Daily Archives: November 18, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 10.4 – sArvE

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth decad, AzhwAr manifests unnecessary doubt of separation from ISvara even while he was together with him; for such AzhwAr, due to his overwhelming love towards emperumAn, emperumAn gave union which is devoid of any separation and brought clarity in AzhwAr’s mind; becoming satisfied, he determined “he will remain easily approachable for those who are devoted to him” and to express his acquiring such bhakthi, AzhwAr highlights the following aspects about emperumAn:

  1. his obedience along with supremacy and enjoyability
  2. he being the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi, which is the root cause for that
  3. his completeness in being enjoyable
  4. his firmness in protecting his devotees
  5. he being easily approachable for those who have no refuge
  6. his great simplicity
  7. he having enjoyable form
  8. his eternally enjoyable protection
  9. he revealing truth in its real form
  10. he being the goal for everyone

Meditating upon these aspects, he becomes pleased thinking about the bhakthi he acquired towards such sarvESvaran which remains as the tool for enjoyment and becomes part of the goal.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

[First section – this decad is explained in context of (sAdhya) bhakthi yOgam [bhakthi as devotional service]]

Previously – while emperumAn did not have any thought of leaving AzhwAr , AzhwAr became worried due to unnecessary doubt about such separation, and became anguished; emperumAn pacified such AzhwAr saying “I will never separate from you”; AzhwAr sustained himself and became pleased.

In the first decad (thiruvAimozhi 1.1) , AzhwAr fully explained about thathvam (true entities, mainly ISvara thathvam); now, that thathvam will remain the goal as well. The nature of that goal and the result of such attainment of the goal, which is kainkaryam were contemplated by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.8padam udai aravil paLLi payinRavan” (one who is reclining on hooded serpent mattress) and in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.9kadaiththalai sIykkap peRRAl” (If we get to sweep his temple entrance) respectively. As that goal was not attained immediately and due to the memory of previous lengthy separation, AzhwAr became anguished; emperumAn considered that incidental sorrow and pacified AzhwAr and AzhwAr became pacified in thiruvAimozhi 10.3vEymaRu thOLiNai“.

Thus, in the first decad (thiruvAimozhi 1.1), AzhwAr explained everything that is to be known about thathvam; as that ISvara himself is the goal, he explained the means to attain him, i.e. bhakthi yOgam in thiruvAimozhi 1.2vIdumin muRRavum“; he further explained emperumAn as being easily approachable for such devoted persons, highlighting his saulabhyam (easy approachability) in thiruvAimozhi 1.3paththudai adiyavar“. In this manner, explaining the way bhakthi [yOgam] which was explained in vIdumin muRRam and paththudai adiyavar, leading to AzhwAr’s goal (emperumAn), recollecting the qualities [of emperumAn] which increased such bhakthi, AzhwAr concludes with prapaththi (surrender) which was explained as the means for his own goal in the first decad [“aruLinan” in first pAsuram, where, by emperumAn’s mercy, AzhwAr surrendered unto him], here. [We can recollect emperumAnAr explaining vIdumin muRRavum in the context of prapaththi in the earlier times and subsequent to writing SrI bhAshyam, he would explain this decad in the context of bhakthi, to hide the confidential matter from others. So, while the bhakthi explained by AzhwAr in vIdumin muRRavum and paththudai adiyavar is sAdhya bhakthi (bhakthi as devotional service) and not as sAdhana bhakthi (means), it can be understood here that bhakthi generally leads to prapaththi and after prapaththi, one will continue performing bhakthi as service. This is explained in great detail in thiruvAimozhi 1.2]

Though AzhwAr has both bhakthi and prapaththi, he considers prapaththi as the only means for the attainment of his goal. Is there any indication of prapaththi in the first decad? He said “aruLinan” in first pAsuram. Now, AzhwAr’s bhakthi is not the same as bhakthi yOgam which is ordained in vEdhAntham; if we consider it to be bhakthi yOgam, then that will contradict with apaSudhrAdhikaraNa nyAyam [SUdhras (persons of 4th varNam) cannot engage in sAdhana bhakthi] [This principle is explained in detail in thiruvAimozhi 1.2]; can we not attribute bhakthi yOgam to him based on his greatness [though he is ineligible for the same]? If we try to do that, it will contradict his own words. His words are along the lines [the concept of prapaththi] as said in “aruLinan” [he granted mercifully]. As said in ALavandhAr’s Athma sidhdhi “ubhaya parikarmitha svAnthasya aikAnthikAthyanthika bhakthiyOgaika labhya:” (bhagavAn is attainable through bhakthi yOgam which is acquired by the heart which was purified by karma and gyAna yOgam), bhakthi is acquired by the one whose heart is purified by karma and gyAna; for AzhwAr, in the place of such gyAna and karma, bhagavAn’s mercy is present and he further acquired parabhakthi [full knowledge] etc [paragyAnam (visualisation) and paramabhakthi (final stage before reaching bhagavAn)]. Further, bhAshyakArar (emperumAnAr) who followed AzhwAr’s footsteps and aimed for AzhwAr’s goal, performed prapaththi and subsequently prayed for bhakthi etc [in SaraNAgathi gadhyam]. Though bhagavAn is the means, if the AthmA has ruchi (taste), that will lead to the attainment of the goal; otherwise, this would not be considered as purushArtham (goal desired by the AthmA); bhagavAn will be the prApaka (means) only for the one who has clearly determined the goal and has unflinching desire for the goal; this is why, AzhwAr’s bhakthi and prapaththi are indeterminable. Thus, AzhwAr explains how the bhakthi which was instructed by him in vIdumin muRRavum and paththudai adiyavar for others, has become the means for the goal, and concludes here by saying how it led to the attainment of the goal. When asked “Can it not be said to have led to the attainment only after the actual attainment [that is reaching paramapadham]?” for now, it is sufficient to be able to visualise that vision; this is similar to how an upAsaka (bhakthi yOga practioner) will enjoy bhagavAn with his qualities here itself as bhagavAn’s qualities are to be enjoyed ultimately. Hence, even during the pursuit stage, there is nothing wrong in meditating upon the enjoyability of the qualities. But “didn’t AzhwAr meditate upon the attainment all along?” Previously, he enjoyed different qualities in different decads; there is a practice of summarising what was highlighted in the beginning; that summarisation is happening here.

[Based on piLLAn’s explanation]

Alternatively – piLLAn once explained it as follows. parAnguSa nAyaki said “Don’t go to tend the cows”; he responded “OK; I am not going”; “He is not easy to attain; is it not confirmed that he can only be attained by bhakthi?”

[Based on ALavandhAr’s explanation – this decad is explained in context of prapaththi]

Further, in the first decad, he explained the goal; for that goal, in vEdhAntham, two aspects viz bhakthi and prapaththi are ordained as means; among those two, the bhakthi [yOgam] explained there can only be pursued by thraivarNika (brAmaNa, kshathriya and vaiSya); prapaththi, is sarvAdhikAram (can be pursued by all). In these, prapaththi, which is sarvAdhikAram and accepted as the means by him was mercifully explained in vIdumin muRRavum.  bhakthi which can be pursued by thraivarNikas was mercifully explained in paththudai adiyavar. Thus, AzhwAr explains how bhakthi and prapaththi which were explained in the two decads are leading to the goal in this decad sArvE thavaneRi and the next decad kaNNan kazhaliNai respectively. Among these, in this decad, AzhwAr mercifully explaining how prapaththi leads to the goal is explained. In “sArvE thavaneRikkuth thAmOdharan thaLgaL“, the word “thavam” (thapas) indicates prapaththi. prapaththi is explained as the greatest thapas in thaiththirIya upanishath “thasmAn nyAsam EshAm thapasAm athirikthamAhu:” (Hence, among the penances, surrender is the greatest). The principle explained in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66sarva dharmAn parithyajya mAmEkam SaraNam vraja I aham thvA sarva pApebhyO mOkshayishyAmi mA Sucha: II” (leave aside all the righteous paths (as means of attaining mOksham) with their traces and hold on only to me as the means; I will liberate you from all your sins. Do not grieve) is mercifully explained by AzhwAr in the 9th pAsuram of this decad “paNdE paraman paNiththa paNi vagaiyE – kaNdEn – kamala malarp pAdham, kANdalumE viNdE ozhindha vinaiyAyina ellAm” (I have seen bhagavAn’s lotus like divine feet through his confidential instructions given and my puNya and pApa fully went away from me) and 2nd pAsuram “irumai vinai kadindhu ingu ennai ALginRAn” (eliminating my puNya and pApa, he accepts my service everyday in this world itself).

thirumAlai ANdAn would explain as heard from ALavandhAr that vIdumin muRRavum is explaining prapaththi. udaiyavar too would mercifully explain the same way. But after mercifully composing SrI bhAshyam, he thought “we cannot reveal the confidential means [prapaththi]” and mercifully explained vIdumin muRRavum in the context of [sAdhya] bhakthi [bhakthi as devotional service].

Thus, the nature of the goal which is explained in the first decad (thiruvAimozhi 1.1) and the resulting kainkaryam after reaching the goal, was mercifully explained in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.8padam udai aravil paLLi payinRavan” (one who is reclining on hooded serpent mattress) and in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.9kadaiththalai sIykkap peRRAl” (If we get to sweep his temple entrance); AzhwAr removed the weeds in such kainkaryam by saying in thiruvAimozhi 10.3.9 “idar kedundhORum nAngaL viyakka inbuRudhum” (If your sorrows are eliminated, we will be abundantly joyful) indicating the meaning of “nama:” in the second part of dhvaya mahA manthram, concluded the meanings of first decad in kedumidar and vEymaRu thOLiNai; and in sArvE thava neRi (this decad) and kaNNan kazhal iNai (next decad) AzhwAr is mercifully explaining the principle of bhakthi and prapaththi culminating into the goal, which was explained in vIdumin muRRavum and paththudai adiyavar – this is explained by thirumAlai ANdAn as mercifully explained by ALavandhAr.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 60 (Names 591 to 600)

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591) SAnthi: (शान्तिः)

Among such firmly placed devotees, bhagavAn causes them to forget all their false identities with lower deeds and soothes them by fixing their minds in himself. Thus, he is called ‘SAnthi:’.

Etymology: Since all other engagements of the devotees of bhagavAn who have firmly fixed their minds in him are purged in their deep state of meditation called ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SAnthi:’. This six lettered manthra is capable of conferring highest devotion towards bhagavAn unto the chanters.

सर्वाधिकाराः शाम्यन्ति समाधौ परमॆ यतः |
अतः शान्तिरिति प्रॊक्तः ऋत्वर्णॊ भक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

592) parAyaNam (परायणम्)

Not just that; bhagavAn further enhances true devotion towards himself – which confers the supreme abode – amongst such souls who have stabilized their minds thus (as shown in the previous divine names). Thus, he is called ‘parAyaNam’ – the one who shows the way to the supreme abode.

bhagavAn himself declares this in the bhagavath gIthA thus:

  • “He who gives up the ills of wrong perception of self, strength, ego, desire, anger and greed, and meditates without even a trace of selflessness and with a completely calmed mind, is fit to enjoy the supreme brahman. Such a seeker has a happy mind, and neither desires for any pleasure nor worries for any sorrows. He treats all beings alike, and eventually attains the supreme devotion towards me, which will uplift him”
  • “Oh arjuna, I am not accessible otherwise to such persons who are not equipped with such pure devotion unto me. Such souls (who do not possess such pure devotion) can neither know me, nor see me; they cannot attain me either”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself instigates the highest devotion towards himself, which eventually becomes the tool to attain him, he is called ‘parAyaNam’.

यस्मात्तु परमाभक्तिः चरमा प्रापिका मता |
तस्मात् परायणमिति स्मृतॊ ह्यष्टार्ण उत्तमः ||

शुभाङ्गः शान्तिदः स्रष्टा कुमुदः कुवलॆशयः ।
गॊहितॊ गॊपतिर्गॊप्ता वृषभाक्षॊ वृषप्रियः ॥ ६३ ॥

593) SubhAnga: (शुभाङ्गः) (also repeated in 788)

For such a focused devotion / bhakthi, since bhagavAn himself bestows the eight limbs of yOga right from ‘yama’ up till ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SubhAnga:’ – the one who bestows the auspicious limbs of yOga.

He only takes care of attainment and safeguarding of the needs of his devotees in reaching him.

Etymology: He who bestows the auspicious eight limbs of yOga such as yama, niyama etc in order to instigate devotion towards himself (as seen in previous divine names) is called ‘SubhAnga:’. This seven lettered manthra bestows the power to meditate unto its chanters.

स्वभक्त्युद्भव-कल्याण-यमाद्यष्टाङ्गसम्भवः |
यः स्यात् शुभाङ्गः स प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णॊ ध्यानदायकः ||

594) SAnthidha: (शान्तिदः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn bestows eternal peace unto those souls who have developed such pure devotion towards him, by keeping them united with him at all times in his supreme abode, and thus relieving them from the sorrows of the cycles of birth and death.

Thus, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’ – the one who bestows peace.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “Knowing that auspicious entity SrIman nArAyaNa, who solely pervades all of the worlds, he (the individual soul) attains eternal peace”

bhagavAn also declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “With my grace, you shall attain the supreme abode, which is both eternal and peaceful”

The vEdhas also hail thus: “Having realized that supreme soul bhagavAn, who is the sole master of all worlds and the bestower of desires, the individual soul attains eternal peace”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestows the highly blissful and eternal peace unto those souls who have thus (as shown in the previous divine names) developed pure devotion towards him, which comes from their eternal association with bhagavAn in SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’.

एवं निष्पन्नभक्तिभ्यः शान्तिं सायुज्यसंज्ञिकाम् |
महानन्दां ददातीति शान्तिदः परिकीर्तितः ||

595) srashtA (स्रष्टा) (also repeated in 990)

Even while liberating the ‘mumukshu’s (souls desiring liberation) thus (as shown in the previous divine name), bhagavAn continues to make the other souls (who desire to be in this samsAra) to be born in this samsAra according to their previous karma. Thus, he is called ‘srashtA’ – the creator.

The root ‘sruj’ सृज् (to create) gets the ‘am’ (अम्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who makes the souls who are not interested in liberation to be born in this samsAra according to their karma is called ‘srashtA’.

कर्मवैचित्र्यतः सृज्यान् स्रष्टा स्यात् सृजतीति यः |

596) kumudha: (कुमुदः) (also repeated in 813)

The letter ‘ku’ (कु) refers to the prakruthi maNdalam (this leelA vibhUthi), which is the land of enjoyment of both higher as well as lower sensations (as per karma) like sight, sound, touching, etc for all souls who desire to continue in this samsAra. Since bhagavAn satisfies such souls in this leelA vibhUthi by giving them such enjoyments, and thus enjoys himself, he is called ‘kumudha:’.

As per the grammatical rules, the ‘ka:’ (कः) adjunct is used in this divine name.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus:

  • “The servile individual soul gets tied up (in this samsAra) in order to enjoy (the fruits of karma)”
  • “The supreme soul and the individual soul are both eternal, and are respectively the most knowledgeable and the ignorant. They are also respectively the master and servant by nature”, etc.

Etymology: He, who himself always enjoys by making the individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham) enjoy the fruits of their actions in this prakruthi maNdalam (ku), is called ‘kumudha:’.

कौ प्राकृतॆ मण्डलॆsस्मिन् स्वभॊक्तॄनपि भॊजयन् |
मॊदतॆ यः सर्वकालं कुमुदः स तु गीयतॆ ||

597) kuvalESaya: (कुवलॆशयः)

In this divine name, the letter ‘ku’ (कु) means ‘condemned’. The root ‘valanthE’ (वलन्तॆ) means to keep coming around in a certain enclosure, which is this ‘samsAra’. Thus, the word ‘kuvala:’ (कुवलः) refers to a condemned individual soul who does not take interest in liberation and keeps cycling in this wheel of samsAra. Such fallen souls consider themselves as the masters of their own body, senses, etc. Thus, they are contextually called as ‘kuvalESA:’ (कुवलॆशाः).

Since bhagavAn is the one who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them, he is called ‘kuvalESaya:’. The word ‘yAthi’ (याति) refers to attainment of such souls.

Etymology: The individual souls whose boundaries are condemned (whose boundary is this samsAra) are called ‘kuvalA:’. Since they consider themselves as the masters of their body, senses, etc, (and are driven by material pursuits), they are called ‘kuvalESA:’. He who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them is called ‘kuvalESaya:’.

वलं यॆषां कुत्सितं तॆ कुवलाः जीवसंज्ञिताः |
दॆहॆन्द्रियादॆरीशास्तॆ कुवलॆशा इति स्मृताः |
यस्तान् नियच्छन् यात्यॆष कुवलॆशय उच्यतॆ ||

598) gOhitha: (गॊहितः)

The word ‘gO’ (गॊ) in this divine name refers to ‘prakruthi’. It is the place (field) where bhagavAn sows the seed of samsAra. Since he maintains the welfare of this prakruthi, he is called ‘gOhitha:’.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “He who establishes all these various births in this samsAra, and in whom all these entities merge at the time of deluge, that sole master of all entities must be meditated upon”

It is said thus in other scriptures:

  • “The word ‘gau:’ (गौः) refers to the primordial nature (प्रकृतिः), which has no beginning or no end to it. It is the cause (material cause) for all these creations, and it is the place where all these entities are nurtured”
  • “All of these worlds are established by him, and all the end results are also established by him”, etc.

Etymology: He who establishes (makes manifest) the primordial nature or prakruthi, which is the field of cultivation for the seed of samsAra, (and thus looks after its welfare) is called ‘gOhitha:’.

संसारबीजक्षॆत्रस्य प्रकृतॆः स्थापकश्च यः स गॊहितः |

599) gOpathi: (गॊपतिः) (also repeated in 497)

bhagavAn is also the master of swarga, which is the land of superior enjoyments (in comparison to our own world). Thus, he is called ‘gOpathi:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘gOpathi:’ owing to his mastership over the swarga lOka as well.

स्वर्गभूमॆः पतित्वात् गॊपतिः स्मृतः |

600) gOpthA (गॊप्ता) (also repeated in 498)

bhagavAn further protects this cycle of the fruits of karma (namely birth and death) for all individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham). Thus, he is called ‘gOpthA’.

Etymology: He is called ‘gOpthA’, who looks after maintaining the cycle of fruits of karma.

गॊप्ता स यः कर्मफलचक्रस्य परिपालकः |

Thus ends the sixth centum (shashta Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The sixth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 48

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தாம் கொடுத்தார் பின் அதனைத் தான்

நாற்பத்தெட்டாம் பாசுரம். இப்படி வ்யாக்யானங்களைக் காட்டி அருளிய பின்பு, இரண்டு பாசுரங்களில் நம்பிள்ளையின் உயர்ந்த ஸ்ரீஸூக்திகளான ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தின் சரித்ரத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

ஆசார்யன் க்ருபையாலே கிடைத்த ஞான பூர்த்தியாகிய பெருமையைப் பெற்றிருந்த வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை ஏடுபடுத்திய தமிழ் வேதமான திருவாய்மொழியின் பொருளை விரிவாக விளக்கக்கூடிய பெருமையைப் பெற்றதான ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தை இவரிடமிருந்து நம்பிள்ளை “இதை இப்பொழுது வெளியிடுவதற்குச் சரியான காலமில்லை. இது பிற்காலத்திலே ஒரு மஹநீயர் மூலமாக நன்றாக ப்ரசாரம் ஆகி புகழின் உச்சியை அடையும். ஆகையால் இப்பொழுது இதை என்னிடம் தாரும்” என்று சொல்லி முற்காலத்திலே வாங்கி, பின்பு தம்முடைய அன்புக்கு இலக்கான ப்ரிய சிஷ்யரான ஈயுண்ணி மாதவப் பெருமாளிடத்திலே கொடுத்தருளினார். ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தை ஓராண் வழி க்ரமத்திலே அந்தரங்கமாக உபதேசித்து வருமாறு அவர்க்கு ஆணையிட்டார். 

பிற்காலத்திலே மணவாள மாமுனிகள் ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைத் தன் ஆசார்யரான திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளையிடம் கற்றறிந்து அதை உலகறியும்படிச் செய்து, திருவரங்கம் பெரிய கோயிலிலே நம்பெருமாளின் திருவாணைக்கு இணங்கி நம்பெருமாள் தானும் தன் பரிவாரங்களுடன் ஒரு வருட காலம் காலக்ஷேபமாக மாமுனிகள் திருவாயிலிருந்து இதை காலக்ஷேபமாகக் கேட்டு அனுபவிக்கும்படி, அங்கே உபந்யஸித்தார். நம்பெருமாளும் தானே மாமுனிகளை ஆசார்யனாக ஏற்று, மாமுனிகளுக்கு “ஸ்ரீசைலேச தயாபாத்ரம்” தனியனையும் ஸமர்ப்பித்து இத்தனியனை திவ்யப்ரபந்த ஸேவாகால க்ரமத்தில் முதலிலும் முடிவிலும் ஸேவிக்க நியமித்தான் என்பதும் ஜகத்ப்ரஸித்தமான சரித்ரம்.

அடியேன் ஸாரதி ராமானுஜ தாஸன்

வலைத்தளம் – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/

ப்ரமேயம் (குறிக்கோள்) – http://koyil.org
ப்ரமாணம் (க்ரந்தங்கள்) – http://granthams.koyil.org
ப்ரமாதா (ஆசார்யர்கள்) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
ஸ்ரீவைஷ்ணவக் கல்வி வலைத்தளம் – http://pillai.koyil.org