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thiruvAimozhi – 10.9.4 – edhir edhir

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth pAsuram, AzhwAr explains how the dhEvathAs of higher worlds arrange gardens everywhere for the SrIvaishNavas to rest and how they make joyful sounds with the help of musical instruments etc in praise of SrIvaishNavas.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


edhir edhir imaiyavar iruppidam vaguththanar
kadhiravar avar avar kainnirai kAttinar
adhir kural murasangaL alai kadal muzhakkoththa
madhu viri thuzhAy mudi mAdhavan thamarkkE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

madhu viri – dripping honey
thuzhAy mudi – having thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi) on the divine crown
mAdhavan thamarkku – for the servitors of Sriya:pathi (lord of SrI mahAlakshmi)
imaiyavar – (dhEvathAs) those who don’t blink their eyes
edhir edhir – in the path of SrIvaishNavas going to paramapadham
iruppidam – palaces which are resting places
vaguththanar – made;
kadhiravar – the twelve Adhithyas
avaravar – in their respective ability

(as said in “raSmibhi: Urdhvam AgramathE“)
kai nirai kAttinar – gave their rays which are their hands as the decorative rows;
murasangaL – the drums which they beat
adhir kural – the tumultuous sound
alai kadal – in ocean with tides
muzhakkoththana – matched loud noise.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

dhEvathAs who don’t blink their eyes made palaces which are resting places for the servitors of Sriya:pathi, who is having thuLasi, which is dripping honey, on the divine crown; the twelve Adhithyas in their respective ability, gave their rays which are their hands as the decorative rows; the tumultuous sound of the drums which they beat, matched the loud noise of the ocean with tides.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • edhir edhir … – Everywhere, with the expectation “Will they stay here? Will they stay here?” , dhEvathAs constructed rest houses. They are not referred to as imaiyavar (those who don’t blink) for their nature, but for their awakened state due to the urge in constructing the rest houses; just as iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) remained awake [in forest] to serve perumAL (SrI rAma). They are constructing the rest houses fully knowing that these SrIvaishNavas  will not rest there, but are constructing to engage in kinchithkAram (a little service) for sustaining their own true nature; just as those who will construct welcome arches during festive season for the kings to notice the same and utter a word of praise “well done”.
  • kadhir … – Adhithyas showed their hands [rays] as decorative rows of lights saying “Please come in this way, please come in this way, please see, please see”.This kadhiravar can also mean the groups of AdhivAhikas who lead in the archirAdhi mArgam. kadhiravar – luminuous persons.
  • adhir … – Thinking that they may rest in the palaces constructed by the dhEvathAs, the residents of the [even] higher worlds, to stop the SrIvaishNavas from hearing the welcoming words of the dhEvathAs, played the drums which give out tumultuous sound, resembling the sound of the ocean with tides; alternatively – they played loud music with the musical instruments with the expectation of making the SrIvaishNavas stay there.
  • madhu viri … – As the musical instruments are played and the residents of various worlds along the path utter welcoming words, and as the SrIvaishNavas are travelling in the path, emperumAn along with pirAtti, decorates himself again and again, to present himself along with pirAtti to them.
  • mAdhavan thamarkkE – emperumAn is decorating himself thinking “Those who surrendered unto me with the purushakAram (recommendation) of pirAtti, are coming to serve me in the presence of pirAtti”. Implies that these SrIvaishNavas became fully devoted being captivated by the beautiful decoration of Sriya:pathi.
  • edhir edhir … – How amazing that these SrIvaishNavas were disrespected and not given rewards just because they were vaishNavas in this world, are now being welcomed by the dhEvathAs and are offered wonderful abodes! miLagAzhwAn once went to the capital city of a kingdom hearing that the king is giving rewards to scholars. The king saw him and said “You are AntharALigan (one who is in between samsAri who is bound in this world and mukthAthmA who is liberated; i.e., he is being identified as mumukshu, liberation seeker); you will not be given any rewards”. miLagAzhwAn asked “Are you saying this due to any doubt in my knowledge, scholarship etc?” The king replied “There is no shortcoming in your qualities, but this is the only reason”. Hearing that miLagAzhwAn said “Though I don’t have the qualities of a proper vaishNava, I am glad that they abandoned me citing me to be a vaishNava” and threw his upper cloth on the sky in jubiliation and started dancing.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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siRiya thirumadal – 1 – kArAr varai

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thiruvEngadam – thirumalai

thirumAlirunjOlai – thirumalai

kArAr varaik kongai kaNNAr kadal udukkai
siRAr sudarch chuttich chengaluzhip pErARRu 

Word-by-Word meanings

kAr Ar varai kongai – Having the divine mountains (of thirumAlirunjOlai and thiruvEngadam), which are laden with clouds, as her bosoms
kaNNAr kadal udukkai – Having the expansive ocean as her sari
sIr Ar sudar sutti – having sun, with its beautiful rays, as thilakam (pattern on the forehead), a decorative ornament
sem kazhaluzhi pEr ARu – the huge river  (kAviri) which is reddish and muddled


The description is about sri bhUmi pirAtti.

parakAla nAyagi (thirumangai AzhwAr in feminine mood) would not turn back even when her mothers and friends, saying “one should not have this much of daring”, dissuade her from engaging with madal. However bhUmippirAtti does not dissuade her. parakAla nAyagi wishes to celebrate bhUmippirAtti for supporting her. Since she desires to speak about kAma purushArtham  (the end goal of pure love),  the end benefit which she opted for, she has to explain about the different types of purushArtham (the ultimate benefits). parakAla nAyagi has to speak about chEthanas for whom these purushArthams are meant. In order to talk about them, she has to talk about bhUmi (earth) on which they dwell and thus starts describing SrI bhUmippirAtti who is the esteemed dhEvathA (deity) for earth.

kArAr varaik kongai –  This talks about the mountains of the lady, bhUmippirAtti, as the bosoms. The phrase “kAr Arndha varai” refers to mountains which are covered with dense clouds, thus implying tall mountains. Since the bosoms of noble women are well developed and lofty, AzhwAr is describing the cloud-laden mountains as bosoms. Since they are laden with clouds, the peaks of the mountains are dark, just like the ends of bosoms. Since bosoms are two, which are the two mountains which are referred to? thirumangi AzhwAr himself has mercifully said in his periya thirumadalthennan uyar poruppum vadamalayum ennum ivayE mulayA” (the tall mountain of thirumAlinjOlai in the south and the mountain (thiruvEngadam) in the north are like bosoms) . Thus, parakAla nAyagi is referring to these two mountains [thirumAlirunjOlai and thiruvEngadam] as bhUmippirAtti’s bosoms. For a noble lady such as bhUmippirAtti, instead of comparing with very distinguished mountains such as mEru (a celestial mountain), why are these mountains considered as similes?  Since bosoms are a place of dwelling for the husband as brought out in pAsurams such as in thiruppAvai 19nappinnai kongai mEl vaiththu kidandha malar mArbA” (one with soft flower-like chest who lay on nappinnai’s bosom), mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 3malarAl thanathullAn” (he dwells on the bosom of SrIdhEvi), and thiruchandha viruththam 57 “sangu thangu mun kai nangai kongai thangaluRRavan” (one who dwells on the bosom of the lady who has bangles on her forearms)”, it is only apt to refer to thiruvEngadam and thirumAlirunjOla malai which are the permanent residences of emperumAn

varaik kongai Since the bosoms of noble women are hard, mountains are used for comparison.

kaNNAr kadal – An ocean is something that fills the eyes of the beholder, viz., it is an ocean which is apt to be seen. Alternatively, kaN also means “place” and so it can be construed as an ocean that is full of place.

kaNNAr kadal udukkai – The very beautiful ocean is like a blue coloured sari for bhUmippirAtti.  Since the ocean is expansive, it can be draped as mundhAnai (front portion of a sari) and koychakam (plaited folds of a sari) for bhUmippirAtti.

kadal udukkai – Ocean will be soft and cool, lending to the softness of the divine form [of bhUmippirAtti]

sIrAr sudar sutti – sun with its beautiful rays is an ornament for bhUmippirAtti.  

The term sudar refers to sun’s rays and the term siRar sudar refers to sun. sirAr is an adjective for the rays – being full of beauty. Alternatively, if the term sudar refers to sun himself. the term sIrAr would be an adjective for sun. Eminence for sun is that he is the decorative ornament on the forehead of pirAtti, who herself is a decorative ornament for emperumAn just as it is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 10-3-5 “aNimigu thAmaraik kaiyai andhO adichchiyOm thalaimisai nI aNiyAy” (you should place your hand which is like an attractive and well decorated lotus flower, on the head of ours, servitors). Just as it is mentioned in vikramOrvaSIyam “AbharaNasyAbharaNam . . .vapusthasyA:” (it is a decorative ornament for the ornament of her divine form), aren’t pirAttimArs (all the divine consorts of emperumAn) those who add beauty to ornaments!

sengaluzhip pErARRup pErAramArvil – pirAtti’s divine bosom is the huge river here. If there is a bosom, the area below it should have been decorated with the paste of sandalwood and vermilion. Is it like that, here? Just as it is mentioned in thiruchchandhaviruththam 54 “malaiththap piRandhizhindhu vandhu numdhu sandhanam kulaiththiRiththeRindhu kungamakkuzhambinOdu alaiththozhugu kAviri “ (river kAviri originates from (sahya) mountain, flows from there rapidly, pushing sandalwood trees, damages vermilion creepers, carrying particles of vermilion which are let out from those creepers, creating waves), is this (river) too not formed atop the mountain, coming down carrying sandal, vermilion etc from the mountain and as a result, is reddish in colour? If it were a bosom, it would be decorated with chains of pearls, precious stones etc. Is it like that, here? periya thirumozhi 3-8-3 says “. . . .ALariyAl alaippuNda yAnai maruppum agilum aNimuththum veNsAmaraiyOdu ponni malaippaNdam maNdathth thiraiyundhu . . .” (waves of river kAviri carry materials such as tusks of elephants which have been thrown by courageous lions, fragrant eaglewood, beautiful pearls, white chowries as well as various materials which grow on mountains); periya thirumozhi 5-4-1 says “sandhinOdu maNiyum kozhikkum punaRkAviri” (kAviri river which has abundance of sandalwood and gems); periya thirumozhi 5-4-9 says “vEyin muththum maNiyum koNarndhAr punaRkAviri” (river kAviri has distinguished pearls and gems); SrI rangarAjasthavam 1-21 says “sanjachchAmara chandhra chandhana mahAmANikya mukthOthkarAn kAvEvi laharIkarair vidhadhathI paryEthi “ (kAviri is flowing down rapidly, carrying through its waves which act like hands materials such as chowry (fly-flapper), fragrant camphor, sandalwood trees, distinguished gems and pearls). As stated in the above references, by thirumangai AzhwAr and parASara bhattar, isn’t kAviri flowing from the mountains, carrying pearls and precious gems. Just as the bosom is expansive, so is the river, expansively covering the earth. Even though it has been said generically as a river, just as the bosom of a noble lady keeps embracing the husband always, it is kAviri, who embraces SrI ranganAthan through her two tributaries, who is referred to as the river here.

We will take up the 2nd part, in the next article.

adiyen santhAna rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.7.3 – ennai muRRum

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Seventh decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, AzhwAr mercifully explains emperumAn’s endless affection which keeps increasing towards him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


ennai muRRum uyir uNdu en mAya Akkai idhanuL pukku
ennai muRRum thAnEyAy ninRa mAya ammAn sEr
thennan thirumAlirunjOlaith thisai kai kUppich chErndha yAn
innum pOvEnEkolO? enkol ammAn thiruvaruLE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ennai – me
muRRum – in all ways
uyir uNdu – enjoying my AthmA

(not stopping with that)
en – my
mAyam – being the cause for ignorance etc
Akkai idhanuL – in this body (which is a product of prakruthi (matter), which is having defects which are perceivable by senses and which binds)
pukku – entered
ennai – me (who is the controlling AthmA for this body)
muRRum – on body etc which are connected
thAnE Ay – being the controller (to eliminate the ahanthA (ego) and mamathA (possessiveness))
ninRa – one who stood (as kruthakruthya (one who accomplished the duties))
mAyam – one who has amazing qualities and acts
ammAn – one who is the unconditional lord
sEr – the abode where he firmly resides
then – for the southern direction
nan – praiseworthy
thirumAlirunjOlai – standing on thirumalai (divine hill) which is known as thirumAlirunjOlai
thisai – towards the direction
kai kUppi – performing an act of servitude
sErndha yAn – I who reached

(not just that, not just up to his abode)
innam – after acquiring the state (of worshipping that direction too)
pOvEnEkolO – will I go anywhere else thinking that there is a destination for me?
ammAn – the unconditional lord’s
thiruvaruL – affection
enkol – how [amazing] is it?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Enjoying my AthmA in all ways, emperumAn entered my body which is the cause for ignorance etc, being the controller of me and my body etc which are connected, who has amazing qualities and acts, and who is the unconditional lord, is standing and firmly residing on the praiseworthy thirumalai which is in the southern direction; performing an act of servitude, I reached that dhivyadhESam;  after acquiring the state, will I go anywhere else thinking that there is a place to go for me? How [amazing] is the affection of my unconditional lord? Implies that emperumAn is standing as if there is some other benefits and he is granting them. thennan could also indicate the king of that region.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • ennai muRRum uyir uNdu – The greatness acquired by fully enjoying AzhwAr is even greater than the greatness acquired as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 37.18 “yasyasA janakAthmajA – apramEyam hi thaththEja:” (One cannot measure the greatness of the one who is married to the daughter of SrI janaka).
  • en mAya Akkai – Did he stop with enjoying my AthmA (self)? AzhwAr himself hated his body so much saying “this must be given up” as in thiruviruththam 1 “azhukkudambu” (dirty body), thiruvAimozhi 3.2.3pollA Akkai” (disastrous body) and thiruvAimozhi 5.1.5puNNai maRaiya varindhu” (concealing the external faults, surrounding me forever) and started walking away from it; while AzhwAr was despising his body, emperumAn was pursuing it himself considering it to be his goal.
  • uL pukku – AzhwAr hated it wholeheartedly and started walking away from it. That is – AzhwAr is remaining there until emperumAn remains there and nods in agreement with AzhwAr. emperumAn entered there since he cannot leave from there until AzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 10.7.10 “mangavottu” (Agree to eliminate/destroy).
  • idhan uL pukku – AthmA is used to achith (matter) since time immemorial; bhagavAn too remains in achith through chEthana; such emperumAn eagerly pursued AzhwAr’s body. This body is a prakAra (inseparable attribute) for the AthmA which is a prakAra for emperumAn. It is said in chAndhOgya upanishath 6.3 “anEna jIvEna AthmanAnupraviSya nAma rUpE vyAkaravANi” (all names and forms are created by my entry into achith through AthmAs).
  • ennai muRRum thAnE Ay – Since emperumAn is pervaded everywhere both in AthmAs and achith, there is nothing wrong in saying “thAnE” (only him). emperumAn accepted what is claimed by AzhwAr as “nAn” (I, AthmA) and his mamakAra vishayam (body which was considered by AzhwAr as his belonging). AzhwAr became so great that even ISvara (lord) cannot consume him fully and enjoy him.
  • ninRa – [Being present with a divine form inside AzhwAr] Unlike the common state which is explained in nArAyaNa sUktham “antharbahiScha thath sarvam vyAypya nArAyaNa sthitha:” (nArAyaNa is all pervading, both inside and outside).
  • mAyam … – The divine abode where even the sarvESvaran, who has amazing qualities and activities, reaches with great eagerness like a thirsty person saying “water! water!” [uncontrollable longing for something]
  • thennan thirumAlirunjOlai – thennan indicates the king, and the land belongs to him; alternatively – the good abode in the southern direction.
  • thisai kaikUppich chErndha yAn – AzhwAr desired the direction which was desired by emperumAn. AzhwAr likes to reach a particular direction. That is – desiring emperumAn, through that, desiring the abode which he desired, and desiring the direction related to that dhivyadhESam, and in this manner, I have reached the state of desiring all that are related to him. This is similar to emperumAn desiring for AzhwAr, and the body which is related to AzhwAr; AzhwAr himself said previously in thiruvAimozhi 1.8.7en eNthAn AnAn” (he started desiring for what I desire for).
  • innam pOvEnEkolO – Is there any other destination for me beyond this direction? Will I, who have reached this direction, go anywhere beyond that, while he is restless for me in this manner? Now, going beyond here means giving up the connection with thirumalai.
  • enkol ammAn thiruvaruLE – [ammAn thiruvaruL enkol] [AzhwAr thinks – How amazing is his love? He is not going to abandon us since we are in our final days, yet we become bewildered thinking that he may do so] On sarvESvaran, would we not become bewildered without any reason? Alternatively – Why is he restless for me as if he has not done anything? Even after doing everything for AzhwAr, he is remaining “what shall we do for him?” as if he has not done anything.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirunedunthANdakam – 13 – Part 2

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part 2:

villiRuththu etc. Oh You, who are having “breaking the bow” as a hindrance to attain Her, thus showing Your valor, and removing her womanliness of shying away, and got the union of Her who is of smooth body by nature.

Since SrI janaka chakravarthy had taken a vow ‘I shall give Her hand in marriage to the one who will break this bow”, He took the bow and as He tried to pull the string to tie it, the bow broke; at that time as the king tried to bring water in a golden bowl to use for giving his daughter to Him, He said, “Since we are princes, we came here to engage our strength; did we come here considering looking for a girl for wedding? (If that should happen) you may ask vaSishta et al., (AchAryas), and the father”; seeing His manliness of breaking the bow and the greatness of His words, seethA pirAtti melted (as water); to remove the tiredness of breaking the bow He (married Her and) immersed (in water) in her smooth shoulders;

thOL thOyndhAy ennum – The entity that is present everywhere was controlled in to one part (shoulder). The other parts of Her body, auspicious qualities of AthmA, and auspicious qualities of divine body got wasted by not getting this opportunity;

by this – When being separated from Her, who is known as always being with Him without getting separated (nithyAnapAyinee), due to incarnating as humans in separate families, there is a need to have someone (like SrI janaka) to use water, and to give Her hand to Him; even though the sentient (human beings) have the true nature of being there for emperumAn only like pirAtti (ananyArha Seshathvam), there is a need for surrendering to AchAryan, and for someone (thAyAr) to recommend to Him, in order for Him to accept sentient;

Oh, You, who removed the danger that came upon Her who was alone separated from You, is not removing the danger of me who is having loneliness!

vekhAvil thuyil etc. – (thiru vekhA) is the divine place where emperumAn has come to rest after marrying pirAtti (since AzhvAr talked about marriage in the previous phrase, AzhvAr is thinking about thiruvekhA as where He came to after that).

vEndhE enRum – (king/prince) – For everyone to know that a prince has come down and present in reclined position; He is present in reclining posture in thiruvekhA. (vekhA is related to speed (vEgam in thamizh) – {when brahmA performed yagya to get dharSan of SrIman nArAyaNan with four arms, his wife sarasvathi came flowing fast as a river in order to stop that yagya because he started it without inviting her; emperumAn stopped the river by lying down in its path, like a dam; so He was referred to as ‘vEga aNai’ (dam that stopped that speed), which got transformed into present day ‘thiruvekhA’; and the river is called ‘vEga’vathee.};

I wished to enjoy the togetherness of both of you, but am suffering due to not seeing that, so what is the use of that togetherness of both of you?

malladarththu mallarai etc. – When winning the wrestlers chANuran and mushtikan, He destroyed their strength first, and only then did He decimate them. (The ‘mal’ in the first word refers to strength). As said in ‘mRga maDhyE yaThA simhau garva-leelavalOkinau | pravishtau sumahArangam balaBhadhra-jarAndhanau [vishNu purANa – 5-20-43] ’ (Like two lions looking with pride amidst a herd of deer, kaNNan and balarAman entered the stage of celebration set up by kamsa), they killed the elephant kuvalayApeetam, pulled its trunk and held in their hands, without caring that it is the crowd of enemies, with droplets of sweat in their divine faces, with great pride entered the stage of celebration of bows; since it was like two lions entering amongst the herd of deer, the strength of wrestlers decimated just as they saw them. After that, He killed them.

Or, malladarththu – it talks about the way the wrestlers were destroyed. The first mal being the strength of shoulders of krishNan and balarAman, and that strength saying ‘Do I go waste? Show me matter to fully scratch my itch to fight’, and they gave enough food for that strength.

anRu attAy enRum – Danger is present today also like that day (anRu), you see. SrI vasudhEvar and dhEvaki pirAtti were sad thinking ‘We saw Him on the day He was born; is it possible to see Him at least near the end of our life?’; that danger of them being an example of her danger, she is saying anRu (that day). They could have gone and seen their parents first and then destroyed the enemies; not doing so is because – their thinking ‘What is the use of seeing them without destroying the enemies?’. Only after destroying the enemies would it be possible to get what is to be attained (prApyam).

mallarai anRu attAy enRum – Would you remove the danger for parents only? Is it not needed to remove the danger of lover? “The shoulders that the worst sinners chANUra mushtikas got, is being hard to get for me who does not wish for anything else than those shoulders!”, says she. “Instead of suffering like this as a lover, if I had come to fight Him like those wrestlers, then I would have got the enjoyment of those shoulders!’, she says. (Instead of having gyAnam, etc., as a disciple, if I had been a mute and deaf like that person, I would have got the divine feet of emperumAnAr in my head, opined kUraththAzhvAn).

mAkeeNda, etc. – (mA – animal) It talks about destroying the wild horse kEsi which was a hindrance for the five lakh household gOpikAs of AyppAdi, and then giving Himself to them. kEsi, instigated by kamsan, looked at His age and delicateness and thought ‘Is He even a matter? Shall take Him and swallow’, and came with his mouth open; small kids would put their hands in if they see a hole, so He put His hand inside the mouth of kEsi the horse; since it is the arm of the protector, as it saw the space for protecting, it grew big. kEsi was laying down split just like a cucumber split.

en myndhA enRum – She is saying ‘Oh You who attracted the gOpikAs in thiru AyppAdi by showing your youthfulness (myndhA), which You showed me too and made me Yours!’.

In these ways, she is prompting the parrot by saying the divine names that help during danger.

sol eduththu – Uttering these divine names itself is like lifting a mountain is how she feels – because of suffering due to separation. Thinking about His strength when He lifted the mountain, she said ‘kal eduththu’ as if he lifted a small stone. But when at the stage of saying what she taught the parrot, she is showing her lack of strength by saying ‘sol eduthu’ (lifting the word).

than kiLiyai – The parrot that she brought up with fondness. After understanding the enjoyability of Him, she was ignoring the pAvai toy she had enjoyed earlier. But since this parrot has learned His divine names, she is still fond of it. From this it is seen that there is no thing that is wanted or not wanted by just its nature; but when it is opposed to matters related to emperumAn then all such or unwanted; when amicable to Him then all such are wanted.

sollE enRu – She prompted the first words saying ‘Thou recite the divine name’. After that it started reciting.

thuNai mulai, etc. – With tears flowing over her two divine breasts, she is suffering. She is saying there is nobody to listen to the parrot (or) she became weak to listen to its words. ‘Isn’t he (thirumangai AzhvAr) just having the thought that he is a girl (parakAla nAyaki)? Did he lose his moustache and got breasts sprouting?’ – moustache represents independence; breasts represent subservience; so this phrase is about his losing independence and growing subservience; breasts of women contribute to the enjoyment of their husbands;  talking about breast for a devotee – it is about devotion.

Like how the breasts help in enjoyment for both the hero and his lover, devotion helps one enjoy emperumAn, and it also helps emperumAn enjoy the devotee. This is as said in ‘BhrAmyathAmathra samasArE narANAm karmadhurkgamE | hasthAvalambanO hyEkO BhakthikreethO janArththana: || [vishNu dharmam]’ (In this forest where the path is not clear due to karmAm, it is only janArdhanan, who is bought by devotion (bhakthi-kreetha:), is the guide who holds the hand and takes one in the right path), and so He is said as one bought by our devotion.

thuNai mulai – Breast (devotion) that helps when the lover emperumAn enjoys the sentient, that is, the devotee. Or, there is no parallel to one breast than the other breast. It is like how His divine feet are there for each other as equals. (Are there not equals in the form of breasts (devotion) of other AzhvArs too?) This thirumangai AzhvAr is unlike other AzhvArs since he is very delicate; like how some of those in kEraLA are capable of eating enough once to sustain for a month, and starve even for a month, other AzhvArs can sustain themselves during the time of union with Him, and can sustain themselves during separation also; but this AzhvAr’s delicateness is such that he cannot bear union as well as separation; he would not eat and he would not starve either; this is as he said in ‘num adiyArOdum okka eNNi irundheer adiyEnai [periya thirumozhi 4.9.6]’ (Did you think of me to be same as your other devotees (AzhvArs), oh the one in thiru indhaLUr?).

thuNai mulai mEl thuLi sOra – (tears dripping down from her eyes to her breasts); appears like the faculty (indhriyam) of touch (skin/breast), and the eyes that see, have lost their ability of touch of emperumAn and seeing of Him, and are weeping loud while hugging each other; since tears are flowing from her eyes to her breasts and not to any other part of her body, it can appear as if the eyes and breasts are crying loud while hugging each other.

sOrginRALE – The inner meaning for eyes is gyAnam; breasts imply devotion; their crying together implies loss of gyAnam and devotion (because not able to see or touch Him?); since gyAnam and devotion that help in enjoying emperumAn are lost, she became tired; seeing that earlier when (mother and diviner) saying His divine names got her to recover, she (parakAla nAyaki) thought ‘His divine would help her recover now also’, and so started prompting her parrot to say His divine names; thinking about the meanings of those divine names (which are about His removing the dangers of His devotees), my daughter fainted thinking “He who helps during the time of danger is not helping me now who is in danger too (due to separation)”, says her mother.


Translation by raghurAm SrInivAsa dhAsan.

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 48 – ArAvamudhAzhwAr

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.8


In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of being shaken and speaking with anguish even after surrendering to ArAvamudhAzhwAr highlighting his own emptyness and emperumAn not fulfilling his desire considering “ivar nammAzhwAr” (here is our AzhwAr), and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Even after surrendering at the divine feet of the controller of sirIvaramangai (vAnamAmalai), AzhwAr’s desire was not fulfilled there. He thought “sarvESvaran who has vowed to protect the devotees, will not deny our desires. But we don’t know where he is planning to fulfil them” and went to thirukkudandhai with great desire thinking “if we go to the divine feet of ArAvamudhAzhwAr in thirukkudandhai, our desires will be fulfilled”; but there, emperumAn did not mercifully stand up, become seated, walk around, say some pleasing words, give a cool glance or embrace him, he trembled thinking “he is present along with pirAtti, and we have the desire, yet why is my desire not fulfilled?” and completed with sorrow thinking “at least we still have not lost faith in his divine feet as the means” and sustaining him. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this experience of AzhwAr which is explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.8ArAvamudhE” starting with “ArAvamudhAzhwAr“.


ArAvamudhAzhwAr Adhariththa pERugaLaith
thArAmaiyAlE thaLarndhu migath thIrAdha
Asaiyudan ARRAmai pEsi alamandhAn
mAsaRu sIr mARan emmAn


word-by-word meanings

ArAvamudhAzhwAr – (thirukkudandhai) ArAvamudhan [emperumAn]
Adhariththa pERugaLai – results desired (by AzhwAr)
thArAmaiyAlE – since it was not mercifully fulfilled
miga thaLarndhu – becoming very anguished
thIrAdha Asaiyudan – with intense desire which cannot be pacified until fulfilled
ARRamai pEsi – speaking about his sorrow
alamandhan – became shaken; (who is that?)
mAsu aRu sIr – one who has unblemished qualities
emmAn – our lord
mARan – AzhwAr.

Simple Translation

Since AzhwAr’s desired results were not mercifully fulfilled by ArAvavamudhan, AzhwAr became very anguished with intense desire which cannot be pacified until fulfilled. Being shaken, he spoke about his sorrow; such AzhwAr is our lord who has unblemished qualities.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • ArAvamudhAzhwArArAvamudhAzhwAr who is mercifully reclining as said in “ErAr kOlam thigazhak kidandha” (mercifully reclining to make  your abundant beauty and decoration, shine) [1st pAsuram] to be enjoyed together with companions due to his ultimately enjoyable nature as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 6.1 “saha pathnyA viSAlAkshyA nArAyaNamupAgamath” (SrI rAma along with wide-eyed sIthAp pirAtti, meditated upon SrIman nArAyaNa) and SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.24 “samayAbOdhithaSSrImAn sukha suptha:” (the prosperous lord who was sleeping, was awakened by me).
  • Adhariththa pERugaLai – The results which AzhwAr expected. That is – what he desired in “kidandhAy kaNdEn” (enjoyed you, resting, by seeing with my own eyes) [1st pAsuram], “ammA malark kaN vaLarginRAnE” (one who is resting with distinguished lotus flower like divine eyes) [2nd pAsuram], “kANa vArAyE” (You should come for me to see) [9th pAsuram]. You should rise up as said in thiruchchandha viruththam 61 “kudandhaiyuL kidandhavARezhundhirundhu” (rise up from your reclining posture in thirukkudandhai); your highness, who are the Sriya:pathi in thirukkudandhai, should mercifully remain seated with your divine consort SrI dhEvi as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.2.2thAmarai mangaiyum nIyum” (SrI mahAlakshmi and you); you should mercifully glance at me with your lotus eyes; you should mercifully walk towards us to be seen and enjoyed by us, by manifesting the reddishness in your friendly lips which appear like a coral creeper; AzhwAr desired for such interactions but they were not fulfilled immediately.
  • thaLarndhu miga – Became very anguished to be said as in “AkAsaththai nOkki azhuvan thozhuvan” (I am grieving and looking at the sky, crying out like those who have great devotion and those who worship you. ) [4th pAsuram].
  • thIrAdha Asaiyudan – Since the desire will be pacified only when it is experienced, with such desire which cannot be extinguished without the experiencing of the result.
  • ARRAmai pEsi alamandhAn – That is, AzhwAr’s words as in “adiyEn udalam nIrAy alaindhu karaiya urukkuginRa” (You are agitating me to dissolve and melt my body which is having love as the mood/form towards you, losing firmness to become watery) [1st pAsuram], “ennAn seygEn” (what shall I do?) [3rd pAsuram], “unnaik kANbAn nAn alappAy” (To see you and enjoy as desired, I am grieving) [4th pAsuram], “thUrAk kuzhi thUrththu enai nAL aganRiruppan” (how many more days do I have to exist separated [from you] in this pit of inappropriate desires which is difficult to fill and is dug?) [6th pAsuram], “thariyEn ini” (I will not remain relaxed after this) [7th pAsuram] and “unakkAtpattum adiyEn innam uzhalvEnO” (Though being your servant, should I, who am existing exclusively for you and have no other refuge, still suffer with no interaction with you as desired?) [10th pAsuram]. Even in this state, his firm conviction is as said in “una thAL pidiththE selak kANE” (You kindly see to it that I who am your servitor, hold on to your divine feet until the time I am uplifted, for as many days as it may take) [3rd pAsuram] and “kaLaikaN maRRilEn” (I am not having any other protector) [8th pAsuram].
  • mAsu aRu sIr mARan emmAn – AzhwAr who is having auspicious qualities such as firm conviction etc and not having the blemish of looking at other upAyams even at this state, is our lord. Alternatively, this is read along with ARRamai pEsi alamandhAn, i.e. such blemishless AzhwAr spoke of his sorrows.

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 47 – nORRa nOnbu

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nammAzhwAr in SrI SatakOpam (divine pAdhukA (sandals) of emperumAn), vAnamAmalai [There is no separate divine deity for nammAzhwAr in this dhivyadhESam]

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.7


In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s loving pAsurams of worshipping and surrendering at the divine feet of vAnamAmalai [emperumAn], and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr became anguished due to his desire not being fulfilled even after being pained in separation and having intense desire which made him sustain himself by enacting emperumAn; he thought that ISvaran is considering such intense desire in the form of seeking enjoyment as a means to attain him thinking “let this desire mature enough and we will fulfil that”. Hence, he announced that he has absolutely no involvement in any of the upAyams (means) such as karma yOgam etc which are identified in SAsthram as the means to get the result, and declares that there is no means other than the one which emperumAn showed in the beginning [or lotus feet], at the divine feet of vAnamAmalai emperumAn who has mercifully arrived at sirIvaramangai (SrIvaramangA kshEthram – vAnamAmalai) along with his divine consorts and eternal associates, falling at his divine feet like an uprooted tree without any other refuge. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this aspect which is explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.7nORRa nOnbilEn” starting with “nORRa nOnbAdhiyilEn“.


nORRa nOnbAdhiyilEn undhanai vittARRagillEn
pERRukkupAyam unRan pEraruLE – sARRuginREn
ingennilai ennum ezhil mARan sol vallAr


word-by-word meanings

nORRa – pursued as means for mOksham
nOnbu Adhi – in upAyams (means) such as karma yOgam etc
ilEn – I have no involvement;
un thanai vittu – without you
ARRagillEn – I am unable to sustain;
pERRukku – for the purushArtham (desired goal)
upAyam – as means
un than – your
pEr aruLE – great grace
sARRuginREn – I am announcing;
ingu – on this aspect
en nilai – my state (is this)
ennum – mercifully spoke
ezhil mARan – AzhwAr who acquired beauty (due to being in ultimate servitude)
sol – merciful pAsurams
vallAr – those who can recite
angu – in SrIvaikuNtam
amararkku – for nithyasUris
ArA amudhu – will become eternally fresh nectar.

Simple Translation

AzhwAr who acquired beauty, mercifully spoke on this aspect [of upAyam] “I have no involvement in upAyams such as karma yOgam etc which are pursued as means for mOksham; I am unable to sustain without you; I am announcing that your great grace is the means for the purushArtham”. Those who can recite these merciful pAsurams will become eternally fresh nectar for nithyasUris in SrIvaikuNtam.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • nORRa nOnbu Adhi ilEn – With this – AzhwAr is saying “I have no involvement in the upAyams such as karma yOgam etc which are identified in SAsthram as means to attain mOksham”. Just as SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn surrendered to SrI rAma highlighting his defects as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17.10 “rAvaNO nAma dhurvruththa: rAkshasO rAkshasESvara: | thasyAham anujO bhrAthA vibhIshaNa ithi Srutha: ||” (I am the younger brother of rAvaNa, who is known for his evil deeds and who is the king of demons), AzhwAr is surrendering here highlighting his shortcomings. mAmunigaL mercifully says this considering the whole pAsuram “nORRa nOnbilEn” [1st pAsuram].
  • un thanai vittu ARRagillEn – I cannot sustain myself without you, my sustenance and enjoyment. This suffering is part of my true nature.

When asked “What is the means for the result?” He says,

  • pERRukku upAyam un than pEr aruLE – The means for liberation is the causeless mercy which your highness who is as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1 “ayarvaRum amarargaL adhipathi” (lord of the unblemished nithyasUris), mercifully revealed originally, being as said in “aravin aNai vIRRirundhu” (seated on the serpent throne) [1st pAsuram], “sirIvaramanga vaNan” (controller for sirIvaramangai dhivyadhESam) [8th pAsuram], “karuLap putkodi chakkarap padai vAna nAdan” (emperumAn is having garuda bird as his flag, divine chakra as his weapon and paramapadham as his kingdom) [3rd pAsuram]. That is, the message mercifully conveyed in “poruL allAdha ennaip poruL Akki” (he transformed me who cannot be considered as an entity as said in “asannEva” (like achith) to realize my nature) [3rd pAsuram], “thamiyEnukkaruLAy” (Mercifully bless me who is lonely without anyone other than you as companion) [2nd pAsuram], “vandharuLi ennenjidam koNda” (emperumAn mercifully arrives and has my heart as his residence) [7th pAsuram], “aruLAy uyyumARenakkE” (mercifully bestow the means to make me attain your divine feet and have me uplifted) [9th pAsuram], “ARenakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thandhozhindhAy” (You (emperumAn) have bestowed on me your divine feet only which are the means to attain the goal, as the upAyam (means) which is the refuge) [10th pAsuram]. Other pAsurams narrate emperumAn’s nature which makes him bestow the mercy and AzhwAr’s nature to receive the same.
  • pERRukku upAyam un than pEr aruLE sARRuginREn – Hence AzhwAr is saying that he is announcing to everyone that emperumAn’s causeless mercy is the only means.
  • ingu en nilai ennum – Here, in this principle, this is my nishtai (conviction); the true nature of jIvAthmA who is subservient to paramAthmA, is to highlight his own emptiness due to the completeness in bhagavAn.
  • ezhil mARan – AzhwAr who is very beautiful due to being decorated with ornaments such as SEshathvam (servitude) and pArathanthriyam (total dependence); those who can recite/practice this decad where he reveals his firm conviction in the means.
  • angu amararkku ArA amudhu – For the nithyasUris who enjoy endless nectar [of emperumAn] in paramapadham, those who recite/practice this decad will become the eternally fresh nectar. mAmunigaL is following what was said by AzhwAr in “sirIvaramangai mEya paththu udan vaigal pAda vallAr vAnOrkku ArA amudhE” (those who can sing this decad agreeing with its meanings, will always be eternally enjoyable like never-satisfying nectar, for the residents of paramapadham) [11th pAsuram].

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – palaSruthi

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The Glorious Commentary on SrI Vishnu Sahasranamam – palaSruthi

इतीदं कीर्तनीयस्य कॆशवस्य महात्मनः ।
नाम्नां सहस्रं दिव्यानामशॆषॆण प्रकीर्तितम् ॥ १ ॥

Thus a thousand among infinite divine names of the supreme lord kESava are sung in succession, glorifying his divine qualities completely (to the extent of expounding all that must be essentially known).

Having sung thus, bhIshma beheld the greatness of the thousand names in his mind, and continued to lecture yudhishtira saying “ithIdham” (इतीदं).

The word ‘kIrthanIyasya’ (कीर्तनीयस्य) indicates that the lord who is praised by these thousand names is eligible of being praised by hymns.

The reason for such eligibility of bhagavAn is shown in the next phrase ‘kESavasya mahAthmana:’ (कॆशवस्य महात्मनः). [NOTE: The word ‘kESava’ indicates that bhagavAn has both physical beauty as well as the power to dispel all our sorrows. The word ‘mahAthmA’ indicates that he is the one who abides by his words of protecting his devotees. For the same reason, he is eligible of worship by everyone.]

The word ‘dhivyAnAm’ (दिव्यानाम्) shows that the divine names of bhagavAn are fit of being chanted in both material world (samsAra / prakruthi) as well as in the supreme abode (SrIvaikuNtam / paramapadham).

Finally, bhIshma adds the adverb ‘aSEshENa’ (अशॆषॆण) to indicate that he had sung all the divine qualities of bhagavAn that must be essentially known by yudhishtira.

य इदं श्रुणुयान्नित्यं यश्चापि परिकीर्तयॆत् ।
नाशुभं प्राप्नुयात्किञ्चित् सॊsमुत्रॆह च मानवः ॥ २ ॥

Thence, bhIshma concludes on the people who are eligible of chanting these divine names, and the fruits accrued thereof – with the SlOka starting as ‘ya idham’ (य इदं). The general fruit of chanting these divine names is shown to be ‘auspiciousness’ (or ‘dispelling inauspiciousness’) both here and nether, by just listening to and contemplating on these divine names as far as possible.

वॆदान्तगॊब्राह्मणः स्यात् क्षत्रियॊ विजयी भवॆत् ।
वैश्यॊ धनसमृद्धस्स्यात् शूद्रः सुखमवाप्नुयात् ॥ ३ ॥

Purport: With the chanting of these thousand names, a brAhmaNa begets the knowledge of vEdhAnthas and cows in plenty. A kshathriya becomes victorious. A vaiSya grows his wealth and a Sudhra attains happiness.

Commentary: In this SlOka, bhIshma expounds the fruits that each of the four varNas (people) beget with the chanting of these thousand names, although they are not firm in their devotion towards bhagavAn. He says, these fruits (mentioned in the purport) are begot even without them asking for it.

धर्मार्थी प्राप्नुयाद्धर्मम् अर्थार्थी चार्थमाप्नुयात् ।
कामानवाप्नुयात्कामी प्रजार्थी चाप्नुयात्प्रजाः ॥ ४ ॥

Purport: The seekers of dharma attain dharma. The seekers of wealth attain wealth. The seekers of desires realize their desires. The seekers of progeny beget children.

Commentary: In this SlOka, bhIshma explains the ‘desired fruits’ begot by the people of all four varnas.

भक्तिमान् यः सदॊत्थाय शुचिस्तद्गतमानसः ।
सहस्रं वासुदॆवस्य नाम्नामॆतत्प्रकीर्तयॆत् ॥ ५ ॥

यशः प्राप्नॊति विपुलं ज्ञातिप्राधान्यमॆव च ।
अचलां श्रियमाप्नॊति श्रॆयः प्राप्नॊत्यनुत्तमम् ॥ ६ ॥

न भयं क्वचिदाप्नॊति वीर्यं तॆजश्च विन्दति ।
भवत्यरॊगॊ द्युतिमान् बलरूपगुणान्वितः ॥ ७ ॥

रॊगार्तॊ मुच्यतॆ रॊगाद्बद्धॊ मुच्यॆत बन्धनात् ।
भयान् मुच्यॆत भीतस्तु मुच्यॆतापन्न आपदः ॥ ८ ॥

Purport: He, who religiously reads these thousand names every morning after purifying himself – with his mind resting in vAsudhEva, shall attain success in all endeavours, and fame. He shall attain abundant wealth here, and will also be liberated hereafter. He shall not have the least fear about anything, and will be blessed with great effulgence. He shall be freed from all diseases, and will have great power, beauty and qualities. The one who is suffering from diseases will be freed from all ailments. The one who is bound in shackles of this material world will be freed from them. The one who has great fears will be freed from those fears. The one who is in great dangers will be released from those dangers.

Commentary: In these four SlOkas, bhIshma talks about the fruits obtained by those who are abiding by the rules of studying these thousand names – such as japa, sankIrthana, etc. It says that such devotees beget all prosperity. The word ‘anuththamam SrEya:’ refers to mOksham. All other fruits are in this material world only.

दुर्गाण्यतितरत्याशु पुरुषः पुरुषॊत्तमम् ।
स्तुवन् नामसहस्रॆण नित्यं भक्तिसमन्वितः ॥ ९ ॥

Purport: The devotee who sings the thousand names of the supreme lord with devotion at all times shall overcome all obstacles with ease.

Commentary: Then, the removal of obstacles for the dear devotees of bhagavAn as a result of chanting the thousand names – even when they have not asked for it – is shown in this SlOka.

वासुदॆवाश्रयॊ मर्त्यॊ वासुदॆवपरायणः ।
सर्वपापविशुद्धात्मा याति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।। १० ॥

न वासुदॆवभक्तानाम् अशुभं विद्यतॆ क्वचित् ।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिभयं नैवॊपजायतॆ ॥ ११ ॥

Purport: The mortal who has fixated his mind in vAsudhEva, and has taken refuge under the lotus feet of vAsudhEva, shall be freed from all sins and purified. He shall then attain the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam and reach the supreme brahman. There shall be no inauspiciousness for the dear devotees of bhagavAn vAsudhEva. Such devotees will not have the fear of the cycles of birth and death, or of aging and ailments.

Commentary: Then, the eventual attainment of bhagavAn by such intimate devotees is shown in these two SlOkas.

इमं स्तवमधीयानः श्रद्धाभक्तिसमन्वितः ।
युज्यॆतात्मसुखक्षान्ति-श्रीधृतिस्स्मृतिकीर्तिभिः ॥ १२ ॥

Purport: The one who studies this sahasranAma sthOthra with a firm belief and unwavering devotion in bhagavAn shall attain peace of mind, tolerance, wealth, intellect, remembrance (of bhagavAn) and fame.

Commentary: This SlOka expounds the material benefits attained by devotees who chant the thousand names with laid down regulations. The word ‘SradhdhA’ refers to ‘respectful urge’ to sing his divine names. The word ‘bhakthi’ has already been explained in great detail before. The word ‘AthmA’ refers to ‘an individual’. The fruit of great fortune is verily the devotion towards bhagavAn. After all, it is popularly said “There is no greater fruit than the development of deep devotion towards gOvindha”.

न क्रॊधॊ न च मात्सर्यं न लॊभॊ नाशुभामतिः ।
भवन्ति कृतपुण्यानां भक्तानां पुरुषॊत्तमॆ ॥ १३ ॥

Purport: The virtuous devotees of the supreme lord shall have no anger, no jealousy, no greed or no ill mindedness.

Commentary: This SlOka shows that factually all the blemishes said herein will be dispelled by themselves. Nothing external is needed to dispel them.

द्यौः स चन्द्रार्कनक्षत्राः खं दिशॊ भूर्महॊदधिः ।
वासुदॆवस्य वीर्यॆण विधृतानि महात्मनः ॥ १४ ॥

Purport: The sky, with all of the moon, sun and the stars, the celestial world(s), the ten directions, the earth (or land) with all the mighty oceans are all borne by a mere fraction of bhagavAn vAsudhEva’s splendour.

Commentary: Further, bhIshma expounds the greatness of bhagavAn in this SlOka, so that the ill informed faulty logicians do not turn away the aforesaid fruits as ‘mere exaggerations’; because, the prowess of bhagavAn never ceases to exist, and thus there is no room for exaggerations or exceptions.

Although words of both masculine and neuter gender are used in this SlOka, the word ‘vidhruthAni’ is used in the neuter gender, owing to the grammatical rules (whenever a neuter gendered word is read with a non-neuter word, the entire collection is addressed as a neuter gendered object).

ससुरासुरगन्धर्वं सयक्षॊरगराक्षसम् ।
जगद्वशॆ वर्ततॆदं कृष्णस्य सचराचरम् ॥ १५ ॥

Purport: All these worlds consisting of all dhEvas, asuras, gandharvas, yakshas, Uragas (or nAgas), rAkshasas, et al – inclusive of all sentient and insentient entities – are bound to be functioning under the control of krishNa.

Commentary: Having expounded bhagavAn’s prowess in bearing all the worlds with a mere fraction of his divine splendour, this SlOka goes on to show all entities that are thus borne by him (and are in his control).

The word ‘varthathEdham’ (वर्ततॆदम्) is picked from the Arsha samhithA (used by rishis). It can be split as ‘avarthatha idham’ (अवर्तत इदम्) also.

इन्द्रियाणि मनॊ बुद्धिः सत्त्वं तॆजॊ बलं धृतिः ।
वासुदॆवात्मकान्याहुः क्षॆत्रं क्षॆत्रज्ञ एव च ॥ १६ ॥

Purport: All of the senses, mind, intellect, saththva (quality), effulgence, power, conscience, the body and the soul itself are said to be verily the properties of bhagavAn vAsudhEva.

Commentary: All the said entities act as per the direction of bhagavAn due to their body-soul relation with bhagavAn. This is shown in this SlOka.  The word ‘vAsudhEvAthmakAni’ (वासुदॆवात्मकानि) indicates that these are the bodies of vAsudhEva. The word ‘Ahu:’ (आहुः) means ‘have said’. The word ‘SAsthrANi’ must be assumed here (for, the body-soul relationship is shown in the Sasthras only).

सर्वागमानाम् आचारः प्रथमं परिकल्पितः ।
आचारप्रभवॊ धर्मॊ धर्मस्य प्रभुरच्युतः ॥ १७ ॥

Purport: Practice is considered as the primary purpose in learning all scriptures. The outcome of such practice is ‘dharma’, and the lord of dharma is bhagavAn achyutha.

Commentary: Till now, it was expounded that all philosophical texts are hailing bhagavAn (in theory). Henceforth, it shall be expounded that the texts prescribing rituals also hail only bhagavAn, in order to dispel the fears of ill informed souls who take to strict rituals to reach him. This SlOka is for this purpose only.

  • ‘sarvAgamAnAm’ = amongst all dharma pramANas (rulebooks for dharma)
  • ‘AchAra:’ = Saucha and other rituals.
  • ‘dharma’ = the derivative of such rigid practices, also abiding by vEdhas

‘achyutha’ = the supreme lord, who is worshipped by such rigid practices, the bestower of fruits thereof, and also the supporter of such practices.

ऋषयः पितरॊ दॆवा महाभूतानि धातवः ।
जङ्गमाजङ्गमं चॆदं जगन्नारायणॊद्भवम् ॥ १८ ॥

Purport: The rishis, pithrus, dhEvas, the five elements, the seven dhAthus, and all movable and immovable (or sentient and insentient) entities in general are all born out of nArAyaNa.

Commentary: The birth of the entities tied to dharma is expounded in this SlOka.

  • ‘rushaya:’ = manu and other rishis – who remember the injunctions of vEdha and put them into practice
  • ‘pitharOdhEvA:’ = the intermediate entities who are worshipped by many
  • ‘mahAbhUthAni’ = the five great elements viz., sky, wind, water, fire and earth
  • ‘dhAthava:’ = the resultants of the five elements, such as epidermis, endodermis, etc.

All these (together making up the body) are the tools to enjoy the fruits of dharma.

The enjoyed objects are the movable and immovable entities in the world.

यॊगज्ञानं तथा साङ्ख्यं विद्याः शिल्पादि कर्म च ।
वॆदाः शास्त्राणि विज्ञानम् एतत्सर्वं जनार्दनात् ॥ १९ ॥

Purport: yOga, SAnkhya and other schools of philosophy, sculpting, rituals, vEdhas, other scriptures including sources of mundane knowledge etc – all of these are also emanating from the lord janArdhana himself.

Commentary: bhagavAn being the source of all forms of knowledge as well is shown in this SlOka.

  • ‘jnAnam’ = SAsthras / scriptures
  • ‘yOgajnAnam’ = The source of yogic knowledge / scriptures expounding yOga. Such yOga is of two types – samAdhi yOga and karma yOga.
  • ‘sAnkhyam’ = cognizance of entities by sheer knowledge
  • ‘vidhyA:’ = all supportive sources of knowledge, such as grammar and the like, apart from knowledge of archery, medicine, music, etc. These are called ‘upavidhyas’. All these are indicated with the word ‘shilpAdhi’ (sculpturing, etc).
  • ‘karma’ = the rituals that must be observed at all places at all times
  • ‘vEdhA:’ = main sources of knowledge
  • ‘SAsthrANi’ = smrithis, ithihAsas and purANas

All of these – including the sources of mundane knowledge – emanate from janArdhana. The word ‘udhbhavathi’ (emanates) must be assumed in this SlOka.

एकॊ विष्णुर्महद्भूतं पृथक्भूतान्यनॆकशः ।
त्रीन् लॊकान् व्याप्य भूतात्मा भुङ्क्तॆ विश्वभुगव्ययः ॥ २० ॥

Purport: bhagavAn vishNu is the single supreme lord, with many individual souls servile to him. He is the one who pervades all three worlds with the entities therein, and also enjoys them all. He is the eternal one.

Commentary: With this SlOka, bhIshma shows the great wealth of bhagavAn vishNu, and the way he conducts the entire creation.

bhagavAn is alone. The individual souls are many in number, manifestations, forms, transformations and purposes of birth. bhagavAn pervades all three worlds – including all of badhdhas (bounded souls), mukthas (liberated souls) and nithyas (ever liberated souls), and becomes their indwelling soul thereby showing his mastership (controlling ability).

The word ‘vishvabhuk’ shows that he is the protector of every single entity in all ways at all times. Even then, he is free from blemishes arising out of his association with such lowly entities. This is shown in the word ‘avyaya:’.

With such supreme disposition, his transcendence from words and thoughts is shown in the word ‘mahadhbhUtham’.

The word ‘bhunkthE’ indicates that he enjoys all of these as a mere sport.

इमं स्तवं भगवतॊ विष्णॊर्व्यासॆन कीर्तितम् ।
पठॆद्य इच्छॆत्पुरुषः श्रॆयःप्राप्तुं सुखानि च ॥ २१ ॥

Purport: He who desires fame and happiness should recite this sahasranAma stOthra strung by vEdha vyAsa, which hails the glories of the lord bhagavAn vishNu.

Commentary: The supreme lord with infinite greatness is the one worthy of praise. bhagavAn Vyasa is the one who is capable of comprehending that supreme lord and praising him with lofty words. This gem of a sthothra – SrI vishNu sahasranAma adhyayam – has the greatness of the auspicious association with both of these men – vishNu and  vyAsa. All great poverty should be dispelled by studying this sthothra. Thus, it is concluded that the entire world (people therein) are the eligible candidates for studying it. This SlOka indicates that any individual (irrespective of their birth/qualifications/etc) who desires for material or spiritual benefits may study this sthothra without any doubt in mind about its potency.

विश्वॆश्वरमजं दॆवं जगतः प्रभुमव्ययम् ।
भजन्ति यॆ पुष्कराक्षं न तॆ यान्ति पराभवम् ॥ २२ ॥

न तॆ यान्ति पराभवम् ऒम् नम इति

Purport: Those who praise the supreme lord – the master of all worlds, and the eternal one, the lotus eyed krishNa – shall never fail in their endeavours.

Commentary: The lotus eyed supreme lord who is most benevolent unto the surrendered souls – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, who is by nature free from duals (blemishes such as anger/passion, joy/sorrow, etc), and the ocean of all auspicious attributes – is himself everything for those who surrender unto him and hail his glories at all times. The fortune of such devotees who have him as everything is untold! That being the case, how would mundane failures affect such superior souls? This SlOka exactly shows this greatness of the dear devotees of the lord.

Just to emphasize on such greatness of the fortunate souls, vaisampAyana (the original narrator of the entire SrI vishNu sahasranAma adhyAya / mahAbhAratha) exclaims ‘na thE yAnthi parAbhavam na thE yAnthi parAbhavam’ (‘they shall never fail… they shall never fail’) and ends with that high note.

Thus ends the commentary named SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNam, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hArItha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

अस्माकमत्र च परत्र च सर्वदुःखम्

उन्मूल्य संपदमशॆषविधां विधाय

श्रीरङ्गराजमहिषी स च वैष्णवानाम्

सङ्गात्सुखं सह जयॆन सदा क्रियास्ताम्

May the divine couple – SrIranga nAchchiyAr and her consort SrIranganAtha – dispel all our sorrows both here and hereafter, and enhance our fortune in infinite ways. May the divine couple keep us in company of qualified SrI vaishNavas at all times, thereby bestowing us with happiness and victory in all our endeavours.

Sarvam SrI Krishnaarpanam       सर्वं श्री कृष्णार्पणम्

श्रीमतॆ रामानुजाय नमः
श्री वादिकॆसरी सौम्यजामातृमनयॆ नमः

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 100 (Names 991 to 1000)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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991) kshithISa: (क्षितीशः)

As hailed in the scriptures as “He who possesses infinite forms, and manifests in every form, who has the entire creation as his form, and holds the entire creation in his belly like a mother carrying a child in her womb…”, although bhagavAn is the master of all, he is particularly called the ‘master of earth’ because he willingly incarnated as krishNa only to reduce the burden of this earth. Therefore, he is called ‘kshithISa:’.

Etymology: He who incarnated to reduce the burden on this earth is called ‘kshithISa:’.

भूभारक्लॆशहारी यः क्षितीशः स च कथ्यतॆ |

992) pApanASana: (पापनाशनः)

Further, bhagavAn burns the sins of those who contemplate on his pastimes such as stealing of butter, the blissful dance with the cowherd women (rAsakrIdA), etc. Therefore, he is called ‘pApanASana:’.

This shows that bhagavAn is the one who destroys the internal and external enemies of vaishNavas (his dear devotees) even in his incarnations.

Etymology: He, who destroys the sins of those who contemplate on his nectarine pastimes such as stealing of butter, rAsakrIdA, etc, is called ‘pApanASana:’.

नवनीतस्तैन्यरासक्रीडाद्यात्मकथामृतैः |
पापानां नाशनॊ लॊकॆ यः स स्यात् पापनाशनः ||

शङ्खभृन्नन्दकी चक्री शार्ङ्गधन्वा गदाधरः ।
रथाङ्गपाणिरक्षॊभ्यः सर्वप्रहरणायुधः ॥ १०७ ॥

सर्वप्रहरणायुध ऒम् नम इति

993) Sankhabhruth (शङ्खभृत्)

bhagavAn is thence hailed as the one who wields divine weapons indicative of his absolute supremacy. The first name in the series is ‘Sankhabhruth’. bhagavAn wields the conch named ‘pAnchajanya’, which he nourishes from time to time by feeding it with the nectar of his lips.  Thus, he is called ‘Sankhabhruth’.

Etymology: The one who wields the divine weapons (specially the conch) indicative of his absolute supremacy is called ‘Sankhabhruth’.

शङ्खभृत्परमैश्वर्यलक्षणायुधधारणः |

994) nandhakI (नन्दकी)

The sword that bhagavAn wields is called ‘nandhaka:’, because bhagavAn only desired to be made happy by that sword. Since he wields the nandhaka sword at all times, he is called ‘nandhakI’.

Etymology: That nandhaka – by whom bhagavAn himself desired to be gladdened – is in eternal union with bhagavAn, which is why he is called ‘nandhakI’.

नन्द्यान्मामयमित्यॆवं प्रार्थ्यॊ भगवतापि सः |
स नन्दकॊ नित्ययॊगी यस्यासौ नन्दकी स्मृतः ||

995) chakrI (चक्री) (also seen in 908)

bhagavAn wields the glorious discus (sudharSana chakra), which is ever pleasing to the eyes of the devotees, and whose flames are spurted with the blood of all the rAkshasas and asuras who create problems for the devotees of bhagavAn – including dhEvas.

Thus, he is called ‘chakrI’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is eternally wielding the sudharsana chakra, which is the slayer of all rAkshasas and asuras, he is called ‘chakrI’. The chanting of this six lettered manthra destroys all enemies.

सर्वरक्षॊसुरच्छॆत्रा नित्यं चक्रॆण यॊगतः |
चक्रीति कथ्यतॆ सम्यगृत्वर्णः शत्रुनाशकः ||

996) SArngadhanvA (शार्ङ्गधन्वा)

bhagavAn, further, holds a mighty bow resembling himself – with the resounding vibration of its tightly tied bow string, raining arrows on the opponents and wiping away the enemy camp at once. Thus, he is called ‘SArngadhanvA’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn wields a bow named ‘SArnga’, he is called ‘SArngadhanvA’.

शार्ङ्गाख्यं धनुरस्यॆति शार्ङ्गधन्वा प्रकीर्तितः |

997) gadhAdhara: (गदाधरः)

bhagavAn holds the mighty mace named ‘kaumOdhakI’ (कौमॊदकी), which shines like the queen of all maces, which spits out fire in the direction of all opponents like the great fire during the final destruction of all worlds, and which always pleases him through its acts. Thus, he is called ‘gadhAdhara:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn holds the kaumOdhakI mace, he is called ‘gadhAdhara:’.

कौमॊदकीधारणाच्च गदाधर इतीरितः |

998) rathAngapANi: (रथाङ्गपाणिः)

bhagavAn holds a discus (chakra) befitting of his stature in his hands at all times. Thus, he is called ‘rathAngapANi:’. [NOTE: ‘rathAnga’ means ‘the wheel of a chariot’. Since a discus resembles a wheel, it is also called so]

Earlier, the divine name ‘chakrI’ showed that bhagavAn is the master of the discus (sudharSana chakra).

In this divine name, it further emphasizes that he holds it ready to be wielded at any moment (prayOgachakram). Thus, there is no fault of repetition.

Etymology: He who holds a chakra in his hand – ready to be wielded at all times – befitting his stature, he is called ‘rathAngapANi:’. This nine lettered manthra dispels fears from the minds of the chanters.

यथॊचितं रथाङ्गं च पाणौ यस्य सदॊद्यतम् |
रथाङ्गपाणिराख्यातॊ नवार्णॊ भयनाशकः ||

999) akshObhya: (अक्षॊभ्यः) (also seen in 807)

bhagavAn is further called ‘akshObhya:’, because he is firm in protecting his dear devotees at any cost. He is also called ‘akshObhya:’ because he is invincible due to his own greatness.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘akshObhya:’ since he is firm in his vow of protecting his dear devotees. He is also called ‘akshObhya:’ since he is invincible due to his own greatness.

प्रपन्नाभयदानार्थव्रतदार्ढ्यादसौ तथा |
अचाल्यः स्वमहिम्नापि ह्यक्षॊभ्य इति कीर्तितः ||

1000) sarvapraharaNAyudha: (सर्वप्रहरणायुधः)

Finally, bhagavAn possesses innumerable divine weapons of unfathomable prowess, which are ever ready to dispel the sorrows of all devotees, and which are befitting of his divine nature (svarUpam), and which are beautiful like infinitely great jewels on his divine form. These divine weapons are under a long lasting vow of protecting the devotees of bhagavAn at all times, at all places, by all means, and in all ways. These weapons are themselves the masters of all wealth. Since bhagavAn possesses other weapons (other than the five mentioned earlier) which are all of the said nature, he is called ‘sarvapraharaNAyudha:’.

Etymology: He who possesses infinite weapons – which are all extremely powerful, innumerable, and of unfathomable prowess, befitting of bhagavAn’s svarUpam, and observing a long lasting vow of protecting all devotees who take refuge under the feet of their master (bhagavAn) at all times, at all places, by all means and in all ways – is called ‘sarvapraharaNAyudha:’.

This great twelve lettered manthra dispels all sorrows from the lives of the chanters.

In this way, all wealth will come to those who take refuge under the lotus feet of the lord of mahAlakshmi.

Thus the explanation for the thousand names is completed.

पादमूलं प्रपन्नानाम् अनिष्टॊन्मूलनॆ स्वयम् |
असङ्ख्यॆयान्यमर्यादसामर्थ्यान्यात्मनः सदा ||

सर्वत्र सर्वथा सर्वप्रकाराश्रितरक्षणॆ |
दीक्षितानि चॊर्जितानि ह्यनन्तान्यायुधानि च ||

यस्य सन्ति स वै नित्यं सर्वप्रहरणायुधः |
द्वादशार्णॊ महामन्त्रः सर्वदुःखविनाशकः ||
एवं श्रीशप्रपन्नानां सर्वाः सिद्ध्यन्ति सम्पदः ||
नामसहस्रनिर्वचनं सम्पूर्णम् ||

In this way, the supreme lord bhagavAn SrIman nArAyaNa – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi – the best among all souls – the one who is a source of amazement for all those who take refuge under him – and the mine of all wealth – is shown to be totally free from all blemishes, boundless in nature, possessing great auspicious nature, form, qualities, wealth and pastimes, showing a host of divine qualities such as unsurpassed mastership over all entities, greatness of mingling with even the lowly souls, protecting every soul in times of distress – like a close friend, bestowing of all desires for his dear devotees like a kalpaka tree, and who is the sole medicine for all those devotees who are affected with the poison of samsAra, etc. All glories to that supreme soul!

Thus ends the tenth/last centum (dhaSama/charama Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hArItha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The tenth centum is completed.

वनमाली गदी शार्ङ्गी शङ्खी चक्री च नन्दकी ।
श्रीमान् नारायणॊ विष्णुर्वासुदॆवॊsभिरक्षतु ॥ १०८ ॥

|| sarvam SrI krishNArpaNam ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 99 (Names 981 to 990)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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981) yagyAnthakruth (यज्ञान्तकृत्)

bhagavAn says thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna! All actions conclude in knowledge”.

In this way, bhagavAn generates the knowledge about himself (the knowledge that attaining the supreme brahman is the highest fruit of any yagya) upon conclusion of yagyas. Thus, he is called ‘yagyAnthakruth’.

Etymology: He who bestows the final result of any yagya (or completes any yagya) – which is in the form of knowledge about himself (that his attainment itself is the greatest fruit of any yagya) – is called ‘yagyAnthakruth’.

अन्तं पर्यवसानं यॊ यज्ञानां कुरुतॆ स्वयम् |
स्वतत्त्वज्ञानरूपं तु स यज्ञान्तकृदुच्यतॆ ||

982) yagyaguhyam (यज्ञगुह्यम्)

Although bhagavAn doesn’t expect anything from a yagya (because he is complete by himself, and doesn’t need an external act to satisfy him in anyway), he still accepts the oblations and other offerings in a yagya as though he had been waiting for them! With such meagre offerings, bhagavAn acts as though he is greatly pleased. In turn, he makes the performers of such yagya happy by bestowing great fruits upon them. This fact is known only by those learned few who are proficient with the details, the means and fruits of yagyas. For all others, this fact remains hidden and he shows himself as a mere seeker of oblations. Thus, he is called ‘yagyaguhyam’ – the secret of yagyas!

This is illustrated in the scriptures, thus:

  • “All vEdhas, all the objects of knowledge and all SAsthras, all yagyas and all modes of worship of the supreme lord are verily krishNa himself! Those brAhmanas who know krishNa in this true purport – oh king! – are the ones who have known the true purport of yagyas”.
  • “All brilliant objects that shine in this world, and all the three worlds with their caretakers and the three vEdhas, the three sacred fires (called gArhapathya, AhavanIya and dhAkshiNAgni), the five great oblations (pancha mahA yagyas), and all objects of knowledge – are verily the son of dhEvaki himself!”, etc.

Etymology: Although being completely satisfied naturally, the one – who acts as though he is greatly satisfied with the meagre offerings in a yagya (as though he was never complete before), thereby satisfying the performers by bestowing the desired fruits – is called ‘yagyaguhyam’. This eight lettered manthra is one of the best.

यस्तर्पयति यज्ञॆषु नित्यतृप्तॊsप्यतृप्तवत् |
पुरॊडाशादिकं भुक्त्वा तृप्यन्नन्यान् विशॆषतः |
स यज्ञगुह्यमाख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

983) annam (अन्नम्)

bhagavAn is enjoyed by those learned souls who have realized their true nature and are capable of enjoying him as said in the previous divine names. Thus, he is called ‘annam’.

Etymology: He, who is enjoyed by the noble souls – who are highly capable of enjoying bhagavAn in all ways explained till now – at all times, is called ‘annam’ by the learned souls.

एवं निष्पादितानन्तभॊक्तृशक्तिसमन्वितैः |
भुज्यतॆ यः सदा सोsयमन्नमित्युच्यतॆ बुधैः ||

984) annAdha: (अन्नादः)

bhagavAn in turn greatly enjoys such souls. Thus, he is called ‘annAdha:’.

Who else can have such great fortune of being enjoyed by bhagavAn – other than his dear devotees? There can be none! That is why this SlOka has an affirmation (denoted by EvakAra एवकारः – or the word ‘Eva’). The ‘cha’kAra (चकारः) applies all that was said before to this devotee (who is enjoyed by bhagavAn). The two words together (Eva and cha) in this SlOka clearly show that there can be none else who is so fortunate to be enjoyed by bhagavAn himself!

Etymology: He who takes such dear souls near to him, and eventually enjoys them himself, is called ‘annAdha:’.

य आदत्तॆ तथा भुङ्क्तॆ स्वयं सॊsन्नाद ईरितः |

आत्मयॊनिः स्वयंजातो वैखानः सामगायनः ।
दॆवकीनन्दनः स्रष्टा क्षितीशः पापनाशनः ॥ १०६ ॥

985)  AthmayOni: (आत्मयॊनिः)

bhagavAn further mingles with those souls as closely as sugar is mixed with milk! Thus, he is called ‘AthmayOni:’.

Etymology: He, who always unites the dear devotees – who enjoy him at all times – with himself, is called ‘AthmayOni:’. This eight lettered manthra is capable of conferring all enjoyments to the seekers.

भॊक्तारमात्मना नित्यं यॊ यॊजयति सर्वदा |
आत्मयॊनिः स कथितॊ वस्वर्णः सुखभॊगदः ||

986) svayamjAtha: (स्वयंजातः)

The name ‘svayamjAtha:’ indicates that bhagavAn is born in this world without anyone having to pray for such incarnations!

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘svayamjAtha:’, because he doesn’t expect anyone to plead for his births in this world.

स्वयंजातॊ यतॊ जातः प्रार्थनाद्यनपॆक्षया |

987) vaikhAna: (वैखानः)

Having born in this world thus, bhagavAn is the one who removes all our sorrows. Thus, he is called ‘vaikhAna:’.

The root ‘khanthE’ (खनतॆ) (to dig) is prefixed with the ‘vi’ prefix, and suffixed with a ‘ghanj’ (घञ्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in the form ‘vikhAna:’ (विखानः). Further, the ‘aN’ (अण्) adjunct is added, indicating that he is an expert at it, resulting in the final form of ‘vaikhAna:’.

Etymology: Having born in this world, he – who exhumes (and removes) the various difficulties in this material world – is called ‘vaikhAna:’. This seven lettered manthra removes all sorrows from the life of chanter.

जनित्वा भवदुःखं यॊ विविधं खनति स्वयम् |
वैखानः स च निर्दिष्टः सप्तार्णॊsखिलदुःखहा ||

988) sAmagAyana: (सामगायनः)

Having been intoxicated with attainment of bhagavAn, the liberated souls start singing the sAmagAnam as ‘hAvu hAvu’ (हावु हावु) (a particular sAman in the vEdhas) in utter bliss. Since he is the object of such bliss, he is called ‘sAmagAyana:’.

This is very clearly shown in the thaiththirIya upanishath, which says “This soul then remains singing the sAman as hAvu hAvu hAvu…”, etc.

Etymology: Having been intoxicated with the attainment of whom the liberated and ever liberated souls (nithyas and mukthas) start singing the sAman (hAvu hAvu), such a one is called ‘sAmagAyana:’.

स्वप्राप्तिमधुपानॆन निरताः सामगीतिषु |
नित्यमुक्ताः सन्ति यस्य स उक्तः सामगायनः ||

989) dhEvakInandhana: (दॆवकीनन्दनः)

All the said attributes are not (only) seen in the parAvasthA or ‘para’ form of bhagavAn in SrIvaikuNtam.  Rather, they are found in this dhEvakInandhana (the son of dhEvaki).

[NOTE: The word ‘this dhEvakInandhana’ indicates that bhIshma is pointing at krishNa – who is right in front of him, and standing next to yudhishtira – while telling this divine name]

This is shown in SrIman mahAbharatham itself, thus (in the words of bhIshma):

“Oh yudhishtira! This son of dhEvaki, this janArdhana – with whom you are claiming close relations – this wide eyed dark hued supreme lord is verily the past, present and future.”

Etymology: He who gave up his parAvasthA (or supremacy in SrIvaikuNtam) and descended to be born as the son of dhEvaki – out of sheer affection towards the fallen souls – is called ‘dhEvakInandhana:’.

दॆवक्यास्तनयत्वॆन परावस्थः प्रजज्ञिवान् |
वात्सल्यादवरॊ यॊsसौ दॆवकीनन्दनः स्मृतः ||

990) srashtA (स्रष्टा) (also seen in 595)

He only (krishNa only) assumes the parAvasthA or supremacy and creates all the worlds as well. Thus, he (krishNa) is called ‘srashtA’.

Etymology: krishNa is called ‘srashtA’ because he only creates all worlds, assuming his supremacy.

परावस्थां प्रपन्नॊsसौ स्रष्टा सर्वस्य सर्जनात् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 98 (Names 971 to 980)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 97

971) yagya: (यज्ञः) (also seen in 446)

For all those who lack the capacity in performing elaborate yagyas to worship him, bhagavAn himself is in the form of yagya (japa yagya). Hence he is called ‘yagya:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is himself the yagya for all those who lack the capacity in elaborate yagyas, he is called ‘yagya:’.

रिक्तानां स स्वयं यज्ञॊ यज्ञ इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

972) yagyapathi: (यज्ञपतिः)

bhagavAn is called ‘yagyapathi:’ since he is the one who provides fruits for such yagya.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the bestower of fruits of yagya, he is called ‘yagyapathi:’.

यज्ञस्य फलदॊ यस्मात् तस्मात् यज्ञपतिः स्मृतः |

973) yajvA (यज्वा)

For such people who do not have the required capacity, bhagavAn himself becomes the doer of all yagyas. Hence he is called ‘yajvA’.

The root ‘yaj’ (यज्) gets the ‘~gvanip’ (ङ्वनिप्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

In the aSvamEdha episode of vaishNava dharma, bhagavAn himself says thus: “Oh yudhishtira! In order to purify such souls (who lack the capacity in performing yagyas), I do the yagyas for them during both sandhyAs (morning and evening) myself. This is my unfailing vow”

Etymology: He, who himself becomes the doer of yagyas for those who lack capacity in performing yagyas, is called ‘yajvA’.

अशक्तविषयॆ यष्टा स्वयं यज्वॆति कथ्यतॆ |

974) yagyAnga: (यज्ञाङ्गः)

Even the yagyas performed by the capable people is turned as a service unto bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘yagyAnga:’.

Etymology: Since all yagynas performed by capable men are also a service to bhagavAn, he is called ‘yagyAnga:’.

शॆषः शक्तिकृतॊ यज्ञॊsस्यॆति यज्ञाङ्ग उच्यतॆ |

975) yagyavAhana: (यज्ञवाहनः)

Giving strength, dedication and the eligibility to perform such yagyas, bhagavAn further conducts the yagyas himself. Thus, he is called ‘yagyavAhana:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘yagyavAhana:’ since he provides them with the sincerity, eligibility, etc required to perform yagyas.

तॆषां श्रद्धाधिकारादिदानात् स्यात् यज्ञवाहनः |

यज्ञभृद्यज्ञकृद्यज्ञी यज्ञभुग्यज्ञसाधनः ।
यज्ञान्तकृद्यज्ञगुह्यमन्नमन्नाद एव च ॥ १०५ ॥

976) yagyabhruth (यज्ञभृत्)

Even if the yagya performed by people is faulty, he completes it and accepts it generously if the performer offers the pUrNAhuthi (the final oblation) remembering bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘yagyabhruth’.

The scriptures have shown thus:

  • “The actions (of yagya) which are done by the performer (adhvaryu) with lack of attention are completed with the mere remembrance of vishNu”

Etymology: Even if the yagya performed is about to go fruitless due to omissions, bhagavAn is the one who protects and completes such yagyas if the pUrnAhuthi is offered with his remembrance. Thus, he is called ‘yagyabhruth’. This seven lettered manthra is one of the best.

पूर्णाहुतिस्वस्मृतिभ्यां विफलं यज्ञमप्युत |
पुष्णाति यज्ञभृत् स स्यात् सप्तार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

977) yagyakruth (यज्ञकृत्)

bhagavAn created yagyas in the beginning of time in order to uplift souls. Thus, he is called ‘yagyakruth’.

Etymology: The one who created yagyas at the beginning of time for the welfare of the world is called ‘yagyakruth’.

जगद्धिताय कृतवान् यज्ञमादौ स यज्ञकृत् |

978) yagyI (यज्ञी)

The master of all yagyas (the one for whom all yagyas are offered at all times) is called ‘yagyI’.

Etymology: He who is the master of all yagyas (unto whom all yagyas are offered always) is called ‘yagyI’.

यः सर्वॆषां तु यज्ञानां शॆषी यज्ञीति कथ्यतॆ  |

979) yagyabhuk (यज्ञभुक्)

Further, bhagavAn is the one who partakes of all oblations in all yagyas. Thus, he is called ‘yagyabhuk’. Alternately, he is the one who protects all yagyas. Thus also he is called ‘yagyabhuk’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn partakes of oblations in all yagyas and also is the sole protector of all yagyas, he is called ‘yagyabhuk’.

भुङ्क्तॆ तान् स भुनक्त्यॆवं यज्ञभुक् स निगद्यतॆ |

980) yagyasAdhana: (यज्ञसाधनः)

The yagyas performed are a means to attain the supreme lord through knowledge (gyAnam) (knowing that bhagavAn is the final destination for all souls). Thus, he has yagyas as the means of attaining him. Thus, he is called ‘yagyasAdhana:’.

Etymology: He, for whom the yagyas become the means of attainment through knowledge (in other words, since yagyas are the means of attaining bhagavAn through knowledge), is called ‘yagyasAdhana:’.

ज्ञानद्वारा यस्य यज्ञः साधनं यज्ञसाधनः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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