Daily Archives: December 13, 2019

thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 36 – thIrppArilAdha

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.6


AzhwAr becomes unconscious, being unable to physically enjoy emperumAn who is having the quality of loving affection towards AzhwAr; those who are greatly affectionate towards AzhwAr try to find remedy for that and the awakened well-wishers highlight that it is inapt for AzhwAr’s [and our] nature and explain the apt reason and remedy; in this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams which are in this mood and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr remains unconscious without having any awareness of his own state, after experiencing emperumAn in his mind in the previous decad and not being  able to experience the same externally; those who are present there and who care for AzhwAr become bewildered and set out to worship other dhEvathAs due to their great affection as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.52 “sarvAn dhEvAn namasyanthi rAmasyArthE yaSasvina:” (Elders and women worship all dhEvathAs for the well-being of SrI rAma); SrI madhurakavi AzhwAr et al who are knowledgeable well wishers of AzhwAr who are aware of AzhwAr’s state stopped that and explained the apt remedy; this is explained by AzhwAr in the mood of a friend of pirAtti (parAngusa nAyaki, AzhwAr in feminine mood, as a consort of emperumAn) who united with him and separated from him; seeing parAngusa nAyaki’s bewildered/unconscious state, due to their great affection, the mothers look out for a kattuvichchi (psychic reader) who is a devotee of other dhEvathAs, and seek her help in clearing the confusion of parAngusa nAyaki; her very dear friend who knows her nature fully, knowing well the nature of her disease, tells her mothers “this disease was caused by krishNa; it should be remedied by him only and your act is not going to cure her disease”; she further said “as the cure for the contact made with other dhEvathAs and devotees of other dhEvathAs, one should surrender unto ‘thErppAganAr‘ (the charioteer) who is ‘vaN thuvarApadhi mannan‘ (the king of dhvArakA) and apply ‘mAyan thamaradi nIRu‘ (the dust of the lotus feet of the devotees of krishNa)” and eliminated the confusion. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this concept which was explained by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 4.6 starting with “thIrppAr ilAdha“.


thIrppAr ilAdha mayal thIrak kalandha mAl
OrppAdhum inRi udan piriya – nErkka
aRivazhindhu uRRArum aRak kalangap pEr kEttu
aRivu peRRAn mARan seelam


word-by-word meanings

thIrppAr ilAdha – not having anyone who could solve (that which cannot be solved by anyone)
mayal thIra – to fulfil the overwhelming love
kalandha mAl – sarvESvara who united
Orppu Adhum inRi udan piriya – as he left without any analysis
uRRArum aRak kalanga nErrka – (the mother et al) relatives (who saw that), to become worried, even more than previously
aRivu azhindhu – losing their mind
pEr kEttu – hearing (emperumAn’s) divine names (from the kattuvichchi et al)
mARan – AzhwAr
aRivu peRRAn – regained his existence;
seelam – this is AzhwAr’s quality.

Simple Translation

sarvESvara, united with AzhwAr to fulfil AzhwAr’s insolvable, overwhelming love and left him without any analysis; the relatives who saw that, became worried, even more than previously and lost their minds; AzhwAr regained his existence [consciousness] on hearing the divine names of emperumAn; this is AzhwAr’s quality.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • thIrppAr ilAdha mayal thIrak kalandha mAl – sarvESvara who arrived and united with AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 4.5vIRRirundhu Ezhulagam” decad to fulfil the overwhelming love of AzhwAr highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 4.4.10mayal perum kAdhal” (the great love which causes madness) in thiruvAimozhi 4.4maNNai irundhu thuzhAvi“.
  • Orppu Adhum inRi udan piriya – Not analysing even a little bit of the reason for separation, separated immediately just like a flood draining immediately and the ground underneath becoming very hot, and as the coronation festival was stopped and SrI rAma entered forest. Instead of saying as in periya thirumozhi 9.3.3 “pEdhai ninnaip piriyEn ini” (Oh ignorant girl! I won’t separate from you) and thiruviruththam 11 “porutkO? pirivena” (is the separation for earning wealth?), he left without any reason, as if the union was a dream.
  • nErkka aRivu azhindhu – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 87.4 “SathrugnOnantharasthitha: …” (Sathrugna who was standing alongside bharatha who became unconscious), AzhwAr became unconscious as bharatha did. nErkka aRivazhigai means becoming more bewildered than in thiruvAimozhi 4.4maNNai irundhu thuzhAvi“. There she (parAngusa nAyaki) was able to see, hear, speak and follow. But here, she is fully unconscious as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.6.5kuvaLaith thadam kaNNum, kOvaich chevvAyum payandhu” (her eyes which were dark/large like kuvaLai (blue-lotus) flower and reddish lips/mouth which are like kOvaikkAy (ivy gourd) have lost their complexion and have become pale) and has become bewildered as said in in thiruvAimozhi 1.4.3madhiyellAm uL kalangi” (having the mind totally bewildered).
  • uRRArum aRak kalanga – As said in “yE thu rAmasya suhrudhas sarvE thE mUda chEthasa:” (All of SrI rAma’s well-wishers became bewildered), seeing parAngusa nAyaki’s state, her mother and friends became bewildered, and the mother was trying to find any remedy to regain her just like SrI kausalyA was trying to as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.52 “sarvAn dhEvAn namasyanthi rAmasyArthE yaSasvina:” (Elders and women worship all dhEvathAs for the well-being of SrI rAma). At that time, a kattuvichchi who is a devotee of kshudhra (lowly) dhEvathAs suggested a remedy of offering lowly materials such as meat of goat, alcohol, meat, black rice, red rice to iLam dhevyam (small dhEvathAs) and started performing the rituals; a dear friend of parAngusa nAyaki who understands her nature very well, stopped that and highlighted the cause of the disease as in “thErp pAganArkku ivaL sindhai thuzhAyth thisaikkinRadhE” (she lost her mind for the one [krishNa] who stood as the charioteer in arjuna’s chariot during the battle) [1st pAsuram] and suggested the remedies as said in “sangu chakkaram enRivaL kEtka nIr isaikkiRRirAgil” ( if you all can say Sanka and chakra and make her hear) [2nd pAsuram], “mAyappirAn kazhal vAzththinAl” (if mangaLASAsanams are done for such emperumAn’s divine feet) [3rd pAsuram], in “perundhEvan pEr sollagiRkil” (If you can recite the divine name of para dhEvathA (supreme lord)) [4th pAsuram], “kaLiRatta pirAn thirunAmaththAl thavaLap podik koNdu nIr ittidumin” (reciting the divine names of krishNa, the great benefactor who killed the elephant) [5th pAsuram], “mAyan thamaradi nIRu koNdu aNiya muyalin” (if you try to apply on her, dust from the divine feet of bhAgavathas who are well aware of their subordinate relationship with krishNa) [6th pAsuram], “vaNangIrgaL mAyap pirAn thamar vEdham vallAraiyE” (You start worshipping the bhAgavathas who are best among vaidhikas and who are the devotees of emperumAn) [7th pAsuram], “vEdham vallArgaLaik koNdu” (having bhAgavathas who are experts in the essence of all vEdhams) [8th pAsuram], “Uzhmaiyil kaNNa pirAn kazhal vAzhththumin” ( befitting the true nature of self and following the ancient practice, you perform mangaLASAsanam to the divine feet of krishNa who is a benefactor through his saulabhyam) [9th pAsuram], “vaN thuvarApathi mannanai Eththumin” (you praise krishNa who is the emperor of SrImadh dhvArakA) [10th pAsuram]. Hearing all of these, AzhwAr got relief from his disease as said in “thozhudhAdith thUmaNi vaNNanukku Atcheydhu nOy thIrndha” (performing anjali and dancing up and down, towards krishNa who is having divine complexion resembling a radiant blue jewel, doing all of these as kainkaryam (service) to cure the disease in the form of sorrow of separation from emperumAn) [11th pAsuram]. This is explained as “pEr kEttu aRivu peRRAn” by mAmunigaL.
  • mARan seelam –  This is AzhwAr’s nature. That is, to lose the existence on hearing what is said in thiruchchandha viruththam 64 “sevikkinAdha kIrththiyAr” (unpleasant to hear about) and to regain the existence on hearing the glories of kESava as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 69sevikkinbamAvadhuvum sengaN mAl nAmam” (the divine name of puNdarIkAkshan, which are sweet to the ears)

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 78 (Names 771 to 780)

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771) chathurmUrthi: (चतुर्मूर्तिः)

Even during his incarnation in the vibhava form, bhagavAn reminds us of his vyUha forms by taking up four forms (corresponding to vyUha vAsudhEva, SankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha). Thus, he is called ‘chathurmUrthi:’ – the one with four forms.

The four forms attributed to bhagavAn during his incarnation in the yadhu clan are: balarAma (as SankarshaNa), krishNa (as vAsudhEva), pradhyumna (krishNa’s son, as pradhyumna), and anirudhdha (krishNa’s grandson, as anirudhdha).

Etymology: He, who possesses four forms as balarAma (balabhadhra), krishNa (vAsudhEva), pradhyumna and anirudhdha, is called ‘chathurmUrthi:’.

बलभद्रॊ वासुदॆवः प्रद्युम्नश्चानिरुद्धकः |
चतस्रॊ मूर्तयॊ यस्य स चतुर्मूर्तिरुच्यतॆ ||

772) chathurbhAhu: (चतुर्बाहुः)

bhagavAn was born to dhEvaki with his ‘para’ form (the form that bhagavAn sports in his supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam) with four hands, which is the origin of the four vyUha forms discussed before, and which itself is primordial and has no other origin. Thus, he is called ‘chathurbhAhu:’ – the one with four arms.

It is a well known fact that dhEvaki pleads to bhagavAn thus: “Oh lord of all entities! Kindly hide this four armed divine form and take the form of a normal human child with just two arms; for kamsa must not know that you are an incarnation”

Etymology: He, who was born with the ‘para’ form – which is the origin of vyUha forms, and which is itself primordial and has no other origin, and hence possessed four hands, is called ‘chathurbhAhu:’.

व्यूहमूल-परावस्था-निरुपाधिक-रूपतः |
चत्वारॊ बाहवॊ यस्य स चतुर्बाहुरुच्यतॆ ||

773) chathurvyUha: (चतुर्व्यूहः) (also seen in 140)

Even in the four forms in his krishNAvathAra (as krishNa, balarAma, pradhyumna and anirudhdha), bhagavAn possessed all the six divine qualities (gynAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakthi and thEjas) as in his vyUha forms. Thus, he is called ‘chathurvyUha:’.

Etymology: The one who is vested with all six divine qualities in their entirety in his four forms during his incarnation – just as in his vyUha forms – is called ‘chathurvyUha:’. This manthra grants all four kinds of desired fruits upon the chanters, namely dharma, artha, kAma and mOksha.

समस्तव्यस्तषाड्गुण्यव्यूहावस्थाचतुष्टयः |
चतुर्व्यूह इति ख्यातः चतुर्वर्गप्रदॊ मनुः ||

774) chathurgathi: (चतुर्गतिः)

Depending on the kind of worship by his devotees and the intensity therein, bhagavAn bestows four levels of fruits (destinations) upon them namely indhra lOka, brahma lOka, kaivalya and mOksha. Thus, he is called ‘chathurgathi:’ – the bestower of four destinations.

Etymology: He who has four destinations to be bestowed upon his devotees is called ‘chathurgathi:’.

चतस्रः प्राप्तयॊ यस्मिन् भक्तानां स चतुर्गतिः |

775) chathurAthmA (चतुरात्मा) (also seen in 139)

With the same distinction amongst the devotees (on the basis of their level of maturity of devotion), bhagavAn further manifests in four forms – both gross as well as subtle – each corresponding to the four phases of knowledge namely ‘jAgrath’ (जाग्रत् awakened), ‘svapna’ (स्वाप dreaming), ‘sushupthi’ (सुषुप्ति deep slumber) and the fourth state or ‘thurIya’ (तुरीय enlightened). [NOTE: These four forms correspond to the four vyUha forms of bhagavAn, as seen earlier (divine name 139, 140, etc)]

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests in four forms – both gross as well as subtle) – in four different states namely waking, dreaming, deep slumber and fully enlightened, he is called ‘chathurAthmA’. This eight lettered manthra is considered as one of the finest manthras.

जाग्रदादि स्थूलसूक्ष्मचातुरात्म्यप्रकाशनात् |
चतुरात्मा स विज्ञॆयः वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

776) chathurbhAva: (चतुर्भावः)

With such four states and four forms as seen in the previous divine names, bhagavAn manifests in sixteen ways, and conducts various activities such as protection of the worlds (including creation, sustenance and destruction), bestowing the souls with SAsthras or scriptures, etc – in both gross as well as subtle states. He has this itself as his greatest cause. Hence, he is called ‘chathurbhAva:’. The word ‘bhAva:’ or ‘bhAvanA’ means ‘to manifest’. Thus, he manifests four fold in each of his vyUha forms.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests (in four fold forms of each of his vyUha forms) in both gross as well as subtle states, and conducts various activities such as bestowing of SAsthras and the like (totally sixteen in number), he is called ‘chathurbhAva:’. This manthra bestows good positions in the nether world.

शास्त्रदानादिकृत्याभिव्यञ्जनात् स्थूलसूक्ष्मतः |
चतुर्भावः समाख्यातः मन्वर्णश्च गतिप्रदः ||

777) chathurvEdhavith (चतुर्वॆदवित्)

From the ocean of greatness of bhagavAn in these vyUha and vibhava forms (as seen till now), only a small droplet is only known even to those who have mastered all four vEdhas and who have thereby tried to realize the supreme entity. Thus, he is called ‘chathurvEdhavith’.

Etymology: He who is known (albeit very less) by those who are learned in all four vEdhas is called ‘chathurvEdhavith’. This nine lettered manthra grants the knowledge of vEdhas.

चतुर्वॆदप्राज्ञनिष्ठावित्तिर्यद्विषयॆ स तु |
चतुर्वॆदविदित्युक्तः नवार्णॊ निगमप्रदः ||

778) EkapAth (एकपात्)

bhagavAn is called ‘EkapAth’ in his incarnation. This is because he incarnated as krishNa (and all other incarnations) with just a small fraction of his unfathomable splendour.

That is why it is hailed thus in many places in the scriptures such as vishNu purANa, SrI rAmAyaNa, etc:

  • “Oh brahmarishi! Know this incarnation of krishNa as just a portion of his real splendour”
  • “Having born out of just a small fraction of his real glory in this world…”
  • “The glories of vishNu cannot be fully known whatsoever”
  • “He is indeed one quarter of vishNu himself”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn incarnated with just a small portion of his real splendour, he is called ‘EkapAth’.

एकांशॆनावतीर्णत्वात् एकपादिति कथ्यतॆ |

समावर्तॊ निवृत्तात्मा दुर्जयॊ दुरतिक्रमः ।
दुर्लभॊ दुर्गमॊ दुर्गॊ दुरावासॊ दुरारिहा ॥ ८३ ॥

779) samAvartha: (समावर्तः)

With such divine incarnations and forms, bhagavAn completely shows his divine glories of his vyUha forms repeatedly in his incarnations. Thus, he is called ‘samAvartha:’ – the one who keeps cycling back.

Etymology: In this way (seen till the previous divine name), bhagavAn manifests with his divine glories of vyUha forms at all places, at all times and in all ways. Thus, he is called ‘samAvartha:’ [The one possesses such glories of vyUha forms, which are shown repeatedly is called ‘samAvartha:’]. This eight syllable manthra destroys our cycle of births.

एतादृशं हि सर्वत्र सर्वदा सर्वथाsपि च |
व्यूहस्य विभवस्यापि यस्यास्त्यावर्तनं स तु |
समावर्तः समाख्यातः वस्वर्णॊ जन्मनाशकः ||

780) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also seen in 231, 453)

Although bhagavAn is in control of all the worlds out of his sheer compassion, he still doesn’t mix with this lowly world, and stays aloof. Thus, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’ – the one whose mind is aloof from this lowly world.

The chAndhOgya upanishath says: “bhagavAn is ever silent and indifferent…”

Etymology: He whose mind is aloof from this lowly world at all times is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

निवृत्तात्मा मनॊ यस्य सदा जगदमिश्रितम् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 71

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

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பின்னோர்ந்து தாம் அதனைப் பேசாதே தன் நெஞ்சில்

தோற்றினதே சொல்லி இது சுத்த உபதேசவர

வாற்றதென்பர் மூர்க்கர் ஆவார் 

எழுபத்தோறாம் பாசுரம். கீழ்ப் பாசுரங்களில் பார்த்த அனுகூலர்கள் மற்றும் ப்ரதிகூலர்களின் உபதேசங்கள் எப்படிப்பட்டவை என்று அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

முன்னோர்களான ஸ்ரீமந்நாதமுனிகள் தொடக்கமான பூர்வாசார்யர்களின் உபதேச க்ரமத்திலே அடிபணிந்து கேட்டு அந்த அர்த்தங்களை நன்றாக ஆராய்ந்து பார்த்து, தாமும் அதே க்ரமத்திலே உபதேசம் செய்யாமல், தங்களுடைய நெஞ்சிலே தோன்றிய அர்த்தங்களை மற்றவர்களுக்கு உபதேசித்து, அதற்கு மேலும், நான் சொன்ன அர்த்தங்கள் சுத்த ஸம்ப்ரதாய பரம்பரயிலே சொல்லப்பட்ட அர்த்தங்களே என்று பொய்யுரைப்பவர்கள் மூர்க்கர்கள்.

மூர்க்கன் என்றால் அறிவிலி என்று அர்த்தம். நம்முடைய ஆசார்யர்கள், பரம்பரையாக, ஸத் ஸம்ப்ரதாய அர்த்தங்களைப் பேசிற்றே பேசும் ஏககண்டர்களாக அருளிச்செய்துள்ளனர். அந்த உயர்ந்த ஸ்ரீஸூக்திகளைக் கொள்ளாமல், தாங்களாகவே புதிது புதிதான அர்த்தங்களைக் கற்பிப்பவர்கள் ஆசார்ய பக்தியும், சாஸ்த்ர ஞானமும், ஸத் ஸம்ப்ரதாய ஞானமும் இல்லாத அறிவிலிகளே.

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