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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 71 (Names 701 to 710)

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701) vasu: (वसुः) (also repeated in 105 and 271)

This divine name ‘vasu:’ indicates residence of bhagavAn in the milky ocean, which he chose as the origin for this incarnation as krishNa. The one who resides in the milky ocean is called ‘vasu:’.

The scriptures have hailed thus:

  • “The lord resides in the milky ocean in order to protect all the worlds”
  • “He is bhagavAn nArAyaNa – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, who resides in the milky ocean. He gave up his enjoyments in the serpent bed in the milky ocean and came down to mathurA (to be born as krishNa)”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn resides in the milky ocean in order to confer wellness upon all the worlds, he is called ‘vasu:’.

वसतीति वसुर्लॊकहितॆच्छुः क्षीरसागरॆ |

702) vasumanA: (वसुमनाः) (also repeated in 106)

Although residing in the birthplace of SrI mahAlakshmi – the milky ocean, bhagavAn’s mind is fixed on vasudhEva. Hence, he is called ‘vasumanA:’ – the one who fixed his mind in vasu (vasudhEva).

Just as ‘dhEvadhaththa’ is called ‘dhaththa’ in short, and just as ‘sathyabhAmA’ is called ‘bhAmA’ in short, so also ‘vasudhEva’ is called ‘vasu’ in short. This is the opinion of those who have learnt the mahAbhAshya.

Etymology: Although residing in the milky ocean – which is the birthplace of SrI mahAlakshmi herself, since bhagavAn’s mind is (was) always fixed upon vasudhEva (in this world), he is called ‘vasumanA:’.

सिन्धौ लक्ष्मीजन्मभूमौ वसतॊsप्यस्य वै मनः |
वसुदॆवॆ सदाsस्तीति स स्यात् वसुमनाः परम् ||

703) havi: (हवि)

Although bhagavAn desired to stay with dhEvaki and vasudhEva, yet the couple – out of sheer love towards bhagavAn and out of fear of kamsa – gave him away to nandhagOpa and yaSOdha. Hence, he is called ‘havi:’.

Etymology: He who was accepted by nandhagOpa and yaSOdha  in order to pacify kamsa’s intimidations is called ‘havi:’.

नन्दगॊपयशॊदाभ्यां कंसॊपद्रवशान्तयॆ |
आदीयतॆ स्वीक्रियतॆ स हविः परिकीर्तितः ||

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सद्गतिः सत्कृतिः सत्ता सद्भूतिः सत्परायणः ।
शूरसॆनॊ यदुश्रॆष्ठः सन्निवासः सुयामुनः ॥ ७५ ॥
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704) sadhgathi: (सद्गतिः)

bhagavAn removes the sorrows of his dear devotees caused by asuras, even while being just born. Thus, he becomes the refuge for all noble souls. Hence he is called ‘sadhgathi:’.

The scriptures hail this trait of bhagavAn thus: “The hurricanes of distress are pacified by bhagavAn, and the noble souls enjoy enhanced bliss”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn removed all sorrows of noble men caused by kamsa and others even while being just born, and thus showed himself as the only refuge for all such noble souls, he is called ‘sadhgathi:’.

उत्पन्न एव कंसादिकृतबाधापनॊदनात् |
सतां प्राप्यतया चैव सद्गतिः समुदाहृतः ||

705) sathkruthi: (सत्कृतिः)

All the divine deeds such as stealing of butter, getting bound to a grinding stone, crawling with the stone, rAsakrIdA (a dance with the gOpis), etc – which are liberating in nature for every individual soul – are shown by bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘sathkruthi:’ – the one who possesses divine actions.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna, those who realize my birth and divine deeds in their true purport shall attain me at the end of their birth, and shall not cycle again in this samsAra”

Etymology: He who possesses divine actions such as rAsakrIdA, etc., which are liberating in nature, is called ‘sathkruthi:’.

रासकिडादि कृतयः सत्यॊ यस्य स सत्कृतिः |

706) saththA (सत्ता)

bhagavAn krishNa is himself verily the support for his dear devotees’ existence. He is hence called ‘saththA’. It is true to the extent that there is no life for any of his devotees without him.

bhagavAn himself says thus about his devotees: “…he who doesn’t have an existence without me”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (krishNa) himself is the support for the very existence of his dear devotees, he is called ‘saththA’.

स्वयमॆव सतां सत्ता यस्मात् सत्तॆति कीर्त्यतॆ |

707) sadhbhUthi: (सद्भूतिः)

For all such noble souls who cannot live without him, bhagavAn himself comes as their child, friend, a close relative, messenger, charioteer, and in many other forms (and stays with them at all times). Thus, he is called ‘sadhbhUthi:’ – the wealth of noble people.

Etymology: He who manifests as the wealth of noble souls in the form of wife, children et al. is called ‘sadhbhUthi:’.

सतां पुत्रकलत्रादि भूत्या सद्भूतिरुच्यतॆ |

708) sathparAyaNam / sathparAyaNa: (सत्परायणम् / सत्परायणः)

The dhrONa parva of SrI mahAbhAratha says thus: “pANdavas have krishNa as their refuge, their strength, their master and their destiny”. As shown here, since bhagavAn himself is the destiny for all noble souls, he is called ‘sathparAyaNam’.

bhagavAn also says thus: “…you shall attain me”

This name is generally in the neuter gender (sathparAyaNam). If this name is taken in the masculine gender (sathparAyaNa:), then it means bhagavAn has the noble souls as his destiny! This is also shown in the same scriptures.

bhagavAn declares thus in SrI mahAbhAratha: “pANdavas are verily my life”

It is also hailed thus in SrI mahAbhAratha: “You are the master for the pANdavas. We have taken refuge in you”

bhagavAn declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “…such a knowledgeable person is indeed my soul (although the scriptures say otherwise) in my opinion”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the ultimate refuge for all noble souls, he is called ‘sathparAyaNam’. Alternately, since bhagavAn considers such noble souls themselves as his ultimate refuge, he is called ‘sathparAyaNa:’.

सतां परं स्यादयनं सन्तॊ यस्यॊत्तमायनम् |
सः सत्परायणं ख्यातः यद्वा स्यात् सत्परायणः ||

709) SUrasEna: (शूरसॆनः)

bhagavAn had pANdavas and yAdhavas as his army in reducing the load on earth (for killing the evil elements). Thus, he is called ‘SUrasEna:’ – the one who had valorous warriors as his army.

Etymology: Since the yAdhavas and pANdavas – who were valorous by nature – were part of bhagavAn’s army in killing bad elements, bhagavAn is called ‘SUrasEna:’.

भूभारहरणार्थाय यादवाः पाण्डवाश्चयॆ |
शूराः सहायास्तॆsस्यॆति शूरसॆनः स कथ्यतॆ ||

710) yadhuSrEshta: (यदुश्रॆष्ठः)

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “Those who are learned in the various scriptures and are knowledgeable about the esoteric meanings therein say gOpAla – bhagavAn krishNa – shall uplift the fallen yAdhava clan.”

Thus, he is called ‘yadhuSrEshta:’ – the best among the yadhu clan.

Etymology: He who uplifted the fallen yadhu clan (which had lost the eligibility for being crowned as the rulers) is called ‘yadhuSrEshta:’. Chanting of this eight syllable manthra shall grant progeny.

मग्नं तु यादवं वंशम् उद्धरिष्यति यश्च सः |
यदुश्रॆष्ठ इति ख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ वंशवर्धनः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 70 (Names 691 to 700)

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691) pUrayithA (पूरयिता)

If bhagavAn is ‘pUrNa:’ as seen in the previous divine name, then why would he expect us to even praise him with various hymns? It is because he wants to fulfil all our desires. This is shown in this divine name ‘pUrayithA’ – the one who fulfils all desires.

This clearly shows he doesn’t long for any prayers, but only considers such prayers in order to fulfil one’s desires.

Etymology: He who is always abiding by his nature of fulfilling the desires of all those who praise him is called ‘pUrayithA’.

सदा पूरयितुं शीलं यस्य स्तॊतृमनॊरथान् |
स स्यात् पूरयिता |

692) puNya: (पुण्यः) (also repeated in 925)

Furthermore, bhagavAn even purifies a sinner and makes that soul also eligible for praying unto him. Thus, he is called ‘puNya:’.

The root ‘pUnj’ पूञ् (to purify) loses the ‘dhIrgha’, and gets the ‘Nuk’ and ‘yath’ (णुक् यत्) adjuncts, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: That bhagavAn himself is called ‘puNya:’, because he purifies sinful souls.

पुण्यः सॊsपि पातकिपावनः |

693) puNyakIrthi: (पुण्यकीर्तिः)

Even the glorification of bhagavAn’s divine names is sufficient to purify a soul. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘puNyakIrthi:’ – the one whose glorification is purifying.

This is hailed thus in the vishNu purANa:

  • “Oh maithrEya, the singing of divine names of bhagavAn itself frees a soul from infinite sins, just as shrubs are burnt down by fire”
  • “Even if a person chants his names involuntarily, yet he/she shall be freed of all their sins immediately, with all such sins running away like deer in sight of a lion”
  • “That – which is accomplished by meditation in krutha yuga, offering oblations in thrEtha yuga, and by physically worshipping bhagavAn in the dhvApara yuga – shall be accomplished by mere chanting of bhagavAn’s divine names in this kali yuga”, etc.

It is for the same reason that knowledgeable men attribute the purifying capacity to the holy hymns that sing the glories of bhagavAn.

Etymology: He whose praises are themselves purifying is called ‘puNyakIrthi:’.

पुण्यश्लॊकॊsस्ति यस्यॆति पुण्यकीर्तिः स तु स्मृतः |

694) anAmaya: (अनामयः)

Thus, the contact with bhagavAn (or his divine names) itself acts as a divine medicine. Hence he is called ‘anAmaya:’ – the one who is against all diseases. The disease referred to in this context is this samsAra. This means that bhagavAn cures us of the greatest disease called ‘samsAra’.

Why is this samsAra or material world called a disease? It is because it is deterrent to the divine experience of bhagavAn. This is shown in the chAndhOgya upanishath, which says “I am replete with diseases”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn oppresses the dreaded disease called ‘samsAra’, he is called ‘anAmaya:’.

संसाराख्य महाव्याधॆः विरॊधित्वादनामयः |

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मनॊजवस्तीर्थकरॊ वसुरॆता वसुप्रदः ।
वसुप्रदॊ वासुदॆवॊ वसुर्वसुमना हविः ॥ ७४ ॥
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695) manOjava: (मनॊजवः)

bhagavAn acts very swiftly in purifying the souls and liberating them from samsAra (as shown in the previous divine names). Thus, he is called ‘manOjava:’ – the one with the speed of mind.

bhagavAn himself says thus: “He becomes a noble soul instantly”

The vishNu dharma also says thus: “Irrespective of whether the sins accumulated over the past seven births are little or too much, they all are destroyed at the very instant when the person steps into the temple of vishNu”.

Etymology: He who acts swiftly in benefitting his devotees is called ‘manOjava:’.

भक्तानां सम्पदं शीघ्रं करॊतीति मनॊजवः |

696) thIrthakara: (तीर्थकरः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn creates holy waters such as gangA, pushkara, etc, which are also extremely purifying just upon remembering them or even chanting their names – just as much as bhagavAn himself! Thus, he is called ‘thIrthakara:’ – the creator of holy waters.

Alternately, he is the one who promotes the noble philosophies preached by the vEdhas, smrithis, etc. Thus also he is called ‘thIrthakara:’ – the one who enables the creation of various works based on the right philosophy.

This is shown at the end of this same vishNu sahasranAma chapter, where it is said thus: “yOga, Knowledge about the self as well as this material world … are all born out of janArdhana”

Alternately, he is the one who creates steps – in the form of his incarnations – to enter into himself, who is otherwise very profound and impossible to access – just as a deep ocean (meaning, although he is originally very profound, he makes himself accessible to one and all with his incarnations). Thus also, he is called ‘thIrthakara:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thIrthakara:’, because he is the one who creates holy waters such as gangA, etc., also because he is the one who promotes holy scriptures such as vEdhas and smrithis, and also because he is the one who builds a flight of steps to reach him.

गङ्गादि तीर्थहॆतुत्वात् श्रुतिस्मृत्यॊः प्रवर्तनात् |
आत्मप्रवॆशसॊपानकृत्त्वात् तीर्थकरः स्मृतः ||

697) vasurEthA: (वसुरॆताः)

Thence the glorious krishnAvathAram of bhagavAn is hailed (in more than one hundred ensuing divine names!).

Since bhagavAn himself – in the form of divine light – is the material cause for his incarnation, he is called ‘vasurEthA:’.

The word ‘vasu’ (वसुः) itself is in fact a synonym for light.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “He removed two strands of his hair – one white and one black – oh great saint…”

It is said thus in the SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha: “They are said to be the strands of my hair (kESa)”

The word ‘kESa’ has already been explained in the previous divine names.

Etymology: The word ‘vasu’ means light, and ‘rEtha:’ is known to mean the incarnation for which such light is the cause. Since he (krishna) is born out of his own form of divine light, he is called ‘vasurEthA:’.

वसुशब्दॊ ज्यॊतिरर्थॊ रॆतस्तत्कारणं मतम् |
दिव्यज्यॊतिः कारणत्वात् वसुरॆताः प्रकीर्तितः ||

698) vasupradha: (वसुप्रदः) (also repeated in 699)

bhagavAn is called ‘vasupradha:’, since he gave away himself as the biggest wealth unto vasudhEva-dhEvaki couple, in the form of their progeny.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn gave away (gives away) himself completely unto dhEvaki and vasudhEva as their greatest wealth in the form of their progeny, he is called ‘vasupradha:’.

दॆवकीवसुदॆवाभ्याम् आत्मरूपं महद्धनम् |
पुत्रत्वॆन प्रकर्षॆण ददातीति वसुप्रदः ||

699) vasupradha: (वसुप्रदः) (also repeated in 698)

By being born as their son, since bhagavAn – who is the father of all worlds – further bestowed upon dhEvaki and vasudhEva the divine status of being his own parents (which is counted as another wealth), he is again called by the divine name ‘vasupradha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestowed upon dhEvaki and vasudhEva another great fortune of being his own parents, he is called ‘vasupradha:’.

दॆवकीवसुदॆवाभ्यां स्वपितृत्वं महद्वसु |
तॆजॊsसौ प्रददातीति वसुप्रद इतीरितः ||

700) vAsudhEva: (वासुदॆवः) (also repeated in 334 and 714)

Since bhagavAn was thus born as the son of vasudhEva, he is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (as krishNa) was born as the son of vasudhEva, he is called ‘vAsudhEva:’.

वसुदॆवापत्यभावात् वासुदॆवः प्रकीर्तितः |

Thus ends the seventh centum (sapthama Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SIi vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka misra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The seventh centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 69 (Names 681 to 690)

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681) mahAyajvA (महायज्वा)

Worshipping bhagavAn is not only simple, but those who worship him are also much superior to the worshippers of other dhEvas. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘mahAyajvA’ – the one whose worshippers are most superior.

The scriptures have this to say in this regard: “Amongst all such devotees of bhagavAn, those ‘EkAnthis’ – who are singly minded towards bhagavAn alone – are the most superior”.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘mahAyajvA’, since he makes those devotees who single-mindedly worship him alone as much superior to those who worship other dhEvas. This manthra grants the fruits of good deeds upon the chanter.

दॆवतान्तरयाजिभ्यः स्वयाज्युत्कर्षकारकः |
महायज्वा समुद्दिष्टः सत्कर्मफलदॊ मनुः ||

682) mahAyagya: (महायज्ञः)

What makes the worship of bhagavAn superior to the worship of other dhEvathAs? The morning waking ritual, divine bath, decorations, offering of bhOgam (sumptuous food) and sweets, etc make bhagavAn’s worship much superior to the worship of other dhEvas (who are worshipped without much flavour). Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘mahAyagya:’ – the one whose worship is superior to that of other dhEvas.

The scriptures have hailed bhagavAn’s worship in many ways thus:

  • “Of all dharmas, indeed the worship of bhagavAn vishNu is the best. bhagavAn vishNu protects his dear devotees just as a soul protects its body”
  • “bhagavAn happily accepts with his head (accepts them as the highest offering) all such deeds of his dear devotees who show single minded devotion towards him (such as all those mentioned above including waking up of the lord, giving him a ritual bath, offering decorations and sumptuous food etc)”
  • “Behold! All those ‘EkAnthis’ (devotees who possess single-minded devotion towards bhagavAn) please hari with all rituals mentioned in the scriptures, which bhagavAn hari himself accepts with utmost happiness”, etc.

Etymology: He who makes his own worship superior to the worship of other dhEvathAs is called ‘mahAyagya:’. This eight syllable manthra confers verily the worship of bhagavAn hari.

अन्यॆभ्यॊ दॆवयागॆभ्यः स्वयागॊत्कर्षकारकः |
महायज्ञः समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ हरियागदः ||

683) mahAhavi: (महाहविः)

As shown in the various vEdhic statements such as “There was no killing of animal”, “There was only chanting of AraNyaka (a part of vEdhas)”, etc, bhagavAn doesn’t accept any offering involving violence. Rather, he accepts only those offerings that are sAththvik in nature as expounded in the vEdhas. Thus, he is called ‘mahAhavi:’ – the one who accepts only noble offerings.

The scriptures have said thus:

  • “The oblations of ghee, firewood, etc – which are verily the form of supreme brahman – are offered…”
  • “Some others worship me with their knowledge alone…”
  • “I shall worship that bhagavAn in just the way I am. I shall not distance myself from him – who is my master”
  • “I shall offer myself (individual soul) unto that indweller of sUryamaNdala…”
  • “I shall only offer myself”, etc.

As seen in these scriptural statements, bhagavAn is worshipped by offering oneself (mind, intellect, senses, soul, etc) unto him (which is the highest offering).

The SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha hails the greatness of one such devotee named ‘uparichara vasu’, who is hailed as a ‘paramaikAnthi’ परमैकान्ती (the one with a steadfast single-minded devotion towards bhagavAn alone). It says “He always submitted himself to bhagavAn by saying that AthmA (himself / the individual soul), his kingdom, his wealth, his relatives and all his vehicles are all meant for bhagavAn alone”

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Worshipping me with prescribed materials is superior to mere knowledge, oh arjuna”.

Thus, bhagavAn is very easily worshipped merely by the normal actions of mind and body (and does not require any violent offerings).

Henceforth, the verbal means of worshipping bhagavAn shall be expounded.

Etymology: He who accepts noble offerings such as offering of self (AthmA), etc – which are non violent in nature – is called ‘mahAhavi:’.

अहिंस्रमात्मादि हविः यस्य स्यात् स महाहविः |

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स्तव्यः स्तवप्रियः स्तॊत्रं स्तुतः स्तॊता रणप्रियः ।
पूर्णः पूरयिता पुण्यः पुण्यकीर्तिरनामयः ॥ ७३ ॥
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684) sthavya: (स्तव्यः)

bhagavAn is eligible of being praised with hymns. Thus, he is called ‘sthavya:’ – the praiseworthy one. bhagavAn possesses virtuous, auspicious and eternal divine qualities that are always unbounded and fully meant for the sake of his dear devotees alone. There are thousands of divine names that sing his glories thus. He is thus established as the lord of all beings. Thus, he alone is worthy of praises. All other dhEvathAs – which are characterized by qualities contrary to the said nature – are not worthy of it.

The bArhaspathya smrithi says thus: “Just as mundane people praise a wealthy man and beget material benefits, who on earth wouldn’t be liberated from the bonds of samsAra if he praises the creator of all worlds?”

In this same vishNu sahasranAma, it will be said thus, later: “Thus, one thousand out of the unlimited divine names of that great supreme soul kESava – who is truly worth of such praises – have been sung”

Etymology: The ways of physical worship of bhagavAn hari by all souls has been said till now (previous divine name). Thence, the means of verbal worship (by praising him and singing his divine names) of that nArAyaNa shall be expounded. He who is worthy of all praises is called ‘sthavya:’. This six lettered manthra liberates the chanter from all bondages.

चॆतः शरीरयॊर्जन्तॊर्व्यापाराराध्यता हरॆः |
उक्ता नारायणस्याथ वागाराध्यत्वमुच्यतॆ |
स्मृतः स्तुत्यर्हणात् स्तव्यः षडर्णॊ बन्धमॊचकः ||

685) sthavapriya: (स्तवप्रियः)

bhagavAn fondly accepts the hymns praising him, which are sung by anyone who is desirous of singing the glories of his divine qualities, in anyway, and in any language – irrespective of whether such a prayer is laudable or condemnable. Thus, he is called ‘sthavapriya:’ – the one who is fond of prayers.

This is proven beyond doubt in many cases such as that of a person named ‘ghaNtAkarNa’ (घण्टाकर्णः), et al.

(NOTE: ghaNtAkarNa was a staunch devotee of rudhra and dead against bhagavAn. He had a pair of bells tied to his ears. Whenever someone praised bhagavAn, he would shake his head and chime the bells so that he wouldn’t listen to bhagavAn’s names or glories. At some point of time, due to circumstances, he was finally required to praise bhagavAn in order to seek mOksha. Even then, he wouldn’t praise bhagavAn with love, but would pray just for the sake of it – without any flavour. Yet, bhagavAn pleasingly heeded to his prayer)

Etymology: He who is extremely fond of prayers sung by anyone in any language and in anyway (irrespective of whether or not it is a laudable way of praising) is called ‘sthavapriya:’. This eight lettered manthra enhances love amongst the chanters.

यया कयाचिद्भारत्या यॆन कॆनापि जन्तुना |
यथा कथञ्चित्कथितॊ यस्य प्रियतमः स्तवः |
स्तवप्रियः स कथितॊ वस्वर्णः प्रीतिवर्धकः ||

686) sthOthram (स्तॊत्रम्)

Furthermore, bhagavAn only sings his praise using the other individuals as mere tools in his hands. Thus, he is only called ‘sthOthram’ as well.

The ‘sthu’ स्तु (to praise) gets the ‘shtran’ (ष्ट्रन्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

This can be seen in the case of dhruva mahArAja.

(NOTE: The story of dhruva can be seen in SrI bhAgavatham. dhruva – a small boy – sets out to realize the supreme soul owing to various circumstances. He performs severe penance for about six months, for which bhagavAn gets pleased and appears before him. When dhruva repents for his inability to sing bhagavAn’s glories due to his ignorance, bhagavAn touches his pAnchajanya conch to dhruva’s cheeks, at which instant dhruva starts pouring out an exemplary hymn in praise of nArAyaNa. So it clearly proves that he is the one who enables us to sing his glories as well, and hence this divine name.)

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s praises are accomplished only because of his grace, he is called ‘sthOthram’.

स्वॆनैव निष्पाद्यतया स्वस्तुतॆः स्तॊत्रमुच्यतॆ |

687) sthutha: (स्तुतः)

bhagavAn gets praised by his devotees with varying ranks, such as AdhiSEsha, garuda, and other liberated and ever-liberated souls, infinite number of bounded souls such as brahmA, indhra and other dhEvas, as well as us – who are living here to this day, and also who would be born in this world in various births for a long time to come. All of these entities glorify bhagavAn in order to attain their desires (befitting their knowledge levels). Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘sthutha:’ – the one who is praised.

  • The vishNu dharma says thus: “…the pastimes of whom are glorified by infinite dhEvas including indhra, and all the big time rulers of mankind…”
  • The purusha sUktha hails thus: “He who is praised by the four faced brahmA, who is known by indhra et al, and hailed by all the humans…”
  • The word ‘pradhiSaScha-thasra:’ (प्रदिशश्चतस्रः) shows bhagavAn’s glorification by all of us – the humans at all places at all times.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sthutha:’, because he is equally glorified by all souls irrespective of their ranks – such as AdhiSEsha, vishvaksEna and other liberated and ever-liberated souls (present in the nithya vibhUthi), as well as all of the bounded souls including ourselves (present in this leelA vibhUthi).

शॆषशॆषाशनाद्यैर्यः सूरिभिश्चास्मदादिभिः |
स्तुतत्वादविशॆषॆण स्तुत इत्यभिदीयतॆ ||

688) sthOthA (स्तॊता)

Furthermore, bhagavAn possesses such simple character that he himself praises those who praise him. Thus, he is called ‘sthOthA’ – the one who praises.

The vishNu dharma glorifies this by saying thus: “Praising whom one attains the stature of being praised, and prostrating unto whom one attains the status of being prostrated…”

This character of bhagavAn is evident in the context of his praising of Siva during his kailAsa-yAthrA (NOTE: This refers to the story of krishna visiting kailAsa and praying to Siva for progeny).

Etymology: He who possesses the noble character of praising those who praise him is called ‘sthOthA’.

स्वस्तॊतारं परं स्तॊतुं शीलं यस्यास्ति सर्वदा |
स्तॊता स स्यात् पञ्चवर्णः सर्वस्तुत्यत्वदॊ मनुः ||

689) raNapriya: (रणप्रियः)

As seen from the various deeds of bhagavAn recorded in various scriptures such as SrImath rAmAyaNa, mahAbhAratha, etc, he is the one who possesses numerous divine deeds in order to please those who praise him. Thus, he is called ‘raNapriya:’ – the one who is fond of wars!

Particularly, he is called so because he has fought numerous wars in order to please his dear devotees who have prayed to him for various reasons.

This is amply clear from a SlOka in SrI rAmAyaNa that hails thus: “Thence, rAma pleased his dear friend SugrIva as well as the mighty angadha by killing rAvana in the war”

Etymology: He who wars against enemies in order to please his devotees is called ‘raNapriya:’.

सुहृत्प्रियं युद्धकर्म यस्यास्ति स रणप्रियः |

690) pUrNa: (पूर्णः)

Even in the absence of offerings made of expensive materials earned by much effort, bhagavAn is pleased by mere praising alone. How? It is possible because he is ‘pUrNa:’ – the complete one. He is the one who has attained all of his desires, and hence does not have anything that must be supplemented by external sources (this means that he doesn’t need or expect any of his devotees to offer anything to him, because he owns everything; rather, he only looks for pure devotion in his devotees).

Etymology: All of whose desires are ever fulfilled is called ‘pUrNa:’.

अवाप्तसर्वकामत्वं यस्यासौ पूर्ण उच्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 68 (Names 671 to 680)

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671) brahmavith (ब्रह्मवित्)

The vEdhas, which expound such ‘dharma’s is also called ‘brahma’. This is shown by the vEdhas themselves when they say “brahma is ought to be studied”, etc.

Such vEdhas are infinite. The scriptures have shown this fact as “vEdhas are indeed infinite”. Yet, bhagavAn confines them into a limit and knows them completely. Thus, he is called ‘brahmavith’ – the knower of brahma (vEdhas).

The scriptures confirm this by saying thus: “The eternal vEdhas called ‘brahma’ are not known by either the dhEvas or rishis. They are known only by that bhagavAn nArAyaNa himself, who is the creator of all”.

Etymology: He who knows the infinite vEdhas in their entirety is called ‘brahmavith’.

यॊ वॆदानन्ततॊ वॆत्ति स ब्रह्मविदुदीरितः |

672) brAhmaNa: (ब्राह्मणः)

In order to establish the vEdhas in their true purport and publicise them, bhagavAn himself incarnates as a brAhmaNa in various forms such as dhaththAthrEya et al in various clans such as in athri’s clan, etc. Thus, he is called ‘brAhmaNa:’.

The meaning of this word ‘brAhmaNa:’ is shown by the etymologists as “the one who attains the supreme brahman himself, as well as leads other souls to that supreme brahman”.

Etymology: He who incarnates as a brAhmaNa in various places such as dhaththAthrEya, et al is called ‘brAhmaNa:’. Alternately, since he reads the vEdhas, he is called ‘brAhmaNa:’.

दत्तात्रॆयादि रूपॆण ह्युदीर्णॊ ब्राह्मणः स्मृतः |
पठनाद्वाsथ वॆदस्य ब्राह्मणः परिकीर्तितः ||

673) brahmI (ब्रह्मी)

In this way (as shown in some of the previous divine names), bhagavAn himself is the owner of the pramANa (means of knowledge – vEdhas) and pramEya (the object of such knowledge – the entities). Thus, he is called ‘brahmI’ – the owner of brahma.

The scriptures say “That hari possesses everything which is called ‘brahma’ ”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself possesses the form of the means as well as the object of knowledge, he is called ‘brahmI’.

मानमॆयस्वरूपत्वात् स्वयं ब्रह्मीति शब्द्यतॆ |

674) brahmagya: (ब्रह्मज्ञः)

Not just stopping at knowing all the infinite vEdhas (as shown in one of the previous divine names – ‘brahmavith’), bhagavAn also understands them in their true purport. Thus, he is called ‘brahmagya:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “I am only the knower of vEdhas in their true purport”.

Etymology: He who knows the infinite vEdhas in their true purport is called ‘brahmagya:’.

यॊ वॆदान् अर्थतॊ वॆत्ति सॊsयं ब्रह्मज्ञ ईरितः |

675) brAhmaNapriya: (ब्राह्मणप्रियः)

The individual souls who have also mastered the vEdhas are called ‘brAhmaNa’s. Such people are dear to bhagavAn. Hence, he is called ‘brAhmaNapriya:’.

The scriptures have shown thus:

  • “Just as I treat him – who kills, who curses, who speaks harsh words, and who doesn’t respect the brAhmaNas…” (this statement shows how bhagavAn considers disrespecting brAhmaNas on par with other offences), etc.
  • “The sincere devotees who follow these nectarine teachings of mine in their true spirit are extremely dear to me”
  • “…that which emanated from the mouth of a brAhmaNa…”
  • “I shall win over all asuras with the help of the blessings of a vipra”
  • “…what more is to be said about a holy brAhmaNa?…”, etc

In this way, the brAhmaNas are hailed in many places infinitely.

To further illustrate, the scriptures have said thus:

  • “…he who is greater than the great souls…”
  • “…he who is superior to all great souls, and who is bigger than the big entities…”
  • “…that great soul, who is omniscient…”
  • “…he who is superior and bigger than all big entities…”, etc.

Etymology: The masters of vEdhas are called ‘vipra’s. Such souls are dear to bhagavAn at all times. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘brAhmaNapriya:’. This nine lettered manthra confers righteousness upon the chanter.

वॆदाधिकारिणॊ विप्राः प्रिया अस्यॆति वै सदा |
ब्राह्मणप्रिय इत्युक्तॊ नवार्णॊ धर्मदॊ मनुः ||

==============================
महाक्रमॊ महाकर्मा महातॆजा महॊरगः ।
महाक्रतुर्महायज्वा महायज्ञॊ महाहविः ॥ ७२ ॥
==============================

676) mahAkrama: (महाक्रमः)

He showers his infinite affection upon those who are enthusiastic about attaining bhagavAn thus. bhagavAn is in an extremely high position, and the souls born in this material creation are at the bottom of an abyss. Yet, he enables such fallen souls to attain his highest self by means of a great flight of stairs connoting a sequence of knowledge and devotion leading up to bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘mahAkrama:’ – the one who lays a great path for his devotees to traverse.

This is akin to a mother suckling her child at the beginning, subsequently moving on to the cow’s milk, and then mild food, and finally feeding it with all delicacies. Similarly, bhagavAn also has a sequence of occurrences for uniting a fallen soul with himself, starting with identifying a good deed for that soul, removing aversion towards himself, generating trust in vEdhas, creating interest towards himself, making them follow his words, and thereby generating knowledge, finally maturing such knowledge into devotion – which subsequently brings that soul close to himself. bhagavAn does all these in order to uplift a fallen soul as well as to enable such an uplifted soul to serve him.

Otherwise, the scriptures show the adverse consequences thus:

“If a soul doesn’t traverse the path laid down by bhagavAn, such a soul deserves to be ever bound in this samsAra, covered with ignorance at all times”

That is why it is said thus: “When the individual souls have reduced their sins greatly by practicing thapas and with undivided contemplation of bhagavAn in thousands of births, only then the true devotion unto bhagavAn krishNa is born in them”

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “The knowledgeable soul surrenders unto me only at the end of many of births”, “Oh arjuna, wish to attain me by constant practice”, etc.

Etymology: He is called ‘mahAkrama:’, who has laid down a sequential path of knowledge, devotion, etc as verily the flight of stairs to uplift a fallen soul from the depth of samsAra to unite such a soul with himself – who is the greatest of all souls.

परमॊन्नतिमात्मानं निम्नात् भवरसातलात् |
जीवान् समारॊहयतॊ ज्ञानभक्त्यादि रूपिणी |
पूर्वानुपूर्वी यस्यास्ति स महाक्रम ईरितः ||

677) mahAkarmA (महाकर्मा) (also repeated in 793)

bhagavAn makes even the souls born in the lowest of births such as bacteria et al – which are microscopic in size and live on the indigestible remnants left over by others – to progress slowly across many births and finally attain him. Since he possesses such an astonishing deed, he is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

Etymology: He – who possesses amazing deeds that make even the lowliest of organisms to eventually progress and finally attain and enjoy his union – is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

अत्यन्तहीनान् जन्तूंश्च यॊग्यान् स्वानुभवस्य हि |
करॊति महदाश्चर्यं कर्म तद्यस्य सर्वदा |
महाकर्मा स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

678) mahAthEjA: (महातॆजाः)

bhagavAn’s divine effulgence is such that it takes away the darkness of ignorance from all such thAmasic souls (born in lowly births due to their karma). Thus, he is called ‘mahAthEjA:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘mahAthEjA:’ because he possesses divine effulgence that takes away the darkness of ignorance which has no beginning (from the individual souls born in lowly births due to their karma). This eight syllable manthra grants effulgence upon the chanters.

अनाद्यविद्याख्या तमॊहारि तॆजॊ महद्यतः |
महातॆजाह्यतः ख्यातः तॆजॊदॊ वसुवर्णकः ||

679) mahOraga: (महॊरगः)

How does such a great supreme soul bhagavAn come near infinitesimally small creatures? He comes near such small creatures (enters their hearts) by entering their senses in the form of material objects at first, and in turn entering their minds through their senses. Thus, he is called ‘mahOraga:’ – the one who enters the mind.

The word ‘ura:’ shows the hearts of such fallen souls. Since bhagavAn enters such hearts of fallen souls (like a snake entering an anthill), he is called ‘mahOraga:’.

The syllable ‘sa’ (स्) in the word ‘uras’ उरस् (chest) is lost, and the root ‘gam’ गम् (to go) with the ‘da:’ (डः) adjunct is suffixed as per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘uraga:’ (उरगः).

Etymology: bhagavAn is popularly called ‘mahOraga:’, since he enters the hearts of fallen souls through their mind (and senses).

महॊरग इति ख्यातश्चित्तद्वारा प्रवॆशनात् |

680) mahAkrathu: (महाक्रतुः)

The vishNu dharma says thus about bhagavAn’s simplicity: “After all, who wouldn’t please bhagavAn – who is pleased not by all riches and wealth, or by clothes or ornaments, but is pleased by the purity at heart alone?”

As shown in this scriptural statement, bhagavAn is very easily pleased by very simple ways of worship. Thus, he is called ‘mahAkrathu:’ – the one who is very easily worshipped.

bhagavAn is easily worshipped by all simple deeds mentioned in the Agama SASthras (such as lighting a lamp, making simple offerings like arghya, pAdhya, etc, offering him daily food, singing his glories from any of the many authentic sources, etc) done with utmost devotion with a feeling of complete submission.

bhagavAn himself confirms this in the bhagavath gIthA, thus: “Oh arjuna, offer unto me all that you do as a part of your living, all that you eat for your living, and all that you do as a part of your daily and occasional worship such as oblations, meditation, etc.”

Etymology: He who is worshipped by everyone in a very simple way is called ‘mahAkrathu:’.

सर्वैश्च सुकरा पूजा यस्य स्यात् स महाक्रतुः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 67 (Names 661 to 670)

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661) kruthAgama: (कृतागमः) (also repeated in 795)

Thence, the ‘SakthISa’ incarnation of bhagavAn is hailed with the next set of divine names.

bhagavAn clearly shows himself – who is hidden in the various vEdha manthras and Agama – unto his pure hearted devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’.

Etymology: Thence, the SakthISa avathAram is hailed. Since he is deeply hidden within the mantras, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’. he is mainly called ‘kruthAgama:’ since he shows himself (unto the pure hearted souls) from such manthras.

अथ शक्त्यवतारॊsत्र मन्त्रात्मा स्यात् कृतागमः |
मन्त्रविद्या व्यञ्जकत्वात् कृतागम इतीरितः ||

662) anirdhESyavapu: (अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः) (also repeated in 179)

bhagavAn’s divine forms can never be comprehended by anyone in their entirety. He takes on a variety of divine forms following the nature of each yuga. Thus, he is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ – the one with incomprehensible forms.

The scriptures hail thus: “bhagavAn possesses divine effulgent forms abiding to the nature of every yuga”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ since he possesses divine forms following the nature of every yuga.

युगानुसारिरूपत्वात् अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः स्मृतः |

663) vishNu: (विष्णुः) (also repeated in 2, 259)

Thus, bhagavAn pervades the entire world with his powers of pervasiveness and controlling every entity. Thus, he is called ‘vishNu:’.

The manthra varnas hail bhagavAn as “the one who is omnipotent”

It is said thus in Adhithya purANa “Since all of these worlds are pervaded by the power of bhagavAn, he is called ‘vishNu:’. The root ‘vish’ means to enter”

In the udhyOga parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, it is said thus: “The lord of all worlds is called ‘vishNu:’ since he pervaded all worlds with his feet”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn pervades all worlds with his power (to control every entity), he is called ‘vishNu:’.

स्वशक्त्या सर्वजगतॊ व्याप्तॆः विष्णुरिति स्मृतः |

664) vIra: (वीरः) (also repeated in 402)

bhagavAn slays the offenders of his dear devotees without any delay, using his mace and discus (gadhA and chakram) – which are ever awaiting their master’s order to eradicate such offenders. Thus, he is called ‘vIra:’ – the valiant one.

Etymology: He is called ‘vIra:’, who slays those who offend his dear devotees without any delay.

वीरः स्यात् साधुसन्तापकारिणॊsजति हन्ति यत् |

665) anantha: (अनन्तः)

There is no boundary for bhagavAn in terms of either space or time or objects (which he pervades). Thus, he is called ‘anantha:’ – the endless.

The manthra varNa hails bhagavAn as ‘the one who possesses an endless form’.

The various scriptures hail thus in this regard:

  • “Oh arjuna, there is no end to my dimensions”
  • “That is the supreme brahman, which has no end”
  • “The supreme brahaman is eternal, omniscient and not limited by anything”

This means that bhagavAn is ever present at all places and in all possible ways.

Further, the lack of such differentiating capacity (to say bhagavAn is present in one object and absent in another) doesn’t imply that bhagavAn is not different from such objects (meaning, it doesn’t prove oneness of all objects with bhagavAn). Rather, it only means that he is totally independent of such objects, but isn’t limited by such references and is all pervasive (he is referenced with every entity present in this creation). Similarly, the same is applicable even in case of space and time. Such an exposition (trying to impose ‘oneness’ using this divine name) is not pleasing.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t have any bounds in terms of space, time, qualities or objects, he is called ‘anantha:’.

दॆशतः कालतॊ वाsपि गुण्तॊ वस्तुतॊsपि वा |
अवधिस्त्वस्य नास्तीति सॊsनन्तः समुदाहृतः ||

666) dhananjaya: (धनञ्जयः)

Not stopping at being unbounded himself, bhagavAn also bestows unbounded wealth upon his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘dhananjaya:’ – the victor of wealth.

Which is that unbounded wealth that he bestows upon his devotees? It is none other than himself! bhagavAn puts down material wealth such as gold, gems, etc by showing the intense need for the desire to earn that wealth, the path treaded in the pursuit of such wealth, greed in retaining the wealth, efforts to hide such wealth from robbers, making a living with such wealth, etc. as the primary eligibility (NOTE: bhattar intends to show that there is so much of ‘eligibility’ needed to earn material wealth; whereas bhagavAn is naturally related to each one of us, and hence doesn’t expect such high ‘eligibilities’).

Since bhagavAn wins over such lowly wealth, he is called ‘dhananjaya:’.

The root ‘ji’ जि (to win over) gets the ‘khach’ (खच्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘jaya:’ (जयः).

Etymology: By increasing the eligibilities to earn material wealth – such as intense desire, the deed of earning, greed in growing the wealth etc, bhagavAn wins over the lowly material wealth comprising of gems, pearls, precious stones, gold, etc (and makes himself available to his devotees as the highest unbounded wealth with no need for such ‘eligibilities’). Thus he is called ‘dhananjaya:’.

प्रॆप्सॊपार्जनलॊभादि यॊग्यत्वादिक्यतस्ततः |
मणिमौक्तिकरत्नादि हॆमरूप्यादिकं धनम् |
जयत्यधः करॊतीति धनञ्जय इतीरितः ||

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ब्रह्मण्यॊ ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविवर्धनः ।
ब्रह्मविद्ब्राह्मणॊ ब्रह्मी ब्रह्मज्ञॊ ब्राह्मणप्रियः ॥ ७१ ॥
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667) brahmaNya: (ब्रह्मण्यः)

In this context, the word ‘brahma’ is used to mean something of a great magnitude. Since every individual soul or sentient entity (chith – चित्) is great due to its ability to enjoy the unbounded bliss in the mOksha bhUmi – which is attained by them according to their realization and actions, such individual soul itself is referred to as ‘brahma’. This is as shown in the various scriptures thus:

  • “That individual soul – who is verily of the form of knowledge – is called by the name ‘brahma’”
  • “Such an individual soul – who is called by the name ‘brahma’ – is blemishless”, etc.

Even the insentient entity called ‘achith’ (अचित्), which is the object of enjoyment in this world for every individual soul, and which is inexplicable, is great due to its ability to transform into infinite forms of enjoyment to various souls. Thus, such insentient material is also called ‘brahma’. This is also shown in the scriptures thus: “My creation is this great prakruthi, called ‘brahma’”, etc.

bhagavAn safeguards such sentient and insentient entities by looking after their existence, enjoyments, and all such states of those entities. Thus, he is called ‘brahmaNya:’.

Etymology: The sentient jIvathma and insentient prakruthi are both referenced by the name ‘brahma’. He who is responsible for their existence, enjoyments etc in all of their states is called ‘brahmaNya:’. This seven lettered manthra confers wealth upon the chanters.

जीवात्मा प्रकृतिश्चापि ब्रह्मॆति व्यपदिश्यतॆ |
ताभ्यां यः स्थितिभॊगादॆः सर्वावस्थासु कारणम् |
ब्रह्मण्यः स च विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ भॊगदायकः ||

668) brahmakrudh-brahmA (ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा)

Not just stopping at nature or prakruthi, even the derivatives of that prakruthi – such as mahAn, ahankAra, etc – are also called ‘brahma’ due to their vast expanse in this creation. The vEdhas have clearly shown this by saying “thus, this ‘brahma’ gets various names and forms, and transforms into pleasure objects”, etc.

The ordinary creator of all such objects is the four faced brahmA. Such a four faced brahmA is also controlled by bhagavAn. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘brahmakrudhbrahmA’.

Etymology: The derivatives of prakruthi – namely mahAn, ahankAra, etc – are also called by the name ‘brahma’. The common creator of such objects in this creation (creator of individual objects – called vyashti srushti) is the four faced brahmA. He – by whom that four faced brahmA is controlled at all times – is called ‘brahmakrudhbrahmA’. This nine syllable manthra is capable of bestowing all powers upon the chanter.

महदादि तमःकार्यं ब्रह्मॆति ह्यभिदीयतॆ |
तस्य कर्ता स्वयं ब्रह्मा नियाम्यॊ यस्य सर्वदा |
स तु स्यात् ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा नवार्णः सर्वशक्तिदः ||

669) brahma (ब्रह्म)

In this way, bhagavAn makes the manifest and subtle individual souls (with and without names and forms respectively) seen during the common and specific creations bigger with his infinite auspicious divine qualities. Also, he shows himself as a big entity with his unbounded nature and divine qualities. Since he shows his absolute supremacy over all other entities thus, and since he is hailed by the vEdhAnthas as the greatest entity without any prejudice, he is called ‘brahma’.

The etymologists have shown the meaning of this divine name as “the one who is himself great and also makes the other entities (depending on him) great”.

Etymology: bhagavAn always makes the individual souls in both the manifest and subtle forms during the common and specific creations great by showing them his divine forms, nature, auspicious qualities and the infinite wealth. Hence he is called ‘brahma’. This six syllable manthra confers progeny upon the chanters.

व्यक्ताव्यक्त-समष्ट्यादि पुरुषांचैव नित्यशः |
रूपैः स्वरूपॆण गुणैः विभवैश्च स्वयं सदा |
बृंहतीति च तद्ब्रह्म षडर्णः सन्ततिप्रदः ||

670) brahmavivardhana: (ब्रह्मविवर्धनः)

The characteristic of all such individual souls namely ‘dharma’ or righteousness, which is characterized by thapas or contemplation, is also called ‘brahma’.

This is shown in the vEdhic statement that says “thapas is called brahma”.

bhagavAn increases such ‘thapas’ and thereby the resulting ‘dharma’ amongst his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘brahmavivardhana:’ – the increaser of ‘brahma’ (thapas).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn always increases thapas amongst his devotees, he is called ‘brahmavivardhana:’.

तपॊविवर्धनान्नित्यं स्मृतॊ ब्रह्मविवर्धनः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 66 (Names 651 to 660)

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651) SUrajanESvara: (शूरजनॆश्वरः)

He is only further hailed as SUrajanESvara: – the leader of all SUras.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘SUrajanESvara:’ since he is the master of all valorous men.

पराक्रमिजनॆशत्वात् स्मृतः शूरजनॆश्वरः |

652) thrilOkAthmA (त्रिलॊकात्मा)

Various purANas hail thus: “Oh brahman! bhagavAn janArdhana – the lord of all lords, and the master of all worlds – resides in magadha maNdala, taking shelter in a place called mahAbOdha (gayA kshEthram)”

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘thrilOkAthmA’.

The divine name means that bhagavAn constantly goes around the three worlds in order to protect all his devotees and bless them at all times.

The root ‘atha’ (अत) means to constantly keep going around in this context. This root gets the ‘manin’ (मनिन्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘Athman’ (आत्मन्). Since he keeps going around the three worlds constantly, he is called ‘thrilOkAthmA’.

Etymology: He who constantly keeps going around the three worlds in order to protect his devotees and bless them is called ‘thrilOkAthmA’. This eight syllable manthra confers wealth upon the chanters.

यः सातत्यॆन लॊकान् त्रीन् भक्तानुग्रहकाम्यया |
गच्छत्यसौ त्रिलॊकात्मा वस्वर्णॊ भूतिदायकः ||

653) thrilOkESa: (त्रिलॊकॆशः)

bhagavAn also resides in a holy place called ‘prAgjyOthishapuram’ (प्राग्ज्यॊतिषपुरः) with the divine name ‘viSvESvara’ (विश्वॆश्वरः). Thus, he is called ‘thrilOkESa:’ – the master of all three worlds.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the sole master of all three worlds, he is called ‘thrilOkESa:’.

त्रिलॊकानामीशतया त्रिलॊकॆशः प्रकीर्तितः |

654) kESava: (कॆशवः) (also repeated in 23)

bhagavAn is called ‘kESava:’ since he stands in two places in this world – namely ‘mathurA’ (मथुरा) and ‘vArANasI’ (वाराणसी) (also called ‘kASI’ काशी), removing all the sorrows of his devotees.

Alternately, the words of Siva go thus: “The word ‘ka’ (क) represents the four faced brahmA. I am popularly called ‘Isa:’ (ईशः) by all. We two are born out of your divine body. Thus, oh bhagavAn! You are called ‘kESava’”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kESava:’ since the four faced brahmA and the destroyer rudhra are born out of his divine body.

ब्रह्मॆशयॊः स्वाङ्गजत्वात् कॆशवः परिकीर्तितः |

655) kESihA (कॆशिहा)

The scriptures hail bhagavAn KeSava as the slayer of demon named ‘kESi’. (NOTE: bhagavAn gets the name ‘kESava:’ – also because he slew the demon named ‘kESi’, who appeared in the form of a horse).

Thus, the same bhagavAn who is hailed as ‘kESava:’ in the previous divine name is further expounded in this divine name, showing another reason why he is called ‘kESava:’.

Etymology: He – who slew the demon named ‘kESi’ – is called ‘kESihA’.

असुरं कॆशिनामानं हतवान् कॆशिहा स्मृतः |

656) hari: (हरिः) (also repeated in 361)

The lord of all – bhagavAn – resides in the sacred gOvardhana hills with the name ‘hari:’, accepting worship from all of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘hari:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in SrI mahAbhAratha: “I accept all the offerings in various oblations. Thus, I am popularly called ‘hari:’. Also, my body colour itself is green, which is also a reason why I am called ‘hari:’”.

Etymology: He who resides in the sacred gOvardhana hills, or the one who is green in colour, or the one who accepts all offerings in oblations – is called ‘hari:’.

गॊवर्धनस्थॊ हरितः क्रतुभागहरॊ हरिः |

===============================
कामदॆवः कामपालः कामी कान्तः कृतागमः ।
अनिर्दॆश्यवपुर्विष्णुर्वीरॊsनन्तॊ धनञ्जयः ॥ ७० ॥
===============================

657) kAmadhEva: (कामदॆवः)

bhagavAn resides in the abode of Sankara (himAchalam or himAlaya) with the name ‘kAmadhEva’, being worshipped by apsaras or damsels and granting all the desires of all of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kAmadhEva:’.

The root ‘dhiv’ (दिव्) gets the meaning of ‘donation’ in this context, thus meaning that bhagavAn bestows all desires of his devotees in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn – residing in the himAlayas and bestowing the desires of his devotees – is called ‘kAmadhEva:’.

शङ्करालयगः कामदॆवः सर्वॆष्टदः स्मृतः |

658) kAmapAla: (कामपालः)

bhagavAn does not merely stop at bestowing all the desired fruits upon the seekers, as seen in the previous divine name (kAmadhEva: – the one who bestows the desired fruits). But he also takes care of such bestowments subsequently. Hence, he is called ‘kAmapAla:’ – the protector of such bestowments subsequently.

Etymology: He who subsequently safeguards his bestowments upon his devotees is called ‘kAmapAla:’.

दत्तानुपालकश्चैव कामपालः प्रकीर्तितः |

659) kAmI (कामी)

Also, bhagavAn gives in abundance unto his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kAmI’ – the abundant giver.

Alternately, everyone desires him the most. Thus also, he is called ‘kAmI’ – the most desired one (in this case, he gives away himself unto such devotees who seek him, thus becoming an ‘abundant giver’ again).

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kAmI’ since he gives in abundance.

प्रदॆयातिशयात् कामी |

660) kAntha: (कान्तः) (also repeated in 297)

Verily that bhagavAn is himself very attractive to look at. Thus, he is called ‘kAntha:’ – the attractive one. With such a beautiful form (archA) only, bhagavAn gets worshipped by apsaras or damsels.

As shown till now, bhagavAn’s association with various holy places must be deduced at the appropriate places in the forthcoming divine names as well (NOTE: bhattar has mentioned various holy places where bhagavAn resides as archA forms with popular names in all these previous divine names. Similar association with the various unsaid holy places must also be deduced with the forthcoming divine names).

Etymology: He who is attractive to look at is called ‘kAntha:’. Even in the forthcoming divine names, bhagavAn residing in various holy places in his archA forms must be contemplated.

कान्तश्च कमनीयकः ।
तत्तत् क्षॆत्रॆशॊक्तिरॆवम् उपर्यपि यथॊचितम् ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 65 (Names 641 to 650)

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641) kumbha: (कुम्भः)

Even while descending as ‘archA vigraha’s, bhagavAn is liked and worshipped by his devotees in various beautiful forms known to them and resembling them (for instance, we all worship bhagavAn with a human form as rAma, krishna, et al; dhEvas worship him with a dhEva form, et al). Thus, he is called ‘kumbha:’ – the one who is very familiar to the worshipper.

Alternately, he takes the archA forms in various places, temples, houses, etc thereby facilitating his meditation and service unto his devotees as shown previously, in order to uplift them. Even if a person has a small relation with such divine places where bhagavAn resides in his archA form – such as being born or dead in such places, bhagavAn takes that itself as a cause to grace such souls and saves them from the fear of the servitors of yama. Thus, he possesses a divine charm, and hence called ‘kumbha:’ – the one who uplifts the souls.

This is supported in the scriptures thus:

  • “He makes this world shine, by pervading all over (in the form of archA vigrahas)”
  • “…he makes this his own place”, etc.
  • The boundaries of bhagavAn’s land (temples, etc) are defined thus in the scriptures:
  • “The extent up to which the sound of a conch blown in a temple resonates and can be heard is said to be a ‘kshEthra’ or the temple boundary.”

The scriptures further say thus:

  • “The souls beget all their desired fruits – both in this world as well as the nether – by worshipping bhagavAn in places where he resides (temples, etc)”
  • “bhagavAn shows his presence at all times in various places on this earth in order to free all the fallen souls from the clutches of this samsAra”
  • “All fallen souls approach bhagavAn vishNu with all their kin, and take his refuge – pleading him to uplift them. The servitors of vishNu take notice of such devotees and rush to their help with an uproar in a grand chariot. They defeat the messengers of yama with their might, and bring the distressed soul before bhagavAn. They produce that soul with a prayer to bhagavAn to do whatever he wishes with that soul, whom they produced after freeing him of his physical body made of five elements. They say to bhagavAn, “Oh Lord, this soul gave up his mortal body in your place. So we have brought him to you. Do as you please”. Hearing this prayer of his servitors, bhagavAn – overcome with his compassion towards that fallen soul – sees him with a pacifying glance and accepts him into his fold”, etc.

With all these statements and more, the scriptures have shown how bhagavAn uses the relation of his places of residence with his devotees in order to purify them when they have given up their mortal bodies in such divine places – through his divine servitors, eventually frees them from the cycles of birth and death, and finally gives away himself to such blessed souls. All this is possible due to his descent in the form of archA vigrahas.

Etymology: With his various archA forms, bhagavAn accepts worship from devotees showing his resemblance and intimacy with them. Thus, he is called ‘kumbha:’. Alternately, since bhagavAn makes this world shine with his grace, he is called ‘kumbha:’. This six lettered manthra wards off all fears of the chanter.

काम्यतॆ यः सजातीयैर्गुणैः कुम्भः प्रकीर्तितः |
कौ स भातीति कुम्भॊ वा षडर्णॊ भयनाशकः ||

642) viSudhdhAthmA (विशुद्धात्मा)

By accepting their services thus, bhagavAn gives away himself completely unto all of his devotees equally. Thus, he is called ‘viSudhdhAthmA’ – the one with a pure heart showing impartiality.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn gives away everything including himself unto all of his dear devotees (equally – without any sort of discrimination) at all times, he is called ‘viSudhdhAthmA’.

सर्वाश्रितॆष्वशॆषॆण सर्वस्य त्यागतः सदा | विशुद्धात्मा

643) viSOdhana: (विशॊधनः)

Whenever his dear devotees give up the mortal body in his holy abodes (where he resides as archA vigrahas), bhagavAn purifies them by clearing all of their sins and makes them eligible for his attainment. Thus, he is called ‘viSOdhana:’.

Etymology: He who purifies the souls who give up their mortal bodies in his holy abodes is called ‘viSOdhana:’.

क्षॆत्रमृतशॊधकः स्यात् विशॊधनः |

644) anirudhdha: (अनिरुद्धः) (also repeated in 187)

Thence, bhattar shows the presence of bhagavAn in various holy places – with all his greatness shown in the previous divine names.

bhagavAn janArdhana – the lord of all entities – resides at a place called ‘vasubhANdam’ (वसुभाण्डक्षॆत्रम्) in the form of ‘anirudhdha’. Thus, he is called ‘anirudhdha:’.

Etymology: Starting with this divine name ‘anirudhdha:’, the forms of bhagavAn in various divyadhESas or holy places are hailed. bhagavAn eternally resides in a place called ‘vasubhANda’, where he is popularly called ‘anirudhdha:’. This eight syllable manthra is said to be one of the best manthras for chanting.

तत्तत् क्षॆत्रॆश्वरॊक्तः स्यात् अनिरुद्धादिनामभिः |
वासुभाण्डाख्य भूभागॆ नित्यसन्निहितः स्थितः |
अनिरुद्ध इति ख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

645) aprathiratha: (अप्रतिरथः)

Verily that bhagavAn (anirudhdha of vasubhANda kshEthra) is only hailed with the divine name ‘janArdana’, since he slays all the oppressors. Since bhagavAn thus destroys all opponents, he is called ‘aprathiratha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn janArdhana (hailed in the previous divine name) slays all oppressors and thus does not have any adversaries, he is popularly called ‘aprathiratha:’. Chanting of this nine syllable manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.

प्रतिपक्षस्य राहित्यात् बह्वनिष्टजनार्दनः |
विख्यातॊ ह्यप्रतिरथः नवार्णः शत्रुनाशकः ||

646) pradhyumna: (प्रद्युम्नः)

He who shines with his divine effulgence is called ‘pradhyumna:’. Alternately, the mauLa samhitha exemplifies this divine name as ‘the one who makes the individual souls shine by his divine effulgence’.

This pradhyumna resides as ‘purushOththama’ in the purushOththama kshEthram (popularly called pUri jagannAth kshEthram), and shows the right path to his devotees in order to attain him.

Etymology: The one who shines with his divine effulgence is called ‘pradhyumna:’. He is verily the ‘purushOththama’ (jagannAth – worshipped in pUri), bestowing superior attainments upon his devotees.

आत्मप्रद्यॊतनत्वाच्च प्रद्युम्न इति कथ्यतॆ |
पुरुषॊत्तमस्तु सः साक्षात् भक्तानां सुगतिप्रदः ||

647) amithavikrama: (अमितविक्रमः) (also repeated in 519)

bhagavAn possesses immense valour that is unmatched in all the three worlds, due to which he is called ‘amithavikrama:’.

That lord of lords – bhagavAn – who displayed his valour as thrivikrama, stands on the banks of river yamuna, manifesting out of a lotus flower, and bestowing the highest attainment upon his devotees.

Etymology: He whose valour is unmatched in all three worlds is called ‘amithavikrama:’.

लॊकत्रयॆsप्यपर्याप्तविक्रमॊsमितविक्रमः |

==================================
कालनॆमिनिहा शौरिः शूरः शूरजनॆश्वरः ।
त्रिलॊकात्मा त्रिलॊकॆशः कॆशवः कॆशिहा हरिः ॥ ६९ ॥
==================================

648) kAlanEminihA (कालनॆमिनिहा)

Being manifest all over such holy places in the form of archA vigraha, bhagavAn wards off the blemishes of kali. Thus, he is called ‘kAlanEminihA’.

The scriptures hail thus: “Those who take refuge of my archA forms in these places (holy places mentioned herein, and more – in accordance with the scriptures) shall get rid of the otherwise irrepressible ignorance (called ‘avidhyA’), which is verily the spoke of the wheel of time (kAla).”

The dhyAna SlOka of kAlanEmighna says thus: “One must contemplate upon that lord of lords, who stops the spreading of ignorance”, etc.

Etymology: He who destroys the irrepressible ignorance, which is verily the spoke of the wheel of kAla (which keeps the souls running in this cycle of samsAra), is called ‘kAlanEminihA’. This nine lettered manthra destroys one’s ignorance from the root.

कालचक्रस्य या नॆमिः अविद्याख्या च दुर्धरा |
तां नाशयति यश्चासौ कालनॆमिनिहा स्मृतः ||
नवाक्षरॊ मनुरयम् अविद्यामूलमॊचकः ||

649) Sauri: (शौरिः) (also repeated in 342)

It is hailed thus in various sources: “There, in that holy place – under the divine ‘uthpalAvathaka’ vimAna (name of the vimAna gOpuram at thirukkaNNapuram), bhagavAn achyutha resides with the name ‘Sauri:’”.

Thus, bhagavAn – the lord of tirukkaNNapuram – is hailed as ‘Sauri:’.

bhagavAn gets the name Sauri: because he is the son of ‘vasudhEva’ who is alternately called ‘SUra:’ (and hence the divine name is derived as ‘son of SUra’ शूरस्य वसुदॆवस्य अपत्यम्).

Etymology: bhagavAn – who stands under the auspicious uthpalAvathaka vimAnam – as ‘SaurirAjan’ (or “SaurirAjap perumAL”) is called ‘Sauri:’.

शौरिनाम्ना स्थितः शौरिः उत्पलावतकॆ शुभॆ |

650) SUra: (शूरः) (also repeated in 341)

As hailed in various scriptures, that lotus eyed supreme lord rAma – who is the slayer of all rAkshasas – stands in a place called ‘chithrakUta’ (thillainagar thirucchithrakUdam / chidhambaram as we know it now) to bless his devotees”, rAma himself is hailed as ‘SUra:’.

The root ‘Su’ (शु) gets the meaning of moving / going, which gets a dhIrgha (becomes SU शू) by grammatical rules and is succeeded by the ‘rak’ (रक्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

‘SUra:’ is the one who goes to his opponents to slay them (it shows the trait of his valour, where he enters an opponent’s boundary and gives a mighty fight).

Etymology: The slayer of all rAkshasas is hailed as ‘SUra:’.

सर्वरक्षःक्षयकरः शूर इत्यभिदीयतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 64 (Names 631 to 640)

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631) sarvathaSchakshu: (सर्वतश्चक्षुः)

Taking the form of archA vigrahas, bhagavAn manifests himself before every human including us (who are born much later to his incarnations, and thus lost the chance to see/know him then). Not just that, he shall be seen in this form even by the forthcoming generations of people for a long time to come.

Thus, he is called ‘sarvathaSchakshu:’ – the one who is seen by everyone.

This clearly proves his ability to clear all doubts regarding himself, as seen in the divine name ‘chinnasamSaya:’.

After all, there cannot be even an iota of doubt when he is seen so manifest in so many places thus.

Etymology: bhagavAn shows himself to the eyes of every individual (who are born much later to his incarnations). Thus, he is called ‘sarvathaSchakshu:’. This nine lettered manthra bestows the power of vision upon the chanters.

तत्साक्षात्कारकर्माणि सर्वचक्षूंष्यपि स्वतः |
अतः स्यात् सर्वतश्चक्षुः नवार्णॊ नॆत्रशक्तिदः ||

632) anISa: (अनीशः)

In his archA form, bhagavAn completely depends upon his devotees in order to get a ritual bath, dressing, bhOgam (food), and an assemblage for singing his glories, and all other services. Thus, he limits his own ‘lordship’ and acts completely dependent. Hence, he is called ‘anISa:’ – the one who is not the master!

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘anISa:’ amongst his devotees, for he completely depends on them for every service (in his archA form).

प्रॊक्तॊ ह्यनीशॊ भक्तॆषु तदायत्ताखिलक्रियः |

633) SASvathasthira: (शाश्वतस्थिरः)

Unlike his incarnations, where bhagavAn manifests only for a certain period and disappears, he is ever manifest in various forms of ‘archA vigraha’s (such as rAma, krishna, varAha, hayagrIva, SrInivasa, kESava, et al) in order to show himself to the countless people who are born at a later period as well. Thus, he is called ‘SASvathasthira:’ in his archA form – meaning, the one who stays forever.

That is why the sAththvatha samhitha hails thus: “bhagavAn resides in the various idols chosen by his devotees, by taking verily those forms”.

Etymology: bhagavAn, who resides in various idols (desired by his devotees) by taking the respective forms, is called ‘SASvathasthira:’.

बिम्बाकृत्याssत्मना बिम्बॆ स्थितः स्यात् शाश्वतस्थिरः |

634) bhUSaya: (भूशयः)

Obliging to his devotees who seek his presence in the form of archA vigrahas, bhagavAn lies down in those lands that are identified by his dear devotees – being consecrated at such places by people of various ranks such as sidhdhas, manushyas, et al. He lies down in such places with the sole intention of gracing his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘bhUSaya:’ – the one who sleeps on the land.

Etymology: With various forms such as self-manifested, et al (others being – consecrated by rishis, dhEvas, sidhdhas, et al), since bhagavAn sleeps on this land, he is called ‘bhUSaya:’.

स्वयंव्यक्तादिरूपॆण कौ शॆतॆ भूशयश्च सः |

635) bhUshaNa: (भूषणः)

In this way, bhagavAn – the consort of SrIdhEvi – decorates himself with the most beautiful ornament of ‘benevolence’. Thus, he is called ‘bhUshaNa:’ – the bedecked one.

As per grammatical rules, the root ‘bhUsha’ (भूष) gets the ‘yuch’ (युच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

After all, when a very wealthy man goes to the house of a poor person as a guest and accepts that poor man’s hospitality, then it is not a shortcoming for the wealthy man. Rather, it becomes his virtue. Similarly, when bhagavAn comes down to our houses and temples as archA vigrahas and accepts our services, it only adds to his glories.

Etymology: That consort of SrIdhEvi, who bedecks himself with the superior quality of benevolence, is called ‘bhUshaNa:’.

एवं विश्वजनीनॆन शीलॆन च श्रियःपतिः |
य आत्मानं भूषयति भूषणः परिकीर्तितः ||

636) bhUthi: (भूतिः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn – in his archA vigraha – is the greatest wealth unto those devotees who are knowledgeable about all the explicit means of attaining him. For all such devotees, bhagavAn is verily a treasure – as precious as children, cattle, friends and relatives, and the like. Thus, he is called ‘bhUthi:’ – the wealth.

Etymology: He – who is the greatest wealth unto his devotees (in his archA form) – is called ‘bhUthi:’.

यॊsसौ समृद्धिरैश्वर्यं भक्तानां भूतिरीरितः |

637) aSOka: (अशॊकः) (also repeated in 338) / viSOka: (विशॊकः)

bhagavAn is thus free of all sorrows of being separated from his dear devotees. There is none who can be called as a ‘stray’ person, for bhagavAn is the lord of every being. He only protects every soul, and thus he is free from all sorrows therein. Thus, he is called ‘aSOka:’ or ‘viSOka:’.

(NOTE: Some versions of the sahasranAmam text have this divine name as ‘viSOka:’, and some others as ‘aSOka:’. bhattar indicates that both of these are acceptable names in our sampradhAyam, and mean the same)

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the master of all entities (and hence protects them at all times and thereby frees himself from all sorrows), he is called by the divine name ‘aSOka:’.

नाथत्वाच्चापि सर्वॆषामशॊकत्वॆन ईरितः |

638) SOkanASana: (शॊकनाशनः)

Even amongst his devotees, bhagavAn destroys the sorrow of separation by being always united with them in the form of archA vigrahas. Thus, he is called ‘SOkanASana:’ – the one who destroys sorrows.

The scriptures have hailed thus:

“I have heard that bhagavAn will definitely destroy all our sorrows. Oh bhagavAn! I am now in one such distress. Please come and help me overcome it”

This is how the distressed people call out for bhagavAn – who is their greatest relative – when they cannot stand his separation.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘SOkanASana:’, because he destroys the sorrow of separation from himself amongst his dear devotees.

भक्तानां स्वॆन सम्बन्धव्यतिरॆकनिबन्धनम् |
शॊकं नाशयतीत्यॆषः शॊकनाशन ईरितः ||

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अर्चिष्मान् अर्चितः कुम्भॊ विशुद्धात्मा विशॊधनः ।
अनिरुद्धॊsप्रतिरथः प्रद्युम्नॊsमितविक्रमः ॥ ६८ ॥
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639) archishmAn (अर्चिष्मान्)

With his archA forms, bhagavAn further influences his dear devotees to a large extent. He is the one who possesses the divine effulgence that is capable of opening the eyes of his dear devotees – both internal and external (knowledge as well as senses). Hence, he is called ‘archishmAn’ – the effulgent one.

Etymology: He who possesses divine effulgence at all times – which is capable of opening both the internal as well as external eyes of his devotees – is called ‘archishmAn’.

बाह्याभ्यन्तर-सद्भक्त-चक्षुरुन्नयनक्षमम् |
दिव्यं तॆजः सदा यस्य सॊsर्चिष्मानिति कथ्यतॆ ||

640) architha: (अर्चितः)

Remembering all of bhagavAn’s divine qualities listed till now, bhIshma continues to illustrate those qualities in bhagavAn’s divine forms starting with this divine name ‘architha:’ – the worshipped one.

The word ‘archA’ (अर्चा) refers to the archAvathAra (अर्चावतारः) or the idols of worship. Since bhagavAn takes such forms, he is called ‘architha:’. In the true sense, such archA vigrahas only may be termed as ‘avathAra’ (descent), since they are very easily accessible to each one of us – unlike the ‘para’ form which can be seen only in SrIvaikuNtam. Even his incarnations in the form of dhEva, manushya et al at various times and at various places wouldn’t serve the real purpose of ‘descent’ – as much as the archA forms do.

On the contrary, bhagavAn – in his archA forms – resides at all places, temples and houses, at all times and very much manifest even to our mortal eyes. Thus, the archA forms of bhagavAn truly serve the purpose of his ‘descent’ in this world.

The deep hidden purports of such descent of bhagavAn in the form of archA may be learnt from various scriptures such as bOdhAyana smrithi, vishNu purANa, etc.

For instance, it is said in the vaishNava dharma thus:

“One must make beautiful idols with pleasant looks of bhagavAn vishNu, with various materials such as gold, silver etc (includes various metals, mud, wood, etc as ordained in the scriptures).  Such idols must be very pleasing to the eyes of such devotees. Then, they must worship bhagavAn in that form; prostrate before that form; serve bhagavAn in that form in various ways (offering various upachAras); and meditate upon those forms of bhagavAn. Doing thus, all the blemishes / sins of such worshipper are ridden off, and they finally attain that supreme brahman”, etc.

Etymology: The word ‘archA’ refers to the divine forms of bhagavAn as idols of worship. Since bhagavAn manifests at various places such as in temples, homes, etc (in order to accept the worship of his devotees at those respective places), he is called ‘architha:’. This seven syllable manthra confers all desires of the chanter.

अर्चा ह्यर्चावतारॊsस्य क्षॆत्रायतनसद्मसु |
सञ्जातॆत्यर्चितः प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णॊ वाञ्छितप्रदः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 63 (Names 621 to 630)

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621) svaksha: (स्वक्षः)

bhagavAn possesses a pair of divine eyes that keep relishing the nectarine ocean of SrI mahAlakshmi’s beautiful form. Thus, he is called ‘svaksha:’ – the one with a pair of holy eyes.

Etymology: He who possesses divine eyes with which he drinks in the nectarine ocean of divine beauty of SrI mahAlakshmi is called ‘svaksha:’.

श्री-सौन्दर्य-सुधासिन्धु-पारीण-करणॊ हि यः स्वक्षः |

622) svanga: (स्वङ्गः)

bhagavAn possesses a divine body with such extraordinary beauty that even SrI mahAlakshmi herself desires. Thus, he is called ‘svanga:’ – the one with a divine body.

Etymology: The one who possesses a divine body whose beauty is desirable to SrIdhEvi is called ‘svanga:’.

श्रीस्पृहणीयाङ्गः स्वङ्ग इत्यॆष उच्यतॆ |

623) SathAnandha: (शतानन्दः)

With such unbounded mutual love between SrI mahAlakshmi and himself, since bhagavAn possesses infinite bliss, he is called ‘SathAnandha:’.

Etymology: Owing to the mutual love between each other (SrI mahAlakshmi and SrIman nArAyaNa), bhagavAn possesses infinite and inundating bliss. Thus he is called ‘SathAnandha:’. This manthra confers joy unto the couples who meditate upon it.

अन्यॊन्य-प्रणयानन्द-प्रवाहश्चामितॊsस्य हि |
शतानन्दः स विज्ञॆयॊ दम्पत्यानन्ददॊ मनुः ||

624) nandhi: (नन्दिः)

Thus, bhagavAn flourishes at all times, at all places and in all ways, with his eternal association with SrI mahAlakshmi. Hence, he is called ‘nandhi:’ – the one who rejoices.

Etymology: bhagavAn, who flourishes at all places in all ways and at all times due to his association with SrIdhEvi, is called ‘nandhi:’.

सर्वत्र सर्वथा नन्दिः श्रिया ऋध्द्यति सर्वदा |

625) jyOthirgaNESvara: (ज्यॊतिर्गणॆश्वरः)

With his eternal association with SrI mahAlakshmi, bhagavAn enjoys the superior status of being served gloriously by the eternally liberated souls such as anantha, garuda, vishvaksEna, et al. Thus, he is called ‘jyOthirgaNESvara:’.

The word ‘jyOthi:’ (ज्यॊतिः) refers to the eternal abode of vishNu – which is full of effulgence, and populated by nithyasUris, as explained in the scriptural verses thus:

  • “The learned men desire to attain that superior abode of the nithyasUris”
  • “…in that abode, where the nityasUris always reside”

Thus, bhagavAn’s absolute supremacy (due to his association with SrI mahAlakshmi) is shown.

Etymology: He who is the lord of nithyasUris (as a result of being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi) is called ‘jyOthirgaNESvara:’.

नित्यसूरिगणानां य ईशॊ ज्यॊतिर्गणॆश्वरः |

626) vijithAthmA (विजितात्मा)

Now, bhagavAn’s simplicity and ease of access (also due to his association with SrI mahAlakshmi) is shown (as against his absolute supremacy in the previous divine name).

Even while being the most desirable consort of SrIdhEvi SrI mahAlakshmi, and thus enjoying unbounded wealth, bhagavAn’s mind still rests with his dear devotees who have surrendered unto him. Thus, he is called ‘vijithAthmA’ – the one who is won over (by devotees).

Etymology: Thence, the divine quality of bhagavAn of being extremely gregarious is described. He is called ‘vijithAthmA’, whose mind is won over by his devotees who have surrendered unto him.

सौशील्यस्य गुणस्याथ परमावधिवर्णनम् |
विजितात्मा जितं यस्य मानसं प्रणतैश्च सः ||

627) vidhEyAthmA (विधॆयात्मा)

Not just stopping at being gregarious; but furthermore, bhagavAn is very obedient to his devotees – so much so that he can be ordered by his devotees as “Come here”, “Stand here”, “Sit here”, “Eat this”, etc. Such obedience of bhagavAn is shown to be his nature! Thus, he is called ‘vidhEyAthmA’.

Etymology: He, who can be ordered by his dear devotees like “Come here”, “Stand here”, “Eat this”, etc. at all times (meaning, he who is extremely obedient to his devotees), is called ‘vidhEyAthmA’.

इहागच्छॆहतिष्ठॆदं भुङ्क्ष्वॆति प्रणतैः सदा |
यॊग्यं विधातुं यद्रूपं विधॆयात्मा स कीर्तितः ||

628) sathkIrthi: (सत्कीर्तिः)

With such a highly sociable nature, bhagavAn’s fame is extensive. Hence, he is called ‘sathkIrthi:’.

Many good words can be heard about him, thus:

  • “All those qualities for which bhagavAn is praised are present in him (meaning, whatever good one can ever say can certainly be found in him). But it is never possible to fully glorify whatever is present in him (meaning, it is impossible to complete praising him for all the qualities that he possesses), for they are ever boundless”
  • “The lord of all worlds – krishNa – is praised by the learned men. Yet, very little has been said about him till now. How can he be fully glorified at all?”
  • “Oh hrishikESa! The entire world is rejoicing only by your fame…”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sathkIrthi:’ due to his distinction with such a sociable nature.

ईदृक् सौशील्यसत्त्वाद्धि सत्कीर्तिरिति कथ्यतॆ |

629) chinnasamSaya: (छिन्नसंशयः)

With such a sociable nature and widespread fame, bhagavAn shatters all doubts regarding him – such as whether he can be known or not, whether he can be attained or not, whether he is easily approachable or not, etc. – in the minds of his devotees. Hence, he is called ‘chinnasamSaya:’ – the one who removes all doubts.

The scriptures say thus:

  • “…unto that supreme lord, who shows himself in the minds of his devotees”
  • “Oh bhagavAn, I see no soul other than yourself who can clear all our doubts…”, etc.

Etymology: He – by whom the doubts regarding his inaccessibility etc. are shattered with his sociability and widespread fame thereof – is particularly called ‘chinnasamSaya:’.

सौशील्यप्रथया चैवं दुष्करत्वादि संशयः |
छिन्नॊ यॆन विशॆषॆण स प्रॊक्तः छिन्नसंशयः ||

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उदीर्णः सर्वतश्चक्षुरनीशः शाश्वतस्थिरः ।
भूशयॊ भूषणॊ भूतिरशॊकः शॊकनाशनः ॥ ६७ ॥
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630) udhIrNa: (उदीर्णः)

How does bhagavAn remove all doubts (as seen in the previous divine name)? He does so by showing himself even to the fleshy eyes of all humans in the form of archA mUrthy (idols in temples and houses). He is ever joyous showing himself thus. Hence, he is called ‘udhIrNa:’ – the one who is manifest even to fleshy eyes.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn makes himself visible even to fleshy eyes by manifesting as idols in various places, he is called ‘udhIrNa:’. This seven lettered manthra bestows vision unto the chanters.

प्रत्यक्षविषयत्वॆन ह्युत्पन्नश्चर्मचक्षुषाम् |
उदीर्ण इति स प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णॊ नयनप्रदः ||

(NOTE: bhattar starts explaining bhagavAn’s greatness in the form of archA vigrahas in various temples, mutts and houses – starting from this divine name)

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 62 (Names 611 to 620)

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611) SrImathAm vara: (श्रीमतां वरः)

bhagavAn is the recipient of SrI mahAlakshmi’s affectionate sight at all times. Even the dhEvas like brahmA, indhra et al, who have attained such superior positions due to her glances have only been subject to her glances in miniscule amounts and only momentarily. Whereas bhagavAn is glanced by her at all times with all affection.

This is shown in the scriptures thus:

“Oh maithrEya, SrI mahAlakshmi – adorned with white robes and beautiful garlands and divine jewellery – attained the divine seat of SrI hari’s chest even as all dhEvas were mere onlookers. Having been glanced by her – who was thus seated in SrI hari’s chest, all the dhEvas attained contentment right then” et al.

Thus, he is called ‘SrImathAm vara:’ – the most superior amongst those who are glanced by SrIdhEvi.

Etymology: The one who is superior amongst the dhEvas – who are recipients of SrI mahAlakshmi’s gracious glance – is called ‘SrImathAm vara:’.

दॆवानां श्रीमतां श्रॆष्ठः श्रीमतांवर उच्यतॆ |

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श्रीदः श्रीशः श्रीनिवासः श्रीनिधिः श्रीविभावनः ।
श्रीधरः श्रीकरः श्रॆयःश्रीमान् लॊकत्रयाश्रयः ॥ ६५ ॥
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612) SrIdha: (श्रीदः)

bhagavAn keeps showering the wealth of ever new and causeless love upon SrI mahAlakshmi at all times. Thus, he is called ‘SrIdha:’ – the bestower of wealth.

This means that he is verily the life force of SrI mahAlakshmi. She also gets the name ‘SrI:’ (श्रीः) only because of her taking refuge under his feet.

Her nature is clearly shown in SrI rAmAyaNam thus: “Oh rAma! SItha and I cannot live even for a few minutes without you, just like fish taken out of water” (lakshmana says this while leaving for the exile).

This is also supported in other scriptures thus:

  • “She is ever inseparable from vishNu”
  • “SIthA is indeed inseparable from me, just as the rays are inseparable from the sun”
  • “I am inseparable from rAma, just as the rays are inseparable from the sun”, etc

Etymology: He who bestows the elixir of his divine love to SrIdhEvi SrI mahAlakshmi is called ‘SrIdha:’.

यॊsसौ श्रियै स्वप्रणयरसदः श्रीश ईरितः |

613) SrISa: (श्रीशः)

As hailed in SrI rAmAyaNam saying “He is the principal wealth of SrI mahAlakshmi herself”, bhagavAn is himself the bestower of SrI mahAlakshmi’s stature. Thus, he is called ‘SrISa:’ – the lord of SrIdhEvi.

Alternately, it can also be said that SrI mahAlakshmi herself is the mistress of bhagavAn (in other words, bhagavAn lets himself to be ruled by SrIdhEvi). She only drives him in all states (whether during creation, sustenance, or destruction, or even in the matter of granting mOksham). Thus also, he is called ‘SrISa:’ – the one who is ruled by SrIdhEvi.

This is supported by scriptural statements thus:

“SrI mahAlakshmi primarily binds bhagavAn by her divine qualities, and also with her supernaturally beautiful vigraham (divine body). She also possesses a superior nature with which she supports bhagavAn in all his deeds, and also shows her natural and eternal subservience unto him at all times. In all ways mentioned herein, she always stays very close to bhagavAn at all times”

The pAncharAthra Agama gives her a divine name “pumpradhAnESvarESvarI” (पुंप्रधानॆश्वरॆश्वरी), meaning “the mistress of all jIvAthmas (chith), prakruthi (achith) as well as ISvara (paramAthmA)”.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘SrISa:’ due to his lordship over SrIdhEvi herself. Alternately, he is called ‘SrISa:’ since he is ruled by SrIdhEvi herself.

श्रीशः स श्रिय ईशत्वात् ईशा श्रीरस्यॆति वा |

614) SrInivAsa: (श्रीनिवासः) (also repeated in 185)

Just as a divine creeper is supported by kalpaka vruksha (a divine tree – popularly referring to the coconut tree), so also bhagavAn is the resting place for SrI mahAlakshmi at all times. Thus, he is called ‘SrInivAsa:’ – the residence of SrI mahAlakshmi.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the resting place or the refuge of SrI mahAlakshmi at all times, he is called ‘SrInivAsa:’.

नित्यॊपघ्ननिवासत्वात् श्रीनिवासः श्रियः स्मृतः |

615) SrInidhi: (श्रीनिधिः)

SrI mahAlakshmi is safely placed and protected in the divine chest of bhagavAn, just like a garland of valuable gems is safeguarded in a jewel chest. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘SrInidhi:’ – the one who safeguards SrIdhEvi like a divine jewel in his chest.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘SrInidhi:’ since SrI mahAlakshmi is safely placed in his heart at all times (like safeguarding a valuable jewel).

श्रीरस्मिन् निहिता नित्यं श्रीनिधिः परिकीर्तितः |

616) SrIvibhAvana: (श्रीविभावनः)

SrI mahAlakshmi is herself the cause for bhagavAn’s glories, splendour and fame. Thus, he is called ‘SrIvibhAvana:’ – the one who is manifest due to SrIdhEvi.

mArIcha hails this trait in SrI rAmAyaNa thus: “His valour is truly unfathomable, to whom that jAnaki belongs”

Etymology: He, unto whom SrIdhEvi herself is the cause of all splendour and fame, is called ‘SrIvibhAvana:’.

श्रीः प्रख्यॊपाख्ययॊर्हॆतुः यस्य स श्रीविभावनः |

617) SrIdhara: (श्रीधरः)

The inseparability of bhagavAn and SrI mahAlakshmi is shown in this divine name. Just as brilliance is natural to a gem, just as fragrance is inherent to a flower, just as cool rays are natural to the moon, and just as sweetness is inherent in nectar, so also bhagavAn inherently bears SrI mahAlakshmi in his divine chest. Thus, he is called ‘SrIdhara:’ – the one who bears SrIdhEvi in his chest.

In SrI rAmAyaNa, this trait is hailed thus: “SIthA can never be separated from rAma, just as the personality of a person cannot be separated from him”

Etymology: He who inherently bears SrI mahAlakshmi on his chest at all times – akin to the nectar, a gem, the moon and a flower bearing sweetness, brilliance, coolness and fragrance respectively – is called ‘SrIdhara:’.

रुच्यर्चिःकौमुदीगन्धान् सुधारत्नॆन्दुपुष्पवत् |

श्रियं धरति नित्यं यः श्रीधरः स तु कीर्तितः ||

618) SrIkara: (श्रीकरः)

Just as seen in his ‘para’ form (in the preceding divine names), bhagavAn maintains his inseparability with SrI mahAlakshmi even in his other forms such as ‘vyUha’, ‘vibhava’, ‘antharyAmi’ and ‘archA’. In all these forms, he accepts SrI mahAlakshmi as his consort in her respectively befitting forms.

The root ‘krunj’ कृञ् (to do) gets the ‘ta:’ (टः) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name, thereby indicating bhagavAn’s nature of making her born in conformity with himself.

This is gloriously hailed by parAsara maharishi in SrI vishNu purANam thus: “Oh maithrEya! SrI mahAlakshmi is born with a ‘dhEva’ body when bhagavAn incarnates amongst dhEvas. When bhagavAn is born amongst humans, she also takes a human form. She was born as SIthA when he incarnated as rAma, and she took the birth of rukmiNi when he was born as krishNa. In whichever form he manifests himself, she also accompanies him in a complying form, and thus is ever inseparable from him”

Etymology: He is called ‘SrIkara:’, who makes SrI mahAlakshmi also born in various forms complying with himself in all his manifestations such as vyUha, vibhava, et al (including antharyAmi and archA). This seven lettered manthra confers wealth upon the chanters.

व्यूहादिष्ववतारॆषु स्वानुरूपां करॊति ताम् |
श्रियं यॊsसौ श्रीकरः स्यात् मुन्यर्णः श्रीकरॊ मनुः ||

619) SrEya:SrImAn (श्रॆयःश्रीमान्)

SrI mahAlakshmi, unto whom all individual souls surrender in order to attain all of their desired wealth, is called ‘SrEya:SrI:’ (श्रॆयःश्रीः). Since that SrI mahAlakshmi (SrEya:SrI) is herself eternally inseparable from bhagavAn, he is called ‘SrEya:SrImAn’.

SrI rAmAyaNa and other scriptures hail SrI mahAlakshmi’s compassion thus:

  • “This daughter of janaka – mythili by name – is pleased by simply prostrating before her. She alone can protect all of us rAkshasis from great danger”
  • “A healthy body, material wealth, destruction of enemies and all sorts of happiness are all easily attained by pleasing SrI mahAlakshmi”
  • “She is the bestower of the fruit of mOksham”
  • “…from whom I shall attain gold, cows, horses and men (workers)”
  • “…that SrIdhEvi, who is the most benevolent, and who is worshipped even by dhEvas”, etc

Etymology: That SrIdhEvi who is eligible to be surrendered to in order to attain any desired wealth is called ‘SrEya:SrI:’. Since she is in eternal union with bhagavAn, he is called ‘SrEya:SrImAn’. This eight lettered manthra is capable of conferring all desires of the chanter.

श्रॆयसॆ श्रयणीया श्रीः श्रॆयःश्रीः नित्ययॊगिनी |
श्रॆयःश्रीमानसावस्य वस्वर्णः पुरुषार्थदः ||

620) lOkathrayASraya: (लॊकत्रयाश्रयः)

Being eternally united with SrI mahAlakshmi as shown in all the previous divine names, since bhagavAn is the father and the refuge for all individuals, he is called ‘lOkathrayASraya:’.

SrI vishNu purANa hails thus: “Oh mahAlakshmi! You are the mother of all worlds, and the lord of lords SrI hari is the father of all”

Etymology: Being associated with SrIdhEvi – the mother of all worlds, he who is the refuge of all individuals like a father is called ‘lOkathrayASraya:’. This ten lettered manthra protects the chanters from all evils.

श्रिया सह जगन्मात्रा पितृवत् सकलाश्रयः |
लॊकत्रयाश्रयः स स्यात् दशार्णॊ रक्षकत्वदः ||
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स्वक्षः स्वङ्गः शतानन्दॊ नन्दिर्ज्यॊतिर्गणॆश्वरः ।
विजितात्मा विधॆयात्मा सत्कीर्तिश्छिन्नसंशयः ॥ ६६ ॥
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adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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