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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 48 – ArAvamudhAzhwAr

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.8

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of being shaken and speaking with anguish even after surrendering to ArAvamudhAzhwAr highlighting his own emptyness and emperumAn not fulfilling his desire considering “ivar nammAzhwAr” (here is our AzhwAr), and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Even after surrendering at the divine feet of the controller of sirIvaramangai (vAnamAmalai), AzhwAr’s desire was not fulfilled there. He thought “sarvESvaran who has vowed to protect the devotees, will not deny our desires. But we don’t know where he is planning to fulfil them” and went to thirukkudandhai with great desire thinking “if we go to the divine feet of ArAvamudhAzhwAr in thirukkudandhai, our desires will be fulfilled”; but there, emperumAn did not mercifully stand up, become seated, walk around, say some pleasing words, give a cool glance or embrace him, he trembled thinking “he is present along with pirAtti, and we have the desire, yet why is my desire not fulfilled?” and completed with sorrow thinking “at least we still have not lost faith in his divine feet as the means” and sustaining him. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this experience of AzhwAr which is explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.8ArAvamudhE” starting with “ArAvamudhAzhwAr“.

pAsuram

ArAvamudhAzhwAr Adhariththa pERugaLaith
thArAmaiyAlE thaLarndhu migath thIrAdha
Asaiyudan ARRAmai pEsi alamandhAn
mAsaRu sIr mARan emmAn

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word-by-word meanings

ArAvamudhAzhwAr – (thirukkudandhai) ArAvamudhan [emperumAn]
Adhariththa pERugaLai – results desired (by AzhwAr)
thArAmaiyAlE – since it was not mercifully fulfilled
miga thaLarndhu – becoming very anguished
thIrAdha Asaiyudan – with intense desire which cannot be pacified until fulfilled
ARRamai pEsi – speaking about his sorrow
alamandhan – became shaken; (who is that?)
mAsu aRu sIr – one who has unblemished qualities
emmAn – our lord
mARan – AzhwAr.

Simple Translation

Since AzhwAr’s desired results were not mercifully fulfilled by ArAvavamudhan, AzhwAr became very anguished with intense desire which cannot be pacified until fulfilled. Being shaken, he spoke about his sorrow; such AzhwAr is our lord who has unblemished qualities.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • ArAvamudhAzhwArArAvamudhAzhwAr who is mercifully reclining as said in “ErAr kOlam thigazhak kidandha” (mercifully reclining to make  your abundant beauty and decoration, shine) [1st pAsuram] to be enjoyed together with companions due to his ultimately enjoyable nature as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 6.1 “saha pathnyA viSAlAkshyA nArAyaNamupAgamath” (SrI rAma along with wide-eyed sIthAp pirAtti, meditated upon SrIman nArAyaNa) and SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.24 “samayAbOdhithaSSrImAn sukha suptha:” (the prosperous lord who was sleeping, was awakened by me).
  • Adhariththa pERugaLai – The results which AzhwAr expected. That is – what he desired in “kidandhAy kaNdEn” (enjoyed you, resting, by seeing with my own eyes) [1st pAsuram], “ammA malark kaN vaLarginRAnE” (one who is resting with distinguished lotus flower like divine eyes) [2nd pAsuram], “kANa vArAyE” (You should come for me to see) [9th pAsuram]. You should rise up as said in thiruchchandha viruththam 61 “kudandhaiyuL kidandhavARezhundhirundhu” (rise up from your reclining posture in thirukkudandhai); your highness, who are the Sriya:pathi in thirukkudandhai, should mercifully remain seated with your divine consort SrI dhEvi as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.2.2thAmarai mangaiyum nIyum” (SrI mahAlakshmi and you); you should mercifully glance at me with your lotus eyes; you should mercifully walk towards us to be seen and enjoyed by us, by manifesting the reddishness in your friendly lips which appear like a coral creeper; AzhwAr desired for such interactions but they were not fulfilled immediately.
  • thaLarndhu miga – Became very anguished to be said as in “AkAsaththai nOkki azhuvan thozhuvan” (I am grieving and looking at the sky, crying out like those who have great devotion and those who worship you. ) [4th pAsuram].
  • thIrAdha Asaiyudan – Since the desire will be pacified only when it is experienced, with such desire which cannot be extinguished without the experiencing of the result.
  • ARRAmai pEsi alamandhAn – That is, AzhwAr’s words as in “adiyEn udalam nIrAy alaindhu karaiya urukkuginRa” (You are agitating me to dissolve and melt my body which is having love as the mood/form towards you, losing firmness to become watery) [1st pAsuram], “ennAn seygEn” (what shall I do?) [3rd pAsuram], “unnaik kANbAn nAn alappAy” (To see you and enjoy as desired, I am grieving) [4th pAsuram], “thUrAk kuzhi thUrththu enai nAL aganRiruppan” (how many more days do I have to exist separated [from you] in this pit of inappropriate desires which is difficult to fill and is dug?) [6th pAsuram], “thariyEn ini” (I will not remain relaxed after this) [7th pAsuram] and “unakkAtpattum adiyEn innam uzhalvEnO” (Though being your servant, should I, who am existing exclusively for you and have no other refuge, still suffer with no interaction with you as desired?) [10th pAsuram]. Even in this state, his firm conviction is as said in “una thAL pidiththE selak kANE” (You kindly see to it that I who am your servitor, hold on to your divine feet until the time I am uplifted, for as many days as it may take) [3rd pAsuram] and “kaLaikaN maRRilEn” (I am not having any other protector) [8th pAsuram].
  • mAsu aRu sIr mARan emmAn – AzhwAr who is having auspicious qualities such as firm conviction etc and not having the blemish of looking at other upAyams even at this state, is our lord. Alternatively, this is read along with ARRamai pEsi alamandhAn, i.e. such blemishless AzhwAr spoke of his sorrows.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 47 – nORRa nOnbu

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nammAzhwAr in SrI SatakOpam (divine pAdhukA (sandals) of emperumAn), vAnamAmalai [There is no separate divine deity for nammAzhwAr in this dhivyadhESam]

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.7

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s loving pAsurams of worshipping and surrendering at the divine feet of vAnamAmalai [emperumAn], and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr became anguished due to his desire not being fulfilled even after being pained in separation and having intense desire which made him sustain himself by enacting emperumAn; he thought that ISvaran is considering such intense desire in the form of seeking enjoyment as a means to attain him thinking “let this desire mature enough and we will fulfil that”. Hence, he announced that he has absolutely no involvement in any of the upAyams (means) such as karma yOgam etc which are identified in SAsthram as the means to get the result, and declares that there is no means other than the one which emperumAn showed in the beginning [or lotus feet], at the divine feet of vAnamAmalai emperumAn who has mercifully arrived at sirIvaramangai (SrIvaramangA kshEthram – vAnamAmalai) along with his divine consorts and eternal associates, falling at his divine feet like an uprooted tree without any other refuge. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this aspect which is explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.7nORRa nOnbilEn” starting with “nORRa nOnbAdhiyilEn“.

pAsuram

nORRa nOnbAdhiyilEn undhanai vittARRagillEn
pERRukkupAyam unRan pEraruLE – sARRuginREn
ingennilai ennum ezhil mARan sol vallAr
angamararkkArAvamudhu

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word-by-word meanings

nORRa – pursued as means for mOksham
nOnbu Adhi – in upAyams (means) such as karma yOgam etc
ilEn – I have no involvement;
un thanai vittu – without you
ARRagillEn – I am unable to sustain;
pERRukku – for the purushArtham (desired goal)
upAyam – as means
un than – your
pEr aruLE – great grace
sARRuginREn – I am announcing;
ingu – on this aspect
en nilai – my state (is this)
ennum – mercifully spoke
ezhil mARan – AzhwAr who acquired beauty (due to being in ultimate servitude)
sol – merciful pAsurams
vallAr – those who can recite
angu – in SrIvaikuNtam
amararkku – for nithyasUris
ArA amudhu – will become eternally fresh nectar.

Simple Translation

AzhwAr who acquired beauty, mercifully spoke on this aspect [of upAyam] “I have no involvement in upAyams such as karma yOgam etc which are pursued as means for mOksham; I am unable to sustain without you; I am announcing that your great grace is the means for the purushArtham”. Those who can recite these merciful pAsurams will become eternally fresh nectar for nithyasUris in SrIvaikuNtam.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • nORRa nOnbu Adhi ilEn – With this – AzhwAr is saying “I have no involvement in the upAyams such as karma yOgam etc which are identified in SAsthram as means to attain mOksham”. Just as SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn surrendered to SrI rAma highlighting his defects as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17.10 “rAvaNO nAma dhurvruththa: rAkshasO rAkshasESvara: | thasyAham anujO bhrAthA vibhIshaNa ithi Srutha: ||” (I am the younger brother of rAvaNa, who is known for his evil deeds and who is the king of demons), AzhwAr is surrendering here highlighting his shortcomings. mAmunigaL mercifully says this considering the whole pAsuram “nORRa nOnbilEn” [1st pAsuram].
  • un thanai vittu ARRagillEn – I cannot sustain myself without you, my sustenance and enjoyment. This suffering is part of my true nature.

When asked “What is the means for the result?” He says,

  • pERRukku upAyam un than pEr aruLE – The means for liberation is the causeless mercy which your highness who is as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1 “ayarvaRum amarargaL adhipathi” (lord of the unblemished nithyasUris), mercifully revealed originally, being as said in “aravin aNai vIRRirundhu” (seated on the serpent throne) [1st pAsuram], “sirIvaramanga vaNan” (controller for sirIvaramangai dhivyadhESam) [8th pAsuram], “karuLap putkodi chakkarap padai vAna nAdan” (emperumAn is having garuda bird as his flag, divine chakra as his weapon and paramapadham as his kingdom) [3rd pAsuram]. That is, the message mercifully conveyed in “poruL allAdha ennaip poruL Akki” (he transformed me who cannot be considered as an entity as said in “asannEva” (like achith) to realize my nature) [3rd pAsuram], “thamiyEnukkaruLAy” (Mercifully bless me who is lonely without anyone other than you as companion) [2nd pAsuram], “vandharuLi ennenjidam koNda” (emperumAn mercifully arrives and has my heart as his residence) [7th pAsuram], “aruLAy uyyumARenakkE” (mercifully bestow the means to make me attain your divine feet and have me uplifted) [9th pAsuram], “ARenakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thandhozhindhAy” (You (emperumAn) have bestowed on me your divine feet only which are the means to attain the goal, as the upAyam (means) which is the refuge) [10th pAsuram]. Other pAsurams narrate emperumAn’s nature which makes him bestow the mercy and AzhwAr’s nature to receive the same.
  • pERRukku upAyam un than pEr aruLE sARRuginREn – Hence AzhwAr is saying that he is announcing to everyone that emperumAn’s causeless mercy is the only means.
  • ingu en nilai ennum – Here, in this principle, this is my nishtai (conviction); the true nature of jIvAthmA who is subservient to paramAthmA, is to highlight his own emptiness due to the completeness in bhagavAn.
  • ezhil mARan – AzhwAr who is very beautiful due to being decorated with ornaments such as SEshathvam (servitude) and pArathanthriyam (total dependence); those who can recite/practice this decad where he reveals his firm conviction in the means.
  • angu amararkku ArA amudhu – For the nithyasUris who enjoy endless nectar [of emperumAn] in paramapadham, those who recite/practice this decad will become the eternally fresh nectar. mAmunigaL is following what was said by AzhwAr in “sirIvaramangai mEya paththu udan vaigal pAda vallAr vAnOrkku ArA amudhE” (those who can sing this decad agreeing with its meanings, will always be eternally enjoyable like never-satisfying nectar, for the residents of paramapadham) [11th pAsuram].

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – palaSruthi

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The Glorious Commentary on SrI Vishnu Sahasranamam – palaSruthi

इतीदं कीर्तनीयस्य कॆशवस्य महात्मनः ।
नाम्नां सहस्रं दिव्यानामशॆषॆण प्रकीर्तितम् ॥ १ ॥

Thus a thousand among infinite divine names of the supreme lord kESava are sung in succession, glorifying his divine qualities completely (to the extent of expounding all that must be essentially known).

Having sung thus, bhIshma beheld the greatness of the thousand names in his mind, and continued to lecture yudhishtira saying “ithIdham” (इतीदं).

The word ‘kIrthanIyasya’ (कीर्तनीयस्य) indicates that the lord who is praised by these thousand names is eligible of being praised by hymns.

The reason for such eligibility of bhagavAn is shown in the next phrase ‘kESavasya mahAthmana:’ (कॆशवस्य महात्मनः). [NOTE: The word ‘kESava’ indicates that bhagavAn has both physical beauty as well as the power to dispel all our sorrows. The word ‘mahAthmA’ indicates that he is the one who abides by his words of protecting his devotees. For the same reason, he is eligible of worship by everyone.]

The word ‘dhivyAnAm’ (दिव्यानाम्) shows that the divine names of bhagavAn are fit of being chanted in both material world (samsAra / prakruthi) as well as in the supreme abode (SrIvaikuNtam / paramapadham).

Finally, bhIshma adds the adverb ‘aSEshENa’ (अशॆषॆण) to indicate that he had sung all the divine qualities of bhagavAn that must be essentially known by yudhishtira.

य इदं श्रुणुयान्नित्यं यश्चापि परिकीर्तयॆत् ।
नाशुभं प्राप्नुयात्किञ्चित् सॊsमुत्रॆह च मानवः ॥ २ ॥

Thence, bhIshma concludes on the people who are eligible of chanting these divine names, and the fruits accrued thereof – with the SlOka starting as ‘ya idham’ (य इदं). The general fruit of chanting these divine names is shown to be ‘auspiciousness’ (or ‘dispelling inauspiciousness’) both here and nether, by just listening to and contemplating on these divine names as far as possible.

वॆदान्तगॊब्राह्मणः स्यात् क्षत्रियॊ विजयी भवॆत् ।
वैश्यॊ धनसमृद्धस्स्यात् शूद्रः सुखमवाप्नुयात् ॥ ३ ॥

Purport: With the chanting of these thousand names, a brAhmaNa begets the knowledge of vEdhAnthas and cows in plenty. A kshathriya becomes victorious. A vaiSya grows his wealth and a Sudhra attains happiness.

Commentary: In this SlOka, bhIshma expounds the fruits that each of the four varNas (people) beget with the chanting of these thousand names, although they are not firm in their devotion towards bhagavAn. He says, these fruits (mentioned in the purport) are begot even without them asking for it.

धर्मार्थी प्राप्नुयाद्धर्मम् अर्थार्थी चार्थमाप्नुयात् ।
कामानवाप्नुयात्कामी प्रजार्थी चाप्नुयात्प्रजाः ॥ ४ ॥

Purport: The seekers of dharma attain dharma. The seekers of wealth attain wealth. The seekers of desires realize their desires. The seekers of progeny beget children.

Commentary: In this SlOka, bhIshma explains the ‘desired fruits’ begot by the people of all four varnas.

भक्तिमान् यः सदॊत्थाय शुचिस्तद्गतमानसः ।
सहस्रं वासुदॆवस्य नाम्नामॆतत्प्रकीर्तयॆत् ॥ ५ ॥

यशः प्राप्नॊति विपुलं ज्ञातिप्राधान्यमॆव च ।
अचलां श्रियमाप्नॊति श्रॆयः प्राप्नॊत्यनुत्तमम् ॥ ६ ॥

न भयं क्वचिदाप्नॊति वीर्यं तॆजश्च विन्दति ।
भवत्यरॊगॊ द्युतिमान् बलरूपगुणान्वितः ॥ ७ ॥

रॊगार्तॊ मुच्यतॆ रॊगाद्बद्धॊ मुच्यॆत बन्धनात् ।
भयान् मुच्यॆत भीतस्तु मुच्यॆतापन्न आपदः ॥ ८ ॥

Purport: He, who religiously reads these thousand names every morning after purifying himself – with his mind resting in vAsudhEva, shall attain success in all endeavours, and fame. He shall attain abundant wealth here, and will also be liberated hereafter. He shall not have the least fear about anything, and will be blessed with great effulgence. He shall be freed from all diseases, and will have great power, beauty and qualities. The one who is suffering from diseases will be freed from all ailments. The one who is bound in shackles of this material world will be freed from them. The one who has great fears will be freed from those fears. The one who is in great dangers will be released from those dangers.

Commentary: In these four SlOkas, bhIshma talks about the fruits obtained by those who are abiding by the rules of studying these thousand names – such as japa, sankIrthana, etc. It says that such devotees beget all prosperity. The word ‘anuththamam SrEya:’ refers to mOksham. All other fruits are in this material world only.

दुर्गाण्यतितरत्याशु पुरुषः पुरुषॊत्तमम् ।
स्तुवन् नामसहस्रॆण नित्यं भक्तिसमन्वितः ॥ ९ ॥

Purport: The devotee who sings the thousand names of the supreme lord with devotion at all times shall overcome all obstacles with ease.

Commentary: Then, the removal of obstacles for the dear devotees of bhagavAn as a result of chanting the thousand names – even when they have not asked for it – is shown in this SlOka.

वासुदॆवाश्रयॊ मर्त्यॊ वासुदॆवपरायणः ।
सर्वपापविशुद्धात्मा याति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।। १० ॥

न वासुदॆवभक्तानाम् अशुभं विद्यतॆ क्वचित् ।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिभयं नैवॊपजायतॆ ॥ ११ ॥

Purport: The mortal who has fixated his mind in vAsudhEva, and has taken refuge under the lotus feet of vAsudhEva, shall be freed from all sins and purified. He shall then attain the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam and reach the supreme brahman. There shall be no inauspiciousness for the dear devotees of bhagavAn vAsudhEva. Such devotees will not have the fear of the cycles of birth and death, or of aging and ailments.

Commentary: Then, the eventual attainment of bhagavAn by such intimate devotees is shown in these two SlOkas.

इमं स्तवमधीयानः श्रद्धाभक्तिसमन्वितः ।
युज्यॆतात्मसुखक्षान्ति-श्रीधृतिस्स्मृतिकीर्तिभिः ॥ १२ ॥

Purport: The one who studies this sahasranAma sthOthra with a firm belief and unwavering devotion in bhagavAn shall attain peace of mind, tolerance, wealth, intellect, remembrance (of bhagavAn) and fame.

Commentary: This SlOka expounds the material benefits attained by devotees who chant the thousand names with laid down regulations. The word ‘SradhdhA’ refers to ‘respectful urge’ to sing his divine names. The word ‘bhakthi’ has already been explained in great detail before. The word ‘AthmA’ refers to ‘an individual’. The fruit of great fortune is verily the devotion towards bhagavAn. After all, it is popularly said “There is no greater fruit than the development of deep devotion towards gOvindha”.

न क्रॊधॊ न च मात्सर्यं न लॊभॊ नाशुभामतिः ।
भवन्ति कृतपुण्यानां भक्तानां पुरुषॊत्तमॆ ॥ १३ ॥

Purport: The virtuous devotees of the supreme lord shall have no anger, no jealousy, no greed or no ill mindedness.

Commentary: This SlOka shows that factually all the blemishes said herein will be dispelled by themselves. Nothing external is needed to dispel them.

द्यौः स चन्द्रार्कनक्षत्राः खं दिशॊ भूर्महॊदधिः ।
वासुदॆवस्य वीर्यॆण विधृतानि महात्मनः ॥ १४ ॥

Purport: The sky, with all of the moon, sun and the stars, the celestial world(s), the ten directions, the earth (or land) with all the mighty oceans are all borne by a mere fraction of bhagavAn vAsudhEva’s splendour.

Commentary: Further, bhIshma expounds the greatness of bhagavAn in this SlOka, so that the ill informed faulty logicians do not turn away the aforesaid fruits as ‘mere exaggerations’; because, the prowess of bhagavAn never ceases to exist, and thus there is no room for exaggerations or exceptions.

Although words of both masculine and neuter gender are used in this SlOka, the word ‘vidhruthAni’ is used in the neuter gender, owing to the grammatical rules (whenever a neuter gendered word is read with a non-neuter word, the entire collection is addressed as a neuter gendered object).

ससुरासुरगन्धर्वं सयक्षॊरगराक्षसम् ।
जगद्वशॆ वर्ततॆदं कृष्णस्य सचराचरम् ॥ १५ ॥

Purport: All these worlds consisting of all dhEvas, asuras, gandharvas, yakshas, Uragas (or nAgas), rAkshasas, et al – inclusive of all sentient and insentient entities – are bound to be functioning under the control of krishNa.

Commentary: Having expounded bhagavAn’s prowess in bearing all the worlds with a mere fraction of his divine splendour, this SlOka goes on to show all entities that are thus borne by him (and are in his control).

The word ‘varthathEdham’ (वर्ततॆदम्) is picked from the Arsha samhithA (used by rishis). It can be split as ‘avarthatha idham’ (अवर्तत इदम्) also.

इन्द्रियाणि मनॊ बुद्धिः सत्त्वं तॆजॊ बलं धृतिः ।
वासुदॆवात्मकान्याहुः क्षॆत्रं क्षॆत्रज्ञ एव च ॥ १६ ॥

Purport: All of the senses, mind, intellect, saththva (quality), effulgence, power, conscience, the body and the soul itself are said to be verily the properties of bhagavAn vAsudhEva.

Commentary: All the said entities act as per the direction of bhagavAn due to their body-soul relation with bhagavAn. This is shown in this SlOka.  The word ‘vAsudhEvAthmakAni’ (वासुदॆवात्मकानि) indicates that these are the bodies of vAsudhEva. The word ‘Ahu:’ (आहुः) means ‘have said’. The word ‘SAsthrANi’ must be assumed here (for, the body-soul relationship is shown in the Sasthras only).

सर्वागमानाम् आचारः प्रथमं परिकल्पितः ।
आचारप्रभवॊ धर्मॊ धर्मस्य प्रभुरच्युतः ॥ १७ ॥

Purport: Practice is considered as the primary purpose in learning all scriptures. The outcome of such practice is ‘dharma’, and the lord of dharma is bhagavAn achyutha.

Commentary: Till now, it was expounded that all philosophical texts are hailing bhagavAn (in theory). Henceforth, it shall be expounded that the texts prescribing rituals also hail only bhagavAn, in order to dispel the fears of ill informed souls who take to strict rituals to reach him. This SlOka is for this purpose only.

  • ‘sarvAgamAnAm’ = amongst all dharma pramANas (rulebooks for dharma)
  • ‘AchAra:’ = Saucha and other rituals.
  • ‘dharma’ = the derivative of such rigid practices, also abiding by vEdhas

‘achyutha’ = the supreme lord, who is worshipped by such rigid practices, the bestower of fruits thereof, and also the supporter of such practices.

ऋषयः पितरॊ दॆवा महाभूतानि धातवः ।
जङ्गमाजङ्गमं चॆदं जगन्नारायणॊद्भवम् ॥ १८ ॥

Purport: The rishis, pithrus, dhEvas, the five elements, the seven dhAthus, and all movable and immovable (or sentient and insentient) entities in general are all born out of nArAyaNa.

Commentary: The birth of the entities tied to dharma is expounded in this SlOka.

  • ‘rushaya:’ = manu and other rishis – who remember the injunctions of vEdha and put them into practice
  • ‘pitharOdhEvA:’ = the intermediate entities who are worshipped by many
  • ‘mahAbhUthAni’ = the five great elements viz., sky, wind, water, fire and earth
  • ‘dhAthava:’ = the resultants of the five elements, such as epidermis, endodermis, etc.

All these (together making up the body) are the tools to enjoy the fruits of dharma.

The enjoyed objects are the movable and immovable entities in the world.

यॊगज्ञानं तथा साङ्ख्यं विद्याः शिल्पादि कर्म च ।
वॆदाः शास्त्राणि विज्ञानम् एतत्सर्वं जनार्दनात् ॥ १९ ॥

Purport: yOga, SAnkhya and other schools of philosophy, sculpting, rituals, vEdhas, other scriptures including sources of mundane knowledge etc – all of these are also emanating from the lord janArdhana himself.

Commentary: bhagavAn being the source of all forms of knowledge as well is shown in this SlOka.

  • ‘jnAnam’ = SAsthras / scriptures
  • ‘yOgajnAnam’ = The source of yogic knowledge / scriptures expounding yOga. Such yOga is of two types – samAdhi yOga and karma yOga.
  • ‘sAnkhyam’ = cognizance of entities by sheer knowledge
  • ‘vidhyA:’ = all supportive sources of knowledge, such as grammar and the like, apart from knowledge of archery, medicine, music, etc. These are called ‘upavidhyas’. All these are indicated with the word ‘shilpAdhi’ (sculpturing, etc).
  • ‘karma’ = the rituals that must be observed at all places at all times
  • ‘vEdhA:’ = main sources of knowledge
  • ‘SAsthrANi’ = smrithis, ithihAsas and purANas

All of these – including the sources of mundane knowledge – emanate from janArdhana. The word ‘udhbhavathi’ (emanates) must be assumed in this SlOka.

एकॊ विष्णुर्महद्भूतं पृथक्भूतान्यनॆकशः ।
त्रीन् लॊकान् व्याप्य भूतात्मा भुङ्क्तॆ विश्वभुगव्ययः ॥ २० ॥

Purport: bhagavAn vishNu is the single supreme lord, with many individual souls servile to him. He is the one who pervades all three worlds with the entities therein, and also enjoys them all. He is the eternal one.

Commentary: With this SlOka, bhIshma shows the great wealth of bhagavAn vishNu, and the way he conducts the entire creation.

bhagavAn is alone. The individual souls are many in number, manifestations, forms, transformations and purposes of birth. bhagavAn pervades all three worlds – including all of badhdhas (bounded souls), mukthas (liberated souls) and nithyas (ever liberated souls), and becomes their indwelling soul thereby showing his mastership (controlling ability).

The word ‘vishvabhuk’ shows that he is the protector of every single entity in all ways at all times. Even then, he is free from blemishes arising out of his association with such lowly entities. This is shown in the word ‘avyaya:’.

With such supreme disposition, his transcendence from words and thoughts is shown in the word ‘mahadhbhUtham’.

The word ‘bhunkthE’ indicates that he enjoys all of these as a mere sport.

इमं स्तवं भगवतॊ विष्णॊर्व्यासॆन कीर्तितम् ।
पठॆद्य इच्छॆत्पुरुषः श्रॆयःप्राप्तुं सुखानि च ॥ २१ ॥

Purport: He who desires fame and happiness should recite this sahasranAma stOthra strung by vEdha vyAsa, which hails the glories of the lord bhagavAn vishNu.

Commentary: The supreme lord with infinite greatness is the one worthy of praise. bhagavAn Vyasa is the one who is capable of comprehending that supreme lord and praising him with lofty words. This gem of a sthothra – SrI vishNu sahasranAma adhyayam – has the greatness of the auspicious association with both of these men – vishNu and  vyAsa. All great poverty should be dispelled by studying this sthothra. Thus, it is concluded that the entire world (people therein) are the eligible candidates for studying it. This SlOka indicates that any individual (irrespective of their birth/qualifications/etc) who desires for material or spiritual benefits may study this sthothra without any doubt in mind about its potency.

विश्वॆश्वरमजं दॆवं जगतः प्रभुमव्ययम् ।
भजन्ति यॆ पुष्कराक्षं न तॆ यान्ति पराभवम् ॥ २२ ॥

न तॆ यान्ति पराभवम् ऒम् नम इति

Purport: Those who praise the supreme lord – the master of all worlds, and the eternal one, the lotus eyed krishNa – shall never fail in their endeavours.

Commentary: The lotus eyed supreme lord who is most benevolent unto the surrendered souls – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, who is by nature free from duals (blemishes such as anger/passion, joy/sorrow, etc), and the ocean of all auspicious attributes – is himself everything for those who surrender unto him and hail his glories at all times. The fortune of such devotees who have him as everything is untold! That being the case, how would mundane failures affect such superior souls? This SlOka exactly shows this greatness of the dear devotees of the lord.

Just to emphasize on such greatness of the fortunate souls, vaisampAyana (the original narrator of the entire SrI vishNu sahasranAma adhyAya / mahAbhAratha) exclaims ‘na thE yAnthi parAbhavam na thE yAnthi parAbhavam’ (‘they shall never fail… they shall never fail’) and ends with that high note.

Thus ends the commentary named SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNam, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hArItha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

अस्माकमत्र च परत्र च सर्वदुःखम्

उन्मूल्य संपदमशॆषविधां विधाय

श्रीरङ्गराजमहिषी स च वैष्णवानाम्

सङ्गात्सुखं सह जयॆन सदा क्रियास्ताम्

May the divine couple – SrIranga nAchchiyAr and her consort SrIranganAtha – dispel all our sorrows both here and hereafter, and enhance our fortune in infinite ways. May the divine couple keep us in company of qualified SrI vaishNavas at all times, thereby bestowing us with happiness and victory in all our endeavours.

Sarvam SrI Krishnaarpanam       सर्वं श्री कृष्णार्पणम्

श्रीमतॆ रामानुजाय नमः
श्री वादिकॆसरी सौम्यजामातृमनयॆ नमः

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 100 (Names 991 to 1000)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 99

991) kshithISa: (क्षितीशः)

As hailed in the scriptures as “He who possesses infinite forms, and manifests in every form, who has the entire creation as his form, and holds the entire creation in his belly like a mother carrying a child in her womb…”, although bhagavAn is the master of all, he is particularly called the ‘master of earth’ because he willingly incarnated as krishNa only to reduce the burden of this earth. Therefore, he is called ‘kshithISa:’.

Etymology: He who incarnated to reduce the burden on this earth is called ‘kshithISa:’.

भूभारक्लॆशहारी यः क्षितीशः स च कथ्यतॆ |

992) pApanASana: (पापनाशनः)

Further, bhagavAn burns the sins of those who contemplate on his pastimes such as stealing of butter, the blissful dance with the cowherd women (rAsakrIdA), etc. Therefore, he is called ‘pApanASana:’.

This shows that bhagavAn is the one who destroys the internal and external enemies of vaishNavas (his dear devotees) even in his incarnations.

Etymology: He, who destroys the sins of those who contemplate on his nectarine pastimes such as stealing of butter, rAsakrIdA, etc, is called ‘pApanASana:’.

नवनीतस्तैन्यरासक्रीडाद्यात्मकथामृतैः |
पापानां नाशनॊ लॊकॆ यः स स्यात् पापनाशनः ||

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शङ्खभृन्नन्दकी चक्री शार्ङ्गधन्वा गदाधरः ।
रथाङ्गपाणिरक्षॊभ्यः सर्वप्रहरणायुधः ॥ १०७ ॥

सर्वप्रहरणायुध ऒम् नम इति
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993) Sankhabhruth (शङ्खभृत्)

bhagavAn is thence hailed as the one who wields divine weapons indicative of his absolute supremacy. The first name in the series is ‘Sankhabhruth’. bhagavAn wields the conch named ‘pAnchajanya’, which he nourishes from time to time by feeding it with the nectar of his lips.  Thus, he is called ‘Sankhabhruth’.

Etymology: The one who wields the divine weapons (specially the conch) indicative of his absolute supremacy is called ‘Sankhabhruth’.

शङ्खभृत्परमैश्वर्यलक्षणायुधधारणः |

994) nandhakI (नन्दकी)

The sword that bhagavAn wields is called ‘nandhaka:’, because bhagavAn only desired to be made happy by that sword. Since he wields the nandhaka sword at all times, he is called ‘nandhakI’.

Etymology: That nandhaka – by whom bhagavAn himself desired to be gladdened – is in eternal union with bhagavAn, which is why he is called ‘nandhakI’.

नन्द्यान्मामयमित्यॆवं प्रार्थ्यॊ भगवतापि सः |
स नन्दकॊ नित्ययॊगी यस्यासौ नन्दकी स्मृतः ||

995) chakrI (चक्री) (also seen in 908)

bhagavAn wields the glorious discus (sudharSana chakra), which is ever pleasing to the eyes of the devotees, and whose flames are spurted with the blood of all the rAkshasas and asuras who create problems for the devotees of bhagavAn – including dhEvas.

Thus, he is called ‘chakrI’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is eternally wielding the sudharsana chakra, which is the slayer of all rAkshasas and asuras, he is called ‘chakrI’. The chanting of this six lettered manthra destroys all enemies.

सर्वरक्षॊसुरच्छॆत्रा नित्यं चक्रॆण यॊगतः |
चक्रीति कथ्यतॆ सम्यगृत्वर्णः शत्रुनाशकः ||

996) SArngadhanvA (शार्ङ्गधन्वा)

bhagavAn, further, holds a mighty bow resembling himself – with the resounding vibration of its tightly tied bow string, raining arrows on the opponents and wiping away the enemy camp at once. Thus, he is called ‘SArngadhanvA’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn wields a bow named ‘SArnga’, he is called ‘SArngadhanvA’.

शार्ङ्गाख्यं धनुरस्यॆति शार्ङ्गधन्वा प्रकीर्तितः |

997) gadhAdhara: (गदाधरः)

bhagavAn holds the mighty mace named ‘kaumOdhakI’ (कौमॊदकी), which shines like the queen of all maces, which spits out fire in the direction of all opponents like the great fire during the final destruction of all worlds, and which always pleases him through its acts. Thus, he is called ‘gadhAdhara:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn holds the kaumOdhakI mace, he is called ‘gadhAdhara:’.

कौमॊदकीधारणाच्च गदाधर इतीरितः |

998) rathAngapANi: (रथाङ्गपाणिः)

bhagavAn holds a discus (chakra) befitting of his stature in his hands at all times. Thus, he is called ‘rathAngapANi:’. [NOTE: ‘rathAnga’ means ‘the wheel of a chariot’. Since a discus resembles a wheel, it is also called so]

Earlier, the divine name ‘chakrI’ showed that bhagavAn is the master of the discus (sudharSana chakra).

In this divine name, it further emphasizes that he holds it ready to be wielded at any moment (prayOgachakram). Thus, there is no fault of repetition.

Etymology: He who holds a chakra in his hand – ready to be wielded at all times – befitting his stature, he is called ‘rathAngapANi:’. This nine lettered manthra dispels fears from the minds of the chanters.

यथॊचितं रथाङ्गं च पाणौ यस्य सदॊद्यतम् |
रथाङ्गपाणिराख्यातॊ नवार्णॊ भयनाशकः ||

999) akshObhya: (अक्षॊभ्यः) (also seen in 807)

bhagavAn is further called ‘akshObhya:’, because he is firm in protecting his dear devotees at any cost. He is also called ‘akshObhya:’ because he is invincible due to his own greatness.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘akshObhya:’ since he is firm in his vow of protecting his dear devotees. He is also called ‘akshObhya:’ since he is invincible due to his own greatness.

प्रपन्नाभयदानार्थव्रतदार्ढ्यादसौ तथा |
अचाल्यः स्वमहिम्नापि ह्यक्षॊभ्य इति कीर्तितः ||

1000) sarvapraharaNAyudha: (सर्वप्रहरणायुधः)

Finally, bhagavAn possesses innumerable divine weapons of unfathomable prowess, which are ever ready to dispel the sorrows of all devotees, and which are befitting of his divine nature (svarUpam), and which are beautiful like infinitely great jewels on his divine form. These divine weapons are under a long lasting vow of protecting the devotees of bhagavAn at all times, at all places, by all means, and in all ways. These weapons are themselves the masters of all wealth. Since bhagavAn possesses other weapons (other than the five mentioned earlier) which are all of the said nature, he is called ‘sarvapraharaNAyudha:’.

Etymology: He who possesses infinite weapons – which are all extremely powerful, innumerable, and of unfathomable prowess, befitting of bhagavAn’s svarUpam, and observing a long lasting vow of protecting all devotees who take refuge under the feet of their master (bhagavAn) at all times, at all places, by all means and in all ways – is called ‘sarvapraharaNAyudha:’.

This great twelve lettered manthra dispels all sorrows from the lives of the chanters.

In this way, all wealth will come to those who take refuge under the lotus feet of the lord of mahAlakshmi.

Thus the explanation for the thousand names is completed.

पादमूलं प्रपन्नानाम् अनिष्टॊन्मूलनॆ स्वयम् |
असङ्ख्यॆयान्यमर्यादसामर्थ्यान्यात्मनः सदा ||

सर्वत्र सर्वथा सर्वप्रकाराश्रितरक्षणॆ |
दीक्षितानि चॊर्जितानि ह्यनन्तान्यायुधानि च ||

यस्य सन्ति स वै नित्यं सर्वप्रहरणायुधः |
द्वादशार्णॊ महामन्त्रः सर्वदुःखविनाशकः ||
एवं श्रीशप्रपन्नानां सर्वाः सिद्ध्यन्ति सम्पदः ||
नामसहस्रनिर्वचनं सम्पूर्णम् ||

In this way, the supreme lord bhagavAn SrIman nArAyaNa – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi – the best among all souls – the one who is a source of amazement for all those who take refuge under him – and the mine of all wealth – is shown to be totally free from all blemishes, boundless in nature, possessing great auspicious nature, form, qualities, wealth and pastimes, showing a host of divine qualities such as unsurpassed mastership over all entities, greatness of mingling with even the lowly souls, protecting every soul in times of distress – like a close friend, bestowing of all desires for his dear devotees like a kalpaka tree, and who is the sole medicine for all those devotees who are affected with the poison of samsAra, etc. All glories to that supreme soul!

Thus ends the tenth/last centum (dhaSama/charama Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hArItha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The tenth centum is completed.

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वनमाली गदी शार्ङ्गी शङ्खी चक्री च नन्दकी ।
श्रीमान् नारायणॊ विष्णुर्वासुदॆवॊsभिरक्षतु ॥ १०८ ॥
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|| sarvam SrI krishNArpaNam ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 99 (Names 981 to 990)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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981) yagyAnthakruth (यज्ञान्तकृत्)

bhagavAn says thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna! All actions conclude in knowledge”.

In this way, bhagavAn generates the knowledge about himself (the knowledge that attaining the supreme brahman is the highest fruit of any yagya) upon conclusion of yagyas. Thus, he is called ‘yagyAnthakruth’.

Etymology: He who bestows the final result of any yagya (or completes any yagya) – which is in the form of knowledge about himself (that his attainment itself is the greatest fruit of any yagya) – is called ‘yagyAnthakruth’.

अन्तं पर्यवसानं यॊ यज्ञानां कुरुतॆ स्वयम् |
स्वतत्त्वज्ञानरूपं तु स यज्ञान्तकृदुच्यतॆ ||

982) yagyaguhyam (यज्ञगुह्यम्)

Although bhagavAn doesn’t expect anything from a yagya (because he is complete by himself, and doesn’t need an external act to satisfy him in anyway), he still accepts the oblations and other offerings in a yagya as though he had been waiting for them! With such meagre offerings, bhagavAn acts as though he is greatly pleased. In turn, he makes the performers of such yagya happy by bestowing great fruits upon them. This fact is known only by those learned few who are proficient with the details, the means and fruits of yagyas. For all others, this fact remains hidden and he shows himself as a mere seeker of oblations. Thus, he is called ‘yagyaguhyam’ – the secret of yagyas!

This is illustrated in the scriptures, thus:

  • “All vEdhas, all the objects of knowledge and all SAsthras, all yagyas and all modes of worship of the supreme lord are verily krishNa himself! Those brAhmanas who know krishNa in this true purport – oh king! – are the ones who have known the true purport of yagyas”.
  • “All brilliant objects that shine in this world, and all the three worlds with their caretakers and the three vEdhas, the three sacred fires (called gArhapathya, AhavanIya and dhAkshiNAgni), the five great oblations (pancha mahA yagyas), and all objects of knowledge – are verily the son of dhEvaki himself!”, etc.

Etymology: Although being completely satisfied naturally, the one – who acts as though he is greatly satisfied with the meagre offerings in a yagya (as though he was never complete before), thereby satisfying the performers by bestowing the desired fruits – is called ‘yagyaguhyam’. This eight lettered manthra is one of the best.

यस्तर्पयति यज्ञॆषु नित्यतृप्तॊsप्यतृप्तवत् |
पुरॊडाशादिकं भुक्त्वा तृप्यन्नन्यान् विशॆषतः |
स यज्ञगुह्यमाख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

983) annam (अन्नम्)

bhagavAn is enjoyed by those learned souls who have realized their true nature and are capable of enjoying him as said in the previous divine names. Thus, he is called ‘annam’.

Etymology: He, who is enjoyed by the noble souls – who are highly capable of enjoying bhagavAn in all ways explained till now – at all times, is called ‘annam’ by the learned souls.

एवं निष्पादितानन्तभॊक्तृशक्तिसमन्वितैः |
भुज्यतॆ यः सदा सोsयमन्नमित्युच्यतॆ बुधैः ||

984) annAdha: (अन्नादः)

bhagavAn in turn greatly enjoys such souls. Thus, he is called ‘annAdha:’.

Who else can have such great fortune of being enjoyed by bhagavAn – other than his dear devotees? There can be none! That is why this SlOka has an affirmation (denoted by EvakAra एवकारः – or the word ‘Eva’). The ‘cha’kAra (चकारः) applies all that was said before to this devotee (who is enjoyed by bhagavAn). The two words together (Eva and cha) in this SlOka clearly show that there can be none else who is so fortunate to be enjoyed by bhagavAn himself!

Etymology: He who takes such dear souls near to him, and eventually enjoys them himself, is called ‘annAdha:’.

य आदत्तॆ तथा भुङ्क्तॆ स्वयं सॊsन्नाद ईरितः |

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आत्मयॊनिः स्वयंजातो वैखानः सामगायनः ।
दॆवकीनन्दनः स्रष्टा क्षितीशः पापनाशनः ॥ १०६ ॥
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985)  AthmayOni: (आत्मयॊनिः)

bhagavAn further mingles with those souls as closely as sugar is mixed with milk! Thus, he is called ‘AthmayOni:’.

Etymology: He, who always unites the dear devotees – who enjoy him at all times – with himself, is called ‘AthmayOni:’. This eight lettered manthra is capable of conferring all enjoyments to the seekers.

भॊक्तारमात्मना नित्यं यॊ यॊजयति सर्वदा |
आत्मयॊनिः स कथितॊ वस्वर्णः सुखभॊगदः ||

986) svayamjAtha: (स्वयंजातः)

The name ‘svayamjAtha:’ indicates that bhagavAn is born in this world without anyone having to pray for such incarnations!

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘svayamjAtha:’, because he doesn’t expect anyone to plead for his births in this world.

स्वयंजातॊ यतॊ जातः प्रार्थनाद्यनपॆक्षया |

987) vaikhAna: (वैखानः)

Having born in this world thus, bhagavAn is the one who removes all our sorrows. Thus, he is called ‘vaikhAna:’.

The root ‘khanthE’ (खनतॆ) (to dig) is prefixed with the ‘vi’ prefix, and suffixed with a ‘ghanj’ (घञ्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in the form ‘vikhAna:’ (विखानः). Further, the ‘aN’ (अण्) adjunct is added, indicating that he is an expert at it, resulting in the final form of ‘vaikhAna:’.

Etymology: Having born in this world, he – who exhumes (and removes) the various difficulties in this material world – is called ‘vaikhAna:’. This seven lettered manthra removes all sorrows from the life of chanter.

जनित्वा भवदुःखं यॊ विविधं खनति स्वयम् |
वैखानः स च निर्दिष्टः सप्तार्णॊsखिलदुःखहा ||

988) sAmagAyana: (सामगायनः)

Having been intoxicated with attainment of bhagavAn, the liberated souls start singing the sAmagAnam as ‘hAvu hAvu’ (हावु हावु) (a particular sAman in the vEdhas) in utter bliss. Since he is the object of such bliss, he is called ‘sAmagAyana:’.

This is very clearly shown in the thaiththirIya upanishath, which says “This soul then remains singing the sAman as hAvu hAvu hAvu…”, etc.

Etymology: Having been intoxicated with the attainment of whom the liberated and ever liberated souls (nithyas and mukthas) start singing the sAman (hAvu hAvu), such a one is called ‘sAmagAyana:’.

स्वप्राप्तिमधुपानॆन निरताः सामगीतिषु |
नित्यमुक्ताः सन्ति यस्य स उक्तः सामगायनः ||

989) dhEvakInandhana: (दॆवकीनन्दनः)

All the said attributes are not (only) seen in the parAvasthA or ‘para’ form of bhagavAn in SrIvaikuNtam.  Rather, they are found in this dhEvakInandhana (the son of dhEvaki).

[NOTE: The word ‘this dhEvakInandhana’ indicates that bhIshma is pointing at krishNa – who is right in front of him, and standing next to yudhishtira – while telling this divine name]

This is shown in SrIman mahAbharatham itself, thus (in the words of bhIshma):

“Oh yudhishtira! This son of dhEvaki, this janArdhana – with whom you are claiming close relations – this wide eyed dark hued supreme lord is verily the past, present and future.”

Etymology: He who gave up his parAvasthA (or supremacy in SrIvaikuNtam) and descended to be born as the son of dhEvaki – out of sheer affection towards the fallen souls – is called ‘dhEvakInandhana:’.

दॆवक्यास्तनयत्वॆन परावस्थः प्रजज्ञिवान् |
वात्सल्यादवरॊ यॊsसौ दॆवकीनन्दनः स्मृतः ||

990) srashtA (स्रष्टा) (also seen in 595)

He only (krishNa only) assumes the parAvasthA or supremacy and creates all the worlds as well. Thus, he (krishNa) is called ‘srashtA’.

Etymology: krishNa is called ‘srashtA’ because he only creates all worlds, assuming his supremacy.

परावस्थां प्रपन्नॊsसौ स्रष्टा सर्वस्य सर्जनात् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 98 (Names 971 to 980)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 97

971) yagya: (यज्ञः) (also seen in 446)

For all those who lack the capacity in performing elaborate yagyas to worship him, bhagavAn himself is in the form of yagya (japa yagya). Hence he is called ‘yagya:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is himself the yagya for all those who lack the capacity in elaborate yagyas, he is called ‘yagya:’.

रिक्तानां स स्वयं यज्ञॊ यज्ञ इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

972) yagyapathi: (यज्ञपतिः)

bhagavAn is called ‘yagyapathi:’ since he is the one who provides fruits for such yagya.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the bestower of fruits of yagya, he is called ‘yagyapathi:’.

यज्ञस्य फलदॊ यस्मात् तस्मात् यज्ञपतिः स्मृतः |

973) yajvA (यज्वा)

For such people who do not have the required capacity, bhagavAn himself becomes the doer of all yagyas. Hence he is called ‘yajvA’.

The root ‘yaj’ (यज्) gets the ‘~gvanip’ (ङ्वनिप्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

In the aSvamEdha episode of vaishNava dharma, bhagavAn himself says thus: “Oh yudhishtira! In order to purify such souls (who lack the capacity in performing yagyas), I do the yagyas for them during both sandhyAs (morning and evening) myself. This is my unfailing vow”

Etymology: He, who himself becomes the doer of yagyas for those who lack capacity in performing yagyas, is called ‘yajvA’.

अशक्तविषयॆ यष्टा स्वयं यज्वॆति कथ्यतॆ |

974) yagyAnga: (यज्ञाङ्गः)

Even the yagyas performed by the capable people is turned as a service unto bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘yagyAnga:’.

Etymology: Since all yagynas performed by capable men are also a service to bhagavAn, he is called ‘yagyAnga:’.

शॆषः शक्तिकृतॊ यज्ञॊsस्यॆति यज्ञाङ्ग उच्यतॆ |

975) yagyavAhana: (यज्ञवाहनः)

Giving strength, dedication and the eligibility to perform such yagyas, bhagavAn further conducts the yagyas himself. Thus, he is called ‘yagyavAhana:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘yagyavAhana:’ since he provides them with the sincerity, eligibility, etc required to perform yagyas.

तॆषां श्रद्धाधिकारादिदानात् स्यात् यज्ञवाहनः |

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यज्ञभृद्यज्ञकृद्यज्ञी यज्ञभुग्यज्ञसाधनः ।
यज्ञान्तकृद्यज्ञगुह्यमन्नमन्नाद एव च ॥ १०५ ॥
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976) yagyabhruth (यज्ञभृत्)

Even if the yagya performed by people is faulty, he completes it and accepts it generously if the performer offers the pUrNAhuthi (the final oblation) remembering bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘yagyabhruth’.

The scriptures have shown thus:

  • “The actions (of yagya) which are done by the performer (adhvaryu) with lack of attention are completed with the mere remembrance of vishNu”

Etymology: Even if the yagya performed is about to go fruitless due to omissions, bhagavAn is the one who protects and completes such yagyas if the pUrnAhuthi is offered with his remembrance. Thus, he is called ‘yagyabhruth’. This seven lettered manthra is one of the best.

पूर्णाहुतिस्वस्मृतिभ्यां विफलं यज्ञमप्युत |
पुष्णाति यज्ञभृत् स स्यात् सप्तार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

977) yagyakruth (यज्ञकृत्)

bhagavAn created yagyas in the beginning of time in order to uplift souls. Thus, he is called ‘yagyakruth’.

Etymology: The one who created yagyas at the beginning of time for the welfare of the world is called ‘yagyakruth’.

जगद्धिताय कृतवान् यज्ञमादौ स यज्ञकृत् |

978) yagyI (यज्ञी)

The master of all yagyas (the one for whom all yagyas are offered at all times) is called ‘yagyI’.

Etymology: He who is the master of all yagyas (unto whom all yagyas are offered always) is called ‘yagyI’.

यः सर्वॆषां तु यज्ञानां शॆषी यज्ञीति कथ्यतॆ  |

979) yagyabhuk (यज्ञभुक्)

Further, bhagavAn is the one who partakes of all oblations in all yagyas. Thus, he is called ‘yagyabhuk’. Alternately, he is the one who protects all yagyas. Thus also he is called ‘yagyabhuk’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn partakes of oblations in all yagyas and also is the sole protector of all yagyas, he is called ‘yagyabhuk’.

भुङ्क्तॆ तान् स भुनक्त्यॆवं यज्ञभुक् स निगद्यतॆ |

980) yagyasAdhana: (यज्ञसाधनः)

The yagyas performed are a means to attain the supreme lord through knowledge (gyAnam) (knowing that bhagavAn is the final destination for all souls). Thus, he has yagyas as the means of attaining him. Thus, he is called ‘yagyasAdhana:’.

Etymology: He, for whom the yagyas become the means of attainment through knowledge (in other words, since yagyas are the means of attaining bhagavAn through knowledge), is called ‘yagyasAdhana:’.

ज्ञानद्वारा यस्य यज्ञः साधनं यज्ञसाधनः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 97 (Names 961 to 970)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 96

961) prANadhruth (प्राणधृत्)

He also bears them like an affectionate mother. Thus, he is called ‘prANadhruth’.

Etymology: Since he bears such souls like a mother, he is called ‘prANadhruth’ by learned men.

तान् मातृवद्धारयति प्राणधृत् स स्मृतॊ बुधैः |

962) prANajIvana: (प्राणजीवनः)

He nurtures them like food and water, and enlivens them. Thus, he is called ‘prANajIvana:’.

Etymology: He, who enlivens such individual souls and nurtures them like food and water, is called ‘prANajIvana:’.

जीवयत्यन्नवज्जीवान् स उक्तः प्राणजीवनः |

963) thaththvam (तत्त्वम्)

Just like butter/cream inside curds or milk, bhagavAn is the essence of all sentient and insentient entities – which are benefitted by his indwelling. Thus, he is called ‘thaththvam’.

The scriptures say thus:

  • “Having taken refuge under gOvindha, who is the supreme entity and also the origin and destination of all the worlds (all creatures therein), one will never perish”
  • “If we take the entire creation on one hand, and bhagavAn janArdhana on the other, the side on which janArdhana stands would be considered higher – because he is the essence of the entire world”

Etymology: He, who is the essence of the entire world / creation, is called ‘thaththvam’.

सारांशभूतॊ जगतॊ यॊsसौ तत्त्वमिति स्मृतः |

964) thaththvavith (तत्त्ववित्)

Similarly, bhagavAn knows about himself. Thus, he is called ‘thaththvavith’.

The scriptures say thus:

  • “You can only know about yourself (oh brahman!)”
  • “Oh purushOththama! Only you can know about yourself with your intellect”

Etymology: He who knows the truth about himself is called ‘thaththvavith’.

वॆत्ति यः स्वात्मनस्तत्त्वं तत्त्ववित् स च कथ्यतॆ |

965) EkAthmA (एकात्मा)

bhagavAn is the sole master, enjoyer and well wisher for all the sentient and insentient entities in this creation. Thus, he is called ‘EkAthmA’.

Etymology: The sole master, enjoyer and well wisher of all sentient and insentient entities is called ‘EkAthmA’. This seven lettered manthra confers life unto all chanters.

शॆषी भॊक्ताsभिमानी चाप्यॆकश्चिदचितॊस्तु यः |
एकात्मा इति सप्तार्णः सर्वप्राणप्रदॊ मनुः ||

966) janmamruthyujarAthiga: (जन्ममृत्युजरातिगः)

Even then, he is aloof from the characteristics of those sentient and insentient entities – namely birth, death, aging, etc. Thus, he is called ‘janmamruthyujarAthiga:’.

Etymology: He who is devoid of the characteristics of sentient and insentient entities (namely birth, death, aging, transformations, etc) is called ‘janmamruthyujarAthiga:’.

चिदचिद्धर्महीनॊ यॊ जन्ममृत्युजरातिगः |

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भूर्भुवस्स्वस्तरुस्तारः सविता प्रपितामहः ।
यज्ञॊ यज्ञपतिर्यज्वा यज्ञाङ्गॊ यज्ञवाहनः ॥ १०४ ॥
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967) bhUrbhuvassvastharusthAra: (भूर्भुवस्स्वस्तरुस्तारः)

bhagavAn is like the leafy and flowery pArijAtha tree, which is the shelter for many birds. He provides shelter for all the creatures identified with the worlds of ‘bhU:’, ‘bhuva:’ and ‘suva:’. Thus, he is called ‘bhUrbhuvassvastharusthAra:’.

parAsara maharishi hails thus in the vishNu purANam: “The tree called ‘parabrahma’ will doubtlessly shower ripe fruits to all those who take refuge under it”

Etymology: He who is the refuge of all creatures in the three worlds – bhU:, bhuva: and suva: – is called ‘bhUrbhuvassvastharusthAra:’. This ten lettered manthra confers every desire of the chanter.

भूरादिभिर्लक्षितानां जीवानां यः समाश्रयः |
भूर्भुवस्स्वस्तरुः स स्यात् दशार्णः सर्वदॊ मनुः ||

968) thAra: (तारः) (also seen in 340)

Since bhagavAn is the cause for all such souls to cross the ocean of samsAra, he is called ‘thAra:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thAra:’ since he enables all creatures to cross samsAra.

संसारतारणात् तॆषां तारः स्यात् प्राणिनां सदा |

969) savithA (सविता) (also seen in 887)

bhagavAn himself is the creator of all those creatures. Hence, he is called ‘savithA’.

Etymology: He who is the creator of all creatures is called ‘savithA’.

साक्षात् जनयिता यॊsसौ सर्वस्य सविता स्मृतः |

970) prapithAmaha: (प्रपितामहः)

bhagavAn is called ‘prapithAmaha:’ because he is the creator of even the four faced brahmA – who is considered as the foremost person to be born.

Etymology: He who is the creator of even four faced brahmA is called ‘prapithAmaha:’.

साक्षात् पितामहस्य जनकः प्रपितामह उच्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 96 (Names 951 to 960)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 95

951) dhAthA (धाता) (also seen in 43)

bhagavAn is called ‘dhAthA’, because he is the preceptor of such dharma himself!

He only shows in the bhagavath gIthA that he is not bound to practice any of the varNa or ASrama principles. Yet, he practices them studiously, only to preach his followers – so that they attain good benefits out of it.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself is the preceptor of dharma, he is called ‘dhAthA’.

स्वयं च धर्माचार्यत्वात् धातॆति परिकीर्त्यतॆ |

952) pushpahAsa: (पुष्पहासः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is as pleasing to his dear devotees (the righteous souls as said in the previous couple of divine names) as a fully blossomed flower in the evening. The word ‘hAsa:’ (हासः) means a smile – equated to the joy of experiencing him.

Etymology: He, who is as enjoyable to his dear devotees as a flower which has blossomed in the evening, is called ‘pushpahAsa:’.

स्वात्मानुभवशक्तीनां सायं पुष्पवदस्य वै |
हासॊsस्ति भॊग्यतॊल्लासः पुष्पहासः इति स्मृतः ||

953) prajAgara: (प्रजागरः)

bhagavAn protects his dear devotees day and night watchfully, just as a farmer keeps himself awake to protect his crops. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘prajAgara:’.

The kathA upanishath says thus: “The supreme lord, who is awake and indwelling those who are sleeping (the slumber of ignorance), bestows all the desires of such souls”

Etymology: He, who is awake at all times to protect his devotees day and night, just as a farmer protects his crops watchfully, is called ‘prajAgara:’.

रात्रिं दिवं प्रजागर्ति सस्यॆष्विव कृषीवलः |
भक्तॆषु नितरां यॊsसौ प्रजागर इहॊच्यतॆ ||

954) Urdhvaga: (ऊर्ध्वगः)

How does bhagavAn keep himself awake to protect all his devotees? It is because he is ‘Urdhvaga:’ – the one with a lofty nature.

The vishNu dharma hails thus: “Having taken refuge of that great soul (the supreme lord), one will never be depressed even upon facing great difficulties”

Etymology: He, who is lofty by nature, is called ‘Urdhvaga:’.

यॊsसौ स्वभावतस्तुङ्ग ऊर्ध्वगः परिकीर्तितः |

955) sathpathAchAra: (सत्पथाचारः)

As the greatest result of such lofty nature, bhagavAn puts his devotees on the track of true servitude unto him, and develops them on the same track. Thus, he is called ‘sathpathAchAra:’.

bhagavAn himself claims thus: “Having attained this perishable, sorrowful world, the best option for you is to pray to me”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn puts his devotees on the track of servitude unto himself, he is called ‘sathpathAchAra:’.

सत्पथाचार इत्युक्तः सन्मार्गॆ तत्प्रवर्तनात् |

956) prANadha: (प्राणदः) (also seen in 66, 323, 409)

By doing all the said things (in the previous divine names), bhagavAn gives / revives life for all those who are almost lost due to the deadly poison of material pleasures. Thus, he is called ‘prANadha:’.

Etymology: He, who gives life to all those who are lost in material pursuits such as having a spouse and the like, out of utter compassion, is called ‘prANadha:’.

कान्तादि विषयासक्त्या नष्टातमभ्यः कृपावशात् |
सदात्मॊज्जीवनं यॊsसौ ददाति प्राणदस्त्वयम् ||

957) praNava: (प्रणवः)

bhagavAn makes the individual souls realize such servitude by means of praNava (the manthra of ‘Om’), and instructs them to prostrate to him (as said in ‘mAm namaskuru’ मां नमस्कुरु) – thereby making them prostrate to his lotus feet. He is, therefore, called ‘praNava:’.

This meaning of ‘praNava:’ is seen in atharva Siras thus: “The manthra (Om) is called ‘praNava:’ since it makes all the life forces (prANa) (in other words, all creatures) prostrate to the supreme lord”.

Etymology: He who makes the souls realize their uplifting relationship (of eternal servitude) with himself through the ‘praNavam’, and therefore makes them prostrate to his lotus feet at all times, is called ‘praNava:’. The chanting of this seven lettered manthra is capable of conferring mOksha to the seekers.

आत्मॊज्जीवनसम्बन्धम् उद्बॊध्य प्रणवॆन वै |
पादारविन्दयॊस्तान् यः प्रणामयति नित्यशः |
प्रणवः स समाख्यातः सप्तार्णॊ मॊक्षदॊ मनुः ||

958) paNa: (पणः)

Although he is thus proven to be the master of all, and we are known to be his eternal servants, he goes out of the way and behaves with utmost subservience unto his own devotees out of utmost affection. Thus, he is called ‘paNa:’. The word ‘paNa:’ comes from the root ‘paN’ (पण्), which means ‘to deal’.

(NOTE: The ‘deal’ here is shown as ‘the exchange of rates for which a certain object can be sold off’. This shows how bhagavAn gives himself away to his dear devotees, just like being sold to them forever!)

Etymology: Since bhagavAn interchanges the roles of mastership and servitude with his dear devotees and behaves with utmost subservience to his devotees, he is called ‘paNa:’.

स्वाम्यदास्यवतीहारव्यवहारात् पणः स्मृतः |

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प्रमाणं प्राणनिलयः प्राणधृत् प्राणजीवनः ।
तत्त्वं तत्त्वविदॆकात्मा जन्ममृत्युजरातिगः ॥ १०३ ॥
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959) pramANam (प्रमाणम्) (also seen in 429)

In this way, bhagavAn shows the true purport of the hidden meanings of vEdhas without giving way to any kinds of doubts or misunderstandings. Thus, he is called ‘pramANam’.

(NOTE: pramANam means the source of true knowledge)

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself shows the true purport of the vEdhas (in the form of ‘praNava’), he is called ‘pramANam’.

परमार्थत्रयीसार-प्रत्यायकतया स्वयम् |
प्रमाणमिति विख्यातः सप्तार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

960) prANanilaya: (प्राणनिलयः)

The ones who respire (or have a life force) are called ‘prANa’s. It represents all individual souls in this material creation. They all finally take refuge in him, just like birds taking refuge in a sanctuary. Thus, he is called ‘prANanilaya:’.

The ‘gha:’ (घः) adjunct is used in this name, as per grammatical rules.

Etymology: He, in whom the individual souls with life force (who live in this material world) take refuge at all times – just like birds reaching their sanctuary, is called ‘prANanilaya:’.

यस्मिन्नित्यं प्रलीयन्तॆ प्राणा जीवाः सदाग्रजॆ |
शकुन्ता इव नीडॆ स्वॆ स प्राणनिलयः स्मृतः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 95 (Names 941 to 950)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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अनादिर्भूर्भुवॊ लक्ष्मीः सुवीरॊ रुचिराङ्गदः ।
जननॊ जनजन्मादिर्भीमॊ भीमपराक्रमः ॥ १०१ ॥
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941) anAdhi: (अनादिः)

In this way, bhagavAn can be so inclined even towards animals that he gives away himself to them. At the same time, he can be so aloof from even dhEvas that he gives them only lowly fruits. Thus, he is called ‘anAdhi:’. It means that bhagavAn is not accepted (or considered) as the true master by other lowly souls who are behind mundane pursuits.

Etymology: He, who is not considered as the true master by other dhEvas and their followers (people who worship demigods), is called ‘anAdhi:’.

दॆवतान्तरभक्तैर्यॊ दॆवताभिश्च सर्वदा |
नादीयतॆ स्वामितयॆत्यनादिः परिकीर्तितः ||

942) bhUrbhuva: (भूर्भुवः)

The word ‘bhU:’ means the one who possesses. Here, it represents the knowledgeable one who has realized their true nature of self as being subservient to bhagavAn at all times. For such a realized soul, bhagavAn himself is the destination (the place to be attained – also called ‘bhU:’). Therefore, he is called ‘bhUrbhuva:’ – the destination of the realized one.

bhagavAn himself says thus: “Henceforth, you shall reside in me. There is no doubt in it”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself is the destination of knowledgeable souls who have realized their true identity as his eternal servants, he is called ‘bhUrbhuva:’.

तथ्यस्वदास्यज्ञानॆन ह्यात्मलाभवतः पदम् |
भवति स्वयमॆवॆति भूर्भुवः स च कथ्यतॆ ||

943) lakshmI: (लक्ष्मीः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is himself all kinds of wealth for such realized souls. Thus, he is called ‘lakshmI:’.

This is shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “My kingdom, my life and my happiness is completely in you!”
  • “pANdavas have krishNa as their refuge. They are powered by krishNa. They are protected by krishNa. krishNa rests his mind completely with them and stays amidst them, just like the bright moon amidst a sky full of stars”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘lakshmI:’ because he is himself all kinds of wealth for self-realized souls.

आत्मलाभवतां सर्वसम्पत् लक्ष्मीः स यत्स्मृतः|

944) suvIra: (सुवीरः)

bhagavAn is the one who protects such realized souls from falling back into samsAra. Thus, he is called ‘suvIra:’ – the mighty one who holds them up at all times.

In other words, he is mighty enough to protect his devotees from all distress.

Etymology: He, who stops such realized souls from falling back to samsAra, is called ‘suvIra:’.

तॆषां यॊ विनिपातस्य प्रतीकारं करॊति सः |
सुवीर इति विख्यातः सप्तार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

945) ruchirAngadha: (रुचिराङ्गदः)

bhagavAn gives away his divine form (or divine body) – which is very charming, beautiful and worthy of enjoying – unto his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘ruchirAngadha:’ – the one who has a very charming body.

This is as said in the JithanthA sthOthram (pAncharAthra Agamam) thus: “Oh lord! Your beauty, your divine body, your weapons, your supreme abode, and your supremacy are not for your sake. They are exclusively meant for your dear devotees”

Etymology: He, who gives his own divine and charming form – which is worthy of contemplation – to his dear devotees at all times, is called ‘ruchirAngadha:’.

प्रपन्नॆभ्यः स्वानुभवयॊग्यमङ्गं मनॊहरम् |
अप्राकृतं सदा दत्तॆ यॊsसौ स्यात् रुचिराङ्गदः ||

946) janana: (जननः)

Thereafter, the purpose of bhagavAn’s divine pastimes and incarnations are explained. bhagavAn provides a body with all faculties to even the non-devotees, and makes them born, so that they also mature over time. He is, therefore, called ‘janana:’.

Etymology: Thence, the purpose of bhagavAn’s divine pastimes is told. He is called ‘janana:’, since he creates bodies with faculties that enable the fallen souls (non-devotees) to reach him.

अथॊच्यतॆsत्र भगवद्व्यापाराणां प्रयॊजनम् |
जननं स्वानुभूत्यर्हकरणॊपॆतसर्जनात् ||

947) janajanmAdhi: (जनजन्मादिः)

bhagavAn is the cause of the births of such non-devotees, as well as the goal for their attainment. Thus, he is called ‘janajanmAdhi:’.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

  • “My life fructified today!”
  • “That job alone is sure not to fail in life, which is to surrender unto gOvindha”
  • “Among all creatures, that creature is considered as having a great birth, which gets goose bumps upon chanting the divine names of vishNu”
  • “My birth became meaningful today”, etc

Etymology: He is called ‘janajanmAdhi:’, who is himself the ultimate purpose (or goal) for the births of people.

जनानां जनजन्मादिः जन्मनॊ यत्फलं स्वयम् |

948) bhIma: (भीमः)

For all those fallen souls who shun such divine grace, bhagavAn turns into ‘bhIma:’ – the cause of pushing them into further cycles of material creation, putting them in naraka, etc.

After all, bhagavAn sees such fallen souls like his enemies, only out of a noble intention of doing good to them.

bhagavAn also says thus in bhagavath gIthA: “I hate such cruel souls…”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the cause of continued cycles of births in the material creation for all such souls who shun his divine grace, he is called ‘bhIma:’.

एवंविधानुग्रहस्य विमुखानां निरन्तरम् |
गर्भजन्मादिहॆतुत्वात् भीम इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः ||

949) bhImaparAkrama: (भीमपराक्रमः)

bhagavAn is the slayer of all non-devotees, who are engaged in doing evil to the world at large, such as hiranya, et al. Thus, he is called ‘bhImaparAkrama:’.

Such fearful actions are also his way of gracing only. This is just like a mad man being bound by chains for controlling him; for, the same tie down is a big grace for the others who are affected by him.

Etymology: He, who possesses enormous might to control the evil souls who go about doing evil to the world – such as hiraNya and others, is called ‘bhImaparAkrama:’.

लॊकाहितॆषु नितरां हिरण्यादिषु सर्वदा |
भीमः पराक्रमॊ यस्य स स्यात् भीमपराक्रमः ||

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आधारनिलयॊ धाता पुष्पहासः प्रजागरः ।
ऊर्ध्वगः सत्पथाचारः प्राणदः प्रणवः पणः ॥ १०२ ॥
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950) AdhAranilaya: (आधारनिलयः)

prahlAdha, vibhIshaNa, the pANdavas, and others are the ones who support the entire world by their observance of dharma.  bhagavAn is the refuge of all such righteous souls. Hence, he is called ‘AdhAranilaya:’.

The fact that they are the real support to the entire world is shown in many scriptural statements thus:

“Oh bhUma dhEvi! The pious followers of varNa and ASrama principles, whose minds are ever situated in the righteous SAsthras alone, support you at all times. Your entire weight is on them!”

Etymology: The righteous souls such as prahlAdha and others support the entire world by their observance of dharma. He is called ‘AdhAranilaya:’, who is the abode / residence for such righteous souls.

धार्मिकाः जगदाधाराः प्रह्लादाद्याः विशॆषतः |
तॆषां तु निलयः स्थानम् आधारनिलयस्तु सः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 46 – kadal gyAlaththu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.6

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of sustaining himself through anukAram (enacting) and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? In thiruvAimozhi 5.5 “enganEyO“, AzhwAr experienced both pleasure and pain and he had the scope for sustaining himself with the pleasure, but due to misfortune, pain became prominent and AzhwAr could not sustain himself without attaining emperumAn; AzhwAr tries to sustain himself by enacting ubhayavibhUthinAthan (lord of both spiritual and material realms) just as gOpikAs sustained themselves by enacting krishNa; seeing this, those who care for AzhwAr became teary-eyed and explained his state to those who were present there; this is explained by AzhwAr in the mood of a divine mother of a nAyaki (heroine) who is suffering in separation and is sustaining herself by enacting his acts; the mother explains this to those who came to enquire about the daughter’s state sorrowfully saying “is she possessed by sarvESvaran?”. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this situation which is explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.6 “kadal gyAlam” starting with “kadal gyAlaththIsanai“.

pAsuram

kadal gyAlaththIsanai mun kANAmal nondhE
udanA anukarikkaluRRuth – thidamAga
vAyndhavanAyth thAn pEsum mARan urai adhanai
AyndhuraippAr Atcheyya nORRAr

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word-by-word meanings

kadal gyAlaththu – in this world surrounded by ocean
Isanai – emperumAn
mun kANAmal – being unable to see in front of him, with the eyes
nondhu – became anguished
udanA anukarikkal uRRu – trying to sustain by enacting him
thidamAga vAyndhu – with firm faith
avanAy thAn pEsum – speaking as he does
mARan – AzhwAr’s
urai udhanai – SrIsUkthis (divine words)
Ayndhu uraippAr – those who recite, knowing the greatness
Atcheyya – to serve such AzhwAr
nORRAr – have performed penance.

Simple Translation

AzhwAr being unable to see emperumAn in front of him, with his eyes, in this world surrounded by ocean, became anguished and tried sustaining himself by enacting emperumAn, and with firm faith, spoke as emperumAn; knowing the greatness of such AzhwAr’s SrIsUkthis, those who recite them, have performed penance to serve such AzhwAr.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • kadal gyAlaththu Isanai – Being the one who controls the people of the world which is surrounded by the ocean, and hence being the sarvESvaran who is the controller of everyone.
  • mun kANAmal nondhE – Being anguished due to not seeing him physically; that is, other than what was mercifully spoken by AzhwAr as his internal vision of emperumAn in thiruvAimozhi 5.5.10sOdhi veLLaththin uLLE ezhuvadhOr uru ennenjuL ezhum” (his divine form which appears in a raised manner amidst a flood of radiance, appeared in my heart) and thiruvAimozhi 5.5.11arivariya pirAnai” (supreme lord, who is impossible to be known), there was no external vision.

Having become anguished due to that,

  • udanA anukarikkaluRRu – Subsequently, as AzhwAr thought about how gOpikAs enacted krishNa and sustained themselves, he decided in his divine heart that he would also enact [emperumAn].
  • thidamAga vAyndhu –  With firm faith. That is, approaching with great emotions as said in “vAyndha vazhudhi vaLa nAdan” (nammAzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari which is part of vazhudhi vaLa nAdu, due to overwhelming emotions, having attained the mood of bhagavAn) [11th pAsuram].
  • avanAyth thAn pEsum – That is, AzhwAr speaking in every pAsuram as said in “kadal gyAlam” [1st pAsuram], “kaRkungalvi” [2nd pAsuram], “kANginRa” [3rd pAsuram], “seyginRa” [4th pAsuram], “thiRambAmal” [5th pAsuram], “inavEy” [6th pAsuram], “uRRArgaL” [7th pAsuram], “uRaikkinRa” [8th pAsuram], “kodiyavinai” [9th pAsuram], “kOlangoL” [10th pAsuram], “kUndhal” [11th pAsuram] highlighting his activities such as creation of universe etc, revealing of all knowledge and nurturing knowledge etc, five great elements which are the cause, all activities in the three times (past, present and future), his activities such as protecting the universe etc, krishNa’s activities such as lifting the gOvardhana hill, the way emperumAn presents himself towards devotees and non-devotees, he having the primary dhEvathAs such as brahmA, rudhra et al as his prakAra (form), those words which speak about his akarmavaSyathvam (not being bound by karma), he having svarga etc under his control and all such words which were spoken. The merciful words of AzhwAr where he said that all such aspects are at his [AzhwAr’s] disposal as said in AchArya hrudhayam  “yAnE ennai vAyndhERap pEsi“.
  • mARan urai adhanai – The divine words mercifully spoken by AzhwAr.
  • Ayndhu uraippAr – Those who analysed the glories of such words as said in “Ayndha thamizh mAlai AyiraththuL ivaiyum Or paththu” (this distinguished decad which is hailed as “what a decad is this!” among the thousand pAsurams) [11th pAsuram] and recite it.
  • Atcheyya nORRAr – Those who have performed penance to serve AzhwAr as said in “thirumAl adiyArgaLaip pUsikka nORRArgaL” (be fortunate to worship bhAgavathas who are servitors of sarvESvaran who is Sriya:pathi) [11th pAsuram]. AzhwAr remains as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.5.10vaN thamizh nURka nORREn adiyArkku inba mAriyE” (I acquired the puNya (virtue) to compile the dhrAvida prabandham which is distinguished and practicable by all, and is like a cloud of joy). SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19.21 “ahathvA rAvaNam sankhyE saputhram sahabAndhavam …” (SrI rAma said – I will not enter ayOdhyA without killing rAvaNa together with his sons, companions and relatives in battle. I take oath on my three brothers). “kodiyAn ilangai seRREnE ennum” (She says “I destroyed the cruel rAvaNa’s lankA”) [9th pAsuram] is said [by AzhwAr].

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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