Daily Archives: June 23, 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 5.3.10 – yAmadalUrndhum

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Even if I have to engage in madal to jolt him severely, we will see that emperumAn who is perfectly enjoyable”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki says “We will wear the garland of emperumAn who is having distinguished symbols which are perfectly enjoyable, even by engaging in madal to jolt him in this world by accusing him everywhere”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


yAmadalUrndhum em Azhiyangaip pirAnudaith
thUmadal thaNNanthuzhAy malar koNdu sUduvOm
yAmadaminRith theruvu thORayal thaiyalAr
nAmadangAp pazhi thURRi nAdum iraikkavE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(Due to overwhelming affection)

yA – matching the femininity, in any manner
madam – shyness
inRi – without

(not just going up to the universe)
theruvu thORu – in every street
ayal – neighbouring
thaiyalAr – women
nA – tongue
madangA – saying continuously
pazhi – accusations
thURRi – hurling
nAdum – all of the world
iraikka – to call out in an angry/agitated manner
yAm – we (who have femininity and hence cannot engage in madal)
madal – madal (which does not match our nature)
Urndhum – even by engaging in
Azhi am kai – one who lets us enjoy the combination of his hand and chakra
em – attracted us
pirAnudai – benefactor’s
thU – pure due to its freshness
madal – having leaf
thaN – invigorating
am – attractive
thuzhAy – thuLasi
malar – garland
koNdu – accepting it from him
sUduvOm – will wear it in our head.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Without shyness matching our femininity in any manner, we will even engage in madal by entering every street and by engaging in hurling accusations continuously with the tongue as done by the neighbouring women, to have all of the world call out in an angry/agitated manner for emperumAn, the benefactor, who let us enjoy the combination of his hand and chakra and attracted us by that and will accept his invigorating and attractive thuLasi garland which is pure due to the freshness of its leaves, and will wear it in our head. parAnguSa nAyaki is addressing herself as “we/us” (the royal we) due to her pride in engaging in madal.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yA madal Urndhum – Even doing by what is forbidden. We who are to remain fully dependent on emperumAn as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 9.30 “… thath thasya sadhruSam bhavEth“ (SrI rAma himself destroying lankA and rescuing me is that which will fit his nature – so I will wait for his arrival), even by engaging in madal. Here madal is thought to be – 1) the greatness of upEyam (goal), i.e., bhagavAn, who must be attained for survival 2) meditating upon the greatness of the upAyam (means), i.e., bhagavAn only, which can help one attain the goal 3) the confidence in “the goal is attained only through him” 4) not considering any thing else as upAyam and 5) not being able to wait for attaining emperumAn in due course of time. Previously, she said “madalUrdhum” (I will engage in madal); parAnguSa nAyaki‘s friend tells her “you cannot say this; to start with, it is forbidden for women to engage in madal; further more, you are a well-wisher for him even at the cost of hurting yourself as said in sankshEpa rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam ‘nithyam prANa samhithA’ (always focussed on the well-being of her beloved consort); he is more eager to attain you than you desiring to attain him; you are just not patient enough to attain him in due course of time; this adventurous act of yours does not fit your nature” and parNaguSa nAyaki says “my love towards him is so much that I cannot see these”.
  • yA madal Urndhum – I will not give up in pursuing him, even at the cost of hurting my own nature.
  • madal Urndhum – Even if by engaging in this act [of madal]. I will attain him even by engaging in forbidden acts. Even by engaging in activity which does not match the meaning of “aham” (I). aham in praNavam is explained in “yAm”. AthmA is explained with reference to bhagavAn only [as bhagavAn’s servitor].
  • em Azhi … – This is the explanation of the word “nArAyaNa” [in thirumanthram, ashtAksharam]. bhagavAn is explained with reference to AthmA only [as AthmA’s master].
  • em … – Just as he appears with the divine chakra in his hand, I appear with the madal in my hand. When I set out with the madal in my hand, if he places the ornaments in his hands, on my hands and if he places the garland on his shoulder, on my shoulder, he will survive; otherwise everything will be finished.
  • thU madalparAnguSa nAyaki tells her friend – You look at the garland on my shoulder, I would like to wear a fresh garland.  Her garland is withered due to suffering in separation, and fresh garland is available on emperumAn.

Her friend says “You can speak like this, but can you do anything about it? Your femininity will block you from engaging in such acts”, parAnguSa nAyaki replies,

  • yA madam inRi – Oh! let me first do what is done by those who don’t have such femininity [those who are independent].
  • theruvu thORu … – Previously she said “ulagu thORu alar thURRi” (accusing him in all worlds); when all the people of the world assemble, would I just say something about him and leave him? I will go to every street and make everyone aware of his defects by hurling accusations about him to those who don’t know about him. [inner meaning of going to every street] People may be thinking that “archA vigrahams (deities at home) are fully at the disposal of those who worship them [it is considered as emperumAn‘s ultimate simplicity]”, and will I let them continue to think like that? [I will make everyone realise that emperumAn is not truly fulfilling my desire and will drive out their attachment towards archAvathAra emperumAn too]. ayal thaiyalAr – women who consider them to be independent [inner meaning – SisupAla et al who consider themselves to be independent from bhagavAn]; I will make such accusations that [even] those women cannot speak anything. emperumAn is going to hear those words of accusations which are not even heard from SisupAla et al. Alternative explanation [nA madangAdhE] – like the continuous accusations of those who cannot stop their tongues. Another explanation [nAm adangAdhE] – us, overstepping you, setting out to engage in madal and accusing him.
  • nAdum iraikkavE – If he does not eliminate the “Uravar kavvai” (the noisy accusations of the people of the town), I will make him be accused by the whole kingdom. I will ensure that the whole world is tormented. I will ensure that it is known to everyone “a woman tormented a man! [since] he did not acknowledge her”. She is setting out to invalidate all the pramANams which glorify him and the means to attain him; I will ensure that it is known everywhere “if emperumAn is present, will he let a woman who desired for him suffer like this? This being the case, this universe is devoid of ISvara (lord)”. Would anyone disregard the words of me who united with emperumAn previously and believe in the authorless words of vEdham? As I have destroyed the best of pramEyams (goals) [i.e., emperumAn], how will the best of pramANams (authentic texts) have any standing now? I will ensure that the whole world becomes nAsthika (non-believers) making them say ‘when this is the result for those who desired emperumAn, there is no use of upAsanam [bhakthi yOgam and other such means]’ “.
  • nAdum iraikkavE – yAmadalUrndhum – The accusations of the people are those which sustain her. She herself said in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.4Uravar kavvai eru” (the accusations of people of the town are the manure), she sustains by firmly rooting in them.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 14 – avar avar thAm

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When asked “While emperumAn stands ahead and creates interest in him among the samsAris, why are these people following various other dhEvathAs (deities)?”, AzhwAr says that even if they do so, the deities that they hold on to, ultimately attain emperumAn.

Let us see the pAsuram and its meanings.

Avar avar thAm thAm aRindhavARu Eththi
Ivar ivar em perumAn enRu suvar misaich
chArththiyum vaiththum thozhuvar ulagaLandha
mUrththi uruvE mudhal

Word by Word Meaning

avar avar – people who have raJo guNam (yielding to passion) and thamO guNam (yielding to laziness)
thAm thAm aRindhavARu – appropriate to their qualities and knowledge
ivar ivar em perumAn enRu Eththi – praising a few deities as “he is our swAmys (Lords)”
suvar misaich chArththiyum – drawing their figures on walls
vaiththum – installing (as an idol)
thozhuvar – will worship


ulagu aLandha – (one who kept his divine feet on the heads of those who worship and those who are worshipped and) measured all the worlds
mUrththi uruvE – the divine form of thrivikrama
mudhal – is primary


avar avar – it is said that “lOko binnaruchi” (people have different tastes). Some people of the world will have excess of rajO guNa (such people will be very passionate about everything) while others will have excess of thamO guNa (such people will be very lazy, will be ignorant and will be disinterested in anything). AzhwAr calls such people as avar avar, indifferently.

thAm thAm aRindhavARu Eththi – such people who have rajO and thamO guNas will also have appropriate knowledge only. They will not follow SAsthras (scriptures). They will worship as per their knowledge.

ivar ivar em perumAn enRu – they will hold on to some deity or the other and say “he is my swAmy (my Lord)”. When the sons of King sakara went searching for their aSvamEdha horse (horse let out freely to denote their boundaries), they started catching anyone that they came across as “you only stole our horse”. In the same way, these people will hold on to anyone that they fancy and denote him as their perumAn (supreme entity). Just as some people leave out good materials and have liking for neem and onions, these people will leave out the supreme entity SrIman nArAyaNa and and go after deities with inferior qualities. rudhra (sivan) says in harivamSam 138-8 “sathvanishtA hi purushA:” (people with sathva guNam (purely good qualities) should always meditate on hari (SrIman nArAyaNa)) and “harirEkas sadhA dhyEya:” (only hari should be always meditated upon).

suvar misaich chArththiyum vaiththum thozhuvar – they will worship their deities after drawing their forms on walls and/or installing their deities as idols in some places. [Even] If emperumAn incarnates in some forms to shower his grace on people, they will offer their prayers to these deities instead of to emperumAn.  Even if they carry out such worship…..

ulagu aLandha mUrthy uruvE mudhal – the form of emperumAn which he took to keep all the people of the worlds under his divine feet [thrivikrama], is the primary one. Did he not keep his divine feet on those who are holding on to other deities and on those deities too to measure the worlds!

We shall take up the 15th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thirunedunthANdakam – 4

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By the three pAsurams, ‘arththam aRRadhirE’ (thirumanthra arththam (meaning) has been explained).

In the first pAsuram – SEshaSEshithvam (lordship, subservience) was clearly seen (as He put His divine feet on AzhvAr’s divine head (thiruvadi en thalai mElavE));

In the second pAsuram – anyaSEshathvam (subservience to others) was removed. (since the misunderstanding that the three dhEvas are equal, was cleared);

In the third pAsuram – talked about enjoyableness (of emperumAn, enjoying His divine form).

==> (So how do these three pAsurams talk about the meaning of thirumanthram?)

1st pAsuram -> Om  (SEsha SEshithvam)

2rd pAsuram -> nama:   (ananyaSEshathvam)

3nd pAsuram -> nArAyANAya  (nAra -> emperumAn’s wealth & divine form; these are enjoyable)

Then, it is a matter of finding companions for enjoying Him, together.  In that, since nithyasUris are far off, and samsAris are people indulged in worldly matters, neither of them would be of companionship. So, it is the inevitable mind of his is the one that would be a companion. So, Oh mind! Let us enjoy this together, says AzhvAr.

Please set to enjoy through thirumanthram that enlightens His true nature (manthiraththai manthiraththAl), about the glory of His having distinguished divine form/body talked about in the previous pAsuram, the One who is the source of creation of the world (kAraNathvam) – please see about doing that, says AzhvAr (to his mind).

If he is enjoying based on thirumanthram (whose main word is ‘nArAyaNa’) , isn’t the meaning of this (word ‘nArAyaNa’) mainly about his lordship over the two world realms, and about His nature of having qualities? (How come AzhvAr is using this word/thirumanthram to enjoy Him as being the source of creation of the world?). That thirumanthram (word nArAyaNa), due to many authoritative references (on the word nArAyaNa), is about Him being the source of creation of the world.

They are: ‘EkO havai nArAyaNa Aseeth [mahOpanishath – 1](Only He was present (it means He is the reason for creation)), and,

narAjjAthAni thathvAni [mahAbhAratham -anuSAsana – 13.12] (the twenty five truths (thathvams), which can undergo change/annihilation) got created from emperumAn) ,  and,

‘ApO nArA ithi prOkthA: [manu smruthi – 1.10] (water was created by emperumAn who is called naran; so the nAram indicates water; since emperumAn held water (milky ocean) as his abode during the time of creation, He is called nArAyaNan);

by these and other references, His creating the world shall be said by the word nArAyaNan.

Why is AzhvAr taking up mentioning His jagath kAraNathvam? Since residents of this world is having it upside down (where some in this world think of others as lords and as reason for creation of worlds, and emperumAn trying to prove His lordship), it is in this world where it is needed to use authoritative references.  It is only when someone else is using our land that we would have to show proof of our ownership; that is why he is saying so;

So, Oh mind! Let us enjoy the janakan (creator of births).

indhirarkkum piramarkkum mudhalvan thannai
  iru nilam kAl thee neer viN bUtham aindhAy
senthiRaththa thamizhOsai vada sollAgith
  thisai nAngumAyth thingaL nAyirAgi
antharaththil dhEvarkkum aRiyalAgA
  anthaNanai, anthaNar mAttu andhi vaiththa
manthiraththai manthiraththAl maRavAdhenRum
  vAzhudhiyEl vAzhalAm mada nenjamE.                            3

emperumAn revealing thirumanthram assuming the forms of nara (human) and nArAyaNa (superhuman)

Word by word meaning

mada nenjamEOh mind which is amicable (to me)!
indhirarkkum piramarkkum mudhalvan thannai Being the reason/source for indhra and brahmA,
iru nilam kAl thee neer viN bUtham aindhAybeing antharyAmi (inside resident) to the five core elements – the big earth, air, fire, water, space,
senthiRaththa thamizhOsai vada sollAgiHis showing the thamizh vEdham (dhivya prabandhams) (which show Him clearly), and samskrutha vEdhams,
thisai nAngumAy being antharAthmA for all the things in all the four directions,
thingaL nAyirAgi being antharyAmi for the moon and the sun,
antharaththil – when being antharyAmi in that way,
dhEvarkkum aRiyalAgA anthaNanai – being purest who cannot be known by even dhEvas,
anthaNar mAttu anthi vaiththa manthiraththai – sarvESvaran the secret entity who is kept safely in the knots of vEdhams (anthi -> end/tail -> vEdhAntham) which are the wealth of brAhmaNas (safe like in the knots of clothes worn),
manthiraththAl – by thirumanthram
maRavAdhu vAzhudhiyEl – if you enjoy without fail/forgetting,
enRum vAzhalAm – you can get good life always (in paramapadham).


indhirarkkum piramarkkum mudhalvan thannai – In ‘mU uruvum kaNda pOdhu onRAm sOdhi [thirunedunthANdakam – 2]’,  it was by squeezing the words we get the true meaning; AzhvAr is showing that it is what the meaning he means, by showing it explicitly here. You see, AzhvAr is saying ‘that is what I said earlier that He is the only one who is the lord!’.

Creator of indhra who is accepted by all as a jeevAthmA, and for brahmA who could be misunderstood as eeSvaran (controller).

While it would have been appropriate to talk first about brahmA who could be doubted as eeSvaran,  why say indhra first – it is to show that like indhra, brahmA is also one included in all that are created by emperumAn.

But, rudhran also could be doubted as eeSvaran. Why has AzhvAr not mentioned about him? As said in ‘brahmaNaSchApi sambhUtha: Siva ithyavadhAryathAm [mahAbhAratham – anuSAsana]’ (emperumAn talking to garudAzhvAr: Can say about four types of creation in another way too – hiraNya garbha that is said as lotus is first creation; brahmA who was created from it is the second creation; Siva was created from brahmA – conclude this in your mind;  this was the third creation;  from him skandha was created; this was fourth creation), and in other such references, it is famous that he is the son of brahmA, and so when having said about the main of all, that is brahmA and the ending dhEva of all that is indhra, by prathyAhara nyAyam (when first and last letters of alphabet are mentioned together, it includes the ones in between as well), it is to be concluded that rudhra is also included amidst this list.

Instead of saying indhiranukkum piramanukkum, why use ‘r’ (rEphAntham) – it is not due to having any mind of venerating them; AzhvAr is showing contempt (kShEpam);  it is even while brahmA is creatable by eeSvaran (emperumAn), he is thinking ‘I am the controller of the three worlds’, (indhran thinking)  ‘all the fourteen worlds were created by me and I am the controller of them’, and making everyone prostrate/worship him;

mudhalvan – (reason/source) – that is emperumAn who does not have a source for Himself;  Himself who is the reason/source (kAraNam) for vyashti srushti  (variegated creation of world by combining elements);

iru nilam, etc. (earth, etc.)  – The aforementioned (about brahmA, et al) phrase said about vyashti srushti; by the current phrase it says about samashti srushti  (initial creation of independent five great elements (space, air, etc.), (before vyashti srushti);

(emperumAn first created Sabdha thanmAthrai – (thanmAthrai -> like the stage between milk and curd, where it is neither milk nor curd); from Sabdha thanmAthrai, AkASam (space) is created. Then from it, sparSa thanmAthrai is created (stage in-between AkASa and vAyu); from that vAyu (air) is created;  then rUpa thanmAthrai is created (state in-between vAyu and thEjas); then from it thEjas is created; from it rasa thanmAthrai; from it water; from it gandha thanmAthrai; from that pruthvi (earth); So each creation includes cumulative qualities of earlier stages of creation; for example, pruthvi includes all the qualities of Sabdha, sparSa, rUpa, rasa, and gandha; this is also explained in ‘pUnilAya aindhumAy [thiruchchandha viruththam – 1]’.

Reason for saying vyashti srushti (which is a latter creation) first and then samasthi srushti (which is a prior creation) in this pAsuram is – since it is with brahmA et al where there may be doubt whether they are eeSvaran; there is no such doubt in core elements.

Reason for saying earth etc.,(iru nilam kAl thee neer viN bUtham aindhAy), in a different order instead of in order of annihilation in to its immediate prior source stage, or in the order of creation, is due to some other specific thinking (of AzhvAr):

Being a support for everything, being immobile, and not troublesome, AzhvAr first talked about such earth;  other  three core elements being mobile, being of both protection and disturbances, AzhvAr told about them in different order after earth; considering that space gives room for other elements, he mentioned it in the end;  if these are not considered, then there would not be an use for AzhvAr saying in this order;

earlier he said ‘mudhalvan thannai’; here he says ‘aindhAy’ (literal: emperumAn as the five elements  – which means: emperumAn being creator of five elements).  So, the association in this sAmAnAdhikaraNayam is – uthpAdhya uthpAdhaka bhAvam (the created – the creator);

senthiRaththa , etc. – For saying later in the prabandham about creation of those who are to be obedient to SAsthram (SAsthra vaSyar; humans), here he is talking about creation of SAsthram. Creating thamizh (dhrAvida), and samskrutham;

While it would be valid to say samskrutham  and then thamizh which is its changed/derived form, instead, he enumerated thamizh first because – it is eligible to be perused by everyone, being very good at conveying clear meaning, and it is his area of language usage, and also like samskrutha vEdham, thamizh vEdham (dhivya prabandhams) is also authoritative reference – hence AzhvAr mentions thamizh first.

AzhvArs’ words are not like that of vEdhas and ithihAsas and purANas. These words (in thamizh) is that of anushtAthA (who executes the words as per SrIvaishNavam), you see! AzhvArs say about shunning aiSvaryam, kaivalyam and not consider them as required (whereas vEdhas talk about those things also as means/goals).

sen thiRaththa thamizh Osai – thiRam -> its feature/capability and ways;  thamizh words enlighten in the best way the meanings they carry.  Not having need for an upabrahmaNam to explain it more.  (There ARE thirumangai AzhvAr’s six prabandhams that are called ‘Aru angam’ for thiruvAimozhi. But thiruvAimozhi does not need them for explaining itself); vEdhas require upabrahmaNam (to explain it well).

Osai  (Agi) – Osai is the name for poem, and sound. But here it is talking about the words of thamizh (lakShaNai – like: ‘house is in the ganges’ means it is in the shores of the ganges); this can also be seen in the next phrase ‘vada sol’ (words of samskrutham);

vada sol – is – talk about samskrutham. thamizhians call thirumalai as the north border for the places (in south) where thamizh is in use. samskrutham is in vogue in north of thirumalai. thamizh would not be in vogue in those places;  the greatness of this place (south) is that both the languages are in vogue here;

Agi – His creating SAsthram is about His revealing/spreading it.

thisai nAngumAy – creating all the things/people in all the four directions;  (It is by lakShaNai, it talks about the things- that is,) like saying ‘manchA: krOSanthi [mammadar’s kAvya prakASam 2nd ullAsam] (bed is crying – means – babies on the bed are crying). By this it says about creation of those who are to be obedient to SAsthram (SAsthra vaSyar; humans);

thingaL nAyirAgi – It is as said in ‘agnau prAsthAhuthis samyag AdhithyamupathishtathE | AdhithyAjjAyathE vrushti: vrushtErannam thatha: prajA: || [manu SAsthram – 3.76]’ (offering that is submitted in the fire for homam (vEdhic ritual) reached the Sun; from Sun, rain is obtained; by rain, food items are grown; using food items, humans live and are created (through father eating the food)); (Agi -> becoming) shows the completion of creation.

In previous phrases it showed the meaning of ‘nAra’ (indhran, brahmA, five core elements, etc.). Rest of the phrases of the pAsuram show the meaning of ‘ayanam’.

antharaththil – (anupravESam as part of creation) when being inside; when permeating within everything created; by ‘pruthivyA anthara: AnthanESnthara: [bruhadhAranyaka upanishath – mAdhyandhina – 5.7.72](One who is present outside and inside of land/jeevAthmA, One who is not known by the land/AthmA, One who is being inside the land/AthmA and letting it act, such paramAthmA is the AthmA that is never destroyed), so by the word anthara it talks about the permeating quality of emperumAn.

dhEvarkkum aRiyalAgA – being not known/aware about Him by all that are created (even dhEvas);  as said in ‘yamAthmA na vEdha [bruhadhAranyaka upanishath – mAdhyandhina – 5.7.72]’ (One who is not known by AthmA), the One whom the AthmA would not know, He is being inside and called as antharyAmi. To indicate that AzhvAr is saying that He is dhur-gyEyan (hard to learn about (antharyAmi));

But, by ‘dhEvarkkum’, why take up about them specially? even for those who are most knowledgeable, it would not possible to know about Him, that is why AzhvAr is considering them in the phrase.

anthaNanai(emperumAn being a) pure one (in mind; (won’t tolerate others’ suffering; won’t think trouble for others, etc.);  there is a greatness in AzhvArs using this word for implying pure one. nammAzhvAr said ‘aRavanai Azhip padai anthaNanai [thiruvAimozhi – 1.7.1]’ ( most benevolent (due to him bestowing the results); one having the sudharSana chakram (which purifies the heart); the purest eeSvarAn (supreme lord)).

(Why not give meaning to that as ‘brAhmaNa’ (in thiruvAimozhi)?) there is no brAhmaNa holding conch and disc, isn’t it? (kAnchi swami said something along the lines of ‘there IS one, and that is AchAryan’; so we could qualify as, One using them as weapons, there is no one other than emperumAn);  for kEvalan (one who is after kaivalyam (enjoying one’s own AthmA, and not emperumAn)) emperumAn is shown as the One to meditate upon as the pure one, for getting pure experience of kaivalyam, so nammAzhvAr is divining in that way, in that context.

And, one who wishes to get to emperumAn shall meditate upon His having all auspicious qualities, so that he would get those qualities;  The one who wishes to enjoy own AthmA (kaivalyam), shall meditate upon Him as having purity; It is because ‘jarA maraNa mOkshA’ (liberation from aging, death) that he considers;

But, here (for thirumangai AzhvAr), is purity required? AzhvAr first talked about creation (indhirar, piraman, etc.,), and then about that emperumAn permeating in all things created (being inside as antharyAmi is required for completing the creation, and for sustenance of the created ones);  then he says that the  blemishes of those things in which He is present, would not affect Him (He would stay pure (anthaNan)) – this is the point wished to be said by thirumangai AzhvAr here.

By ‘Esha sarvabhUthAntharAthmA – apahathapApmA [subAla upanishath -1]’, wherever it is talking about Him permeating, it is also talking that the blemishes of those things would not affect Him (He would remain pure); this is what is in the divine mind of this AzhvAr? The most vaidhikas are called AzhvArs, isn’t it? (parimElazhagar has shown that noble ones have a name as AzhvAr, and meaning for AzhvAr is noble one)

anthaNar mAttu anthi vaiththa manthiraththai – The matter (emperumAn) mentioned earlier is on the head of vEdhas (vEdhAntham) in mystic ways.

anthaNar mAdu – (brahmaNa’s wealth) – As said in ‘brAhmaNAnAm dhanam vEdha’ (wealth for a brAhmin is vEdham), wealth for brahmins is vEdham isn’t it? wealth is not emperumAn who is said in ‘dhanam madheeyam thava pAdhapankajam [sthOthra rathnam – 30](your divine feet is my wealth); it is vEdham – that told about emperumAn; that is the greatness of emperumAn that He is identified by vEdham; only by authoritative reference (pramANam) that one can know that the wealth is emperumAn (pramEyam) who is told by vEdham;

anthi vaiththa manthiraththai – the secret that is kept in vEdhAntham (anthi -> end/tail of vEdham); mAttu anthi – at the end of vEdham; that is, in vEdhAntham;

manthiram and sarvasmAthparan  (supreme to everyone) seems paryAyam (equivalent/alias/synonym); saying emperumAn as secret is – like the one who closes the front door and back door and then opens to see a bundle of valuables, this emperumAn is valuable so that, manthram is to be advised and implemented only among the four ears (AchAryan and disciple);

Or, ‘manthram’ is said as His divine name in SrI sahasranAmam – manthra: chandhrAmSu: bhAskaradhyuthi: [vishNu sahasranAmam 281, 282, 283]’ (protector of one who thinks about Him; One having comfortable light like moon; One who is too bright like the sun (these are some of His divine names)); by the root of the word manthram,manthAram thrAyatha ithi manthra: (since it protects the one who recites it, it is called manthram), so the word manthram is the divine name of emperumAn.

anthaNar mAdu – (why say it is the wealth of brahmaNas (and not him)) – saying so to show that he is not of such birth; even though all of it is bright in his mind, saying it out would be a damage to the respect for his eligibility was his state. Even while he is being an at most follower of vEdhas, like saying “others’ wealth”, he is saying in this way in unconnected way in order to establish the respect of the ways.

anthaNar mAtttu andhi vaiththa manthiraththai manthiraththAl – vAzhudhiyEl – Who is being said (emperumAn), and the one that is saying it (thirumanthram given by perumAn) are both being there (emperumAn);

manthiraththai – vAzhudhiyEl – if you experience/enjoy the One who is the reason/creator of the worlds (jagath kAraNa bhuthan), One who is present inside all (sarva antharyAmi), not knowable (dhurgyEyan), and not affected by the blemishes of the body He is present in;  (these qualities are mentioned in the earlier phrases of this pAsuram);

manthiraththAl – vAzhudhiyEl – When experiencing/enjoying that One, instead of trying to do that through vEdhAntham, or through ithihAsa purAnams, try to do that through in the way how I enjoyed:- try to do that through thirumanthram.  Other ways would not be delightful like enjoying through thirumanthram; As said in ‘sarvam ashtAkSharAnthasthatham [hAreetha smruthi – 3.45]’ (the meanings in the four vEdhas and in other references are all present inside the manthram of eight letters/syllables), this manthram tells all the meanings collected together;

Aren’t there innumerable manthrams. Does the word manthram indicate periya thirumanthram? As said by ‘yAni nAmAni gauNAni [mahAbhAratham – anusA 135.13]’ (names based on His qualities), other manthrams are about his qualities only; for the aforementioned meanings (creator, antharyAmi, etc.) there is no other manthram. So that is why manthram here means periya thirumanthram.

Can’t the other manthrams that indicate his permeating everywhere be considered as one said here? No, since the other two manthrams (vAsudhEvan, vishnu), need thirumanthram to complete the full meaning.

The manthram which he said with surety as ‘nAn kaNdu koNdEn [periya thirumozhi – 1.1]is this periya thirumanthram only isn’t it.

maRavAdhu vAzhudhiyEl – if you enjoy it without forgetting;

Reason for forgetting about experiencing emperumAn would be interest in material matters, so is AzhvAr saying – enjoy without interest in material matters? No, that would not suit AzhvAr; he is enjoying in his final state after sAkShAthkAram (enlightenment / seeing emperumAn (kaNdu koNdEn [periya thirumozhi – 1.1])).

So, what then would be for him the reason for forgetting?  Since having connection with the body which is having the three types of sorrows (thApams) (AdhyAthimika, Adhi baudhika, Adhi dhaivika), seeing having association with the body, seeing his old history, and seeing the greatness of emperumAn, there is the thought of him having emperumAn as the means for removal of such connection of body without seeing his prior history, and for getting the loved matter that is emperumAn;  that thought (of thinking Him as the means) would be the time of/reason for – forgetting to enjoy emperumAn!

So try to enjoy Him without getting into the pUrvArdham  (first line of dhvayam – which uses Him as means, (that our thought that He is the means, even such thought is not the means; it is His thought that would be the means) (and second line of dhvayam is about enjoying and serving Him);  AzhvAr is follower of dhvayam isn’t it?

Why explain the meaning in this way? Earlier when we have submitted our living to emperumAn, and after that now thinking about our living/upliftment  would be like interfering in the business of others (that is, of emperumAn); there is no difference in ineligibility between addressing one’s own well-being and thinking of creating/addressing well-being of the world (which we cannot not do);

vAzhudhiyEl – without involving in His purifying nature (anthaNanai), and in His being the means, if you would be involved in his enjoyableness (only),

vAzhudhiyEl – prosperity would be yours; I too am your colleague, isn’t it?

As vAzhudhiyEl – talking about his mind considering it as a sentient doer, which is his faculty, is due to seeing the predominance of mind. Till the end of life, it is the mind that is the helper for involving towards emperumAn, which is what a mumukshu (one wishing to be liberated from material world) expects from his mind, isn’t it?

enRum – vAzhalAm – can live amongst nithyasUris (in paramapadham) till the time AthmA exists (eternal). Everywhere, it is the experience/enjoyment that is there for him. vaishNavan is – a prince, isn’t it? (emperumAn is the king, and vaishNavan can live with many qualities that are equal in emperumAn, after reaching SrIvaikuNtam);

mada nenjamE – Oh mind who is obedient to me! Without any difference in the time when getting rid of vishaya prAvaNyam (interest in worldly affairs), and in the time of upliftment (experiencing emperumAn), and during the time of enjoyment, I got the mind that is following me obediently – saying so he is celebrating/appreciating his mind. It is like ‘nenjamE nallai nallai [thiruvAimozhi – 1.10.4]’ ((what you have done is) good, good.).

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Translation by raghuram SrInivAsa dAsan

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