Daily Archives: June 28, 2017

mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 19 – mAlum karum kadalE

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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AzhwAr says “When he himself came one day [as thrivikrama] and approached all, I lost him; this earth, because he came one day and measured it, was touched by him on that day. What fortune do you [referring to thiruppARkadal] have, that you are always with emperumAn!”

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings.

mAlum karum kadalE  ennORRAy vaiyagam uNdu
Alin ilaith thuyinRa AzhiyAn kOlak
karumEnich chengaN mAl kaN padiyuL enRum
thirumEni nI thINdap peRRu

Word by Word Meanings

vaiyagam uNdu – after swallowing the world [after deluge]
Alin ilai – on the banyan leaf
thuyinRa – sleeping
AzhiyAn – one who reclines on the ocean [thiruppARkadal]
kOla karumEni –having  beautiful, black form
sem kaN – having reddish eyes
mAl – one who had affection [towards his devotees]
kaN padaiyuL – when he is reclining in a sleeping posture
enRum – at all times
thirumEni – his divine form
thINdappeRRu – feeling it
mAlum – overwhelmed (due to that happiness)
karum kadalE – Oh, black coloured ocean!
ennORRAy – what penance did you perform! [to get this fortune]


mAlum – this word means stupefied or overwhelmed or bewildered. Just as people who get intoxicated after consuming certain types of drinks, the ocean is also feeling intoxicated due to the touch of emperumAn constantly. The ocean has the same happiness that mukthars (those who are liberated from samsAram (materialistic realm) and have reached SrIvaikuNtam) have on enjoying emperumAn.

karum kadalE – wouldn’t the ocean have become pale otherwise? But, emperumAn is lying on milky ocean, which is white in colour. How is AzhwAr then referring to it as the dark coloured ocean? It is said that emperumAn lies in all oceans and hence it is called as dark coloured ocean. Alternatively, the qualities of an ocean are referred to, in all places. Hence it is called as dark coloured ocean. Another explanation is that since dark coloured emperumAn is lying on it, the ocean too has become dark and hence AzhwAr is referring to it as dark coloured ocean. Ocean and emperumAn are having the complexion of bharatha (white) and rAma (dark) respectively.

en nORRAy – what penance did you carry out to be inseparable from emperumAn? AzhwAr wants to rid his attachment toward emperumAn and carry out the same penance for a similar result.

vaiyagam uNdu Alin ilaith thuyinRa – keeping all the worlds within his divine stomach and lying on a banyan leaf which appeared at the same time.

AzhiyAn – lying atop the banyan tree with all the weapons required for protecting. Holding the sudharSana (disc) weapon on his hand, emperumAn says that he will release the disc and tear apart the deluge if it comes to swallow the earth. Alternatively, Azhi could be construed as referring to ocean and in this case it would refer to his reclining on oceans.

kOlak karumEni sem kaN mAl – eyes which are beautiful, remove the tedium of beholders and shower affection on them. His divine eyes are like those referred to in chAndhOgya upanishath 1-6-7  “yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkamEva akshiNI” (eyes like lotus flower just blossomed by sun).

mAl – if the meaning is considered as pride, this word will refer to Isvaran (one who controls). If the meaning is considered as infatuation, it will refer to one who has lot of love.

kaN padaiyuL – where he is sleeping

enRum – at all times. Even if pirAtti (mahAlakshmi) out of a rare discord with emperumAn were to leave him, the ocean has no separation from emperumAn. AzhwAr is praising the good fortune of ocean which, unlike him, has no separation from emperumAn.  For upAsakas (those who attain emperumAn through upAsana or bhakthi (devotion)), attaining emperumAn is the end result; kainkaryam is like a by-product. In the same way, for the ocean, feeling emperumAn is the end-result. Just as sweat comes out when one is pounding paddy, kainkaryam, like sweat, comes automatically when emperumAn is attained [through devotion]. If the underlying knowledge about emperumAn, who is the means for attaining him, is obtained, strong belief in him comes on its own.

thirumEni nI thINdap peRRu mAlum karum kadalE – Oh ocean! You are in a stage of stupor after attaining him. I am bewildered because I have not.

karum kadalE – He showers qualities which he himself has, on those who he wants to grace. That is why you are also dark, like him. It appears that you have carried out some penance to get this. At the same time, it appears that this has come about because he has graced you especially.

Let us go on to the 20th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.4.3 – nIyum pAngallai

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki becomes sad thinking “kAkuthstha (SrI rAma) who is of the nature of eliminating all sorrows and uplifting, has not come; and I, being a dependent, do not know the means to finish myself”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


nIyum pAngallai kAN nenjamE! nILiravum
Oyum pozhidhilllai UzhiyAy nINdadhAl
kAyum kadunjilai en kAguththan vArAnAl
mAyum vagai aRiyEn val vinaiyEn peN piRandhE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nenjamE – Oh heart!
niyum – you who are the main cause for all actions
pAngu allai – are not obedient;
nIL – already extending
iravum – night
Oyum pozhudhu – ending time
inRi – not having
UzhiyAy – like a kalpa (a day of brahmA)
nINdadhu – stretched;
kAyum – roasting the enemies of his devotees
kadu – cruel
silai – having SrI SArnga [divine bow]
en kAguththan – [kAkuthstha] SrI rAma, chakravarthi thirumangan (divine son of emperor dhaSaratha), who is born in the family heritage which gives great importance to helping others
vArAn – has not helped me like he helped sIthA, the divine daughter of king SrI janaka
val vinaiyEn – I who am having great sins (which stop even emperumAn from helping)
peN – woman (who does not even have the independence to kill herself)
piRandhu – having been born
mAyum vagai – ways to finish myself
aRiyEn – I don’t know

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh heart! you, the main cause for all actions, are not obedient; the already extending night is not having the ending time and is appearing to be stretched like a kalpa; SrI rAma, chakravarthi thirumangan who is having the cruel SrI SArnga [bow] which roasts the enemies of his devotees and who is born in the family heritage which gives great importance to helping others, has not helped me like he helped sIthA, the divine daughter of king SrI janaka; I who am having great sins, having been born as a woman, don’t know the ways to finish myself.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nIyum pAngallai kAN nenjamE – SrI rAma, after reaching the other side of gangA, saw iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) and told him “Son! you too go back to our capital (ayOdhyA)”, being bewildered that he can complete his vanavAsam (exile from the kingdom to the forest) without him; similarly, AzhwAr is saying to his divine heart “nIyum pAngallai kAN” (you too are not obedient towards me). As said in “mana Eva …” (mind (heart) is the cause for one’s bondage and liberation), he can attain everything only with the help of his heart. Still, out of sadness, AzhwAr is saying this.
  • nIL iravu … – Initially, it was just lengthy night; subsequently, it became endless. It appeared to be both without a beginning and endless. There are some cases where there would have been a beginning which ceased to exist (like creating a product from a raw material – the raw material existed before but is gone now), but yet is endless – this night is not like that [there was no beginning to start with].
  • UzhiyAy – Ordinary persons such as “sAththan, kUththan” (common names), when they acquire wealth, they will leave aside their common names and will live with special titles such as “chOzhak kOnAr, thoNdamAnAr” (respectable names); in the same way, the night acquired the name “kalpam”  (a day of brahmA).
  • nINdadhAl – Even for the kalpa, there is an end, but there is no end for this [night].
  • kAyum kadum silai … – Even the one who has the strength of the bow which eliminated the lengthy night of a woman (sIthAp pirAtti), has not come. One who is having the bow which roasts the enemies, which would show no mercy towards the enemies even if perumAL (SrI rAma) wants to show mercy. I have not seen his SAngam (bow, favouritism) towards me.
  • en kAguththanparAnguSa nAyaki considers his help to sIthAp pirAtti as help to her own self. Even the one she considered as refuge as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.8thayarathaRku magan thannai anRi maRRilEn thanjam” (I will not have anyone other than the divine son of dhaSaratha as my refuge), has not come. thiruppAvai 12sinaththinAl …” (out of anger) – while eliminating the hurdles/enemies of pirAtti, instead of thinking that he is doing a favour to her, he considers him having his own anger subdued [by killing the demons].
  • kAguththan – Previously, she said “kaNNanum vArAnAl” (krishNa has not come); that son of king who was not crowned, did not come [krishNa coming in the clan of yayAthi, where yayAthi refused to crown his son [who is the ancestor of krishNa] for not helping him]; but I was not helped by even those who are born in the family of crowned kings who have protected others. Even the descendant of kakuthsthaa has not come [kakuthstha is well known to have helped others].
  • vArAnAl – The one who does not wait for enemies to come to him and rather would go to his enemies, has not come. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 1.29 is explained here. abhiyAthA – He considers it his duty to go to the enemies’ place [to defeat them] instead of waiting for them to come. praharthA cha – While standing in the front row of the battle field, when asked “who will hit first?”, that will be his (SrI rAma’s). sEnAnaya viSAradha: – Even while he is not physically present, he is able to arrange the army perfectly, and win the battle easily.
  • mAyum vagai aRiyEn – After knowing that he has not come, the only way to attain joy is by finishing myself, but I do not know how to do it.
  • val vinaiyEn – I have committed such sin that, I cannot even attain death, if such death is considered joyful. How strange that, my sin is making me live instead of making me die! It is only my sin which is causing this unfavourable state for me that makes both living and dying difficult to attain.
  • peN piRandhE – Is it possible to dies as and when they desire, having been born in a dependent birth? I have committed great sin to be born in this female birth, where one is to live for others. It is said in mahAbhAratham “pApAnAmAkarassthriya:” (this female form is considered as embodiment of sins). SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.30 is explained here. nachAsya mAthA – After sIthAp pirAtti saw thiruvadi (hanuman), out of praNaya rOsham (romantic anger) towards perumAL (SrI rAma), considering hanuman to be sent by him, she spoke to hanuman angrily;  hanuman pacified her saying “only due to not knowing the location of your highness, SrI rAma did not come for your rescue. It is not due to lack of attachment towards you; you can only blame him if he delays coming to you even after knowing your location”; further hanuman said “it has been ten months since you separated from him, you too have survived until now, without finishing yourself”.  sIthA said “Oh! is that what you think? Now listen to me. For people, their attachment would be split among many entities such as mother, father, brother, relatives; but perumAL has all those attachment towards me; so he will do whatever it takes like building a bridge across the ocean etc and will come to me seeking for me like a thirsty person crying ‘water! water!’; when a thirsty person arrives in a water shelter with great difficulty and finds the water pots broken he will not survive; similarly, if he arrives here only to find me dead, he will not live either; so, I sustained myself for him. You can make this statement, only if you see me alive after meeting him”. dhUtha – previously, she addressed hanuman as “vAnara” (monkey) etc, and now her anger is turned towards hanuman [dhUtha – SrI rAma‘s messenger] and said “you are sent by SrI rAma [so you too would have the same attitude]”.
  • val vinaiyEn peN piRandhE – mAyum vagai aRiyEn – One can as and when they desire, if they are men like dhaSaratha, bhIshma et al; either gyAnavAn (very wise) [like bhIshma] or svathanthra (one who considers themselves to be independent) [like dhaSaratha] to die as and when they desire; would it be possible for ignorant persons who are born as women?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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