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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 29 – iRaiyum nilanum

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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AzhwAr tells his heart, in this pAsuram “Oh heart!  don’t retreat from approaching sarvESvaran (supreme entity) because he is great. He has announced to everyone that he is devoted to his followers by showering his grace on gajEndhra [the elephant in distress]”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

iRaiyum nilanum iru visumbum kARRum
aRai pulanum sem thIyum AvAn piRaimaruppin
paim kaN mAl yAnai padu thuyaram kAththaLiththa
sem kaN mAl kaNdAy theLi

Word by Word Meanings

iRaiyum – he is the paramapadhanAthan (the Lord of SrIvaikuNtam)
nilanum – he is also the bhUmi (earth)
iru visumbum – he is also the well spread skies
kARRum – he is also the wind
aRai pulanum – he is also the oceans which keep making noise continuously
sem thIyum – he is also the red hot fire
AvAn – he is all of these
piRai maruppil – tusks in the shape of the moon’s crescent
paim kaN – having beautiful eyes
mAl yAnai – huge elephant
padu thuyaram – its deep sorrow
kAththu – removing it
aLiththa – protecting it
sem kaN mAl kaNdAy – behold the paramapurusha (supreme entity) with lotus like eyes
theLi – (Oh my heart!) know this well


iRaiyum – just as river kAviri flows transgressing both sides, without any shores, emperumAn also has a similar quality, being the paramapadhanAthan (Lord of SrivaikuNtam).

nilanum iru visumbum kARRum aRai punalum sem thIyum AvAn – by referring to the five elements, AzhwAr thinks of him as having pervaded all over the universe. Thus he owns the entire leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm). By mentioning him as paramapadhanAthan in the previous verse, AzhwAr says he owns SrIvaikuNtam (spiritual realm) as well. Thus he owns both spiritual and material realms. Could there be anything more than these to draw the boundary of wealth!

piRai maruppil paingaN mAl yAnai – the elephant has its tusks in the shape of the crescent and beauty in the eyes, typical of elephants. Being in rut, without knowing the truth, it entered the pond and got caught by the crocodile.

paduthuyaram kAththaLiththaemperumAn rescued the elephant gajEndhran from the crocodile’s grip and took the flower that the elephant wanted to submit to him, on his divine feet, thus removing its sorrow [that it could not submit the flower at the divine feet of emperumAn].

paduthuyaram – it was a sorrow that even the elephant had to feel hurt

sengaN mAl kaNdAy theLi – isn’t emperumAn such that he clearly manifests his quality of vAthsalyam (motherly affection) towards his followers through his eyes and is loving towards them! [Oh heart] know this well.

sengaN mAl – the reddish eyes denote that he showers his vAthsalyam on his followers.

mAl – one who has deep love. Here it denotes the love with which he came to save gajEndhran [the elephant] with his yellow dress worn from waist down and the crown on his head in utterly dishevelled condition. He is very simple towards his followers and isn’t he the one who always removes their hurdles!

theLi – Oh my heart! Please know this. While emperumAn told AzhwArmA Sucha:” (don’t feel sad) [SrI bhagavath gIthA 18-66], AzhwAr tells his heart now “mA Sucha:” In order to get emperumAn’s grace there is no need to search out and go to his place. It is enough to keep the door to the mind open, just as people open the doors to their houses for inviting someone, and inform emperumAn of our acceptance [of him]. If he doesn’t come by himself, is there any other way to get him who is incomparable? AzhwAr says that out of habit, he called out to his mother “ammA” when in distress. emperumAn has to come on his own on hearing our call.

Let us move on to the 30th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pravESam (Introduction)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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श्री पराशरभट्टार्यैरनुगृहीतं भगवद्गुणदर्पणाख्यं श्री विष्णुसहस्रनामभाष्यम् (A treatise on SrI viShNu sahasranAma, ‘bhagavath guNa dharpaNam’ by name, graced by SrI parASara bhattar)

श्री पराशरभट्टार्यः श्रीरङ्गॆशपुरॊहितः |
श्रीवत्साङ्कसुतः श्रीमान् श्रॆयसॆ मॆsस्तु भूयसॆ ||

— thaniyan on SrI parASara bhattar

May SrI parASara bhattar – the priest of SrIranganAtha and the glorious son of Sri kUraththAzhwAn (SrIvathsAnga) – confer upon me all auspiciousness in abundance.

[SrI parASara bhattar’s divine words commence from here]

वन्दॆ गॊविन्दतातौ मुनिमथ मनवै लक्ष्मणार्यं महान्तम्.
ध्यायॆयं यामुनार्यं ममहृदि तनवै राममॆवाभियामम् |
पद्माक्षं प्रॆक्षिशीय प्रथममपि मुनिं नाथमीडॆ शठारिम्
स्तौमि प्रॆक्षॆय लक्ष्मीं शरणमशरणः श्रीधरं संश्रयॆयम् ||

I salute gOvindha (embAr) and my father (kUraththAzhwAn), and meditate upon lakshmaNa muni (emperumAnAr) and mahApUrNa (periya nambigaL). I meditate upon yAmunAchArya (ALavandhAr), and fill my heart with rAmamiSra (maNakkAl nambigal). May I see puNdarIkAksha (uyyakkoNdAr), also along with the first preceptor nAthamunigaL (SrIranganAthamuni) – to whom I prostrate. I pray to SatAri (nammAzhwAr). May I see lakshmi (periya pirAttiyAr). May I, who am with no other refuge, surrender to SrIdhara (periya perumAL).

ॐ नमॊ गजवक्त्राद्यैः पारिषद्यैः प्रशासतॆ I
श्रीरङ्गराजसॆनान्यॆ सूत्रवत्या समॆयुषॆ II

I first salute vishwaksEnar – the consort of sUthravathI and the commander-in-chief of SrIrangarAja, who rules us with many his assistants including the elephant faced one.

नमॊ नारायणायॆदं कृष्णद्वैपायनात्मनॆ |
यदामुष्यायणा वॆदा महाभारतपञ्चमाः ||

I salute krishNa dhvaipAyana (vyAsa), who is nArayaNa himself, and who divided the vEdhas into four and also graced us with the fifth vEdham called mahAbhAratha.

जातॊ लक्ष्मणमिश्रसंश्रयधनात् श्रीवत्सचिह्नादृषॆः
भूयॊ भट्टपराशरॆति फणितः श्रीरङ्गभर्ता स्वयम् |
श्री श्रीरङ्गपतिप्रसादतृषया श्रीरङ्गनाथाह्वयः
श्रीरङ्गॆश्वरकारितॊ विवृणुतॆ नाम्नां सहस्रं हरॆः ||

I, SrIranganAtha by name, the son of the great rishi SrIvathsachihnar (kUraththAzhwAn) – who considered the shelter of SrI rAmAnuja as the biggest wealth, later rechristened as parASara bhattar by SrIranganAtha Himself, have sought to elaborate on the thousand names of the lord SrIranganAtha in pursuit of the His grace, having been inspired by Himself.

संसारॊsयमपण्डितॊ भगवति प्रागॆव भूयः कलौ
पूर्णं मन्यतमॆ जनॆ श्रुतिशिरॊगुह्यं ब्रुवॆ साहसात् |
तत्र स्तॊत्रमिदं प्रकाशयति यः स्तुत्यश्च यस्तावुभौ
व्यासः कारुणिकॊ हरिश्च तदिदं मौर्ख्यं सहॆतां मम ||

This samsAra (material realm) is full of people unlearned about the supreme self, more so in this age of kali. I have sought to an adventurous deed of elaborating the thousand names of the Lord to people who are full of arrogance, who think they know the secrets of vEdhas and upanishaths in completeness. May vyAsa maharishi – who gave us this sthOthra of SrI viShNu sahasranAma, and SrI vishNu Himself – who is the subject of this sthOthra, tolerate this stupidity of mine.

अर्थॆ हरौ तदभिदायिनि नामवर्गॆ
तद्व्यञ्जकॆ मयि च बन्धविशॆषमॆत्य |
सॆवध्वमॆतदमृतं प्रणिपत्य याचॆ
मध्यस्थमत्सरिजना इह मा च भूवन् ||

I prostrate and pray to you with folded palms please believe firmly in SrIhari as also in the thousand names that connote Him, as well as in me – who has resorted to elaborate their meanings. Please drink in this elixir of “SrI viShNu sahasranAma” (in order to be released from the clutches of samsAra). May there not be any mediocre people with hatred (lest they prevent others from enjoying the bliss of the thousand names).

1. Justification for accepting mahAbhAratha as a pramANa in par with SrImadh rAmAyaNa

In this world, every learned soul should distinctly identify the subject of knowledge from the various available sources. If the subject of such knowledge is conducive to their welfare, they should happily accept it – just as they would accept beautiful jewellery, sandal paste and gold. If they determine the subject of knowledge to be marring their welfare, they should shun it – just as they would shun a blade or a thorn. If the subject of knowledge is known to be different from either of these options, it should be disregarded, just as a log of wood or a bag of sand.

With this background, when we analyze the three pramANas namely prathyaksha (perception), anumAna (inference) and Agama (authentic scriptures), we conclude that the various subjects professed by them leading us to wealth (artha) and other material desires (kAma) are to be shunned due to their nature of being limited, spoiling, frightening, momentary, sadness-filled and difficult-to-earn, and hence being respite with unlimited faults. On the other hand, the qualities of righteousness (dharma) and salvation (parathathva/moksha) professed by the scriptures (SAsthras) are full of auspiciousness, and are opposite in nature to the former two. Hence the latter need to be sought by the learned people.

The authors of ithihAsas and purANas (historical scriptures) unanimously declare thus: “It is true. It is true. We reiterate that it is true. With raised shoulders (palm over head), we repeat it is only true that there is no scripture higher than the vEdhas and there is no God superior to kESava”.

vEdhas hold the prime position as the source of all the fourteen vidhyAs expounded by the ithihAsas and purANas. It is said that the vEdhas should be explained with the help of ithihAsas and purANas, without which the vEdha mAthA (SAsthram in the form of a mother) fears deception by the expounder. When the vEdhas are to be expounded thus, more prominence is given to ithihAsas than purANas. Among the ithihAsas, the learned people give the same prominence to mahAbhAratha as much as they revere SrImadh rAmAyaNa.

Even in the mahAbhAratha itself, the chapter of SrI viShNu sahasranAma is to be held in high reverence in comparison to the others. The reasons are thus:

  1. This is the essence of mahAbhAratha
  2. This has been sung by various sages (rishis) in various forms
  3. This has been compiled by none other than the vEdhAchArya SrI vyAsa maharishi
  4. This has been glorified as the supreme of all prayers by bhIshma himself
  5. This has been accepted with high reverence by the most learned people of yore
  6. This has been held in par with the SrI bhagavath gIthA in expounding esoteric meanings

2. SrI viShNu sahasranAmam – essence of mahAbhAratha

Many learned scholars have accepted mahAbhAratha as the source of all knowledge, with special reverence. It has been accepted thus, due to its properties of flawlessness and crystal-clear elucidation. This has also been held in high esteem by the various purANas due to the fact that this is a historical account (and not just a story).

The vAyu purANa and Siva purANa declare that vEdha vyAsa churned the ocean of vEdhas with his mind and gave the moon named “mahAbhAratha” for the welfare of this world. The bhavishyath purANa says – the essence of all Sasthras has been given in a beautiful poetic work by vEdha vyAsa, since a common man would shudder at the very thought of learning the deep meanings of the endless vEdas, just as he would shudder at the thought of drinking a bitter medicine. The mathsya purANa says – from whom SrI vEdha vyAsa was born, who in turn was the cause for the birth of the moon called “mahAbhAratha”. SrI parASara maharishi proudly declares in SrI vishNu purANa thus – “Hey maithrEya, know my son krishNadhvaipAyana or vyAsa to be nArAyaNa himself, for – who else on earth, if not him, would author a scripture of the magnitude of mahAbhAratha?” The mArkaNdEya purANa says – the flood of vyAsa’s words started from the mountain of vEdhas and uprooted the trees of unrighteousness, thus purifying this world. In addition to all these and more, the mahAbhAratha itself declares thus:

“A brAhmaNa by knowledge of all four vEdhas, along with knowing the limbs of vEdhas as well as the upanishaths, would still be considered as unlearned as long as he has not studied the ithihAsa called mahAbhAratha in detail”.

Since the mahAbhAratha is in line with vEdhas along with its limbs, smrithis (works born out of memory), ithihAsa and purANas, it is rightly said “What can be found here, can surely be found everywhere else; what is not found here will never be found anywhere else”. The mahAbhAratha – due to its expounding of all material and spiritual meanings in line with vEdhas in a fully unbiased manner – is studied by the most learned scholars as being superior to even the purANas.

In the very heart of such mahAbhAratha is where the SrI viShNu sahasranAma chapter lies. This chapter is befittingly placed in the anuSAsanika parva, in the context of explaining the various righteous deeds such as charitable activities (dhAna-dharma) after discussing the various meanings in the SAsthras. This chapter truly lies as the essence of all the discussions regarding righteousness in this parva. For all the aforesaid reasons, it can certainly be concluded that the SrI viShNu sahasranAma is one ultimate source of true knowledge, and that the true intention of this chapter is to preach the esoteric meanings of all the vEdhas. Also, since this is considered as a pramANa (source of knowledge) beyond doubts, and since it propounds the highest philosophy of all, the seekers genuinely in pursuit of true knowledge and their own welfare should give in to SrI viShNu sahasranAmam for the best results.

3. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – sung by hermits, and compiled by vyAsa

The viShNu sahasranAma chapter has been sung by various sages with all devotion. This can also be stated as a sole reason for holding this chapter in high esteem.

Also, the vEdhAchArya SrI krishNadhvaipAyana vyAsa maharishi is the supreme Lord SrIman nArAyaNa Himself – the most compassionate. Being an incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and hence possessing a multitude of auspicious qualities such as boundless knowledge, power etc, and also having no limiting qualities such as forgetfulness, confusions etc, He had the capacity to divide the vEdhas into four. With this capacity, He authored the fifth vEdha known as the mahAbhAratha in order to uplift the less knowledgeable people affected by the kali age. He authored the mahAbhAratha in order to clear all confusions and doubts that could be raised by the dull-heads due to their ignorance in practicing the principles laid down by the scriptures in this age.

Being the great grandson of the glorious vaSishta maharishi – who, by his own words, made a warrior viSvAmithra perform penance and turn into a brAhmaNa (by knowledge); being the son of parASara maharshi – who gained the divine knowledge about the Supreme Self by the grace of vaSishta and pulasthya and hence authored many purANas and samhithAs, and who has also greatly gained accolades in many other purANas including linga purANa etc;  having gained a high reverence among the most learned scholarly sages (parama rishis), due to His extraordinary penance, and experience of God; sage vEdha vyAsa has given us the SrI viShNu sahasranAma chapter with the thousand names strung into a sthOthra form, which were previously sung and glorified by the sages of the rank of vaSishta and parASara. Thus the vishNu sahasranAma chapter is to be considered as the most sacred and should certainly be sought by one and all.

4. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – glorified by bhIshma 

Further, SrI viShNu sahasranAma is glorified by bhIshma as his best choice of prayers. bhIshma is also to be trusted as much as vEdha vyAsa himself. For the same reason, bhagavAn vyAsa – while explaining the royal duties and rights to yudhishTira – speaks thus:

“Hey yudhishtra, if you wish to listen to all the righteous duties, go to the elderly and wise bhIshma pithAmaha. He – being the son of gangA, and the all-knowing wise man – will clear all your doubts in the esoteric scriptures. He is the one who has seen indra and other Gods in reality, and all the brahmarishis approach him as his audience (in learning the deep hidden meanings in the scriptures). There is nothing that he doesn’t know. He is full of knowledge, and can clear all your doubts”.

The Supreme Lord Himself speaks thus, in glory of bhIshma – “bhIshma, who is reclining on the arrow-bed, is now slowly giving up his life, just as fire dies down slowly. He – the lion among men – is contemplating upon me during his last moments in this world. Therefore, even my mind has reached him. He is the valiant one who holds many glorious weapons, and is truly intelligent. He is the one who has filled in his mind all four vEdhas along with their limbs. Therefore, I have reached him mentally. He only knows what happened in the past, what would happen in the future, and what is happening at present. He is the best among men practicing righteousness. Thus my mind has reached him. If that grandsire of the kuru clan – bhIshma – passes away, the knowledge in this world is sure to decline. Thus, oh king yudhishtra! I recommend you go to him (to learn all the royal duties and righteousness, before he passes).”

krishNa has also addressed bhIshma thus: “Oh bhIshma, that which the pANdavas ask you and that which you advice them to follow would be well rooted in this Earth as the very own words of vEdas for all the future generations to benefit from. All that has happened in the past, all that happens in the future, and all that is happening right now are clearly known to you – the most learned – like a fruit in your palm. I (The Supreme Self) know what you are! With the powers that you have gained out of your penance, you are capable of creating all worlds and all creatures in them. Your powers know no contraction; your knowledge has no taints. Your mind is well rooted and always residing in sattva guNa. It is untouched by rajas and thamas, and is distinctly shining like the moon in the sky that is untouched by the passing clouds.

Sage nAradha has spoken thus, in praise of bhIshma: “All dharmas that need to be known by all four classes of people – brAhmaNa, kshatriya, vaishya and SUdra – are known to bhIshma. So rush to him and get all the doubts nested in your minds cleared right away”. Having praised bhIshma as the one who has spent his lifetime serving many learned sages and the elderly people, the one who has strictly adhered to the vow of celibacy for a long time, the one who has performed penance and the one who has attained a spiritual union with the Supreme Self and thus possesses boundless knowledge, bhagavAn nAradha has granted him the powers to profess the supreme philosophy and righteousness in this world, and has appointed him for this purpose.

By the blessings that he obtained having served his parents, bhIshma has himself spoken thus: “Hey gOvindha! Thirst, passion, weakness and pain have all subsided now by your grace. Hey achyutha! All the past, present and future are now known to me as clearly as a fruit in my palm, by your divine grace. All dharmas spoken in the vEdhas and upanishaths are now seen by me due to your grace, oh achyuta! Hey janArdhana, having meditated upon you endlessly, I am now as energetic as a youth. I have now become capable of preaching the dharmas that bestow welfare to this world, and this – again – is by your grace!” Having spoken thus, bhIshma has clearly indicated his knowledge of the Supreme Self. Such well learned bhIshma has declared “This is – in my knowledge – the best of all dharmas”. Thus, the vishNu sahasranAma is to be considered as the most sacred and sought by one and all.

5. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – upheld by all SAsthras as well as unlearned and the dumb

The vishNu sahasranAma chapter has been well accepted by everyone in this world due to its greatness. Thus, bhagavAn athri maharishi has addressed the Supreme Self as ‘the God with thousand names’ in the sabhA parva of mahAbhAratha, and thus upheld the greatness of the sahasranAma chapter. Even in the vishNudharmam, the Supreme Self is referred thus during SrI gajEndhra-mOksham: “The one with thousand auspicious names, the absolute cause of all creations, the one who has no births (due to karma) and the all-pervading Self”. Even here, the great limitless auspicious qualities of bhagavAn are expounded – both at the beginning and at the end of the work.

Even in many other material and spiritual sciences such as Ayurvedha, the greatness of the thousand names of the Lord are extensively discussed. The charaka samhithA, for instance, declares thus: “A sick man would be free from all diseases if he sincerely prays to vishNu – the thousand (infinite)-headed, the ruler of all moveable and immoveable entities, and the all-pervading Self – with His thousand names”. Even in the current times, the remedies to various urinary complications indicate the chanting of purusha sUktham at first, and also strongly recommend chanting of the thousand names of the Lord contained in the mahAbhAratha. The chanting of sahasranAma – the thousand glorious names of the Lord – has been suggested as a sure remedy to various respiratory disorders as well. As a remedy to various kinds of fevers, the scriptures recommend performing the oblations (hOmas) as detailed by them, followed by chanting of the vishNu sahasranAmam. The remedial procedures for planetary positions also suggest the chanting of SrI viShNu sahasranAma in addition to the maruth-sUktham. It is further recommended that the true seeker search for more of such proofs as desired.

Even the ordinary poets and other mortals also project these thousand names of the Lord as the saviour of all lives. For instance, bhattabANa – while picturing the maternity room – says that the vishNu sahasranAma is chanted endlessly. These thousand names of vishNu are considered as the best for listening, chanting, singing, writing, commenting, and sincere worshipping. Chanting of these names is the best suited remedy for curing all types of difficulties posed by poisons, demons, diseases, planets, bad dreams, bad omens, and all other inauspicious entities in this world. It is also considered the best for gaining both material and spiritual benefits, releasing oneself from the bonds of this samsAra, reaching the Supreme abode SrIvaikuntham of vishNu, as also in enjoying the sweetness of the nectar of the divine qualities of vishNu to the fullest. This is also considered as the best for all classes of people such as children, the dumb, the stupid, women, and the non-believers of God. It is in fact considered as the best medicine for all these classes of people. Such wide acceptance is not found even for the vEdhas, since the ignorant wouldn’t accept them, and also since the vEdhas have wide restrictions in terms of who can study them and who cannot. Thus, the vishNu sahasranAma with such wide acceptance should certainly be sought by the wise.

6. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – Equivalent to SrI bhagavath gIthA, nArAyaNIyam, yAna sandhi

SrI viShNu sahasranAma chapter provides us with the same meanings as expounded in the other parts of mahAbhAratha, namely SrI bhagavath gIthA, nArAyaNIya, yAna sandhi, agra pUjA, uththama anushAsana etc. Even for this reason, the sahasranAma adhyAyam is to be considered as very sacred and sought by the wise men.

In light of the six reasons as detailed here, it can be concluded that the chapter of thousand names of the Lord – SrI viShNu sahasranAmam – should be studied by one and all for their own benefit. In addition, the initial discourse on the thousand names of vishNu by bhIshma pithAmaha in the war field from the arrow-bed was graced by the greatest of sages like vyAsa, dhEvashravas, dhEvasthAna, nAradha, vAthsya, Ashma, sumanthu, and other brahmarishis and dhEvarshis – who are the authorities of all knowledge expounded in the vEdas – as his audience. The session was also attended by none other than the Master of all, the expounder of SrI bhagavath gIthA (gIthOpanishath), the foremost among the Acharyas, the Lotus eyed bhagavAn SrI krishNa Himself, and was accepted by Him as a prayer par excellence. I seek to write a treatise on these thousand glorious names of bhagavAn – the vishNu sahasranAma adhyAyam – with an intention of elaborating on His most auspicious qualities.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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జ్ఞానసారము 8

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భువనం ఎల్లాం = సకల భువనములు
ముఱ్ఱ  ఉండ =  ఒక్కటి కూడా విడువక భుజించి తన గర్భమున దాచుకున్న
ముగిల్వణ్ణన్ = నీలమేఘ చ్చాయ గలవాడి
కఱ్ఱై తుళాయ్ సేర్ = సువాసనలు వెదజల్లు తులసి మాలను ధరించిన వాడి
కళలన్ఱి = శ్రీపాదములు తప్ప
మఱ్ఱొన్ఱై = వేరొక ప్రయోజనమును
ఇచ్చియా అన్ బర్ = కోరని భక్తులు
తనక్కు = భగవంతుడైన తనకు
ఎంగనే సెయిదిడినుం = కైంకర్యములు ఎలా చేసినా
ఉగందు = సంతోషించి
ఉచ్చియాల్ ఏఱ్కుం = తల మీద పెట్టుకుంటాడు


శేషత్వము తప్ప మరే ఇతర ప్రయోజనములను ఆశించక ఆయన మీద అపారమైన ప్రీతిని కలిగివున్న వారు ,దాసత్వములో క్రమము తప్పినను భగవంతుడు దానిని దోషముగా భావించక ప్రేమతో స్వీకరిస్తాడు. గీతలో తన భక్తులు భక్తితో ఇచ్చిన పత్రం,పుష్పం, ఫల, తోయం ఏదైనా ప్రీతితో స్వీరిస్తానని చెప్పాడు. ఆ భావమే ఈ పాశురములో చెప్పబడింది.


” ముఱ్ఱ భువనం ఎల్లాం ఉండ ముగిల్వణ్ణన్ ” ప్రళయ కాలములో సమస్త జీవరాశులను నాశము కానీయకుండా తన ఉదరములో భద్రపరచిన చరిత్ర చెప్పబడుతున్నది.ఈ విధముగా లోక రక్షణ చేసి అది చేతనోధ్ధరణ కోసము కాక తన కోసమే  అన్నట్లు ఆయన నీల మేఘ వర్ణ  శరీరము తెలియజేస్తున్నది. ఎందుకంటే మేఘములు లోక కల్యాణార్థము వర్షిస్తుంది, భగవంతుడు తన భక్తుల కోసమే దయను కురిపిస్తాడని బోధ పడుతున్నది. పాశురము లో  ‘తాయిరుక్కుం వణ్ణమే ఉమ్మై తన్ వయిఱ్ఱిరుందు ఉయ్యకొండాన్ ‘ ( సృష్టి చేసే క్రమములోఅనే నిన్ను రక్షించాడు) అని చెప్పినట్లుగా ప్రళయ కాలములో లోకములను వాటికి తెలియని తనకు మాత్రమే తెలిసిన సంబంధమే కారణముగా రక్షించి, అది కూడా తనకోసమే  చేసినట్లుగా భావించి తన రూపములో ఆ విషయమును స్పష్టము చేసాడు అని చెప్పబడింది.

కఱ్ఱై తుళాయ్ సేర్ కళలన్ఱి – ఇక్కడ భగవంతుడీ శ్రీపాదములను మహత్యము చెప్పబడింది. భూమిలో పరిగే తులసి కమే ఆయన శ్రీపాదములపై ఉన్న తులసి ప్రకాసమానముగా వుంటుంది . ఎందు వలన అంటే ఆయన తిరుమేని సంబంధమే కారణము.  ఈ వర్ణన వలన భగవంతుడీ శ్రీపాదములకు అందము,ఔన్నత్యము అనేక రెట్లు పెరుగుతుంది.

– మఱ్ఱొన్ఱై ఇచ్చియా అన్ బర్ – పరమ భక్తులైన వారు అటువంటి శ్రీపాదములను తప్ప మరి ఇతరములను ఆశ్రయించము, అంటున్నారు .  లోకములో భగవంతుడిని పూజించేవారు ఆయన మీది ప్రీతితో కాక తమ కోరికలు తీర్చుకోవటము కోసామే చేయడము మనము చూస్తూనే ఉంటాము. అలా కాక ఆండాళ్ తల్లి చెప్పినట్లుగా ,’ నూరు తడా అక్కార వడిశలుం సొన్నేన్ నూరు తడావిల్ వెణ్ణై వై నేర్దు పరావివైత్తేణ్ ( నీకు ఇష్టమైన నూరు గంగాళాల అక్కర వడిసల్, నూరు గంగాళాల వెన్న సమర్పిస్తాను) .దీనిని నువ్వు స్వీకరిస్తే ఒక్కొదానికి నూరు చొప్పున ఇంకా సమర్పిస్తానూ అనే వారెవరు? నిజమైన భక్తులు భగవంతుడు స్వీకరించడమే పరమ ప్రయోజనముగా భావిస్తారు. వీరినే అన్య ప్రయోజనమాశించని భక్తులని లోకము కీర్తిస్తుంది.

తనక్కు ఎంగనే సెయిదిడినుం- అఒతటి భక్తి గలవారు భగవాంతుడికి కైంకర్యము చేయునపుడు క్రమము తప్పినను….

ఉచ్చియాల్ ఏఱ్కుం ఉగందు –  మహా ప్రీతితో తల మీద పెట్టుకుంటాడని అర్థము. అనగా భక్తుడు కాలితో విసిరి వేసినా తలతో స్వీకరిస్తారనీ అంటున్నారు. ఉదాహరణకు.. పెరుమాళ్ళ కోసము కట్టి వుంచిన పూల మాలను ఆండాళ్ తల్లి తాను ధరించి అందము చూసుకున్నది . అప్పుడు ఆ మాలలో ఆమె తల వెంట్రుక ఒకటి చిక్కుకున్నది. ఆమాలను చూసిన పెరియాళ్వార్లు దానిని విసిరివేశి మరొక మాలను కట్టి తీసుకు వెళ్ళారు.   కాని పెరుమాళ్ళు తనకు ఆమాలె కావాలని అడిగి ధరించిన విషయము జగద్విదితము. ఇటువంటివి ఎన్నో ఉదాహరణలు భక్తులపై భగవంతుది  ప్రీతిని తెలియజేసేవి చూడవచ్చు.

అడియేన్ చూడామణి రామానుజ దాసి


పొందుపరిచిన స్థానము:

ప్రమేయము (గమ్యము) –
ప్రమాణము (ప్రమాణ గ్రంథములు) –
ప్రమాత (ఆచార్యులు) –
శ్రీవైష్ణవ విద్య / పిల్లల కోసం–

mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 12 – sevi vAy kaN

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In the earlier pAsuram, AzhwAr said that only emperumAn is the entity to be held on to. In this pAsuram, he says that bhakthi (devotion) is the path through which he is to be attained.

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings.

sevi vAy kaN mUkku udal enRu aimpulanum sendhI
puvi kAl nIr viN bUtham aindhum aviyAdha
gyAnamum vELviyum nallaRamum enbarE
EnamAy ninRArkku iyalvu

Word by Word Meanings

sevi vAy kaN mUkku udal – ear, mouth, eye, nose and body [skin]
enRu aimpulanum – the five sensory organs
sendhI puvi kAl nIr viN – fire, earth, wind, water and sky [ether]
bUtham aindhum – the five elements
aviyAdha gyAnamum – gyAna (knowledge) which is the indestructible form of bhakthi (devotion)
vELviyum nallaRamum – karmas (deeds such as agnihOthram, a ritual) and auspicious qualities
EnamAy ninRArkku iyalvu enbarE – are the path to attain varAhap perumAL, say people (how ignorant!)


sevi vAy …AzhwAr lists the lowest level of entities for those who follow bhakthiyOgam (devotion as a means of attaining emperumAn). prakruthi (primordial matter) is at the lowest level to be known. jIvAthmA is at a higher level, to be known. emperumAn is at the highest level and is to be attained. AzhwAr has first listed the five sensory organs viz. ear, mouth, eye, nose and skin. Mentioning these five implies the five organs of action (speech, hands, legs and the excretory organs) for carrying out tasks.

sendhI puvi kAl nIr viN bUtham aindhum – this refers to the five elements of fire, earth, wind, water and ether and by implication, their subtle elements of form, smell, feel, taste and sound respectively. Thus the five sensory organs, the five organs of action, the five elements and the five subtle elements, totalling twenty entities are mentioned. Taken together with prakruthi (primordial matter), mahAn (the derivative of prakruthi), ahankAram (ego) and manas (mind), these twenty four would together make up the body. Hence we must take it that AzhwAr is talking about the physical body here.

aviyAdha gyAnamum – the unquenchable knowledge. This term refers to bhakthi (devotion), which like a stream of oil, flows uniformly without any distraction. In vEdhArtha sangraham it is said “bhakthiScha gyAna viSEsha: eva” (bhakthi is a type of gyAna only). Hence gyAna here refers to bhakthi.

vELviyum – deeds like carrying out yagya (rites) for development of bhakthi and for overcoming sins, without focussing on the end result. brahma sUthram 4-1-16 says “agnihOthrAdhi thu thath kAryAyaiva thath dharSanAth” (deeds such as agnihOthram (a type of ritual with agni, fire) are to be carried out for the development of bhakthi, since it is seen this way in vEdham). brahma sUthram 41-12 says “AprayaNAth thathrApi hi dhrushtam” (one should observe such deeds till the end of one’s life. Such rules are seen at all times). bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6-4-22 says “thamEtham vEdhAnuvachanEna brAhmaNA vividhishanthi yagyEna dhAnEna thapasA anASakEna ” (the brahmagyAnis (those who know about emperumAn) like to know about the supreme entity through practicing of vEdha, yagya, dhAna (charity), thapas (penance) without desire in the end result). From all these it is to be known that deeds, which are carried out for creation of bhakthi and for its development, are the path to attain emperumAn.

nallaRamum – ability to distinguish between good and bad, as well as qualities such as compassion, charity etc are referred to by this word.

enbarE – these are famously mentioned in SAsthrams such as vEdham (sacred texts).

EnamAy ninRArkku iyalvu – all the above mentioned are considered as paths to attain emperumAn who is simplicity personified and who helps those who are in danger. Even if these are the means, it is emperumAn who gives the result [purushArthtam] as is brought about by the usage of the term “EnamAy ninRAr” (one who stood as a boar). emperumAn himself has said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 12-6 and 12-7 “yE thu sarvANi karmANi mayi sanyasya mathparA: | ananyEnaiva yOgEna mAm upAsithE  || thEshAm aham samudhdhArthA mruthyu samsAra sAgarAth | bhavAmi nachirAth pArtha mayyAvESith chEthasAm ||” (arjuna! I lift from the ocean of samsAra (materialistic realm) which takes people towards destruction, those who submit all their karmas (deeds or activities) to me  and who consider me as the end result, without looking for any other result [such as wealth, kaivalyam (soul enjoying itself) etc] through the path of meditation, worship etc, with total dedication).

Thus, AzhwAr divines through these that bhakthi is the path to attain emperumAn. There is another interpretation too for this pAsuram. Instead of assuming that the pAsuram is specifying the path of sAdhana bhakthi (carrying out devotion as a means of attaining emperumAn), one can consider that it is referring to AzhwAr’s sAdhya bhakthi (carrying out devotion to spend one’s time on earth after surrendering to emperumAn) which is a part of his experience in this world. Or, it can be assumed that he is condemning sAdhana bhakthi and is recommending us to carry out prapaththi (surrendering to emperumAn). In this case, for the word enbarE one should consider the meaning as mentioned in pAsuram 4aran aRivAnAm” viz. “people are interpreting like this. How ignorant are they!” In that case, the following meanings should be considered:

sevi vAy ….AzhwAr mentions about the five sensory organs which wade into matters other than emperumAn, the five elements which are the causative factors for the sense organs, (the physical) body which was created by these five elements, the knowledge which is focussed on other matters (than on emperumAn) and says, when no one sought him at the time of danger, emperumAn himself came as a huge boar to save the earth from deluge. Finally he condemns them saying, would these (the sensory organs, elements, body, knowledge etc) be the sAdhanam (means) for attaining emperumAn? nammAzhwAr too, in his thiruviruththam 99 says “gyAnappirAnai allAl illai nAn kaNda nalladhuvE” (there is no means other than knowledge personified varAha [boar] among all the means). During deluge, no one prayed to him; yet he came and saved all. Hence he is the means to be considered.

We shall next consider 13th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 11 – vAy avanai alladhu

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AzhwAr says that even if he wishes to move away from emperumAn, who is the protector of all, his senses will not leave emperumAn and praise anyone else. Just as emperumAn will not stop from protecting the worlds, AzhwAr’s senses will also not stop from praising emperumAn. Redeeming his senses from emperumAn is as difficult as making someone to get involved with emperumAn.


vAy avanai alladhu vAzhththAdhu kai ulagam
thAyavanai alladhu thAm thozhA pEy mulai nanju
UNAga uNdAn uruvodu pEr allAl
kANA kaN kELa sevi

Word by Word Meanings

vAy – (my) mouth
avanai alladhu – other than emperumAn
vAzhththAdhu – will not praise
kai thAm – the hands themselves
ulagam thAyavanai alladhu – other than thrivikraman who measured all the worlds by growing
thozhA – will not worship (anyone else)
pEy mulai nanju – the poison which was applied to pUthanA’s bosom
UNAga uNdAn – one who drank the milk as his food (to sustain himself)
uruvodu pErallAl – other than his divine form and his divine names
kaN kANA, sevi kELA – eyes will not see; ears will not listen to.


vAy avanai alladhu vAzhththAdhu – my mouth will not praise anyone other than emperumAn. Even if it is asked to praise others like the people of the world do, it would not do so.

kai ulagam thAyavanai alladhu thAm thozhA – my hands will not worship anyone other than the entity who kept his divine feet on the heads of all the people in the world when he went about the task of measuring the worlds. He did this even when nobody asked him to keep his divine feet on their heads. Even when I prevent my hands from worshipping, they will worship him automatically, after seeing the simplicity of emperumAn. His divine feet are such that they will make the hands of those who do not worship him, to worship him!

pEy mulai nanju UNAga uNdAn – the term pEy refers to pUthanA, the demon friend of kamsa. She came as if she could not live without giving him her milk. He [krishNa] also drank that milk as if he could not live if he had not consumed that milk.

uruvodu pErallAl kANA kaN kELA sevi – my eyes will not see any form other than emperumAn’s; my ears will not listen to anyone’s name other than emperumAn’s.

AzhwAr thus describes how all his sensory organs had got engaged with emperumAn. Is he not hrishIkESan! (one who controls senses)

We shall take up the 12th pAsuram next.

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 10 – maNNum malaiyum

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In the earlier pAsuram, AzhwAr mentioned that with a huge form, he carried out a small task (of begging King mahAbali). In this pAsuram, he talks about carrying out a huge task (swallowing the entire world) with a small form [he lay down as a child on the leaf of a banyan tree after swallowing all the worlds].

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings first.

maNNum malaiyum maRi kadalum mArudhamum
viNNum vizhungiyadhu meyyenbar eNNil
alagu aLavu kaNda sIr AzhiyAykku anRu iv
vulagu aLavu uNdO un vAy

Word by Word Meanings

maNNum – the earth
malaiyum – the mountains
maRi kadalum – the oceans which throw up waves constantly
mArudhamum – the air
viNNum – the sky [all these]
vizhungiyadhu – ate up
mey enbar – (rishis, sages) will say that it is true
eNNil – if one were to delve into this
alagu aLavu kaNda sIr AzhiyAykku – one who has seen the boundary (limitlessness) of auspicious qualities and who has the divine chakra (disc)
anRu –  during that time
un vAy – your divine mouth
ivvulagu aLavum uNdO – was it bigger than the worlds


maNNum – the earth, which supports all the entities in the world

malaiyum – the mountains which serve the earth

maRi kadalum – the oceans which surround the earth and throw up the waves

mArudhamum – air which is required for living beings to breathe and for supporting them

viNNum – the skies which provide space for the aforementioned entities

vizhungiyadhu meyyenbar – vEdham and rishis,  who speak only truth, say that you had swallowed all the above mentioned entities like butter, to contain them in a small portion of your stomach.

Normally when one recounts the five elements, in thamizh, the usage is maNNum punalum (earth, water etc). Why did AzhwAr say earth, mountains etc? When he swallowed all the entities, he did not swallow them in any order! That he swallowed these was true is claimed by vEdhas and those who are highly knowledgeable in vEdhas (rishis or sages).

eNNil – if we have to get a measure of such you [you refers to emperumAn]

alagu aLavu kaNda sIr AzhiyAykku – alagu refers to the instrument used for measuring. It has several units of measurement such as lakhs, crores, Sankam, mahASankam, padhmam, kumudham etc. The count of auspicious qualities that you have is so huge that these units cannot measure them. He has auspicious qualities and weapons such as the divine disc. It is said “mathikshayAnnivarthathE na gOvindha guNakshayAth” (I am unable to about the qualities of gOvindha, not because of any shortcoming of his qualities but due to shortcoming of my knowledge).

anRu ivvulagaLavum uNdO un vAy – on that day when you swallowed all the worlds to keep them safely in your divine stomach, was your divine mouth bigger than these worlds to enable you to swallow them? AzhwAr hints here that with a small mouth, he was able to swallow such large dimensional worlds, thus exhibiting his wondrous activity.

We shall move on to the 11th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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शरणागति गद्य – चूर्णिका 5 – भाग 5

श्री: श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नम:

शरणागति गद्य

<< चूर्णिका 5 – भाग 4

namperumal-thiruvadiश्रीरंगनाथ भगवान के चरणकमल

आईये अब हम इस चूर्णिका के अंतिम भाग को जानते है-

अनालोचित विशेष अशेषलोक शरण्य ! प्रणतार्तिहर ! आश्रित वात्सल्यैक जलधे ! अनवरत विधित निखिल भूत जात याथात्म्य ! अशेष चराचरभूत निखिल नियम निरत ! अशेष चिदचिद्वस्तु शेषीभूत ! निखिल जगदाधार ! अखिल जगत् स्वामिन् ! अस्मत् स्वामिन् ! सत्यकाम ! सत्यसंकल्प ! श्रीमन्नारायण ! अशरण्यशरण्य ! अनन्य शरण: त्वत् पादारविंद युगलं शरणं अहं प्रपद्ये II अत्र द्वयं II

अनालोचित विशेष अशेष लोक शरण्य – सम्पूर्ण ब्रह्माण्ड में विशेष योग्यता से निरपेक्ष सभी प्राणियों के लिए मात्र भगवान ही शरणागतों के आश्रय है । वे यह विचार नहीं करते कि वह प्राणी किसी उच्च कुल में जन्मा अथवा धनवान या वेद / शास्त्र में निपुण है या नहीं । रामावतार में विभीषण भगवान की शरण में शरणागत होने के लिए आते है तब सुग्रीव द्वारा यह कहने पर कि भगवान को विभीषण को स्वीकार नहीं करना चाहिए, भगवान श्रीराम उनसे कहते है कि वे सभी को स्वीकार करते है फिर चाहे उनमें कोई भी दोष हो। श्री रामायण में एक श्लोक है, जिसे श्रीराम चरम श्लोक कहा जाता है, जिसमें भगवान कहते है कि “सभी शरणागतों की रक्षा करना, उनका संकल्प है”।

प्रणतार्तिहर प्रणत अर्थात् वे जो उनके शरणागत होते है । आर्ति अर्थात् भगवान के श्रीचरणों में सदा रहने की अतीव चाहना करनेवाले । हर अर्थात् हटाने/दूर करनेवाले । इसप्रकार, भगवान् अपने आश्रितों की आर्तता को दूर करके अपनी शरण में सभी को अपनाते है ।

आश्रित वात्सल्यैक जलधे – जैसा की हम पूर्व में देख चुके है, वात्सल्य अर्थात् अपने आश्रितों के दोषों को भी उनके सद्गुण जानना जैसे एक गाय अपने नए जन्मे बछड़े के शरीर की सभी गंद को चाटकर साफ करती है और उसे साफ़ बनाती है। जलधि अर्थात् सिन्धु । अपने आश्रितों पर भगवान् का जो वात्सल्य है वह सिन्धु के समान अपार है ।

अनवरतविधित निखिल भूतजात याथात्म्य – निखिल अर्थात् सभी। भूत अर्थात सभी तत्व । जात अर्थात प्रकार । अनवरत अर्थात् निरन्तर/ सतत (बिना रोक के); विधित अर्थात विभिन्न । याथात्म्य अर्थात सच्चा स्वरुप । वे सभी तत्वों के चरम सत्य को जानते है। भगवान के समक्ष जाने के लिए हमें यह कहने की आवश्यकता नहीं है कि “मैं अच्छा प्राणी नहीं अथवा मुझ में अनंत दोष है” क्यूंकि वे पहले से ही हमारे विषय में सब जानते है।

अशेष चराचरभूत निखिल नियम निरतअशेष अर्थात् कुछ भी छोड़े बिना; चराचरभूत अर्थात् सभी चल और अचल तत्व; निखिल अर्थात् सभी; नियमन् अर्थात संचालित/ नियंत्रण करने का सामर्थ्य; निरत अर्थात संलग्न होना । भगवान् सभी तत्वों को सभी समय संचालित और नियंत्रित करने का सामर्थ्य रखते है । वे किसी भी तत्व को यह कहकर नहीं त्याग सकते कि वह उनके नियंत्रण में नहीं है। श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी यहाँ दर्शाते है कि यह संसार और वे स्वयं दोनों ही भगवान के आधीन है। तो क्या वह श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी और संसार के मध्य की डोर को काट नहीं सकते?

अशेष चिदचिद्वस्तु शेषीभूतचित और अचित, अर्थात् चल और अचल क्रमशः। शेषी अर्थात स्वामी/नाथ। वे सभी जगत् के स्वामी और नाथ है। यहाँ श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी जो दर्शाना चाहते है वह यह कि जब भगवान् ही मेरे के स्वामी है, तब क्या उन तक पहुँचने के लिए जो आवश्यकता है वे स्वयं पूर्ण नहीं करेंगे?

निखिल जगदाधार – वे सभी जगत् के आधारभूत है। वे उनके भी रक्षक है, जो दोषों में निवृत्त है। आप ही मेरे अस्तित्व के आधार है और आप ही मेरी रक्षा करे, ऐसा श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी कहते है।

अखिल जगत् स्वामिन् – वे समस्त ब्रह्माण्ड के स्वामी है। वे हमारे दोषों को दूर कर हमारे ह्रदय में ये इच्छा जागृत करते है कि शरणागति मार्ग को अपनाकर हम उन तक पहुँच सके।

अस्मत् स्वामिन् – सिर्फ यही स्मरण करना कि भगवान ब्रह्माण्ड के स्वामी है, पर्याप्त नहीं है। मुझे यह स्वीकार करना होगा और उन्हें बताना होगा कि वो ही दास के भी स्वामी है। श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी यह दर्शाने के लिए कि भगवान की ही प्रेरणा से मैं उन तक पहुंचा और शरणागति की, वे विशेष रूप से कहते है आप मेरे भी स्वामी है।

सत्यकाम – यह तृतीय बार है जब यह शब्द- सत्यकाम और इसके अगला शब्द – सत्यसंकल्प का उल्लेख किया गया है। परंतु हर अवसर पर यह शब्द भिन्न अर्थ और संदर्भ में प्रयोग किया जाता है। प्रथम बार जब श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी ने भगवान के दिव्य गुणों के वर्णन हेतु इस शब्द का उपयोग किया था, तब इसका भावार्थ आश्रितों द्वारा इच्छित सद्गुणों को धारण करनेवाले भगवान् से था। द्वितीय संदर्भ में, यह भगवान की नित्य और लीला विभूतियों में जीवात्माओं को संचालित करने की इच्छा को प्रकट करता है। यहाँ (तृतीय बार), यह दर्शाता है कि भगवान ही है जिनकी कोई अभिलाषा अपूर्ण नहीं है। वे सभी इच्छाओं की पूर्णता से पूरी तरह से तृप्त है। दैनिक प्रार्थना (तिरुआराधन) और अनुष्ठानों में हम उन्हें जो भी अर्पण करते है, वे उसी से प्रसन्न हो जाते है। ऐसा कुछ भी नहीं है जो उनके समक्ष नहीं है जिसे मैं अर्पण कर उन्हें संतुष्ट कर सकता हूँ।

सत्यसंकल्प – प्रथम बार में इस शब्द का प्रयोग उनके गुणानुवाद की युति में हुआ था, अर्थात् उन दुर्लभ वस्तुओं की रचना के सामर्थ्य से है जो कभी व्यर्थ नहीं होती। द्वितीय बार में इसका अर्थ था कि जब भी भगवान् किसी को मोक्ष (श्रीवैकुण्ठ) प्रदान करने का निर्णय करते है, वे बिना किसी बाधा के उसे पूर्ण करते है। यहाँ पर इस शब्द का अर्थ है वह योग्यता जिसके द्वारा विसंगत तत्वों को आपस में साथ रखा जाता है । वे जीवात्मा को श्रीवैकुण्ठ पहुंचाते है और उसे सभी नित्यसुरियों में संयुक्त करते है और फिर वे सभी जीवात्मा का प्रसन्नता से स्वागत करते है ।

सकलेतर विलक्षण – सभी अन्य तत्वों में श्रेष्ठ । वे स्वरुप और गुणों के संदर्भ में सभी से श्रेष्ठ है। उनके यह गुण और स्वरूप भी उनके आश्रितों के आनंद हेतु है और स्वयं भगवान् के लिए नहीं । वे सभी के रक्षक  है । यह गुण तभी पूर्ण है जब उनके गुणों का आनंद सभी प्राप्त करे । एक प्राणी की रक्षा ना हो पाए तो भगवान उसे गंभीरता से लेते है । इसलिए श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी कहते है कि चूँकि वे इस संसार में रहते हुए भगवान के दिव्य गुणों का आनंद नहीं ले पा रहे, तो भगवान् भी परिपूर्ण अनुभव नहीं करते होंगे।

अर्थी कल्पक – आश्रितों की अभिलाषा को पूर्ण करनेवाले, विशेष रूप से “स्वयं” । वे वामन बनकर महाबली चक्रवर्ती से दान याचना कर तीनों लोकों को पुनः प्राप्त करने गए जिन्हें इंद्र ने महाबली को दिया था । जब वे अपने अनुयायियों की संतुष्टि हेतु याचन की हद तक भी जा सकते है, तब क्या वे उन प्राणियों को मोक्ष प्रदान नहीं करेंगे जो उनसे मोक्ष के याचना करते है ?

आपत सखा – विपदा के समय में मित्र, अर्थात सहायक । यद्यपि रक्षा के समय माता- पिता और संबंधियों के द्वार भी बंद हो जाते है, परंतु भगवान ऐसा कभी नहीं करते (काकासुर की कथा) ।

श्रीमन्श्रीदेवीजी के स्वामी। यहाँ जिस संदर्भ को श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी प्रदर्शित कर रहे है वह यह है कि यद्यपि भगवान हमारी त्रुटियों/ अपराधों के कारण हमसे क्रोधित हो सकते है, परंतु श्रीअम्माजी (श्रीदेवीजी) पुरुष्कार भूतै के रूप में हमारी सिफारिश करती है और भगवान से हमारी विनती की पूर्ति कराती है। इसलिए श्रीमन् 

नारायणश्रीदेवीजी के “पुरुष्कार भूतै” रूप से पूर्व, जब भगवान ने ब्रह्माण्ड की रचना की क्या तब वह हमारे रक्षक नहीं थे? – श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी हमें भगवान् के उस रूप के विषय में स्मरण कराते है।

अशरण्य शरण्य – उन प्राणियों को भी आश्रय प्रदान करते है जिनकी रक्षा के लिए अन्य कोई साधन नहीं है। क्या उनके समान कोई है?- श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी कहते है।

अनन्यशरणोहम् – अब मेरे पास कोई अन्य आश्रय नहीं है।

त्वत् पादारविंद युगलं शरणं अहं प्रपद्ये – त्वत – आपके; पाद – चरण; अरविंदम – कमल समान (श्री चरणों की उपमा कमल से यह दर्शाने के लिए की गयी है कि वे मधुर है और सेवा करके उनकी मधुरता का आनंद प्राप्त किया जा सकता है) ; युगलं – जोड़ी; शरणं – समर्पित/ साष्टांग; प्रपद्ये – मान्सिक स्मरण। यहाँ श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी कहते है कि वे स्वयं को भगवान के युगल कमल के समान कोमल श्रीचरणों में समर्पित करते है और द्वय महामंत्र का सदा जाप करते है (द्वय महामंत्र के विषय में अधिक जानकारी के लिए पाठकों से निवेदन है कि वे सद्गुरु आचार्य की शरण ले)

शरणागति मात्र एक बाह्य क्रिया अथवा प्रार्थना मात्र नहीं है। अपितु यह एक मान्सिक क्रिया है जिसके द्वारा शरणागति करने वाला प्राणी यह निश्चित प्रकार से स्वीकार करता है कि भगवान ही उसके रक्षक है और भगवान से विनती करता है कि उसे अपनी शरण में लेकर उसे भगवान और अम्माजी का नित्य अनंत अत्यंत आनंददायी दासत्व प्रदान करे।

अत्र द्वयं यह प्रकट करता है कि हमें इस समय में द्वय महामंत्र का जप करते रहना चाहिए (अनुकर्णीय रूप से, इस मंत्र का जप धीमे स्वर में ही किया जाना चाहिए, उतना कि वाचक उसका श्रवण कर सके)।

इसके साथ ही चूर्णिका 5 यहाँ समाप्त होती है। अगले अंक में हम चूर्णिका 6 को देखेंगे।

हिंदी अनुवाद- अडियेन भगवती रामानुजदासी

आधार –

संग्रहण –

प्रमेय (लक्ष्य) –
प्रमाण (शास्त्र) –
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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 3 – pAr aLavum Oradi

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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AzhwAr says “do we need all these deeds to prove that emperumAn is superior to everyone else? Through this one deed (of measuring the worlds) which is beyond the capabilities of human race, is it not enough to remind everyone of his supreme nature?”


pAraLavum Oradi vaiththu Oradiyum pAruduththa
nIraLavum sella nimirndhadhE – sUruruvin
pEyaLavu kaNda perumAn aRigilEn
nI aLavu kaNda neRi

Word by Word Meaning

pAraLavum Oradi vaiththu – keeping one divine foot till the end of this world [to measure it]
Or adiyum pAr uduththa – the other divine foot surrounding the entire universe
nIr aLavum sella nimirndhadhu – it rose to reach the waters covering the universe
sUr uruvin pEy – a demon who came in the garb of a celestial person
aLavu kaNda perumAn – Oh benefactor, who determined the boundary (of life)
nI aLavu kaNda neRi aRigilEn – I am not able to know the extent of the deeds carried out by you


pAraLavum Oradi vaiththu – keeping a divine foot to reach the end of the world

Oradiyum pAruduththa nIr aLavum sella nimirndhadhu – if a person asked another, “tell me an equivalent of emperumAn’s divine foot”, the other person will say “emperumAn’s other foot”. His other divine foot rose all the way to the waters surrounding the universe as a cover (here pAr is taken to mean universe). This is similar to thirumangai AzhwAr’s periya thirumozhi 10-6-3 “pavva nIr udai AdaiyAgach chuRRi” (water circling the earth like its dress). If pAr were taken to be earth, the other divine foot rose till the waters surrounding earth.

sUr uruvil … aRigilEnAzhwAr says “since one divine foot spread all over the world and there was no space to keep the other divine foot, I am not able to understand how you measured this world”.  emperumAn asks him back “why could you not understand?”

sUr uruvil pEyaLavu kaNda perumAn – isn’t this (the trouble that pUthanA had to undergo) what people who set out to measure you, have to suffer? AzhwAr asks emperumAn “are you in a state where someone could measure you?”

sUr uruvil – as per the thamizh lexicon “sUrum aNangum dheyvappeNNE” – sUr refers to a divine person. Here, this term actually refers to the demon pUthanA, but since she took the form of yaSOdhA, she is referred to as divine person. In perumAL thirumoizhi 7-5, kulaSEkara AzhwAr refers to yaSOdhA as “dheyva nangai yasOdhai” (the divine lady yaSOdhA). One can also consider sUr as a demon with a beautiful form. This is because demons are considered as belonging to the class of dhEvas as per the saying “piSAsO dhEva yOnaya:” in amara kOsam 1-1-11.

pEyaLavu kaNda – considering [measuring / estimating] her as a demon. Measuring is also killing. She [pUthanA] came to kill emperumAn, who, knowing her intention, killed her instead. Oh emerpumAn! When you measure someone, you don’t have any sorrow [difficulty]; but when someone comes to measure you, (s)he get killed, like pUthanA.

perumAn – by killing her, you removed your enemy and gave yourself to the world as its Lord. AzhwAr points, out through this word, to harivamSam 65 which says “sthanyam thath vishasammiSram rasyamAsIth jagadhgurO” (the poisoned milk of pUthanA’s bosom was like a sweet juice to kaNNan, the Lord of the world).

aRigilEn nI aLavu kaNda neRi – I do not know what you are thinking of. I do not know whether you are enabling me or not, to know you. Another interpretation – AzhwAr cannot estimate each and every deed of emperumAn’s. Just as you took the earth, which was snatched by mahAbali, under your feet, you had taken me under your feet and removed by enemies just as you removed pUthanA. We can take it that AzhwAr does not know this.

We shall  next take up the 4th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

maNavALa mAmunigaL who is considered as yathi punaravathAram (re-incarnation of emperumAnAr (SrI rAmAnuja)) glorifies nammAzhwAr as “vEdham seydha mARan” in upadhESa raththina mAlai 14th pAsuram, explaining that nammAzhwAr presents the essence of vEdham in simple and beautiful thamizh language.

nammAzhwAr, emperumAnAr, mAmunigaL

Such nammAzhwAr highlights in thiruvAimozhi 2.5.6pala palavE AbharaNam pErum pala palavE pala palavE sOdhi vadivu paNbeNNil” (emperumAn has many many ornaments, many many names, many many forms and qualities), in thiruvAimozhi 8.1.10 “thOLgaL AyiraththAy! mudigaLAyiraththAy! thuNai malark kaNgaL AyiraththAy! thALgaLAyiraththAy! pErgaLAyiraththAy!” (Oh one with thousand shoulders! Oh one with thousand heads! Oh one with thousand lotus like pair of eyes! Oh one with thousand divine feet! Oh one with thousand names!”) and in thiruvAimozhi 9.3.1 “pErAyiram koNdadhOr pIdudaiyan” (the one who is having the unique greatness of having thousand names). This is in line with how bhagavAn is explained in the most important hymn of vEdham which is purusha sUktham, where bhagavAn is described as “sahasra SIrshA purusha: | sahasrAksha sahasra pAdh |” (the supreme lord is with thousand heads, thousand eyes and thousand feet). Here thousand indicates the countless nature of his limbs, features etc. The whole of thiruvAimozhi is focussed on emperumAn and his auspicious qualities. Each name of emperumAn is reflective of a particular quality. For example, achyutha indicates the quality of not abandoning his devotees, anantha indicates the quality of being infinite and so on.

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam is a divine hymn which is part of mahAbhAratham. bhIshma pithAmaha, laying down on the arrow bed, instructs to pANdavas, the highest principle of meditating upon bhagavAn’s auspicious qualities through his divine names.

AzhwAn, bhattar

parASara bhattar, the celebrated son of kUraththAzhwAn, one of the most important among the direct disciples of emperumAnAr, compiled an elaborate commentary for SrIvishNu sahasranAmam. This divine treatise is named as “bhagavath guNa dharpaNam” (A mirror revealing the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn). It is our desire to explore the wonderful meanings of this treatise and present an english translation of the same for the benefit of the devotees of SrIman nArAyaNa.

We pray unto the divine feet of Sriya:pathi, AzhwArs and AchAryas and begin this effort as a humble offering at their divine feet.

Translation by SrInivAsarAja rAmAnuja dhAsan

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జ్ఞానసారము 7

శ్రీమతే శఠకోపాయ నమః
శ్రీమతే రామానుజాయ నమః
శ్రీమత్ వరవరమునయే నమః


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తోళార్ సుడర్తిగిరి శంగుడయ సుందరను

క్కాళానార్ మత్తొన్ఱిల్ అంబు సెయ్యార్మీళ

పొరువరియ విణ్ణాట్టిల్ పోగం నుగర్వార్కు

నరగన్ఱో ఇందిరన్ తన్ నాడు?


తోళార్ = శ్రీ భుజములతో కూడి వున్న

సుడర్తిగిరి = ప్రకాశించు సుదర్శన చక్రము

శంగుడయ = అందమును ఇనుమడించు శంఖము

సుందరనుక్కు =కలిగిఉన్న వాడికి

ఆళానార్ = దాసులైన వారు

మత్తొన్ఱిల్  =అవి తప్ప ఇతరములైన వాటి యందు

అన్ బు సెయ్యార్ =కోరిక కలిగి వుంటారా ?

మీళ = తిరిగి రాని

పొరువరియ = దోషములే లేని (ఒకే ఒక్కటి)

విణ్ణాట్టిల్ = వైకుంఠములో

పోగం = భోగము

నుగర్వార్కు =అనుభవించు వారికి

ఇందిరన్ తన్ = ఇంద్రలోకము

నరగన్ఱో =దుఃఖ హేతువైన నరకముతో సమానము


భగవద్దాసత్వము రుచి తెలిసిన వారు బ్రహ్మ పదమును కూడా ఇష్ట పడరని  క్రిందటి  పాశురములో తెలుసుకున్నాము.ఇందులో భగవంతుడి అందములో లీనమైన దాసులకు ఇతర విషయములను ఆదరించరని చెప్పబడింది.


“తోళార్ సుడర్తిగిరి శంగుడయ సుందరనుక్కు “సుందరమైన బాహువులతో అందమైన  పాంచజన్యమనే శంఖమును, సుదర్శన చక్రమును సదా పట్టుకొని ఉన్నవాడని అర్థము.    శ్రీ సుదర్శన చక్రమును కుడి హస్తములో , పాంచజన్యమును తన ఎడమ హస్తము లో ధరించిన స్వామి  అందమునకు వర్ణనాతీతమైన శోభను చేకూరుస్తున్నాయని చెప్తున్నారు. శత్రువులకు భయాన్ని కలిగించి వారిని అంతము చేసే ఆయుధముల వంటిగాను , భక్తులకు అవి ఆభరణములగాను ప్రకాశిస్తున్నాయి. అందుచేతనే ఇక్కడ “అళగన్” అంటే “అందమైనవాడ” అని సంభోదించారు. “మనైపాఱ్ పిరందార్ పిరందెయిదుం పేరింబమెల్లాం తురందార్ ఒళుదార్ తోళ్ ” ( ద్రావిడ వేదమును పాడువారు అవతరించారు. అవతరించి పొందవలసిని భోగములను వదిలి ఈ భుజములనే కొలిచారు అని అర్థము) అని భూదత్తళ్వార్లు తమ ఇరండామ్ తిరువందాది లో చెప్పారు. పాశురములో భగవంతుడి భుజములను కళ్ళతోనె పూజించే వారు, ఈ లోకములో దొరుకు తాత్కాలిక సుఖములన్నింటినీ వదిలి వేస్తారు. అని చెపుతున్నారు.శ్రీరామాయణములో శ్రీరాముడి బాహు సౌదర్యమును చూసిన వారు మరి వేరొకదానిని చూడ లేదు.” తోళ్ కండార్ తోళే కండార్ ” అని , “ఆడవర్ పెణ్మైయై ఆవావుం తోళినాయ్ ” అని ,కంబరామాయణములో విశ్వామిత్రుడు అంటాడు. శ్రీ రాముని బాహూ సౌందర్యము చూసిన పురుషులు కూడా తాము స్త్రీ గా జన్మించాలని ఆశ పడతారని భావన. ‘ తోళమోర్ నాంగుడై కాళ మేగత్తై అన్ఱి మత్తోన్ఱు ఇలం ” అని నమ్మాళ్వార్లు అన్నారు. అతి సుందరమైన బాహువులు కలిగిన తిరుమొగురు కాలమేఘపెరుమాళ్ కన్నా ఇంక ఏదియును విలువైనది లేదు.గవంతుడి సౌందర్యమునకు దృష్టి దోషము తగలకుండా హారతి పట్టాలి.అంతటి అందమును చూసిన వారికి లోకములోని మరి ఇతర విషయములు అంటకుండ ఉత్తరించగల బాహువులు అవి. వారి బాహువులు చూసిన వారు . ప్రాపంచిక విషయాల పై గల వారికి ఉన్న గర్వం పట పంచలవడం ఖాయం.అణియార్ ఆళియుం శంగముం ఏందుం అవర్ కాణ్మిన్ “.శంఖమును,చక్రమును అలంకృతులైన పెరుమాళ్ యొక్క అందము రెండు రెట్లు అధికమవుతుంది. పెరియాళ్వార్ పెరుమాళ్ యొక్క అందమును ఒక్కోక్కటి గా వర్ణిస్తున్నారు . ముందుగా పెరుమాళ్ యొక్క కీర్తి ని తెలిపారు ఆ తరువాత పిరాట్టి తో కలిసి ఉండే పెరుమాళ్ యొక్క కీర్తిని పొగిడారు. అటు పిమ్మట, పిరాట్టి తో శ్రీ సుదర్శనమును ధరించిన పెరుమాళ్ యొక్క అందమును పాడారు. ఇవన్నియును , తిరుపల్లాండు లో ని రెండవ పాశురము యొక్క మొదటి మూడు వరుసలో వర్ణించారు. ఈ మూడు వరుసలు ఆళ్వార్ ప్రత్యక్ష వాక్యంలో పెరుమాళ్ ముందు ఉండి “నీవు చిరకాలం ఉండాలి, నీవు మరియు పిరాట్టి చిర కాలం ఉండాలి, నీవు మరియు నీ కుడి  హస్తములో ఉండే శ్రీ సుదర్శనం చిర కాలం ఉండాలి” అని పాడారు. ఈ ఘట్టములో, శ్రీ పాంచజన్యము ను ప్రవేశ పెట్టి, పెరుమాళ్ ,తన వక్షస్తలములో  పిరాట్టిని , శ్రీ సుదర్శనమును తన కుడి హస్తములో మరియు శ్రీ శంఖమును ఎడమ చేతి లో వెంచేపచేసి దర్శనము ఇచ్చారు. వర్ణనాతీతముగా చాలా అందముగా ఉన్నారు. పెరుమాళ్ ముందు ఉన్న పెరియాళ్వార్ ఇంక స్వామి యొక్క అంతటి సౌందర్యమును గ్రహించలేకపోయారు అందు చే, వారు స్వామి దగ్గరనుండి తన ముఖమును మరల్చుకున్నారు. అందువలననే , అటు పిమ్మట పాదములో “ఆప్పాంచజన్యంముం పల్లాండే ” అని పాడారు అనగా “యుద్ధ సమయములో దివ్యమైన శబ్దము చేసే ఆ పాంచజన్యము కూడా చిర కాలం ఉండాలి ” ఇది ప్రత్యక్ష పద్ధతిలో లేదు, పరోక్షంగా “ఆ పాంచజన్యము కూడా చిర కాలం ఉండాలి ” అని అంటున్నారు. ఆళ్వార్ శ్రీ పాంచజన్యము ను ధరించిన పెరుమాళ్ యొక్క అందమును నేరుగాచూడలేక అలా వివరించారు. అటువంటి అందమును చూసిన వారు ఎవరైనను లౌకికమైన సుఖముల వైపు అడుగులు వేయుదురా??

ఆళానార్ : ఇంతటి సౌందర్యము గలవాడి అందమునకు ఓడి దాసులైనవారని అర్థము.  భగవంతుడికి దాసత్వము చేయుట రెండు విధములుగా చెప్పబడింది. 1. ఆయన స్వామిత్వమునుకు అనగా స్వామి తాను ధారకుడుగా, స్వామిగా, నాయకుడిగా దాసులైన మనము ఎప్పుడూ తన తిరువడి క్రింద ఉండేటట్టు చూచుకునేవాడు. అంతే కాకుండా, అసమానమైన తన దివ్య స్వభావమును తన సౌందర్యము తో మొదలు పెట్టి, సౌలభ్యమును , కుల మత విభేదములు లేకుండా అందరితో కలిసి పోయే తన సౌశీల్యమును చూపుతారు . పూర్వ పాశురం లో “ పుండరీక కేల్వనడియార్ “ అనగా శ్రీ కి భర్త అయిన భగవంతుడికి దాసులవుట  చెప్పబడింది. “సుందరున్నుక్కు ఆళానార్ ‘ ( సుందరుడికి దాసులయ్యారు ) అన్నప్పుడు ఆయన ప్రత్యక్షముగా అందరి ద్వారా సేవించి అనుభవించే సౌందర్యమునకు  దాసులవుట చెప్పబడింది. కావున రెండు విధములుగాను భక్తులను ఓడించి దాసులను చేసుకున్నారు. ఇక్కడ సౌందర్యమునకు  ఓడుట చెప్పబడింది. అరుళాళా పెరుమాళ్ ఎమ్పెరుమానార్ ఇక్కడ సౌందర్యమునుకు చూచిన  వారై పెరుమాళ్ కు దాసులవుటను  ప్రశంసిస్తున్నారు , అటువంటి దాసులను కొనిఆడుతున్నారు.

మతొన్నుఱినిల్ అంబు సెయ్యార్:అనగా ఆత్మ స్వరూపం మరియు భగవంతుడి దివ్యమైన గుణములు తెలుసుకుని దాసులైన వారికి,  ఈ లోక విషయములపై  ఆశక్తి ఉండదు. పరమపదము శుద్దతత్వ మయము. అందువలన అది అప్రాకృతమని, ఈ లోకము ప్రాకృతమని చెప్పబడింది. ఇక్కడ వున్న సమస్త వస్తువులు దేశ కాల నియమములకు లోనై  ప్రతి క్షణము మార్పునకు లోనవుతాయి. అక్కడ దేశ కాల నియమములు ఉండవు, అందుకే వస్తువులు ఏ మార్పునకు లోను కావు . అక్కడ ఉన్నవాళ్లు మన మనసు ను దోచు కునేలా ఉంటారు.  అందు వలన ఈ లోకములోని వస్తువుల కంటే ఆ లోకములోని వస్తువులు ఉన్నతమైనవి. ఆ పరమపదములో అంతులేని ఆనందమునను అనుభవించు వారు ఇక్కడి వస్తువులను కోరుకుంటారా? ఇవి లోపభూయిష్ఠమై, అసహ్యమునకు హేతువై ఉంటాయి. అందుకని వీటిని కోరుకోరు.

కొంతమంది దృష్టి లో శ్రీ వైకుంఠమును ఈ లోకముతో పోల్చినందుకు గొప్పదనము కలిగినదని భావిస్తారు.ఇదే శ్రీ వైకుంఠమును స్వర్గము తో పోల్చినను , గొప్పదనమును ఆపాదించుకుంటూదా అని ప్రశ్న.  స్వర్గం లో దేవత స్త్రీలు అందిచే  సుఖాలకు శ్రీ వైష్ణవులు లోనవుతారా ?ఈ ప్రశ్న కు సమాధానము క్రింది వాక్యములలో చెప్పబడినది.

 మీళా పొరువరియ విణ్ణాట్టిల్ పోగం నుగర్వార్కు ” అని ప్రారంబించి ” అఱివిల్ వీడు  ” అని చెప్పబడింది.శ్రీ వైకుంఠము లో మరు జన్మ లేకపోవుట, మూడు గుణములను మించిన శుధ్ధ సత్వమయమైనదిగా,  అసాధారణ ప్రకాశమానమైనదిగా, అనుపమానమైనదిగా. ఉన్నతమైనదిగా కీర్తించబడింది. అక్కడ సృష్టి మరియు నాశనం అనేవి ఉండవు.  ఇటువంటి పరమపదము చేరి శ్రీ మన్ నారాయణుని , పిరాట్టిని మరియు వారి దాసుల కైంకర్యం చేస్తూ  ఆనందమును అనుభవించాలని అంతులేని కోరిక గలవారని  అర్థము .

నరగన్ఱో ఇందిరన్ తన్ నాడు  – స్వర్గము ,ఇంద్ర,బ్రహ్మాది లోకములు పుణ్యమున్నంత వరకే  అనుభవ యోగ్యము. పుణ్యము తీరి పోతే అక్కడి నుండి తల కిందులుగా ఈ భూలోకమునకు రావలసినదే. పైన చెప్పిన అన్ని లోకములు ఇంద్రాది దేవతలకు అనుభవ యోగ్యముగా వున్నవి. అటువంటప్పుడు అవి నరకముతో సమానమే కదా! అందు వలన తంతులుగా వున్న పదునాలుగు భువనములతో కూడిన ఈ అండము పరమపదమునకు సాటి రాదు , పైగా దానిని కోరుకునే వారికి నరక ప్రాయమే అవుతుంది. అక్కడి భోగ భాగ్యములు అనిత్యమైనవి. ముఖ్యమైన అంశము ఏమనగా ఆ ఆనందము పెరుమాళ్ కు సేవ చేసి పొందినవి కావు. వారి వారి సంతోషమునకు ఆ భోగములు ఉపయోగపడుతాయి. అటువంటి భోగములు పెరుమాళ్ కే దాసుడైన జీవాత్మ యొక్క స్వరూపమునకు వ్యతిరేకమైనవి. రెండవ పాశురం లో చెప్పిన విధంగా పెరుమాళ్ పిరాట్టి తో దూరమైతే అదే ఒక భక్తునికి నరకము. శరణ్గాతుడు స్వర్గ నర్కాదులను సమముగా , దోష భూయిష్టముగా చూస్తాడు, వాటి గురించి ఆశ పడడు. కేవలం శ్రీ మన్ నారాయణుని కైంకర్యమే సర్వవిధ పురుషార్థమని జీవిస్తాడు.

అడియేన్ చుడామణి రామానుజ దాసి


పొందుపరిచిన స్థానము:

ప్రమేయము (గమ్యము) –
ప్రమాణము (ప్రమాణ గ్రంథములు) –
ప్రమాత (ఆచార్యులు) –
శ్రీవైష్ణవ విద్య / పిల్లల కోసం–