Category Archives: thiruvAimozhi 6th centum

thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.11 – adikkIzh amarndhu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “All those who learn this decad will reach paramapadham, be crowned for servitude and will get to engage in service”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhu adiyIr! vAzhmin enRenRaruL kodukkum
padikkEzh illAp perumAnaip pazhanak kurugUrch chatakOpan
mudippAn sonna Ayiraththuth thiruvEngadaththukkivai paththum
pidiththAr pidiththAr vIRRirundhu periya vAnuL nilAvuvarE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

adiyIr – Oh servitors!
adik kIzh – under my divine feet
amarndhu – being ananya sAdhanar (not pursuing any means other than emperumAn) and ananya prayOjanar (not desiring for anything other than kainkaryam)
pugundhu – enter
vAzhmin – eternally enjoy!
enRu enRu – saying so

(both in the means and goal)
aruL – his mercy
kodukkum – bestowing
padi – the manner in which
kEzh – match
illA – not having
perumAnai – towards emperumAn who is greater than all
pazhanam – having invigorating water bodies
kurugUr – leader of AzhwArthirunagari
satakOpan – nammAzhwAr
mudippAn – to fulfil all his desires
sonna – mercifully spoke
Ayiraththu – among the thousand pAsurams
thiruvEngadaththukku – focussed on thirumalA
ivai – these
paththum – ten pAsurams
pidiththAr – those who hold on to the pAsurams
pidiththAr – those who hold on to the meanings of the pAsurams (all of them)
periya – having infinite greatness
vAnuL – paramapadham which is indicated by the term “parmavyOma” (great sky)
vIRRirundhu – being present in a distinguished manner (to highlight their connection with this decad)
nilAvuvar – live there with eternal enjoyment.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn who is greater than all is bestowing his mercy in a matchless manner saying “Oh servitors! Enter under my divine feet and eternally enjoy being ananya sAdhanar and ananya prayOjanar”; nammAzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which is having invigorating water bodies, mercifully spoke about such emperumAn to fulfil all his desires in these ten pAsurams among the thousand pAsurams; those who hold on to these pAsurams and their meanings, will be present in the infinitely great paramapadham which is indicated by the term “parmavyOma”, in a distinguished manner and live there with eternal enjoyment.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • adik kIzh … –  Saying “Isn’t this what you desire for? Hold on to this, be fully immersed and remain as one who accomplished everything that needs to be done”.
  • aruL kodukkum padik kEzh illAp perumAnai – sarvESvara who has no match in bestowing his mercy towards his devotees. Even krishNa who said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66mA Sucha:” (do not worry) is not a match for thiruvEngadamudaiyAn’s mercy.
  • pazhanak kurugUrch chatakOpannammAzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which has fine water bodies.
  • mudippAn … – This decad for thirumalA among the thousand pAsurams which were mercifully spoken with great enthusiasm in his divine heart to eliminate the hurdles of this samsAram (material) which were explained in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9pala nItti kattip paduppAyO” (are you planning to finish me by revealing varieties of pleasures?). As said in “rathnahArIcha pArthiva:” (one who owns the most precious gemstone is the king).
  • pidiththAr pidiththAr – Those who hold on to the ones who hold on to emperumAn; those who surrendered to the devotees of emperumAn.
  • vIRRirundhu – Attaining the throne is not the same for both (jIvAthmA and paramAthmA) as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 7.25 “sasvarAt bhavathi” (mukthAthmA becomes independent). The liberated soul acquires bliss by being the servitor of emperumAn who has everyone other than himself as his servitors. The AthmA who becomes blissful by the mercy of emperumAn as said in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 7 “EshahyEvAnandhayAthi” (he – emperumAn – himself makes jIvAthmA ecstatic).
  • periya vAnuL nilAvuvarE – They will get to reside in paramapadham which is known as “mahAgam” (great) and “paramAkASam” (supreme sky). This is not the heavenly sky which is inhabited by indhra et al [part of the materialistic realm]. They will enter the abode where one need not perform surrender to attain the goal and one simply will enjoy there eternally. His surrender is sufficient for all of us; we need not surrender separately; just by reciting this pAsuram, one can attain the goal. Just as a cow will provide milk on seeing a made-up calf in place of the real calf, ISvara will be delighted seeing those who learn this decad, thinking about AzhwAr. SrI vIbhIshaNAzhwAn’s surrender was sufficient for the four soldiers who accompanied him [when he went to SrI rAma to surrender]. All that is needed is to make emperumAn believe that we belong to such AzhwAr [AzhwArs, AchAryas].

In the next article we will enjoy the next centum.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 5

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

<< Part 4

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

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Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[We will continue to see the third explanation for this pAsuram here.]

  • pugal onRu illA adiyEn – The nature of the person who surrenders, i.e. the one identified in prapadhyE [implicitly],  is explained here. ananya gathithvam (lack of any other refuge) and ananyArha SEshathvam (exclusive servitude) which highlight the true nature are explained here. Should both “pugal onRu illA” (lack of any other refuge) and “adiyEn” (servitude) be individually highlighted? AzhwAr is doing so due to the striking reality in the material realm and due to the greatness in acquiring knowledge/devotion through bhagavAn‘s mercy.
  • un adik kIzh – The divine form which is highlighted by “charaNau” is explained here. The divine form is the auspicious abode, which instills the inclination towards him after eliminating the inclination towards worldly pleasures, which nurtures that inclination, which eliminates the hurdles for the attainment of the goal, which accepts the eternal service after reaching paramapadham, and which is the target of sadhA paSyanthi (constant vision of the residents of paramapadham). It is amazing that AzhwAr started saying to his own divine heart in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1thuyaraRu sudaradi thozhudhezhu en mananE” and while pursuing  emperumAn, he held on to emperumAn’s divine feet as seen in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.1una pAdham kUdumARu kURAy” (tell me the means to reach your divine feet), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.2un adi sEr vaNNam aruLAy” (Bless me to reach your divine feet), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.3un adi sEra adiyERku AvA ennAyE” (Take pity upon me to reach your divine feet), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.4pUvAr kazhalgaL porundhumARu puNarAyE” (ensure that I reach your divine feet which are covered with flowers), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.5una pAdham adiyEn sErvadhu ennAL” (when will I reach your divine feet), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.6maN aLandha iNaith thAmaraigaL kANbadhaRku” (to see the divine feet which measured the world), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.6 “ennAL un adikkaN adiyEn mEvuvadhE” (when will I fully fit in your divine feet), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.7nodiyAr pozhudhum una pAdham kANa nOlAdhERRenE” (Though I have not put in any effort to see your divine feet, I cannot bear without seeing them even for a moment), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.8nOlAdhARREn una pAdham kANa” (Though I have not put in any effort to see you divine feet, I cannot bear without seeing them), thiruvAimozhi 6.10.9adiyEn una pAdham agalagillEn iRaiyum” (I cannot leave your divine feet even for a moment) and finally in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 “un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEn” (I surrendered unto your divine feet).
  • amarndhu – Does “being seated” indicate the aversion towards other goals as manifested towards other means? Since that is not relevant in this context, that is not what is said here. The meaning is – Just as “sarvadharmAn parithyajya” (give up all means) and “SaraNam vraja” (accept [me] as the means) were used, “Eka” was also spoken [indicating emperumAn only as the means, eliminating any doubt in the actual surrender being the means], this indicates how thiruvEngadamudaiyAn’s divine feet and AzhwAr‘s head were closely fitting with each other as in the case of a fastened hook and the eye (where the hook is connected) of an ornament.
  • pugundhEnE – AzhwAr who knows that emperumAn remains inseparable from him as antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul) and having AzhwAr as his body, is saying “pugundhEn” , not considering a physical travel and entry; it is highlighting the knowledge with full faith of his being the cause for the whole universe, his being the antharyAmi of all and his being the protector of all. gathyarthA budhyarthA: – words indicating travel actually means focussing the mind.
  • pugundhEnE – The present tense in “prapadhyE” is not important; as said in “adaindhEn” (reached), [the past tense in] “pugundhEn” (entered) is the key [while SaraNAgathi must be done only once, the present tense in dhvayam is to emphasise that one repeats dhvayam due to its enjoyability].

[To highlight the greatness of pirAtti, nampiLLai quotes SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116.44 and elaborates it beautifully]

  • pApAnAm vA –  This is pirAtti‘s abhaya pradhAnam [Just as SrI rama offers protection to those who surrender unto him, sIthAp pirAtti also does the same]. thiruvadi (hanuman) informed the joyful news to pirAtti saying “rAvaNa was killed and perumAL became victorious”. pirAtti being overjoyed, remained speechless with hiccups and sobbing. hanuman asked her “why is your highness not replying me who informed the most joyful news?” as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116.15 “kimnu chinthayasE dhEvi kim thvam mAm nAbibhAshasE“. pirAtti said “as I cannot pay you back in a fitting manner [for the favour you have done], I remain speechless”. hanuman, thinking “let me request my desire to be fulfilled” said “these rAkshasis (demoniac ladies) are so cruel to have tortured you previously; they should have been killed before rAvaNa; even he is not as bad as they; now they remain humble as a snake which has its hoods contracted. I want to torture them fully. I want to do as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116.33 ‘mushti:pANibiSchaiva’, punching them with my fists, kicking them with my feet, tearing them with my nails, biting them with my teeth and as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 94.22 ‘chinnam binnam Sarair dhagdham’ (cut, blown away, burnt and destroyed by the arrows of SrI rAma)). I am desiring to punish them as those who commit offences towards bhagavAn and bhagavathas are punished; when I was here previously, since the opportunity was no there, I let them go. If you let me do these, you would have shown me complete gratitude; so kindly give your divine order to do this”. Hearing this she mercifully said “pApAnAm vA“.
  • pApAnAm vA SubhAnAm vA – sIthAp pirAtti said “Let them be sinners in your view or noble persons in my view, that [being sinner] itself will be desirable; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.3 ‘dhOshO yadhyapi thasya syAth’ (Even if faults are there in him, let them be). Only the one who is dirty deserves to bathe; only when they are sinners, my acceptance is needed for them. If they are already virtuous, would they need your tail [they would already have the option to hold on to the tail of the cow which will help the virtuous soul to cross over the river of urine, stool, dirt etc after death]; their pious deeds will help them; only for those who are helpless, our help is required”.
  • vadhArhANAm – hanuman asked “Is your highness suggesting to discard the dharma SAsthram (the portion of SAsthram which highlights our conduct) which suggests that the offenders should be punished and others should be let off?”, and pirAtti responded “Are you suggesting the viSEsha SAsthram (special case) which suggests that those who are surrendered must be protected?”. She further asked “Are the words spoken by SrI rAma’s on the seashore saying in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 8.3 ‘nathyajEyam‘ (I will not abandon even if he has faults) to SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn who surrendered, like the noise of the sea [i.e incohesive and insignificant]”.
  • plavangama – Since hanuman was still not convinced, she says “hari! hari!” (hari means monkey). She is saying plavangama to indicate hanuman having the nature of monkey’s mind which keeps changing desires. You are not born in the ikshvAku dynasty which consults with vaSishta et al; you are not born in janaka dynasty which has many yOgis; aren’t you born in the clan of monkeys which jump from branch to branch! She is saying that the greatness of SaraNAgathi is not known for such persons. [Is calling hanuman as plavangama an insult?] The same pirAtti who previously called him “vAnarOththama!” (best among monkeys) is now calling him “hari! hari!” and plavangama. Even SrI rAma who is among the great kings and is supremely independent, dare not manifest such anger in front of us; yet, can you being born in monkey clan, be so angry?
  • kAryam karuNam AryENa – Leave aside their puNya (virtues) and pApa (sins); see their helpless state now. See how frightened they are thinking “what are we going to suffer in hanuman’s hands?”. They have no other saviour. We should now show compassion!
  • AryENa – Why am I placed in this difficult situation to teach you all these! [i.e. You know these already]
  • AryENa – Is it false that you are aindhra vyAkaraNa paNditha [most scholarly person]? While you have studied and heard all of these, it is your involvement in SrI rAma’s entourage which made you speak you like this. She implies that, after her departure from there, they have become devoid of compassion.
  • na kaSchin nAparAdhyathi – Who does not have faults in this material realm! Can anyone wait for the waves to stop, before bathing in the sea? Is SrI the matchless [and prideful] perumAL (SrI rAma) faultless? Am I faultless? Are you faultless?
    • What is the fault of perumAL? He decided to go to the forest; iLaiyaperumAL (lakshmaNa) followed him like those who engage in madal; I too followed him to be in seclusion with him with great eagerness; [but] he remained separated from me for ten months; even if he did not come, he could have sent his arrow towards lankA [to destroy it]; the fault lies in him to be able to remain separated for such a long period.
    • My fault lies in speaking like this to you, instead of remaining totally at his disposal.
    • Your fault – When you try to punish those servants who simply obeyed the orders of their master, you should be punished first for following divine orders of perumAL, before punishing these rAkshasis who obeyed the orders of rAvaNa; so, you too are at fault! I thought that when perumAL remains steadfast to punish someone, I am there to pacify him; when I am forced to follow him, you [in the position of an AchArya] are there to pacify [both of us]. But even if you act like this, who will save those who committed mistakes?

We will see the next pAsuram in the next article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 4

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

<< Part 3

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

Listen

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[SaraNAgathi’s greatness was highlighted. Now, we move on to the third explanation which is based on SaraNAgathi’s greatness]

With this pAsuram starting with “agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA“, AzhwAr surrenders to thiruvEngadamudaiyAn by falling at his divine feet, manifesting his own Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self) and with the purushakAram of periya pirAttiyAr.

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA – This upAyam [emperumAn as the means] is both nirapEksha (without expectation) and sApEksha (with expectation), due to the different states. How is it nirapEksha? emperumAn himself, without any expectation, will instill the inclination [in the AthmA], nurture that inclination, eliminate the hurdles, carry the AthmA to paramapadham and accept the kainkaryam [from the AthmA] which is apt; he does not need any assistance. (Why is it said sApEksha? It is because, he expects a qualified person who surrenders and purushakAram). As this means is for a qualified person, it is adhikAri sApEksham; (just as it is expecting a qualified person, it also expects purushakAram) How is that? When the qualified person, retracts [from surrendering] seeing his own previous offences, and emperumAn’s independent attitude, omniscience etc, pirAtti who says “don’t fear” is required. (Hence) emperumAn expects both a qualified person to surrender and pirAtti who facilitates the process of surrender.
  • agalagillEn iRaiyum – I cannot separate from you even for a moment. Who is speaking like this? She is the one who is the lord of three types of chEthanas (nithya, muktha, badhdha AthmAs), and the controller of the lord of both spiritual and material realms! The proof for her being the lord of three types of chEthanas is in SrI sUktham “ISvarIm sarva bhUthAnAm” (the lord of all creatures). The proof for her being the controller of the lord of both realms is in “pum pradhAna ISvara ISvarIm” which means emperumAn is the ISvara for pradhAna (achith) and pum/purusha (chith); she is the lord of such emperumAn. Thus, she is explained as the controller for everyone. How does she control? She controls the three types of chEthanas as the mother; she controls ISvara as the beloved person with love. While mAthruthvam (motherhood) is natural for her, can the praNayithvam (being the beloved person of emperumAn) which occurs occasionally, be incidental? No. Since her distinguished beauty is the base for emperumAn’s love towards her, that loving relationship is also eternal. Even his activities such as creation etc are under her control as said in SrI sthavam “yasyA vIkshya mukham thadhingitha parAdhInO vidhaththEkilam“, he would perform creation etc being captivated by her [adolescent] age and her divine glance. Why should that be the case? Isn’t it said that he engages in creation out of his own mercy in SrIrangarAja sthavam “karaNa kaLEbarai gatayithum dhayamAna manA:“? Only when he creates looking at the helpless state of the chEthanas, his mercy would trigger the creation; but it is his own helpless state [of being mesmerised by her beauty], as she glances at him, he realises his own self, and as his mercy is being triggered by her, he performs creation due to that mercy. When she controls emperumAn, she does that without affecting her own nature which is explained in neeLA sUktham “asyESAnA jagathO vishNu pathnI” (the lord of the universe and the beloved wife of vishNu) and in SrIvishNu purANam 1.8.17 “vishNO: SrIranapAyinI” (lakshmi who is inseparable from vishNu); How is that possible? Just as rays of the sun which remain at the disposal of the sun, yet will add splendour to the sun, and just as the fragrance is subservient to the flower, yet it makes the flower precious. Just as ISvara remains svathanthra (independent) yet be totally existing for pirAtti, pirAtti too remains exclusive subservient to emperumAn yet adds splendour to him. Generally, separation [sorrow] is due to karma [past deeds]; while she is untouched by karma, can she say “agalagillEn“? Just as [worldly people would speak based on] karma, pirAtti is saying this based on his distinguished greatness. But shouldn’t one just enjoy the distinguished greatness [instead of fearing if one will lose that enjoyment]? Just as one who acquired a priceless gemstone will fear “will this stay with me?”, she is needlessly fearing “what if I have to leave his divine chest?”.
  • iRaiyum agalagillEn – I will not even bear the separation which leads to union [that which enhances the experience]. Just as emperuAn will not tolerate any other assistance when he is the means, she is too tender to even bear the separation which leads to union. Staying in his divine chest, she is informing his own distinguished nature by saying “I am unable to bear your separation”. As he is omniscient wouldn’t he already know his distinguished nature? Isn’t it a defect in his knowledge if he comes to know about it when she tells him? If he does not know based on her telling him, it will be a defect for his love towards her! It is also said in thiruvAimozhi 8-4-6 “thanakkum than thanmai aRivariyAnai ” (he cannot know about his qualities himself). Creation of the universe etc are subject to his knowledge; it is said in thiruvAimozhi 3.10.8gyAnamahdhE koN(du) ellAk karumangaLum sey” (he is being the controller for all the worlds, with his knowledge). His state is such that he cannot even say “agalagillEn iRaiyum“. Only when we see his words during separation, we can understand his greatness compared to that of pirAtti who has seen his greatness. She said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 40.10 “mAsAdhUrdhvam na jIvishyE” (I will not be able to survive for more than a month if I don’t see SrI rAma). But he said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “najIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I will not survive even for a moment if I don’t see sIthA). For one who is dependent, one needs to be patient until the owner arrives; but for an independent person, there is no such restriction. So, is there any shortcoming for mumukshus (those who desire for liberation) when such distinguished couple is present [as their refuge]? For those who pursued them individually, total destruction is certain for them. But for those who remain “the divine couple is our goal”, they will certainly be uplifted. We can see this in the case of rAvaNa et al [rAvaNa desired for sIthA alone, he got killed. sUrpaNakA desired for SrI rAma alone, she lost her nose and ears. vibhIshaNAzhwAn desired for sIthA and SrI rAma, he was rewarded aptly].
  • alar mEl mangaipirAtti who is having most tender like the soft fragrance of a flower which is filtered out from buds and dust and aptly enjoyable age. She who has the features which would make him tell “agalagillEn” is now saying that herself.
  • uRai mArbA – After relishing the joy in his divine chest, the flower in which she was born, appears to be a thorn.  Just as the divine daughter of SrI janaka never thought about SrI mithilA and just as liberated souls would never think about the material realm as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran idham SarIram” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm), after relishing the most enjoyable divine chest of emperumAn, she never thinks about the flower. When her knowledge is fully expanded, it is not a fault of her knowledge if she does not know about and see material realm; but it is emperumAn’s most enjoyable nature [which makes her not see the material realm]; so, she too is not seeing the material realm due to his enjoyable nature.
  • uRai mArbA – Just as she is not seeing the flower, she is also not seeing any other limbs of emperumAn beyond his divine chest. The other limbs will remain unused/unseen. Until here, “SrI” and “math” are explained. SrI is said to explain the purushakAram which is required [for SaraNAgathi]. What is the purpose of “math”, the eternal togetherness? That indicates the eternal presence with emperumAn, which ensures that the one who surrenders need not look for a specific time to surrender.
  • nigaril pugazhAy … – Now, this explains the word, nArAyaNa. While nArAyaNa means ownership of both spiritual and material realms, and being the cause of the universe as said in padhma purANam “narAjjAthAnithathvAni” (all entities originate from nara), our AchAryas highlighted the four qualities namely saulabhyam, sauSeelyam, vAthsalyam and svAmithvam which are required in emperumAn to be a refuge; AzhwAr is explaining the proper sequence of those qualities. While talking about those qualities, why is vAthsalyam listed in the beginning? Since the one who surrenders has offences, when purushakAram is done by pirAtti, subsequently, for emperumAn to enjoy such offences as qualities, he needs vAthsalyam – that is why it is highlighted as the first quality [vAthsalyam is the motherly forbearance where a mother will treat her child’s defects as enjoyable aspects]. Would “nigaril pugazhAy” mean vAthsalyam? This is explained in [SaraNAgathi] gadhyam, while emperumAnAr explained certain qualities including vAthsalyam in chUrNikai 5apAra kAruNya sauSeelya vAthsalya …” (boundless mercy, simplicity and motherly forbearance), he also separately highlights in chUrNikai 5ASritha vAthsalyaika jaladhE” (having overflowing motherly forbearance towards devotees). This explains why vAthsalyam is the most celebrated and primary quality of emperumAn.
  • ulagam mUnRudaiyAy – The reason for the previously explained vAthsalyam, which is the motherly relationship [svAmithvam – being the lord/creator of all] is highlighted here. One becomes vathsalA (one with motherly care), due to giving birth to  a child.
  • ennai ALvAnE” indicates sauSeelyam. Would AzhwAr who surrenders manifesting his Akinchanyam, say this in the context of gratitude at the time of performing kainkaryam [for engaging him in service]? (He is highlighting this so that emperumAn engages him in service without abandoning him.) In the first word (SrI – agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA), he spoke seeing pirAtti‘s purushakAram; then, (nArAyaNa – nigaril pugazhAy) he spoke seeing emperumAn‘s upAyathvam (being the means); now – he is speaking this (ennai ALvAnE) seeing the world (since he is one among the residents of the world). Here, he is talking about the favour done by emperumAn to self, that is, emperumAn transforming AzhwAr who was one among the worldly people who consider the gain/loss of worldly pleasures as the ultimate gain/loss, into one who knows “other means such as karma yOga etc are hurldes”, having pirAtti as purushakAram and emperumAn himself being the upAyam (means) and upEyam (goal). How is this referred to as sauSeelyam? As said in “Seelam nAma – mahathOmandhaissaha nIrandhrENa samSlEsha:” (sauSeelyam means a great personality mingling with lowly person without any difference similar to water mixing with water), AzhwAr is saying “emperumAn mingled with me without seeing his own greatness and my lowliness”.
  • nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL indicates saulabhyam. The categorisation of servitors indicated in “amarar munik kaNangaL” is the same as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.9.9 “vaigundhaththamararum munivarum” (the amaras (who are focussed on kainkaryam without break) and munivars (who are focussed on meditating upon emperumAn‘s qualities) and in linga purANam “bhakthai: bhAgavathaissaha(devotees and followers). nigaril means there is none comparable to them [amara – nithyasUris, muni is explained as mukthAthmAs]. samsAris (worldly people) are not a match due to their bondage. mukthAthmAs are not a match due to their having bondage previously. As ISvara has responsibilities such as creating the universe etc, he is also not a match for them. [Do they not have responsibilities such as creation etc?] It is said in brahma sUthram 4.4.17 “jagath vyApAra varjam” (they (nithyas, mukthas) have all capabilities except engaging in activities related to material realm) and brahma sUthram 4.4.21 “bhOga mAthra sAmya lingAthcha” (Having similar identity in enjoyment only) – so they have enjoyment in bhagavAn related matters only.
  • virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE – This is their desire. Similar to the presence of a  lamp in a dark room, more than in paramapadham, as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 47 “kAnamum vAnaramum” (forests, monkeys), as he has all the beautiful qualities such as simplicity etc here to accept even the most lowly ones, and since they see what is not present even in paramapadham, they like it more here; saulabhyam is archaka parAdhInathvam (being at the disposal of the one who worships him), the quality of accepting everyone irrespective of their being superior or inferior.

We will see the remaining portion of this pAsuram in the next part of this article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 3

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

<< Part 2

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

Listen

 

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[nampiLLai explains the greatness of prapaththi (SaraNAgathi) in great detail to instill the taste for it in everyone, in this third explanation]

AzhwAr mercifully explains through this pAsuram that which is discussed in all SAsthrams, essence of the vEdhAntham which is the root for all of these SAsthrams, and the special principle which is supported by all our AchAryas in unison. There is special greatness due to the pursuit of this upAyam (SaraNAgathi) by nammAzhwAr, who is the first/foremost AchArya, who is having the great knowledge which was bestowed by bhagavAn himself as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1mayarvaRa madhinalam aruLinan” (emperumAn mercifully bestowed unblemished knowledge and devotion). There are others who use this means to get other benefits and use other means to get emperumAn himself; unlike them, AzhwAr has the special greatness of pursuing emperumAn as both the means and goal.

When he is the goal, what is wrong in pursuing different means? That is because, they are sAdhyam (involving self effort), many, difficult to perform and contrary to the nature of the self. There are many such sAdhanams (upAyams, means).  What are they? karma yOga, gyAna yOga and bhakthi yOga.

karma yOga

With the knowledge about the understanding of the true self, as one performs the karmas (deeds) which match the varNa and ASrama of the self without expecting the result and with detachment in the doership and ownership of the karma, and as a worship of bhagavAn, the sins which are the hurdles will be eliminated and mind will be purified; further true realisation of self will occur, knowledge about bhagavAn and love towards him will occur, and finally that [love] will lead to the ultimate result [liberation] through parabhakthi (true knowledge), paragyAna (unable to bear separation from bhagavAn) and paramabhakthi (final stage before liberation).

gyAna yOga

Restraining the senses, realising the self, acquiring knowledge about bhagavAn, developing love towards him; finally that will lead to the ultimate result [liberation] through parabhakthi (true knowledge), paragyAna (unable to bear separation from bhagavAn) and paramabhakthi (final stage before liberation).

bhakthi yOga

Engaging karma and gyAna directly in matters related to bhagavAn [i.e. performing activities as worship to bhagavAn and having the thoughts fully focussed on bhagavAn], as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.65manmanA bhava madhbhakthO madhyAjI mAm namaskuru” (Have your heart focussed on me constantly; (moreover) have deep love for me; (that too) become my worshipper; (moreover) become my worshipper; offer obeisances to me (with all your three faculties viz mind, speech and body)); ; finally that will lead to the ultimate result [liberation] through parabhakthi (true knowledge), paragyAna (unable to bear separation from bhagavAn) and paramabhakthi (final stage before liberation).

nAma sankIrthanam

Further, unlike these three, thirunAmam [nAma sankIrthanam] is explained as an easier means. Where? As bhIshma was explaining many different means to dharmaputhra, dharamputhra asked him as in mahAbhAratham sahasranAma adhyAyam “kO dharamas sarvadharmANAm bhavatha:paramOmatha:” (Among all the means, which one do you consider as the best?); he explained thirunAmam as his most favourite starting with “EshamE sarvadharmANAm“. Isn’t thirunAmam an ancillary aspect of other means [such as karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgas]? Can it be an independent means? Since it performs both elimination of hurdles and bestowing the result as explained in “janma samsAra bandhanAth … muchyathE” (will liberate from the bondage in material realm) and “yAthi brahma sanAthanam”  (attains eternal, supreme lord), it is considered as an independent means too.

dhivyadhESa vAsam

As said in garuda purANam “dhESOyam sarva kAma dhuk” (this divine abode will fulfil all desires), living in dhivyadhESam [and other holy shrines] itself is explained as a means to attain all goals.

bhAgavatha sEvA

As said in “ArAdhAnAm sarvEshAm vishNO: ArAdhanam param | thasmAtha paratharam prOktham thadhIyArAdhanam param ||” (worshipping vishnu is the best among all types of worship; even better than that is worshipping his devotees), it is understood that all desires will be fulfilled by worshipping bhagavAn‘s devotees.

But all these means are difficult to pursue, and due to their being tinged with ahankAra (individual’s doership, ego), they are explained to be given up. prapaththi which is singular [unique], ready to deliver, easy to perform, apt and matchless as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “thasmAth nyAsam EshAm thapasAm athiriktham Ahu:” (Among the aforementioned means, surrender is explained as the best), is explained in this pAsuram.

In the previous nine pAsurams, the nature of SaraNya (emperumAn who is the refuge) and that of adhikAri (one who surrenders) were explained; in this pAsuram, the SaraNAgathi prakAram (method of surrender) is explained.

The nature of SaraNya is infinitely enjoyable, apt, one which eliminates the hurdles and easy to approach for all. Unlike other qualities, for one to surrender, his saulabhyam is a unique requirement.

  • parathvam (emperumAn‘s form in paramapadham) is in a different realm which cannot be pursued [immediately] by a chEthana [sentient entity] when he acquires the inclination towards emperumAn.
  • vyUham (emperumAn’s form in kshIrAbdhi (milky ocean)) is specifically meant for the celestial beings such as brahmA et al, it is also similar to parathvam only.
  • avathArams (emperumAn’s incarnations such as varAha, narasimha, vAmana, SrI rAma, krishNa et al) helped those fortunate ones who were present back then but cannot help those from subsequent times.

thiruvEngadamudaiyAn’s divine feet is the only abode where without both these limitations [difficulty to reach due to place/time factors], at all times, everyone can approach as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.2vAnavar vAnavar kOnodum” (nithyasUris, along with (their leader) sEnai mudhaliyAr (vishvaksEnar)), brahmA et al who are in this material realm, the human beings in this world, and even the animals who are considered inferior as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 47 “kAnamum vAnaramum” (forests, monkeys). As he is ajahathsvabhAvan (one who never gives up his nature), and as he has all the eight qualities such as gyAna, Sakthi etc (vAthsalya (motherly forbearance), svAmithva (lordship), sauSeelya (simplicity), saulabhya (easy approachability), gyAna (knowledge), Sakthi (power), prApthi (being the apt goal), pUrthi (perfection)), thiruvEngdamudaiyAn who is complete in all qualities, is the apt SaraNya.

The nature of the adhikAri (qualified person who surrenders) is to have ananyagathithvam (having no other refuge), prApya ruchi (inclination towards the goal) and svarUpa prakASam (self realisation). Would animals surrender [with such qualities]? We have read and heard from the scriptures [purANams which are recited in the evening times in choultries] that SrI gajEndhAzhwAn surrendered to bhagavAn; this is also explained in few other places by AzhwArs as in:

  • nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 46 – vaippan maNiviLakkA mAmadhiyai mAlukku enRu eppOdhum kainIttum yAnaiyai – The elephant which always stretches its trunk thinking “I will place this great moon as the lamp for emperumAn“.
  • mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 70pugumadhaththAl vAy pUsik kIzh thAzhndhu aruvi ugumadhaththAl kAl kazhuvik kaiyAl migumadhaththEn viNda malar koNdu viRal vEngadavanaiyE kaNdu vaNangum kaLiRu – the elephant gargling its mouth with the exulting liquid which is coming from its forehead and cheeks and carrying out purification process for its mouth, washing its feet with the exulting liquid which is flowing like a river from its head towards the ground, will worship the extremely strong lord at thirumalai with its trunk, which is having blossomed flower with honey which creates exultation.
  • periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.3.3 – punaththinaik kiLLip pudhvavikkAtti un ponnadi vAzhga enRu inak kuRavar pudhiyadhu uNNum ezhil mAlirunjOlai endhAy – my lord in thirumAlirunjOlai where the groups of nomads would pick up grains of millet from the fields, offer them as havis [ritual offering made to emperumAn], hailing “long live emperumAn!”, and eat them.

Now, should we [who have faith in AzhwArs‘ pAsurams] not have as much faith as these [animals, nomads etc]?

Now, it is explained that, as a surrender performed towards SaraNya (emperumAn, who is complete in gyAnam etc) will lead to the expected result, only when a qualified person who is with Anukalyasya sankalpam (vowing to act favourably) etc [prAthikUlyasya varjanam (restraining from unfavourable acts), rakshishyathi ithi visvASam (faith in his protection), gOpthruthva varaNam (accepting him as the means), kArpaNyam (humility) and Athma nikshEpaNam (total submission)] surrenders, it will lead to the expected result.

With this explanation on the greatness of prapaththi/SaraNAgathi, nampiLLai’s third explanation is set to commence. We will see that in the next part of this article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 2

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

<< Part 1

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

Listen

 

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[nampiLLai explains the pAsuram in greater detail, in this second explanation]

agalagillEn … – While this pAsuram explains the upAyam (means – SaraNAgathi), it also reveals the upEyam (goal – bhagavAn). This is explained further.

One [i.e. a qualified person] desires to perform kainkaryam to both emperumAn and pirAtti; he pursues both of them together as the means too. With this, their being the eternal goal is explained. Only that which is eternally fresh/new, can be the eternal goal.

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu – This is not spoken in separation. While there is no reason for her to be separated from him, considering the enjoyability there [divine chest of emperumAn], she declares that she does not have the strength to remain separated from him. This is spoken while she is being called inseparable as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.15 “ananyA rAghavENAham” (I am inseparable from SrI rAma) and in SrIvishNu purANam “vishNor SrIranapAyinIm” (lakshmi is inseparable from vishNu)! She is saying that she cannot be separated from him even for a moment.
  • alar mEl mangai – When we see who is speaking like this – it is lakshmi who is the desirable entity even for emperumAn due to her beauty and age; she who makes him say in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “na jIvEyam kshaNamapi” (SrI rAma says – I will not survive even for a moment without seeing sIthA). This is not the same emotion as that of  worldly people; because their separation [from their beloved ones] is based on karma [bondage]; but there is no such karma for her and he goes head-over-heels towards her; hence, there is no separation either due to him or her; so, what is the reason for her saying like this? It came up because her interest is on emperumAn [who is distinguished]. The desires of worldly people are based on the bondage, but her desire is caused by emperumAn himself.
  • uRai mArbAnithya yOgam (eternal togetherness) which is highlighted in the “math” in the first phrase in dhvayam is explained here; that is, her purushakAram is always there. The purpose of their togetherness is that we don’t need to retract [from surrendering] considering his svAthanthriyam (independent attitude) and one’s own samsArithvam (bondage in this material realm). One need not fear considering his sarvagyathvam (omniscience) and one’s sAparAdhathvam (having faults). That is – emperumAn does not have the scope to see the AthmA‘s faults and act accordingly, due to her presence. While their offence towards pirAtti was similar for both the crow and rAvaNa, the crow’s head was saved due to her presence and rAvaNa lost his head due to her absence. Such is the difference between her presence and absence. Even if father himself has become an enemy for a son, the father will not kill his son in his mother’s presence. While he first shot the brahmAsthram for the offence he committed, and as it chased him around and finally he fell at the divine feet of SrI rAma due to not having any other refuge, seeing her, he let him go, giving an alternate reason for the brahmAsthram. Both of their dispositions [crow’s and rAvaNa’s] towards SrI rAma such as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.33 “thamEva SaraNamgatha:” (the crow surrendered to SrI rAma) and SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 36-11 “na namEyam” (I will not worship him) are irrelevant. Why so? Even the crow had the same thoughts in its heart, otherwise he would not have returned home saying as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.38 “svakamAlayam jagAma” (Let me return home [after worshipping SrI rAma]); he only fell down at the divine feet due to his helpless state. rAvaNa too had the same helpless state, but it did not work in his favour, due to her absence. All these principles explained here relate to the first word of dhvayam [SrIman].

Subsequently, next word “nArAyaNa” is explained, starting from “nigaril” to “thiruvEngadaththAnE“.

  • nigaril pugazhAy – His great quality [vAthsalyam – motherly forbearance] which makes him argue in favour of the devotee when such pirAtti [who unites them in first place] herself finds fault in the devotee. That is, as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.9.2 “thAmaraiyALAgilum sidhaguraikkumEl en adiyAr adhu seyyAr seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr enbar” (even if SrI mahAlakshmi complains about followers to emperumAn, he will deny that), he would deny any faults in his devotee. Even if she pinpoints saying “No, now I am finding this fault in him”, he would say “So what? Are they rejecting virtues and saying that there is no paramapadham? They remain confident that I will take care off their accidental mistakes”. When we can highlight a cause for her greatness, we can relate that to him; but there is no other cause for his greatness. This is how the truth is [When it comes to their loving relationship, it is the reverse though]! With this, it is explained that – she would consider his svAthanthriyam and think “what would happen to these souls?” and would consider her tenderness and adolescent age and think “how caring is she for them?” Hence, they both doubt each other to protect others and both the realms (spiritual and material) depend upon their [comfortable] shadow.
  • ulagam mUnRu udaiyAy – His aptness which forces one to not leave him even if he is devoid of any good qualities. While saying “sidhagurikkumEl“, it is to be understood that only when she lacks the qualities which match her nature [such as compassion towards others, total dependence towards emperumAn etc], would she say something like that; similarly, even if he is devoid of any good qualities, he has natural relationship with everyone which makes one not to leave him. The relationship between bhagavAn and AthmA is such that even when bhagavAn discards someone, the AthmA is of the nature that one can wear kAshAya vasthram (saffron coloured cloth indicating a mendicant’s state) and request/pray to him; this also indicates bhagavAn’s right to imprison someone who worships him rarely and yet moves away from him.
  • ennai ALvAnE – One who practically engages me in service. To be not content in saying “if you [referring to nammAzhwAr] are talking about normal servitude [of everyone’s towards me], you also have that”; you [emperumAn] bestowed me [nammAzhwAr] unblemished knowledge and devotion; can you abandon me now?
  • nigaril amarar … – Even those who reside there in paramapadham, are eagerly serving you here in thirumalA only. As said in thiruvAimozhi 10.9.9 “vaigundhaththamararum munivarum“, in paramapadham, there are two types of devotees – kainkarya nishtar [amarar – who constantly engage in service] and guNa nishtar [munivar – who constantly meditate upon his qualities].
  • thiruvEngadaththAnE – The ultimate meaning of the word “nArAyaNa” is his saulabhyam (simplicity); for the word nArAyaNa, many meanings such as being with qualities, lordship, special mercy and simplicity are all applicable. “nArAyaNa” implies that he would reside as the antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul) to bestow all benefits to him; since that simplicity is eternally manifested here [in thirumalA] in thiruvEngamudaiyAn.  How does this saulabhyam become the means? When he said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66mAmEkam“, he specifically pointed to his form of the charioteer. Here it is much greater than that; that simplicity (as charioteer) was neither manifested previously nor subsequently [by krishNa]; this [thirumalA] is where such simplicity is eternally manifested. There he placed a pre-requisite in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.1mayyAsakthamanA: pArtha” (Oh son of kunthI! having a very attached mind in me …); even that is not here.

Now, AzhwAr starts speaking about his own nature.

  • pugal onRu illA adiyEn – Previously he repeatedly said “adiyEn” and “aruvinaiyEn“, identifying his SEshathvam (servitude) and Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self) respectively; now, these two are the qualities required for surrender; he is highlighting them here too. Why should he highlight it [surrender] here? Just as being the means is emperumAn‘s nature, being surrendered is AthmA‘s nature. When this (such surrender) is absent, that will lead to sarvamukthi prasangam (i.e. Why did emperumAn not liberate everyone if he is the natural means for liberation?).
  • adiyEn – The only difference [between dhvayam and this pAsuram] is, “aham” (I) which is understood implicitly there [from the word prapadhyE], is spelt out explicitly as adiyEn.
  • un adik kIzh – This explains “charaNau” (the two divine feet). It should be expressed as in SrI rAmayaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.2 “sa:bhrAthu:charaNau” (my elder brother’s divine feet);
  • amarndhu pugundhEnE – Only if he needs some assistance or if I consider my surrender as the means, is there scope for hurdle or delay.
  • pugundhEnE – we can only enter if he left somewhere; forever emperumAn is with us as the antharyAmi. The AthmA was only misunderstanding his true nature; the removal of such misunderstanding is the only aspect which is required. [So] AzhwAr says “I now have the firm faith [that you are the means]” [i.e. it is not a physical act of surrender, but conviction in the mind]; the present tense in dhvayam [i.e. prapadhyE – I am surrendering] does not mean the same as in bhakthi yOgam where the practice must be carried on forever; but as it is derived based on the enjoyability of the act [surrender], it is performed until the goal is attained [Here, pugundhEnE is in past tense to indicate that the surrender must be performed only once].

nampiLLai’s second explanation is complete. We will see the final explanation in the next article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 1

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, AzhwAr surrenders to thiruvEngadamudaiyAn with periya pirAttiyAr as purushakAram to have his desire fulfilled quickly.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr properly surrenders to thiruvEngadamudaiyAn saying “Without any other refuge, I am surrendering unto your divine feet which has purushakAram [of pirAtti] and the apt qualities”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction. Thus, in the first nine pAsurams, he explained the nature of the SaraNyan (refuge). Here – AzhwAr is surrendering, explaining his own nature. Previously [too], he said “adiyEn“, “aruvinaiyEn” to highlight his own Akinchanyam and SEShathvam (servitude) as part of emperumAn being the refuge; here, he is using the same words as means to attain the result, and surrenders. This pAsuram should be analysed and studied in context of the words in dhvayam. The “aham” (I, the one who surrenders) which is implied through the meaning in dhvayam is explicitly said as “adiyEn” in this pAsuram.

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(Due to the relationship as in Sun and his rays, and the great enjoyability in emperumAn)
iRaiyum – not even a moment
agala – to separate
killEn – not ready to
enRu – saying
alarmEl – one who is having softness, enjoyability etc due to being born in the flower,
mangai – lakshmi who is very dear to emperumAn due to her adolescent age
uRai – (in a special portion of emperumAn’s divine form, while her high family lineage, qualities of self and beautiful form are there) being greatly enjoyable due to eternally residing in
mArbA – one who is having the divine chest

(caused by his togetherness with her)
nigar il – matchless (the quality which cannot be simply counted along with the other qualities, due to ignoring the faults of the devotees)
pugazhAy – having great vAthsalyam (motherly forbearance)

(being the cause for that)
mUnRu ulagam – the three types of chEthanas (souls) and achEthana (matter) which are well known from pramANams (authentic scriptures)
udaiyAy – having svAmithvam (lordship) of owning

(not just that supremacy)
ennai – me too who has many faults
ALvAnE – having sauSeelyam (superior person mingling freely with inferior persons) which makes you acknowledge/accept me

(further to that Seelam, having greatness in knowledge and love, to be seen and worshipped by everyone)
nigar – match
il – not having
amarar – amaras (nithyasUris) who are focussed on service
muni – (being engaged in meditating upon his qualities) sages who meditate
kaNangaL – groups
virumbum – residing with great desire (due to his vAthsalyam etc)
thiruvEngadaththAnE – one who is present in thirumalA with perfect saulabhyam (simplicity)!
pugal – refuges such as upAyAntharam (other means such as karma yOga etc) and other saviours (such as other dhEvathAs, self et al)
onRu – any
illA – I who am an ananyaSaraNan (not having any other refuge)
adiyEn – I (who have pArathanthriyam (total dependence))
un – your (who are with purushakAram (of pirAtti) and the qualities)
adi – divine feet
kIzh – beneath

(becoming part of the lines at the bottom of your divine feet)
amarndhu – being seated with exclusive focus on kainkaryam and no other expectation
pugundhEn – I have surrendered.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh emperumAn who is having the greatly enjoyable, divine chest (due to the eternal presence of lakshmi) which is occupied by lakshmi who is very dear to you due to her adolescent age and who is having softness, enjoyability etc due to being born in the flower and who is saying “I am not ready to separate even for a moment”!  Oh one who is having matchless, great vAthsalyam, having svAmithvam of owning the three types of chEthanas and achEthana which are well known from pramANams, having sauSeelyam which makes you acknowledge/accept me too who has many faults and one who is present in thirumalA with perfect saulabhyam of residing with great desire to be worshipped by matchless amaras who are focussed on service and sages who meditate! I who am an ananyaSaraNan who has no other refuges such as upAyAntharam and other saviours, have surrendered unto your divine feet and have become seated beneath them, with exclusive focus on kainkaryam and no other expectation.

[dhvaya mahA manthram is correlated with the words/phrases in this pAsuram]

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum” indicates the meaning of the word “SrI” which means “she is constantly serving him”, which leads to her inseparability from emperumAn
  • alarmEl” indicates her tenderness etc which facilitates her constant engagement with him
  • mangai” indicates her being very dear to him which is the reason for their constant engagement
  • uRai mArbA” indicates the meaning of “math” which means their eternal togetherness
  • From “nigaril pugazhAy” to “thiruvEngadaththAnE“, the meaning of “nArAyaNa” is explained in the same manner Sruthi explained it in “mAthA pithA brAthA nivAsa …“, through the four qualities namely vAthsalya, svAmithva, sauSeelya and saulabhya.
  • pugal onRu illA” indicates Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self) and ananya gathithvam (lack of any other refuge) which are the qualities expected in the qualified person who is surrendering
  • adiyEn” indicates [the meaning of “prapadhyE” which is] the nature of the qualified person who is surrendering based on the action of self [this “adiyEn” is implicit in dhvayam]
  • un” indicates AzhwAr calling out to emperumAn and surrendering unto him saying “your divine feet”
  • adik kIzh” indicates “charaNau” (divine feet)
  • amarndhu” indicates unflinching faith in the divine feet being the means and goal [relates to “pra” in “prapadhyE“]
  • pugundhEn” indicates the act of surrender, i.e. “prapadhyE
  • pugundhEn” being in past tense indicates that the surrender need to be done only once and there is no need for repeated surrenders.
  • The second sentence of dhvayam is also part of this pAsuram along with the first sentence which indicates the acceptance of bhagavAn as means, since this is perfect surrender,
    • as emperumAn‘s relationship with lakshmi, his having auspicious qualities are part of the goal,
    • as the presence of ananya bhOgyathvam (enjoyed only by emperumAn) is revealed through the qualification of the one who is surrendering, i.e. “adiyEn“, similar to ananyArhathvam (existing only for emperumAn) and ananya SaraNathvam (having emperumAn as the only refuge),
    • as “nama:” is explained through “amarndhEn“, which eliminates the doubt of AzhwAr having any desire for other results [such as aiSvaryam and kaivalyam]
    • as “pugundhEn” also indicates the goal

Thus, as this pAsuram reveals the two sentences of dhvaya mahA manthram precisely, it can be hailed as “pUrNa SaraNAgathi” (perfect surrender). In this manner, in this centum, AzhwAr perfectly pursued emperumAn who was highlighted as the means in the previous centum.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

First Explanation

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum enRupirAtti is not speaking this in separation; while she is enjoying the eternal togetherness, she is repeatedly saying “iRaiyum agalagillEn” (I won’t leave even for a moment). This would be the words of those who eternally enjoy him. This is not the same emotion as that of worldly people; because their emotions [towards others] is based on karma; but this is based on the greatness of emperumAn.
  • alar mEl mangai – She has the enjoyability and age which make emperumAn say as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “na jIvEyam kshaNamapi” (SrI rAma says – I will not survive even for a moment without seeing sIthA). She looks an embodiment of fragrance.
  • uRai mArbA – With this, their eternal togetherness is explained. Do I have to look for a specific time to surrender unto him? We don’t have to hesitate looking at our own faults and his independent attitude [pirAtti will make him ignore our faults, give up his independent attitude and accept us]. Once, bhattar was going to instruct the meaning of dhvayam to piLLai azhagiya maNavALa aRaiyar. So he asked everyone else to leave the room. nanjIyar too stood up and walked out, being upset and thinking “Why didn’t he ask me to stay?”. In the meantime, bhattar looked around for nanjIyar and did not find him and hence asked “where is nanjIyar?”, and called him in and explained the meaning of dhvayam to both of them – nanjIyar used to relate to this incident and explain that bhattar explained this particular meaning that time. When nanjIyar asked “If this AthmA is a servitor and bhagavAn is the lord, what is the purpose of pirAtti‘s relationship here?” bhattar mercifully explained to him “Listen to the nature of her role! While rAvaNa and crow [jayantha, son of indhra, who assumed the form of a crow and abused sIthAp pirAtti] have the same relationship and conducted in the same manner [both being offensive towards pirAtti], due to the curse upon rAvaNa, he did not touch pirAtti, but the crow offended pirAtti, who is the mother of all [including the crow]. Yet, due to her presence, the crow’s head was saved and since she was away from SrI rAma, rAvaNa lost his life”. Even rAvaNa became helpless in the end like the crow; still, he was not saved, due to the absence of pirAtti. Now, with respect to mother and father, they don’t deal with the children in the same manner; the mother, will not only ignore the faults of the children, she would also hide from the eyes of the father. That is why, [in dhvaya mahAmanthram], she is explained as an equal partner in the second sentence, but in the first sentence – she is hailed for her simplicity due to her role of purushakAram (recommendation, mediation). When she could instruct hanuman (who was connected directly to SrI rAma) in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116-44 “na kaSchinnAparAdhyathi” (There is none who has not committed a sin), why wouldn’t she fulfil the desires of emperumAn who is waiting to accept her instruction?. When she instructs even to those who don’t listen to her as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21-19 “mithramaupayikam karthum rAma: sthAnam parIpsathA, vadham cha anichchathA ghOram thvayA asau purusharshabha: ” (SrI rAma  who is the best among all purushas (souls) is the apt person to make friends for you who would like to remain in this world and who would not like to die a horrible death), she would not give up on emperumAn who looks at her face waiting for orders. She said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 113-41 “dhAsInAm rAvaNasyAham marshayAmIha dhurbala” (I do not have the wherewithal to see the sufferings of rAvANa’s servant-maids). thiruvadi (hanuman) asked pirAtti to handover the rAkshasis (rAvaNa’s servant-maids) to him, and she said “I am so weak that I cannot bear the suffering of others). There is no weakness in rAvaNa getting killed, SrI rAma being victorious and thiruvadi appearing in front of her – the only weakness relates to her intolerance in seeing others suffer.
  • nigaril … – “nArAyaNa” is explained now. His great qualities which make him say as in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-9-2 “thAmaraiyALAgilum sidhaguraikkumEl en adiyAr adhu seyyAr seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr enbar” (even if SrI mahAlakshmi complains about followers to emperumAn, he will deny that).
  • ulagam mUnRudaiyAy – Even if he is devoid of good qualities, his aptness which will never let us leave him, is explained [i.e. svAmithvam – his being the lord of all].
  • ennai ALvAnE – This is how the aptness is practically implemented. ALugai (ruling) means leading one to mOksham and fulfilling the desires in the due course.
  • nigaril … – The ultimate saulabhyam (simplicity) is explained.
  • pugal onRu illA adiiyEn – Akinchanyam and ananya gathithvam are the qualities in a person who is surrendering.
  • un adik kIzh – SaraNau (the two divine feet).
  • amarndhu – without any gap/hurdle.
  • pugundhEnE – as this unflinching faith does not become part of the means, as it is in the form of upakAra smruthi (gratitude for the favour done by emperumAn) and it is an expression of being a sentient being, it is merely an attribute of the one who surrenders [instead of being the means]. All of these as aspects are explained in the last word of the first sentence of dhvayam [i.e. prapadhyE].

nampiLLai’s first explanation is complete. We will see further explanations in the next article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.9 – vandhAy pOlE

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, since AzhwAr did not see emperumAn as soon as he desired, he says “If I don’t see you immediately, I will not survive even for a moment”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “I will never leave your divine feet which are having most enjoyable beauty”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

vandhAy pOlE vArAdhAy vArAdhAy pOl varuvAnE
sendhAmaraik kaN sengani vAy nARROLamudhE enadhuyirE
sindhAmaNigaL pagarallaip pagal sey thiruvEngadaththAnE
andhO adiyEn una pAdham agalagillEn iRaiyumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(For those who are not surrendered unto him)
vandhAy pOlE – as if arrived and being within reach
vArAdhAy – being unreachable

(For those who are surrenderd unto him)
vArAdhAy pOl – due to Akinchanyam (lack of anything) in self, while thinking “there is no possibility of his arrival”
varuvAnE – arriving and being fully subservient
sem – reddish
thAmarai – attractive like lotus (will make one say “jitham” (victory))
kaN – divine eyes
sem – reddish
kani – enjoyable like fruit
vAy – the divine lips which say “mAmEkam SaraNam vraja

embracing devotees saying “sugAdam parishasvajE
nAl – four
thOL – having divine shoulders
amudhE – being eternally enjoyable for the devotees
enadhu – manifesting to me
uyirE – became my sustaining force
sindhA – [chinthA] wish fulfilling
maNigaL – valuable gemstones
pagar – radiance

(to become normal daylight)
allai – night
pagal – day
sey – making
thiruvEngadaththAnE – Oh one who resides in thirumalA!
andhO – alas!

(infinitely enjoyable)
una – your
pAdham – divine feet
adiyEn – the totally subservient me, who has no other refuge
iRaiyum – not even a moment
agala – to leave
killEn – unable to do.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

You are unreachable while appearing to have arrived and being within reach; due to Akinchanyam (lack of anything) in self, while thinking “there is no possibility of his arrival”, you will arrive and be fully subservient. You are manifesting to me your beautiful form with reddish, attractive, lotus-like divine eyes, divine lips which are enjoyable like reddish fruit and which say “mAmEkam SaraNam vraja“, four divine shoulders which embrace devotees saying “sugAdam parishasvajE” and are eternally enjoyable for the devotees, and have become my sustaining force; Oh one who is residing on thirumalA where the radiance of valuable, wish fulfilling gemstones make night to be like day! Alas! I, who am totally subservient to you, without any other refuge, am unable to leave your divine feet even for a moment. andhO implies AzhwAr wondering “Even after having so much sorrow in separation, I have to even manifest my desire separately!”.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vandhAypOlE vArAdhAy – Due to the overwhelming internal experience, one would feel “we have got external experience” and be satisfied, and would consider that to be real and stretch his/her hand to embrace him – at that time emperumAn would be unreachable.
  • vArAdhAypOl varuvAnE – When one thinks “he will never be reachable”, he quickly arrives and is at one’s disposal. Alternative explanation – In the case of those who are not surrendered, when they think “he is within our reach”, he will remain outside their reach, and in the case of those who are surrendered, when they think “he is unreachable”, he would arrive and be at their disposal.
  • sem thAmarai … – Oh one who is enjoyable due to having cool, divine eyes which will remove all sufferings, reddish, ripened, divine lips, and divine shoulders which appear like branched out kalpa tharu (wish-fulfilling, celestial tree)!
  • enadhuyirE – Oh one who let me enjoy this beautiful form and made me to not sustain myself in separation from you!
  • sindhA maNigaL … – The radiance of distinguished gemstones which turned night into day; eliminating the difference between day and night. periya thirumozhi 4.10.8 “maNigaLin oLiyAl vidi pagal iravenRARivaridhAya” (due to the radiance of the gemstones, unable to differentiate between day and night). With this, AzhwAr is thinking about experiencing the bliss of paramapadham which is described as “na kAla: thathravai prabhu:” (Time is not the controller in paramapadham), right here in thirumalA itself.
  • andhO – While there is infinite enjoyment, he is also present here and I am also having great desire, I am unable to reach him and enjoy him! [What a pity!]
  • adiyEn una pAdham agalagillEn iRaiyumE – You are not realising my state on seeing my true nature; while seeing your divine feet, I cannot even take my eyes off for a moment, where such act will enhance the experience, while seeing again.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.8 – nOlAdhARREn

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth pAsuram, emperumAn asks “When you have not put in any effort and say ‘I cannot bear’, would you get the result?” and AzhwAr responds “Didn’t brahmA et al who are with limited ability, get their desires fulfilled by citing their Akinchanyam (lack of anything in them)? So, kindly come and eliminate my sorrow”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

nOlAdhARREn una pAdham kANavenRu nuNNuNarvin
neelAr kaNdaththammAnum niRai nAnmuganum indhiranum
sElEy kaNNAr palar sUzha virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
mAlAy mayakki adiyEnpAl vandhAy pOlE vArAyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

una – your
pAdham – divine feet
kANa – to see
nOlAdhu – without pursuing any means
ARREn – I am not able to bear
enRu – saying this
nuN uNarvil – since he is omniscient, being able to see subtle things

(by the poison)
neela – black colour
Ar – fully
kaNdam – having throat
ammAnum – rudhra, who became important one in the universe due to that
niRai – being the father of such rudhra, and having complete knowledge to create etc
nAnmuganum – four-headed brahmA
indhiranum – indhra who has the wealth of three worlds (bhU:, bhuva: and svarga worlds)
sEl Ey – like a fish
kaNNAr – having eyes
palar -women folk such as umA (pArvathi), sarasvathI, Sachi (indhra’s wife) et al
sUzha – being in their proximity
virumbum – surrender with desire
thiruvEngadaththAnE – Oh one who is residing in thirumalA!
mAl Ay – having dark complexion

(being krishNa)
mayakki – mesmerising everyone with the qualities and activities
vandhAy pOlE – like you came
adiyEnpAl – towards me who is exclusively devoted to you and cannot sustain without you
vArAy – you should come!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

rudhra who is omniscient, being able to see subtle things and hence became the important one in the universe and is having throat that is fully having black colour, four-headed brahmA who is the father of such rudhra, and having complete knowledge to create etc and indhra who has the wealth of three worlds say [to emperumAn] “Even without pursuing any means to see your divine feet, I am unable to bear”;  Oh one who is residing in thirumalA and who is offered such prayers and surrendered with desire by such dhEvas along with their women folk such as umA (pArvathi), sarasvathI, Sachi et al who have fish like eyes, in their proximity! Just as you came [as krishNa] with dark complexion, mesmerising everyone with the qualities and activities, you should come towards me who is exclusively devoted to you and cannot sustain without you!

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nOlAdhu … – They (dhEvas) all individually say “I have not pursued any means to see your divine feet, yet I cannot bear without you”. When they [Siva and others] lose in a battle like the one [of krishNa] with bANa, without any other refuge, they say like this. [Why do they behave in this contradictory manner?] When rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) are on the rise, they would consider as in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.14ISvarOham” (I am the lord); when they are defeated, they would praise him as in SrIvishNu purANam 5.33.41 “krishNa krishNa mahAbAhO jAnEthvAm purushOththamam” (krishNa! krishNa! Oh mighty armed! I know you as the best among the men); SrIvishNu purANam 1.9.65 “SaraNam thvAm anuprApthAs samasthA dhEvathA gaNAm” (Oh lord! all the dhEvas who were defeated by the army of asuras are surrendering unto you with folded hands). rudhra who considers himself as the primary entity in the universe due to his power of holding the poison in his throat, the four-headed brahmA who is the father of rudhra and who has even greater knowledge and powers than rudhra, indhra who is the controller of the three worlds; [AzhwAr is following the pattern of vEdhAntham] nArAyaNa sUktham “sa brahmA sa Sivas sEndhra:” (he is brahmA, he is Siva, he is indhra). When asked though they are like this, we considered their words in ahirbudhnya samhithA as authentic instructions, it is because they spoke those words when their sathva guNam (goodness) was on the rise. Just because their words are accepted, it does not mean that they are to be pursued; bhattar used to explain mercifully “It is said by periyAzhwAr ‘kAkkai vAyilum katturai koLvAr‘ (one would even hear from a crow)”.
    • An AzhwAr [thirumazhisai AzhwAr] said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 84 “pidhrumanam ilEn” – I do not have a confused mind; “pinjagan thannOdu edhirvan” – I am comparable to rudhra in his knowledge; “avan enakku nErAn” – yet he is not a match for me [in my exclusive servitude to emperumAn]; why is that? “adhirum …” – for me who has placed my heart only in matters related to bhagavAn, would rudhra who has his interest in various matters, be comparable?
    • [Next, brahmA’s Akinchanyam is highlighted] nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 9 “kuRai koNdu” – having lack of anything in him, as the tool; “nAnmugan kuNdigai nIr peydhu” – without brahmA’s intention, emperumAn‘s divine feet reached there; he did not have any tool to worship them. [Hence] dharma dhEvathA became the water in his pot; with that, “maRai koNda mandhiraththAl vAzhththi” – praised emperumAn with the portions of vEdhAntham [such as purusha sUktham] which sing the glories of bhagavAn; “kaRai koNda kaNdaththAn senni mEl ERak kazhuvinAn” – brahmA let that water flow on to the head of Siva, just like a father would sprinkle SrIpAdha thIrtham (sacred water) on his disobedient children [to purify them].
  • nun uNarvil – When sathvam is on the rise, they would only praise emperumAn. It is said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 14.17sathvAth sanjAyathE gyAnam” (sathva guNam leads to knowledge).
  • neelAr kaNdaththu ammAnum – rudhra who considers himself the lord due to holding the poison in his throat.
  • niRai nAnmuganum – brahmA who is the father of such rudhra and who is complete in knowledge.
  • indhiranum – Though he is not involved in creation or annihilation similar to brahmA and rudhra, he is still counted along with them as said in nArAyaNa sUktham “sa brahmA sa Sivas sEndhra:” (he is brahmA, he is Siva, he is indhra).
  • sEl Ey kaNNar … – When some one has some greatness, he would not remain humble in front of women; [but] when in danger they would come along with their women folk and surrender unto him. They will take shelter of emperumAn along with their wives as seen in hari vamSam 279.15 “umA sArdham ISAna:” (rudhra along with his wife umA, with joined palms, desired to speak the glories of vishNu), SrIvishNu purANam 5.7.57 “barthru bikshA pradhIyathAm” (wife of kAliya, the snake, prayed to krishNa “spare my husband from your wrath”), samkshEpa rAmAyaNam 79 “samudhras sarithAm pathi:” (samudhrarAja, the lord of rivers appeared) and SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 33.40 “kim kOpa mUlam” (thArA asked lakshmaNa “what is the cause of your anger?”).
  • thiruvEngadaththAnE – His presence in thirumalA which is easily accessible for such persons [who are looking for a refuge].
  • mAlAy mayakki – mAl as per thamizh dictionary means “mayangalum kUdalum kalaviyum” (bewilderment, moment before uniting, the union); explained as AzhwAr saying “you should arrive to bewilder me”; or as saying “you should arrive in a mesmerising form to make me mad”; but these are not the correct meanings here. mAl indicates black, by which AzhwAr thinks about krishNa. Just as you appeared as krishNa and made those who were with you to become mad for you, you should come for me too once; as said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 14.3 “mAlAy piRandha nambiyai, mAlE seyyum maNALanai” (the complete one who was born as krishNa, who caused madness in others).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.7 – adiyEn mEvi

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the seventh pAsuram, AzhwAr says “While I have not pursued any means to attain you, I cannot sustain even for a moment without experiencing your enjoyability”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Seventh pAsuram. emperumAn says “You have acquired this knowledge to say ‘meynnAneydhi‘; that will certainly lead to the result; why not you be patient then?”, AzhwAr responds “Your enjoyability does not let me wait patiently; I cannot sustain without you”.

pAsuram

adiyEn mEvi amarginRa amudhE! imaiyOr adhipadhiyE!
kodiyA adu puL udaiyAnE! kOlak kani vAyp perumAnE!
sediyA vinaigaL thIr marundhE! thiruvEngadaththemperumAnE!
nodiyAr pozhudhum una pAdham kANa nOlAdhARREnE.

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

adiyEn – I (who have natural servitude towards you)
mEvi – approach
amarginRa – to experience eternally
amudhE – eternally enjoyable

(letting the nithyasUris also enjoy him, in this manner)
imaiyOr – for them (nithyasUris)
adhipadhiyE – [adhipathi] having the supremacy to control them

(revealing such enjoyability)
adu – being the one who eliminates the enemies of devotees
puL – periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAn)
kodiyA  – as flag
udaiyAnE – one who is having
kOlam – having beauty etc which increase such enjoyability
kani – reddish like a ripened fruit
vAy – having beautiful lips
perumAnE – having greatness of unlimited enjoyability

(the hurdles of such enjoyment)
sedi – like bush
Ar – dense
vinaigaL – sins
thIr – to eliminate
marundhE – being the best medicine
thiruvEngadaththu – residing on thirumalA
em – me
perumAnE – oh one who accepted as servitor!
una – your
pAdham – divine feet
kANa – to see
nOlAdhu – without any effort

(as someone who has put in efforts being made to wait for the result)
nodi – a fraction
Ar – of
pozhudhu – moment
ARREn – cannot bear.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn is eternally enjoyable for me to approach and experience him; he is having the supremacy to control the nithyasUris; he is having garudAzhwAn who eliminates the enemies of devotees, as his flag; he is having beautiful lips which are like reddish ripened fruit with beauty etc which increase such enjoyability and is having greatness of such unlimited enjoyability; oh one who is residing on thirumalA, being the best medicine to eliminate the dense bush like sins of mine, and who accepted me as your servitor! While I have not put in any effort to see your divine feet, I cannot bear even a fraction of a moment [without seeing them].

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • adiyEn mEvi amarginRa amudhE – This [nectar] is unlike the salt water of dhEvas; and it is not enjoyed in groups collectively [it is enjoyed by me]; this is the nectar which is enjoyed by the exclusive devotees of emperumAn!
  • imaiyOr adhipadhiyE – There is a group waiting to accompany while enjoying this nectar there [in paramapadham].
  • kodiyA adu puL udaiyAnE – Oh one who is having periya thiruvadi who has eliminating the enemies as a natural quality, as your flag!
  • kOlak kani vAyp perumAnE – Oh one who mesmerized and captured me by showing the reddish complexion of your beautiful, ripened lips! AzhwAr was captured by his lips [or just the physical beauty]. It appears that emperumAn has hoisted the garuda flag to let his devotees enjoy his beauty.
  • sedi Ar vinaigaL thIr marundhE – sedi – sin; Oh one who is the medicine to remove the sorrows caused by vices which are filled with sins! Eliminating the hurdles to let one enjoy his beauty. Alternative explanation – Oh one who is the medicine for the karma (vices) which are dense and deep! The nectar itself is the medicine. There is no medicine other than him as said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 4marundhum poruLum amudhamum thAnE” (He (his divine feet) is the medicine, wealth and nectar) and in thiruvAimozhi 9.3.4 “marundhE nangaL bOga magizhchchikku” (He is the medicine for our enjoyment); he is as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.3.6 as “maruththuvanAy ninRa mAmaNivaNNan” (The great maNivaNNan, who is a doctor).
  • thiruvEngadaththu emperumAnE – For those who consume that nectar, it is like a medicine from the mountain.  For those who consume that nectar, it remains like a jar (from which water is poured from the top) which is nicely placed on a high position. AzhwAr is saying “Being the lord of nithyasUris, having garuda as his flag, being the medicine for deep/dense sins, being the lord of thirumalA, being the one with reddish, beautiful, ripened lips – Oh the nectar who is approached and enjoyed by me!”. When bhattar was asked “in [emperumAnAr‘s] nithya grantham [a grantham describing the home thiruvArAdhanam process], when it says ‘while offering food to emperumAn, recite these sthOthrams (verses in praise), which pAsurams/SlOkams are indicated there?”, he mercifully explains “Recite pAsurams such as ‘adiyEn mEvi amarginRa amudhE‘, thirumAlai 2pachchai mA malai pOl mEni‘ etc”.
  • nodi Ar pozhudhum – Even the moment which can be filled with a second.
  • una pAdham kANa nOlAdhu ARREnE – While I have not pursued any means to see your divine feet, I cannot bear even for a moment [not seeing them]. I am in anguish as if I have pursued the means and am waiting for the result. AzhwAr is in agony due to not having any means on his own [such as karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgas]. For a person who pursued other means [than emperumAn himself], he can remain patient thinking “Once I complete the process, I will get the result” or “Due to the shortcomings in the pursuit, the result is being delayed”; but for AzhwAr who considers emperumAn only as the means, when the result is delayed, he becomes frightened thinking “Am I so unfortunate that even his mercy is not flowing on me successfully!”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.6 – en nALE

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth pAsuram, emperumAn says “Isn’t performing kainkaryam to me in SrIvaikuNtam the goal for all?” and AzhwAr responds “Aren’t those from SrIvaikuNtam descending to thirumalA with great desire and serving you? When will I get to serve you in thirumalA completely?”. Also explained as AzhwAr asking “When will I truly attain your divine feet which are attractive to be served even by dhEvas who are not exclusively devoted to you?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

en nALE nAm maN aLandha iNaith thAmaraigaL kANbadhaRkenRu
en nALum ninRu imaiyOrgaL Eththi iRainji inam inamAy
mey nA manaththAl vazhipAdu seyyum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
meyn nAn eydhi en nAL un adikkaN adiyEn mEvuvadhE?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(without any restriction)
maN – all worlds indicated by earth
aLandha – measured and mingled with everyone, having overwhelming simplicity
thAmaraigaL – divine lotus feet
iNai – both
nAm – we (who enjoy his supremacy)
kANbadhaRku – to see
e – that
nALEm – having the day
enRu – that
imaiyOrgaL – nithyasUris who have unfailing knowledge
en nALum – always
ninRu – standing
Eththi – praising in this manner
iRainji – worshipping
inam inamAy – in groups
meyn nA manaththAl – with the body, speech and mind
vazhipAdu – serve
seyyum – to perform
thiruvEngadaththAnE – Oh one who is present in thirumalA!
adiyEn – being an exclusive servitor
nAn – I (who am desirous)
mey – seen in dream

(seeing truly instead of just in the heart)
eydhi – attain
un – your
adikkaN – at the divine feet
mEvuvadhu – fit properly
en nAL – when!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Groups of nithyasUris are always standing and praising emperumAn saying “when will we get to see both of your divine feet which measured all worlds indicated by earth and mingled with everyone,  and are having overwhelming simplicity”. Oh one who is present in thirumalA to be worshipped in this manner and to be served by them! When will I, being an exclusive servitor, attain your divine feet like seeing [clearly] in a dream, and fit there properly.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • en nALE nAm maN aLandha iNaith thAmaraigaL kANbadhaRku enRu – Just as those who are here [AzhwArs/AchAryas] desire to go to paramapadham to serve him as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.2.1ennAL yAn unnai ini vandhu kUduvanE” (When will I reach you there?), those who are there (nithyasUris) desire to see his saulabhyam (simplicity) here in thirumalA. When will I get to see the most easily accessible emperumAn‘s divine feet? The divine feet which effortlessly measured the earth and seeing such act, one would desire to keep those feet on his/her head due to their enjoyability.
  • en nALum – They [AzhwArs] would never have anything else to do at any time.
  • imaiyOrgaL … – nithyasUris, would praise him forever and then fall at his divine feet, and like those who venture as groups into flooded river ….
  • meyn nA … – … surrender unto him [in groups] with their mind, speech and body. Alternative explanation – they would worship with their mind, speech and body. That is, they will surrender unto him with their faculties which are exclusively devoted to him. When “imaiyOrgaL” implies nithyasUris, their acts are considered as kainkaryam (service); when it is said in the context of dhEvas such as brahmA et al, their acts are considered as upAsanA (worship [to get something other than bhagavAn]).
  • meyn nAn eydhi … – I will not be satisfied by just meditating upon your qualities and enjoying you in my heart/mind; When will I fully reach your divine feet, and not be ever separated? Even if AzhwAr loses grip of emperumAn‘s one divine foot, his existence will become doubtful.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org