all blemishes. Thus, he is called ‘SUnya:’. The root ‘Sun’ (शुन्) gets the meaning of ‘quality’ in this context, which gets suffixed with the ‘Nyath’ (ण्यत्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘SUnya:’, since he is free from all blemishes (even in the human form).

शून्यः स्यात् दॊषवर्जितः |

750) ghruthASI: (घृताशीः)

The root ‘ghru’ (घृ) means to sprinkle. Thus, the word ‘ghrutham’ (घृतम्) means sprinkling. bhagavAn sprinkles the worlds with his noble qualities, and thus satiates all entities. Hence, he is called ‘ghruthASI:’. He is also called thus since he wished for all the milk, curds and butter from the houses of all cowherd folks.

Etymology: bhagavAn wishes for all the milk and milk products such as curds, butter, clarified butter, etc from the houses of cowherd folks of brindhAvanam. Alternately, he is the one who invigorates all entities in this world by sprinkling them with his noble qualities. Thus, he is called ‘ghruthASI:’.

गॊपानां सद्मगव्यॆ वा जगदाप्यायनॆन वा |
घृतॆ त्वाशास्तिरस्यॆति घृताशीः परिकीर्तितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 74 (Names 731 to 740)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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731) naika: (नैकः)

bhagavAn cannot be categorized together with any other entity; yet such uniqueness does not come merely out of his divine attributes of concealment (remaining hidden from common view, as the indweller), multiplication (process of creation), transformation (in his body – in order to create all the worlds) etc. Rather, such uniqueness comes only because there is no entity equalling his nature (of being the master of all, possessing unbounded wealth, etc).

So, since bhagavAn possesses a second group of entities consisting of all his divine wealth (sentient and insentient entities), he is called ‘naika:’ – the one who is not alone.

bhagavAn himself declares thus: “Oh arjuna, there is no end to my divine wealth”

(NOTE: Although the two divine names ‘Eka:’ and ‘naika:’ appear to contradict each other, bhattar has clearly shown that they are only complimenting each other, and not contradicting. The name ‘Eka:’ means “the one who has none equalling him”, and the name ‘naika:’ means “the one who is not alone but possesses unbounded wealth consisting of all sentient and insentient entities (of which none can equal him)”. This shows the true existence of sentient and insentient entities apart from the supreme brahman himself (thathva-thrayam), as well as the natural supremacy of that brahman. This is much against the adhvaitha school of thought as seen in SankarAchArya’s commentary, where he interprets ‘Eka:’ as ‘the one who does not have the three distinctions’ and ‘naika:’ as ‘the one who manifests as multiple entities in this world due to mAyA’, which negates the existence of a second entity to brahman)

Etymology: He is called ‘naika:’ who possesses a second category other than himself, consisting of all his divine wealth (namely “all sentient and insentient entities”), and hence not alone.

नैकः स्वविसजातीयविभूत्याख्य द्वितीयवान् |

732) sa: (सः)

bhagavAn is called ‘sa:’ since he bestowed complete knowledge about himself even unto the small children in his neighbourhood. The root ‘syathi’ स्यति (to conclude / show conclusively) gets the ‘da:’ (डः) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He whose glories are popularized among everyone including small children during his incarnation as krishNa (and others) is called ‘sa:’.

सर्वॆषु कृष्णरूपादिष्वाकुमारप्रसिद्धितः |
ज्ञानं हि यस्य विषयॆ सत्यसौ स इतीरितः ||

733) va: (वः)

In what ways is bhagavAn popular among everyone? It is by his omnipresence. The root ‘vas’ वस् (to reside) gets the ‘da:’ (डः) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “Oh maithrEya, since all creatures exist in bhagavAn, and since bhagavAn resides in all such entities, he is connoted by the name ‘va:’”

Etymology: Since the indwelling of bhagavAn in all creatures as well as the existence of all creatures within bhagavAn is popular, bhagavAn is called ‘va:’.

यथा प्रसिद्धिवासित्वात् स्वस्य भूतॆष्वपि स्वयम् |
भूतावासतया वः स्यात् |

734) ka: (कः)

Although residing amidst dirt (in this samsAra), since bhagavAn doesn’t lose his effulgence (unlike the lowly gem stones which lose their lustre when fallen in marsh), he is called ‘ka:’.

The root ‘kanathi’ कनति (to shine) gets the ‘da:’ (डः) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who shines in all entities is called ‘ka:’.

सर्वॆषु कनतीति कः |

735) kim (किम्)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is sought after by the seekers of reality by questioning “what” (or “which”) “is that supreme entity”. Thus, bhagavAn himself is called ‘kim’.

The root ‘prach’ प्रच्छ् (seeking or questioning) is replaced with ‘ka’ (क) and gets the ‘im’ (इम्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

The chAndhOgya upanishath says “He is the one who is to be sought. He is the one who is to be known”

Etymology: He who is sought through questioning by the seekers of true knowledge is called ‘kim’.

य ईप्सितार्थज्ञप्त्यर्थं प्रष्टव्यः किमिति स्मृतः |

736) yath (यत्)                                                     

bhagavAn makes every effort in protecting such dear devotees (the seekers of true knowledge, as shown in the previous divine name). Thus, he is called ‘yath’ – the one who puts efforts.

The root ‘yath’ यत् (to put effort) gets the ‘kvip’ (क्विप्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

The scriptures show how bhagavAn protects: “I shall protect those who constantly remember me with the name ‘krishNa’ by uplifting them from the naraka, just as a lotus buds out from the water”

varAha bhagavAn has said thus: “…I shall remember such a person during his last moments, and lead him to my supreme abode”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn makes every effort in order to protect such seekers (as said in the previous divine name), he is called ‘yath’.

रक्षायै पृच्छकानां स यतनात् यदिति स्मृतः |

737) thath (तत्)

Furthermore, bhagavAn only enhances the knowledge and devotion towards himself among such seekers. Thus, he is called ‘thath’.

The root ‘than’ तन् (to expand) gets the ‘kvip’ (क्विप्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, replacing the ‘na’ (न) with ‘thu’ (तु), resulting in this divine name.

The scriptures also support this attribute thus:

“We contemplate upon that indweller of the sun, who is desired by everyone and who bestows the highest knowledge”

“He is addressed by the names Om, thath and sath”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn enhances the knowledge about himself as well as the devotion unto himself among his dear devotees (the seekers of truth as seen previously), he is called ‘thath’.

स्वज्ञानभक्तिं भक्तानां तनॊतीति तदुच्यतॆ |

738) padhamanuththamam (पदमनुत्तमम्)

Also, he is the supreme destination or goal for the seeker of truth. Thus, he is called ‘padham anuththamam’ – the supreme goal/abode.

The root ‘padhyathE’ (पद्यतॆ) gets the meaning of ‘attainment’, which transforms as this divine name.

Etymology: The supreme destination for all the souls who have surrendered unto him (bhagavAn) is called ‘padham anuththamam’.

परमं च प्रपन्नानां प्राप्यं पदमनुत्तमम् |

739) lOkabandhu: (लॊकबन्धुः)

In this way, bhagavAn is related to each and every individual equally with a bonding that can never be severed. Thus, he is called ‘lOkabandhu:’. It means the one who is the close relative of every individual.

The root ‘bandha’ (बन्धः) gets the meaning of bondage, resulting in the word ‘bandhu:’ (बन्धुः) by grammatical rules – importing ‘u’ (उ) at the end.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “Mother, father, brother, dwelling, refuge, well wisher, and the destination – are all verily nArAyaNa himself”
  • “I am the father of this world”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is closely related to each and every individual soul (with a bonding that cannot be severed), he is called ‘lOkabandhu:’.

लॊकानां स्वजनत्वाद्धि लॊकबन्धुरिति स्मृतः |

740) lOkanAtha: (लॊकनाथः)

This divine name ‘lOkanAtha:’ specifies the root cause of his unseverably strong relationship with every individual as seen before. That root cause is said to be his natural mastership over every single entity in this creation.

bhagavAn is called ‘lOkanAtha:’, since he is the sole master of all worlds.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn being the sole master of all worlds is itself the root for his strong relationship with every individual, and since he possesses such a natural relationship (of master-servant) with such individuals, he is called ‘lOkanAtha:’.

लॊकबन्धुत्वमूलं हि लॊकस्वामित्वम् इत्यतः |
स्वाभाविकाच्च सम्बन्धात् लॊकनाथ इतीरितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 73 (Names 721 to 730)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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721) aparAjitha: (अपराजितः) (also repeated in 866)

Furthermore, although bhagavAn was himself unarmed in the mahAbhAratha war, yet the five pANdavas whom he had vowed to protect couldn’t be defeated by the hundred kauravas although they were armed with a mighty army and having numerous weapons. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘aparAjitha:’ – he who makes his devotees invincible (and he who is himself invincible).

This is shown by many knowledgeable men in SrI mahAbhAratha, as seen below:

  • indhra says thus to karna: “You may slay all your enemies single handed in the war, oh intelligent one! But you cannot do anything of that arjuna, who has sought refuge under the feet of the supreme soul krishNa. That incomprehensible nArAyaNa who is hailed by all the vEdhic scholars as the invincible lord hari, and who incarnated as the great wild boar (varAha), has himself come down as krishNa; and arjuna is protected by him (meaning, you cannot defeat arjuna whatsoever due to krishNa’s protection)”
  • rudhra speaks thus to jayadhratha: “Oh jayadhratha, you may slay all your enemies who boast of invincible valour in the battle that is about to ensue. But I shall tell you for sure, that mighty armed arjuna cannot be defeated even by the dhEvas, for he is being protected by the supreme lord krishNa – who is the wielder of divine weapons namely the conch, discus, mace, etc.”
  • “Oh lion among men (krishNa), he – (that arjuna) unto whom you have sought to go as a charioteer, shall emerge victorious for sure. There is certainly no failure for him”
  • bhIshma, dhrOna, and other warriors have spoken thus:
    • “I am capable of slaying all the pANdavas with a single arrow of mine, were they not to be under the protection of vishNu, who is the creator of all”
    • “Honesty can certainly be seen in a brAhmaNa. Humility can certainly be seen in a noble person. Wealth can certainly be seen with a capable person. So also, victory is certain to be seen with nArAyaNa”

The other scriptures have collectively shown thus:

  • “…you are invincible, eternal and firm”
  • “…he who is the wielder of sword and hence invincible”
  • “…where there is krishNa, there is victory”
  • “In my opinion, wealth, victory and life are certain to be found wherever there is krishNa – the master of yOgas, and arjuna – the wielder of the mighty bow, et al.
  • charaka – in his AyurvEdha samhitha – has said thus: “Just as I know not of vasudhEva’s defeat, or my mother’s marriage (in person), or the drying up of an entire ocean (meaning – just as these three facts are undoubted), so also let this medicine be undoubtedly effective”
  • “Just as an ocean is unperturbed, just as the himAlayas are steadfast, just as the fire is fierce, and just as nArAyaNa is invincible, so also may this medicine cure the effects of poison”, et al.

Etymology: He who had no defeat at the hands of the armed force of dhuryOdhana and others at any place (and thus, who made his dear devotees – the pANdavas – invincible due to his protection) is called ‘aparAjitha:’.

दुर्यॊधनादिभिर्नित्यं रूढमूलैः पराजयः |
न यस्य कुत्रचिद्वापि सॊsपराजित ईरितः ||

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विश्वमूर्तिर्महामूर्तिर्दीप्तमूर्तिरमूर्तिमान् ।
अनॆकमूर्तिरव्यक्तः शतमूर्तिः शताननः ॥ ७७ ॥
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722) viSvamUrthi: (विश्वमूर्तिः)

How is it that the powerful entities do not easily overpower the powerless entities at all times? It is because every single entity is the body of bhagavAn. He would not do anything that is undesirable to his body. Thus, every entity is protected.

This attribute is reflected in this divine name ‘viSvamUrthi:’ – the one who possesses the entire world as his body.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna, I am the indweller residing in every entity in this creation”

Etymology: He who possesses the entire world as his divine body is called ‘viSvamUrthi:’.

विश्वं मूर्तिर्तनुर्यस्य विश्वमूर्तिस्तु स स्मृतः |

723) mahAmUrthi: (महामूर्तिः)

bhagavAn’s divine body is big enough to house all entities in it at once. Thus, he is called ‘mahAmUrthi:’ – the one with a huge body.

This is shown in the bhagavath gIthA thus (while showing the viSvarUpa): “Oh arjuna, look at all the worlds and entities thereof stationed in one small part of my divine body, including all sentient and insentient entities.”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s divine body is the sole refuge of all entities in this world (since his body is huge enough to house all these entities at a time), he is called ‘mahAmUrthi:’.

विश्वैकाश्रयमूर्तित्वात् महामूर्तिरिति स्मृतः |

724) dhIpthamUrthi: (दीप्तमूर्तिः)

Whatever in this world is luminous by whatever proportions is finally a part of his divine body. Thus, bhagavAn himself is called ‘dhIpthamUrthi:’ – the one with a luminous body.

bhagavAn himself declares thus: “Know all those objects that are considered prosperous, luminous and powerful in this world as having born from just a fraction of my effulgence”

Etymology: Since all objects that are luminous by any proportions in this world are just a part of his divine body, he is called ‘dhIpthamUrthi:’.

यत्किञ्चित् कॆनचिद्दीप्तं गुणॆनात्र विशॆषतः |
तत्सर्वं मूर्तिरस्यॆति दीप्तमूर्तिरसौ स्मृतः ||

725) amUrthimAn (अमूर्तिमान्)

The sentient and insentient entities are all the property of bhagavAn even at the time of deluge, when they do not have the distinction of names or forms. Thus, he is called ‘amUrthimAn’ – the master of indistinct entities.

bhagavAn declares in the bhagavath gIthA thus:

“The basic elements namely earth, water, fire, air and space, along with other entities namely mind, intellect and ahankAra are said to be the manifestations of my inferior property. My superior property is completely different from these, and is characterized by sentient entities, with which this world is borne”

The upanishaths hail thus:

  • “He who possesses the primordial nature as his divine body”
  • “He who possesses the individual soul as his divine body”, et al

Further, this divine name cannot be taken to mean ‘non-existence of a divine body’ (amUrthi: अमूर्तिः). This is because the previous set of divine names as well as the subsequent set of divine names clearly shows the presence of a divine body for bhagavAn (such as ‘viSvamUrthi:’, ‘SathamUrthi:’, etc). Also, the ‘mathup’ (मतुप्) adjunct is used in this divine name, which clearly shows the possession of something. So, clearly, this divine name only shows the presence of a divine body of bhagavAn, which also houses the sentient and insentient entities even at the time of deluge when they do not have distinction with names and forms.

Etymology: The word ‘amUrthi:’ connotes the collection of sentient and insentient entities in their subtle state (with no distinction of names and forms). He who is the master of all such subtle entities (by being their indweller, or in other words – possessing them as his divine body) is called ‘amUrthimAn’.

अमूर्तिशब्दॆनॊच्यतॆ ह्यव्यक्तपुरुषादयः |
त एव यस्य स्वमिति स स्मृतः स्यादमूर्तिमान् ||

726) anEkamUrthi: (अनॆकमूर्तिः)

Even while having incarnated as krishNa, bhagavAn never gave up his four forms of vyUha – namely vAsudhEva (as krishNa in his own form), sankarshaNa (as balarAma), pradhyumna (as bhagavAn’s son) and anirudhdha (as bhagavAn’s grandson). Thus he is called ‘anEkamUrthi:’.

Alternately, the vishNu purANa shows thus: “bhagavAn krishNa – the son of dhEvaki – took up as many forms at once as there were gOpikas, who were sixteen thousand and one hundred in number!”

Since bhagavAn took (takes) such extraordinary forms in multitude, he is called ‘anEkamUrthi:’ – the one with numerous forms.

Etymology: There were sixteen thousand and one hundred wives. Since bhagavAn also took so many forms at once, he is called ‘anEkamUrthi:’.

षॊडशस्त्रीसहस्राणि शतमॆकं ततॊsधिकम् |
अनॆकमूर्तिरित्युक्तः तत्संख्याकस्वदॆहतः ||

727) avyaktha: (अव्यक्तः)

Although bhagavAn has all the glories stated till now, yet he concealed them under his human appearance. Hence, he is called ‘avyaktha:’ – the concealed one.

bhagavAn says thus about himself:

  • “I do not manifest before everyone”
  • “I cannot be comprehended either by penance or by study of vEdhas”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn conceals his true nature under the guise of a human form (as krishNa), he is called ‘avyaktha:’ by the knowledgeable men learned in the highest philosophy.

मनुष्यत्वॆन सर्वत्र पराभवप्रकाशनात् |
बुधैरव्यक्त इति च कथितस्तत्त्वपारगैः ||

728) SathamUrthi: (शतमूर्तिः)

Thence, the viSvarUpa form of krishNa is hailed. Since bhagavAn showed his universal form viSvarUpam to arjuna who was keen on seeing that form, he is called ‘SathamUrthi:’ – the one with hundreds of forms.

bhagavAn says thus to arjuna: “See my glorious forms, oh arjuna! Behold the hundreds and thousands of forms of mine…”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn showed hundreds of forms in his viSvarUpa to arjuna, he is called ‘SathamUrthi:’.

अर्जुनाय व्यक्ततया विश्वरूपप्रदर्शनात् |
शतमूर्तिरिति ख्यातः |

729) SathAnana: (शताननः)

bhagavAn is further called ‘SathAnana:’ for the same reason (as explained in the previous divine name). In the same viSvarUpa form, arjuna glorifies thus: “I see in your glorious form a multitude of faces, eyes, divine jewellery, weapons, etc…”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn showed arjuna hundreds and thousands of faces in his viSvarUpa form, he is called ‘SathAnana:’.

शतशॊsथ सहस्रशः |
अनॆकाननसम्पत्या शतानन इतीरितः ||

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एकॊ नैकः स वः कः किं यत्तत्पदमनुत्तमम् ।
लॊकबन्धुर्लॊकनाथॊ माधवॊ भक्तवत्सलः ॥ ७८ ॥
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730) Eka: (एकः)

With respect to all the greatness expounded till now, since there is no other entity equal to bhagavAn (meaning, since there is none to equal bhagavAn in possessing all the said great qualities), he is called ‘Eka:’.

The root ‘iN’ इण् (to move) gets the ‘kan’ (कन्) adjunct – replacing ‘i’ (इ) with ‘E’ (ए), thus resulting in this divine name.

Generally, entities are grouped together based on some distinguishing characteristic. For example, we say “two brahmanas”, “three kshathriyas”, et al based on some distinction. But no such distinction can be applied to any other entity to group it with bhagavAn. The categorization of bhagavAn is distinct and the same distinction can never be applied to any other entity.

This is as per the scriptural statements thus:

  • “He turned out to be the sole ruler of the entire world”
  • “There is none to equal him”, et al

Etymology: Since bhagavAn has no second entity that can be grouped with him in all his greatness (meaning, since bhagavAn is distinct from all other entities), he is called ‘Eka:’.

द्वितीय सजातीयराहित्यात् एक उच्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 72 (Names 711 to 720)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

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711) sannivAsa: (सन्निवासः)

Even while following the dharmas of a human being (while having born as krishNa), bhagavAn was still the refuge for all noble men like sanaka, et al. Hence, he is called ‘sannivAsa:’ – the residence/refuge of noble men.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “…that bhagavAn, who is meditated upon by sages such as sanandhana et al, who are qualified in yOga (samAdhi) and freed of all sins – who place him in their minds and dwell upon him while half-closing their eyes and focussing on the tip of their nose (position prescribed for the practice of meditation)”

Etymology: He – who is the refuge of noble men such as sanaka and others even while being born as a human being – is called ‘sannivAsa:’. This eight syllable manthra grants high positions unto the chanters.

सनकादि निवासॊ हि मनुष्यत्वॆsपि यः सदा |
सन्निवासः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णः स्थानदायकः ||

712) suyAmuna: (सुयामुनः)

bhagavAn performed many auspicious deeds – that are purifying and pleasing to the minds of all people – on the banks of river yamunA, such as the water sports with gOpikAs, plucking of flowers on the banks of the river, rAsakrIdA, etc. Hence, he is called ‘suyAmuna:’.

Etymology: He – who performed auspicious and rewarding deeds with gOpikAs on the banks of river yamunA, such as water sports etc – is called ‘suyAmuna:’.

गॊपीभिर्यमुनायां तु शॊभनं पावनं महत् |
जलक्रीडादि यस्यॆति सुयामुन इतीरितः ||

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भूतावासॊ वासुदॆवः सर्वासुनिलयॊsनलः ।
दर्पहा दर्पदॊsदृप्तॊ दुर्धरॊsथापराजितः ॥ ७६ ॥
==============================

713) bhUthAvAsa: (भूतावासः)

Even while having incarnated as krishNa, bhagavAn didn’t hide his abject supremacy. He showed himself as the abode of all entities. Thus, as hailed in the scriptures that say “Oh bhagavAn hari! All entities reside in you. Hence you are called ‘bhUthAvAsa:’”, he is called ‘bhUthAvAsa:’.

Etymology: He in whom all entities reside is called ‘bhUthAvAsa:’.

यस्मिन् वसन्ति भूतानि भूतावासस्स कथ्यतॆ |

714) vAsudhEva: (वासुदॆवः) (also repeated in 334, 700)

Having born as the son of vasudhEva, bhagavAn removes twelve spiritual obstacles in the path of progress for his devotees (namely hunger, thirst, sorrow, passion, etc). Hence, he is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

Furthermore, he is the one who is worshipped as one of the vyUha mUrthis with the twelve syllable vAsudhEva manthra. Thus also he is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

Thus he is mainly hailed as the one who was born in mathurA with his extraordinary power of ‘mAyA’.

Etymology: He who – having born as the son of vasudhEva – removes twelve spiritual obstacles instantly is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

वसुदॆवापत्यतया द्वादशाध्यात्म अञ्जसा |
नियच्छति सदा यस्तु वासुदॆवः स ईरितः ||

715) sarvAsunilaya: (सर्वासुनिलयः)

As shown till now, bhagavAn is verily the support for all lives. Hence, he is called ‘sarvAsunilaya:’ – the refuge of all souls.

The scriptures show this in many ways, thus:

  • “The cows and cowherds cannot live without krishNa”
  • “The entire land (people and creatures therein) rejoiced upon the arrival of krishNa, just as it would rejoice the arrival of sun in a dark place, and arrival of wind in an airless space”, etc.

Etymology: He who is the support of all lives is called ‘sarvAsunilaya:’.

सर्वासुनिलयः स स्यात् सर्वप्राणावलम्बनम् |

716) anala: (अनलः) (also repeated in 294)

Although bhagavAn does so much for his dear devotees – as seen in all the previous divine names, yet he is not satisfied with what he has done. Thus, he is called ‘anala:’ – the one who feels that his deeds unto his devotees are ever insufficient.

This is beautifully shown in SrI mahAbhAratha, where krishNa says thus (while leaving this material world to reach his supreme abode): “Since the time when dhraupadhi called out to me – who was far away at that moment – with the name ‘gOvindha’, I feel my debt has been increasing towards her, which is not leaving my heart whatsoever!”

Alternately, this divine name means the one who is intolerant towards any misdeeds unto his dear devotees. This is also shown in the same SrI mahAbhAratha, where krishNa declares thus: “When I have decided to kill, I shall never spare two kinds of people; one – those who bring obstacles in the performance of any yajna, and two – those who trouble pANdavas”

Etymology: Although having done every possible thing to protect his devotees (especially the cowherd folks), yet the one who feels discontented with such deeds and says “Alas, I have done nothing for them” is called ‘anala:’. Alternately, he who does not tolerate any misdeeds done to his dear devotees is called ‘anala:’.

सर्वं कृत्वाsपि गॊपानां न च किञ्चिन्मया कृतम् |
इत्यॆवम् अवितृप्तॊ यः सॊsनलः परिकीर्तितः ||
स्वभक्तॆभ्यः कृतं मन्तुं नालं सॊढुं स वाsनलः ||

717) dharpahA (दर्पहा)

bhagavAn humbled the dhEvas in various contexts such as while lifting the gOvardhana hill, taking away the pArijAtha tree from the heaven, slaughtering the hands of bANAsura, etc. Thus, he is called ‘dharpahA’ – the one who removes egotism.

Etymology: He who removed the arrogance of dhEvas at various times such as while lifting the gOvardhana hill, taking away the pArijAtha tree, cutting the mighty arms of bANAsura, etc. is called ‘dharpahA’.

गॊवर्धनस्यॊद्धरणॆ पारिजातपरिग्रहॆ |
बाणदॊर्दण्डषण्डानां खण्डनादौ तदा तदा |
दॆवानां वै दर्पमात्रं हतवान् यः स दर्पहा ||

718) dharpadha: (दर्पदः)

With his acts of valour such as slaying his enemies, building the invincible city of dhvArakA, taking away of Sankha nidhi, padhma nidhi (two of the servitors of kubEra), the kalpaka tree, sudharma (the royal assembly of dhEvas), and the like, and also by virtue of the yAdhavas – men of his own clan – being drunk, bhagavAn enhanced the egotism of yAdhavas. Hence, he is called ‘dharpadha:’ – the one who gave (gives) egotism.

Etymology: He who enhanced arrogance amongst the yAdhavas in many ways – such as by feeding them with liquor, inspiring them with his heroic deeds, etc – is called ‘dharpadha:’.

मधुरायां यादवॆभ्यॊ मधुपानादिना ततः |
दर्पं च दत्तवान् यॊsसौ दर्पदः परिकीर्तितः ||

719) adhruptha: / dhruptha: (अदृप्तः / दृप्तः)

Although he gave arrogance to the yAdhavas, bhagavAn himself was aloof from such arrogance. Thus, he is called ‘adhruptha:’ – the humble one.

The sabhAparva of SrI mahAbhAratha hails thus: “Having done such wondrous deeds, yet bhagavAn – who possesses garuda as his vehicle – was never excited and stayed calm with his supreme effulgence”

If this divine name is to be taken as ‘dhruptha:’ (दृप्तः) instead of ‘adhruptha:’, then it means that bhagavAn was proud of being brought up by yaSOdhA and nandhagOpa.

Etymology: Although bhagavAn grew arrogance among the yAdhavas, yet since he was humble himself, he is called ‘adhruptha:’. In another way, since bhagavAn was proud of his being cuddled by yaSOdha and nandhagOpa during his childhood pastimes, he is called ‘dhruptha:’.

अथाsप्यगर्वितॊ यॊsसावदृप्तः स उदाहृतः |
बाललीलाप्रसङ्गॆषु यशॊदानन्दलालनात् दृप्तः ||

720) dhurdhara: (दुर्धरः)

Even while displaying his childhood sports, bhagavAn was incorrigible by either of his parents, just like a wild elephant. He possessed such divine actions which couldn’t be controlled by anyone. Hence, he is called ‘dhurdhara:’.

The vishNu purANa reflects this in mother yaSOdha’s words when she has tied up krishNa to a grinding stone, who says thus – annoyed: “Ye naughty boy! Free yourself now and go, if you can”

Alternately, he is the one who is invincible by his oppressors. Thus also he is called ‘dhurdhara:’.

This is shown in the udhyOga parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, thus: “Just as small boys and girls try to hold burning fire with a cloth out of their ignorance, so also these foolish men are trying to catch that lotus eyed bhagavAn!”

“The air cannot be touched by hand. The moon cannot be touched by hand. This earth cannot be borne by anyone on their head. So also, the supreme lord kESava cannot be won over by strength”

Etymology: He who is uncontrollable even for his parents, just as a wild elephant, is called ‘dhurdhara:’.

मत्तॆभवत् ताभ्यां दुर्ग्रहॊ दुर्धरॊ मतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 71 (Names 701 to 710)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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701) vasu: (वसुः) (also repeated in 105 and 271)

This divine name ‘vasu:’ indicates residence of bhagavAn in the milky ocean, which he chose as the origin for this incarnation as krishNa. The one who resides in the milky ocean is called ‘vasu:’.

The scriptures have hailed thus:

  • “The lord resides in the milky ocean in order to protect all the worlds”
  • “He is bhagavAn nArAyaNa – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, who resides in the milky ocean. He gave up his enjoyments in the serpent bed in the milky ocean and came down to mathurA (to be born as krishNa)”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn resides in the milky ocean in order to confer wellness upon all the worlds, he is called ‘vasu:’.

वसतीति वसुर्लॊकहितॆच्छुः क्षीरसागरॆ |

702) vasumanA: (वसुमनाः) (also repeated in 106)

Although residing in the birthplace of SrI mahAlakshmi – the milky ocean, bhagavAn’s mind is fixed on vasudhEva. Hence, he is called ‘vasumanA:’ – the one who fixed his mind in vasu (vasudhEva).

Just as ‘dhEvadhaththa’ is called ‘dhaththa’ in short, and just as ‘sathyabhAmA’ is called ‘bhAmA’ in short, so also ‘vasudhEva’ is called ‘vasu’ in short. This is the opinion of those who have learnt the mahAbhAshya.

Etymology: Although residing in the milky ocean – which is the birthplace of SrI mahAlakshmi herself, since bhagavAn’s mind is (was) always fixed upon vasudhEva (in this world), he is called ‘vasumanA:’.

सिन्धौ लक्ष्मीजन्मभूमौ वसतॊsप्यस्य वै मनः |
वसुदॆवॆ सदाsस्तीति स स्यात् वसुमनाः परम् ||

703) havi: (हवि)

Although bhagavAn desired to stay with dhEvaki and vasudhEva, yet the couple – out of sheer love towards bhagavAn and out of fear of kamsa – gave him away to nandhagOpa and yaSOdha. Hence, he is called ‘havi:’.

Etymology: He who was accepted by nandhagOpa and yaSOdha  in order to pacify kamsa’s intimidations is called ‘havi:’.

नन्दगॊपयशॊदाभ्यां कंसॊपद्रवशान्तयॆ |
आदीयतॆ स्वीक्रियतॆ स हविः परिकीर्तितः ||

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सद्गतिः सत्कृतिः सत्ता सद्भूतिः सत्परायणः ।
शूरसॆनॊ यदुश्रॆष्ठः सन्निवासः सुयामुनः ॥ ७५ ॥
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704) sadhgathi: (सद्गतिः)

bhagavAn removes the sorrows of his dear devotees caused by asuras, even while being just born. Thus, he becomes the refuge for all noble souls. Hence he is called ‘sadhgathi:’.

The scriptures hail this trait of bhagavAn thus: “The hurricanes of distress are pacified by bhagavAn, and the noble souls enjoy enhanced bliss”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn removed all sorrows of noble men caused by kamsa and others even while being just born, and thus showed himself as the only refuge for all such noble souls, he is called ‘sadhgathi:’.

उत्पन्न एव कंसादिकृतबाधापनॊदनात् |
सतां प्राप्यतया चैव सद्गतिः समुदाहृतः ||

705) sathkruthi: (सत्कृतिः)

All the divine deeds such as stealing of butter, getting bound to a grinding stone, crawling with the stone, rAsakrIdA (a dance with the gOpis), etc – which are liberating in nature for every individual soul – are shown by bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘sathkruthi:’ – the one who possesses divine actions.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna, those who realize my birth and divine deeds in their true purport shall attain me at the end of their birth, and shall not cycle again in this samsAra”

Etymology: He who possesses divine actions such as rAsakrIdA, etc., which are liberating in nature, is called ‘sathkruthi:’.

रासकिडादि कृतयः सत्यॊ यस्य स सत्कृतिः |

706) saththA (सत्ता)

bhagavAn krishNa is himself verily the support for his dear devotees’ existence. He is hence called ‘saththA’. It is true to the extent that there is no life for any of his devotees without him.

bhagavAn himself says thus about his devotees: “…he who doesn’t have an existence without me”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (krishNa) himself is the support for the very existence of his dear devotees, he is called ‘saththA’.

स्वयमॆव सतां सत्ता यस्मात् सत्तॆति कीर्त्यतॆ |

707) sadhbhUthi: (सद्भूतिः)

For all such noble souls who cannot live without him, bhagavAn himself comes as their child, friend, a close relative, messenger, charioteer, and in many other forms (and stays with them at all times). Thus, he is called ‘sadhbhUthi:’ – the wealth of noble people.

Etymology: He who manifests as the wealth of noble souls in the form of wife, children et al. is called ‘sadhbhUthi:’.

सतां पुत्रकलत्रादि भूत्या सद्भूतिरुच्यतॆ |

708) sathparAyaNam / sathparAyaNa: (सत्परायणम् / सत्परायणः)

The dhrONa parva of SrI mahAbhAratha says thus: “pANdavas have krishNa as their refuge, their strength, their master and their destiny”. As shown here, since bhagavAn himself is the destiny for all noble souls, he is called ‘sathparAyaNam’.

bhagavAn also says thus: “…you shall attain me”

This name is generally in the neuter gender (sathparAyaNam). If this name is taken in the masculine gender (sathparAyaNa:), then it means bhagavAn has the noble souls as his destiny! This is also shown in the same scriptures.

bhagavAn declares thus in SrI mahAbhAratha: “pANdavas are verily my life”

It is also hailed thus in SrI mahAbhAratha: “You are the master for the pANdavas. We have taken refuge in you”

bhagavAn declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “…such a knowledgeable person is indeed my soul (although the scriptures say otherwise) in my opinion”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the ultimate refuge for all noble souls, he is called ‘sathparAyaNam’. Alternately, since bhagavAn considers such noble souls themselves as his ultimate refuge, he is called ‘sathparAyaNa:’.

सतां परं स्यादयनं सन्तॊ यस्यॊत्तमायनम् |
सः सत्परायणं ख्यातः यद्वा स्यात् सत्परायणः ||

709) SUrasEna: (शूरसॆनः)

bhagavAn had pANdavas and yAdhavas as his army in reducing the load on earth (for killing the evil elements). Thus, he is called ‘SUrasEna:’ – the one who had valorous warriors as his army.

Etymology: Since the yAdhavas and pANdavas – who were valorous by nature – were part of bhagavAn’s army in killing bad elements, bhagavAn is called ‘SUrasEna:’.

भूभारहरणार्थाय यादवाः पाण्डवाश्चयॆ |
शूराः सहायास्तॆsस्यॆति शूरसॆनः स कथ्यतॆ ||

710) yadhuSrEshta: (यदुश्रॆष्ठः)

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “Those who are learned in the various scriptures and are knowledgeable about the esoteric meanings therein say gOpAla – bhagavAn krishNa – shall uplift the fallen yAdhava clan.”

Thus, he is called ‘yadhuSrEshta:’ – the best among the yadhu clan.

Etymology: He who uplifted the fallen yadhu clan (which had lost the eligibility for being crowned as the rulers) is called ‘yadhuSrEshta:’. Chanting of this eight syllable manthra shall grant progeny.

मग्नं तु यादवं वंशम् उद्धरिष्यति यश्च सः |
यदुश्रॆष्ठ इति ख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ वंशवर्धनः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 70 (Names 691 to 700)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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691) pUrayithA (पूरयिता)

If bhagavAn is ‘pUrNa:’ as seen in the previous divine name, then why would he expect us to even praise him with various hymns? It is because he wants to fulfil all our desires. This is shown in this divine name ‘pUrayithA’ – the one who fulfils all desires.

This clearly shows he doesn’t long for any prayers, but only considers such prayers in order to fulfil one’s desires.

Etymology: He who is always abiding by his nature of fulfilling the desires of all those who praise him is called ‘pUrayithA’.

सदा पूरयितुं शीलं यस्य स्तॊतृमनॊरथान् |
स स्यात् पूरयिता |

692) puNya: (पुण्यः) (also repeated in 925)

Furthermore, bhagavAn even purifies a sinner and makes that soul also eligible for praying unto him. Thus, he is called ‘puNya:’.

The root ‘pUnj’ पूञ् (to purify) loses the ‘dhIrgha’, and gets the ‘Nuk’ and ‘yath’ (णुक् यत्) adjuncts, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: That bhagavAn himself is called ‘puNya:’, because he purifies sinful souls.

पुण्यः सॊsपि पातकिपावनः |

693) puNyakIrthi: (पुण्यकीर्तिः)

Even the glorification of bhagavAn’s divine names is sufficient to purify a soul. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘puNyakIrthi:’ – the one whose glorification is purifying.

This is hailed thus in the vishNu purANa:

  • “Oh maithrEya, the singing of divine names of bhagavAn itself frees a soul from infinite sins, just as shrubs are burnt down by fire”
  • “Even if a person chants his names involuntarily, yet he/she shall be freed of all their sins immediately, with all such sins running away like deer in sight of a lion”
  • “That – which is accomplished by meditation in krutha yuga, offering oblations in thrEtha yuga, and by physically worshipping bhagavAn in the dhvApara yuga – shall be accomplished by mere chanting of bhagavAn’s divine names in this kali yuga”, etc.

It is for the same reason that knowledgeable men attribute the purifying capacity to the holy hymns that sing the glories of bhagavAn.

Etymology: He whose praises are themselves purifying is called ‘puNyakIrthi:’.

पुण्यश्लॊकॊsस्ति यस्यॆति पुण्यकीर्तिः स तु स्मृतः |

694) anAmaya: (अनामयः)

Thus, the contact with bhagavAn (or his divine names) itself acts as a divine medicine. Hence he is called ‘anAmaya:’ – the one who is against all diseases. The disease referred to in this context is this samsAra. This means that bhagavAn cures us of the greatest disease called ‘samsAra’.

Why is this samsAra or material world called a disease? It is because it is deterrent to the divine experience of bhagavAn. This is shown in the chAndhOgya upanishath, which says “I am replete with diseases”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn oppresses the dreaded disease called ‘samsAra’, he is called ‘anAmaya:’.

संसाराख्य महाव्याधॆः विरॊधित्वादनामयः |

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मनॊजवस्तीर्थकरॊ वसुरॆता वसुप्रदः ।
वसुप्रदॊ वासुदॆवॊ वसुर्वसुमना हविः ॥ ७४ ॥
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695) manOjava: (मनॊजवः)

bhagavAn acts very swiftly in purifying the souls and liberating them from samsAra (as shown in the previous divine names). Thus, he is called ‘manOjava:’ – the one with the speed of mind.

bhagavAn himself says thus: “He becomes a noble soul instantly”

The vishNu dharma also says thus: “Irrespective of whether the sins accumulated over the past seven births are little or too much, they all are destroyed at the very instant when the person steps into the temple of vishNu”.

Etymology: He who acts swiftly in benefitting his devotees is called ‘manOjava:’.

भक्तानां सम्पदं शीघ्रं करॊतीति मनॊजवः |

696) thIrthakara: (तीर्थकरः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn creates holy waters such as gangA, pushkara, etc, which are also extremely purifying just upon remembering them or even chanting their names – just as much as bhagavAn himself! Thus, he is called ‘thIrthakara:’ – the creator of holy waters.

Alternately, he is the one who promotes the noble philosophies preached by the vEdhas, smrithis, etc. Thus also he is called ‘thIrthakara:’ – the one who enables the creation of various works based on the right philosophy.

This is shown at the end of this same vishNu sahasranAma chapter, where it is said thus: “yOga, Knowledge about the self as well as this material world … are all born out of janArdhana”

Alternately, he is the one who creates steps – in the form of his incarnations – to enter into himself, who is otherwise very profound and impossible to access – just as a deep ocean (meaning, although he is originally very profound, he makes himself accessible to one and all with his incarnations). Thus also, he is called ‘thIrthakara:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thIrthakara:’, because he is the one who creates holy waters such as gangA, etc., also because he is the one who promotes holy scriptures such as vEdhas and smrithis, and also because he is the one who builds a flight of steps to reach him.

गङ्गादि तीर्थहॆतुत्वात् श्रुतिस्मृत्यॊः प्रवर्तनात् |
आत्मप्रवॆशसॊपानकृत्त्वात् तीर्थकरः स्मृतः ||

697) vasurEthA: (वसुरॆताः)

Thence the glorious krishnAvathAram of bhagavAn is hailed (in more than one hundred ensuing divine names!).

Since bhagavAn himself – in the form of divine light – is the material cause for his incarnation, he is called ‘vasurEthA:’.

The word ‘vasu’ (वसुः) itself is in fact a synonym for light.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “He removed two strands of his hair – one white and one black – oh great saint…”

It is said thus in the SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha: “They are said to be the strands of my hair (kESa)”

The word ‘kESa’ has already been explained in the previous divine names.

Etymology: The word ‘vasu’ means light, and ‘rEtha:’ is known to mean the incarnation for which such light is the cause. Since he (krishna) is born out of his own form of divine light, he is called ‘vasurEthA:’.

वसुशब्दॊ ज्यॊतिरर्थॊ रॆतस्तत्कारणं मतम् |
दिव्यज्यॊतिः कारणत्वात् वसुरॆताः प्रकीर्तितः ||

698) vasupradha: (वसुप्रदः) (also repeated in 699)

bhagavAn is called ‘vasupradha:’, since he gave away himself as the biggest wealth unto vasudhEva-dhEvaki couple, in the form of their progeny.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn gave away (gives away) himself completely unto dhEvaki and vasudhEva as their greatest wealth in the form of their progeny, he is called ‘vasupradha:’.

दॆवकीवसुदॆवाभ्याम् आत्मरूपं महद्धनम् |
पुत्रत्वॆन प्रकर्षॆण ददातीति वसुप्रदः ||

699) vasupradha: (वसुप्रदः) (also repeated in 698)

By being born as their son, since bhagavAn – who is the father of all worlds – further bestowed upon dhEvaki and vasudhEva the divine status of being his own parents (which is counted as another wealth), he is again called by the divine name ‘vasupradha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestowed upon dhEvaki and vasudhEva another great fortune of being his own parents, he is called ‘vasupradha:’.

दॆवकीवसुदॆवाभ्यां स्वपितृत्वं महद्वसु |
तॆजॊsसौ प्रददातीति वसुप्रद इतीरितः ||

700) vAsudhEva: (वासुदॆवः) (also repeated in 334 and 714)

Since bhagavAn was thus born as the son of vasudhEva, he is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (as krishNa) was born as the son of vasudhEva, he is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

वसुदॆवापत्यभावात् वासुदॆवः प्रकीर्तितः |

Thus ends the seventh centum (sapthama Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SIi vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka misra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The seventh centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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