Category Archives: nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi

nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 66 – idamAvadhu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr mercifully said in the previous pAsuram en nenjaththu eNNinEn. As soon as he thought (about emperumAn) he mentions about the hardships that emperumAn underwent and looking at them, how he became engaged, in this pAsuram.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

idam Avadhu ennenjam inRellAm paNdu
padanAgaNai nediya mARku dhidamAga
vaiyEn madhi sUdi thannOdu ayanai nAn
vaiyEn AtcheyyEn valam

Word for Word Meanings

paNdu – before (my thinking)
padam nAga aNai nediya mARku – to the supreme being who is reclining on SEshasayanam (mattress of AdhiSEshan) who has hoods
inRu – from now onwards
ellAm – for all times to come
idam Avadhu – dwelling place
en nenjam – my heart
madhi sUdi thannOdu – rudhra who carries chandhra on his head
ayanai – brahmA too
dhidam Aga – as supreme beings
vaiyEn – I will not keep them in my heart
vaiyEn nAn – I who am having subtle knowledge (to discern who is the supreme being)
valam – with the strength (acquired due to nearness to emperumAn)
AL seyyEn – I will not carry out service to those dhEvathAntharams (other deities)

vyAkyAnam

idam Avadhu en nenjam inRu ellAm – after I kept emperumAn in my heart, nowadays my heart has become his dwelling place.

Where was he before this?

paNdu pada nAgaNai – before this, it was atop AdhiSEshan whose hoods became puffed up due to proximity with emperumAn, that he was reclining.

nediya mARku –  for the supreme being who is superior to everyone else.

idamAvadhu en . . . nediya mARku – since emperumAn has deep affection, he established himself firmly in my lowly heart. The same meaning has been explained by this AzhwAr himself in thiruchchandha viruththam 64 “anRu vehkaNaik kidandhadhennilAdha munnelAm” (before reaching my heart, emperumAn was dwelling in thiruvehkA) and in thiruchchandha viruththam 65 “kidappadhum naRperum thiraikkadaluL nAn ilAdha munnelAm” (before I came, emperumAn used to recline on the milky ocean) and by periyAzhwAr in his periyAr thirumozhi 5-4-9 “panikkadalil paLLigOLaip pazhagavittu Odi vendhen manakkadalil vAzhavalla mAya maNALa nambi ”(leaving aside the cool thiruppARkadal, emperumAn, who has amazing powers, who is the consort of pirAtti and who is complete in auspicious qualities, is capable of entering my mind and living there).

nediya mARku – one who has affection bettering mine. mAl – one who is great; one who is affectionate. Just as nammAzhwAr had mercifully said in thiruvAimozhi 9-6-10 “vArikkoNdu unnai vizhunguvan kANilenRu ArvuRRa ennai ozhiya ennin munnam pAriththuth thAn ennai muRRum paruginAn” (before I could enjoy him, he, with greater desire than mine, ate me up completely), emperumAn who has a greater affection towards me than I have towards him, entered my lowly heart and established himself there.

When asked “What did you do?” AzhwAr says, in the second part of this pAsuram that he made his heart suitable for emperumAn.

dhidamAga vaiyEn – I will not keep other deities as stable entities in my heart.

Who are those deities?

madhi sUdi thannOdu ayanai – rudhra, who gave shelter for chandhra when he was in a precarious position, thus protecting him, due to which he thought vainly that he is the protector for all and, brahmA, who, because he was born in a lotus, thought that he was an ayOnija (born without staying in a womb). I will not think of rudhra and brahmA as supreme entities.

nAn vaiyEn – this is because I have subtle knowledge, capable of distinguishing between good and bad. vaiyEn – one who has sharp knowledge.

vaiyEN AtcheyyEn – Since I have sharp knowledge, I will not become a servitor to rudhra, brahmA et al.

Has it not been said in mahAbhAratham mOksha parvam 116 “brahmANam SidhikaNtancha yASchAnyA dhEvathA: smruthA: I prathibhudhdhA na sEvanthE yasmAth parimitham palam II ” (those with sharp brain will not worship brahmA, Siva and other deities since the benefit which can be obtained from them is limited)!

valam – the reason for all this greatness is due to the strength of having emperumAn in proximity.

valam vaiyEn – it could also be construed that AzhwAr is saying that he will not circumambulate these deities.

We will take up the 67th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 65 – sUdhAvadhu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr, who instructed others in the previous pAsuram solluvadhE sUdhu, tells in this pAsuram as to how he practiced it himself and the benefit that he is going to get out of it.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

sUdhAvadhu ennenjaththu eNNinEn sol mAlai
mAdhAya mAlavanai mAdhavanai yAdhAnum
vallavA sindhiththu iruppERku vaigundhaththu
illaiyO solleer idam

Word for Word Meanings

mAdhu Aya – one who is the epitome of beauty
mAlavanai – one who is infatuated with followers
mAdhavanai – about thirumAl (Sriman nArAyaNa)
solmAlai – these garlands of words
yAdhAnum valla A sindhiththu iruppERku – me who has the capability to meditate until I have the strength
vaigundhaththu idam illaiyO – is there no place in SrIvaikuNtam?
solleer – please say
sUdhu Avadhu – this is the most apt for us
en nenjaththu eNNinEn – I affirmed in my heart

vyAkyAnam

sUdhAvadhu ennenjathu eNNinEn – I meditated in my mind about the deed that is apt to be carried out. Just as nammAzhwAr had mercifully mentioned in periya thiruvandhAdhi 53 “nin pugazhil vaigum tham sindhaiyilum maRRinidhO nI avarkku vaigundham enRaruLum vAn” (is the SrIvaikuNtam that you are granting to your devotees greater than the thoughts that they have about your greatness?) since thinking about emperumAn gives supreme bliss I kept thinking about this continuously in my mind.

What is that?

solmAlai vallavA sindhiththu…. – meditating on the prabandhams (divine hymns) which speak about the supreme being.

mAdhAya – the epitome of beauty. mAdhu – beauty.

Would he be beautiful outside, but very cruel inside?

mAlavanai – one who is the epitome of affection.

What is the basis for this beauty and affection?

mAdhavanai – the consort of lakshmi; mA – lakshmi; dhavan – lord. The opinion here is that it is her connection which makes him beautiful and affectionate.

yAdhAnum vallavA sindhdhiththu iruppERku – to me who keeps thinking about the SrIsukthis (divine hymns) about thirumAl (emperumAn) in one way or the other, to the extent possible.

vaigundhaththu illaiyO solleer idam – is there no place in SrIvaikuNtam? Please tell.

sindhiththu iruppERku vaigundhaththu illaiyO idam – Just as it is mentioned in SrI vishNu purANam 1-17-78 “AyAsa: smaraNena kO’sya smruthO yachchathi SObanam” (What is the difficulty in thinking about this supreme being? He grants benefits the moment one thinks about him) when emperumAn is with the simplicity mentioned, is there anything required to attain him other than thinking about him?

mAdhAya – being affectionate like a mother [alternative meaning].

If the text is mAyavanai instead of mAlavanai, the meaning would be – one who has amazing activities.

We will move on to the 66th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 64 – pOdhAna vittiRainji

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr mercifully mentioned about how he spent his time purposefully. In this pAsuram he instructs others the way in which they can spend their time purposefully.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

pOdhAna vittiRainji EththuminO ponmagarak
kAdhAnai AdhipperumAnai nAdhAnai
nallAnai nAraNanai nammEzh piRappaRUkkum
sollAnaich cholluvadhE sUdhu

Word for Word Meanings

pon magaram kAdhAnai – one who is donning beautiful earrings in the shape of fish
Adhi – the causative entity for the world
perumAnai – one with greatness
nAdhAnai – being the lord (of all)
nallAnai – having the quality of vAthsalyam (motherly love)
nAraNanai – one who is famously known as nArAyaNa
nam Ezh piRappu aRukkum sollAnai – about the purushOththama (best among all sentient entities) whose divine names will sever our connection with repeated births
pOdhu Ana ittu iRainji EththuminO – offering anything which goes in the name of flower, bowing down to him and praising him
solluvadhE – reciting (his divine names wholeheartedly)
sUdhu – apt activity for us

vyAkyAnam

pOdhAna ittu iRainji EththuminO – offer whatever goes in the name of flower at his divine feet; bow down to him with your mind and praise him with your mouth. By using the word pOdhAna AzhwAr is hinting that if offered with devotion, there is no flower which is unacceptable to emperumAn. kaNNan (krishNa) had mercifully said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.26pathram pushpam ….. bhakthyupahrutham aSnAmi ” (I accept with affection, whatever leaf or flower has been offered to me with devotion). thirumangai AzhwAr too considered that there is no flower which is unacceptable to emperumAn in his pAsuram “kaLLAr thuzhAyum kaNavalarum kUviLaiyum muLLAr muLariyum Ambalum …. puLLAy OrEnamumAy pukkidandhAn ponnadikku “. nammAzhwAr also mercifully mentioned in his thiruvAimozhi 1.6.1purivadhum pugai pUvE”. parASara bhattar who was one day giving a discourse on this subject, mentioned that even if trash is burnt and smoke is generated, emperumAn will accept that; even if kaNdagAlippU (a type of flower) is offered,he will accept that. nanjIyar, his disciple, interjected and said that SAsthras do not accept kaNdagAlippU “na kaNdakArikA pushpam dhEvAya vinivEdhayEth” to which bhattar responded “it is not that SAsthram had rejected kaNdagAlippU. It is only because the thorns in the plant will pierce the hands of his devotees that this has been avoided”

ittu iRainji EththuminO – by using the word ittu the service through physical faculty has been stressed; iRainji refers to service through the faculty of mind and EththuminO refers to service through the faculty of mouth.

pon magarak kAdhAnai – one who has divine ears which are decorated with desirable golden ear-rings in the shape of fish. AzhwAr used the word poR kAdhAnai to hint that emperumAn is very precious and is to be worshipped by offering him gifts, just as one buys gold and protects it.

Adhip perumAnai – unlike some materials, which though looking beautiful, will not be apt for us, he is most apt for us and has the greatness of creating us all.

When asked whether he will accept us, AzhwAr says . . .

nAdhAnai – one who will accept us because he is our swAmy (lord)

Will he despise us because of our faults?

nallAnai – one who does not see any faults in us. One who considers our faults as our auspicious qualities due to his auspicious quality of vAthsalyam (showing motherly love).

What is the proof that he has such greatness?

nAraNanai – AzhwAr says that the name nArAyaNa itself announces to the world his greatness.

AdhipperumAnai nAraNanai – At the time of creation, since the nArA: (the clusters of souls) take shelter in him, the word nArAyaNa shows his ability to create all beings.

nAdhAnai nAraNanai –  emperumAn sustains and pervades all souls and is their means as well as goal. The word nArAyaNa also indicates his being the lord of all. nammAzhwAr mercifully said in his thiruvAimozhi 2-7-2nAraNan muzhuvEzhulagukkum nAdhan”.

nallAnai nAraNanai – instead of despising the lowly cluster of souls, since he pervades them completely, the word nArAyaNa also indicates vAthsalya guNa (motherly love). thirumangai AzhwAr mercifully said in his periya thirumozhi 6-10-4 “nallAnudaya nAmami sollil namO nArAyaNamE”.

nAraNanai nammEzh piRappaRukkum sollAnai – one who is referred to by the divine word of nArAyaNa which will sever us from all our births. Has it not been said in vEdha “sankIrthya nArAyaNa SabdhamAthram vimuktha dhu:khA: sukinObhavanthi ” (the moment people recite the name of nArAyaNa their sorrows are removed and they attain mOksha)?  thirumangai AzhwAr too mercifully said in his periya thirumozhi 1-1-9 “adiyAr paduthuyarAyinavellAm nilandharanjeyyum nArAyaNa ennum nAmam” (reciting the divine name of nArAyaNa will destroy all the sorrows of followers). Alternatively nammEzh piRappaRukkum sollAnai can be construed as referring to the greatness of emperumAn’s divine names. rushis also spoke of this meaning when they said “yannAma sankIrththanO vimuchyathE”, “yannAma sankIrththanathO mahAbhayAth vimOkshamApnOthi ” (by reciting whose divine names sentient entity gets rid of the fear of samsAram and attains mOksha).

solluvadhE sUdhu – reciting his divine names is apt for us, the jIvas (souls).

We will take up the 65th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 63 – thariththirundhEn

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, looking at the lowly state of others, AzhwAr felt very sad. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr redeems his heart and is overjoyed at the benefit that he had obtained, just as nammAzhwAr had mentioned mercifully in periya thiruvandhAdhi pAsuram 25 “ArAnum AdhAnum seyya agalidaththai ArAyndhu adhu thiruththal AvadhE” (let others do whatever they want. Is it possible for me to analyse what everyone is doing on this expansive earth and try to correct them?)

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thariththirundhEnAgavE thArA gaNappOr
viriththuraiththa vennAgaththu unnai theriththezhudhi
vAsiththum kEttum vaNangi vazhipattum
pUsiththum pOkkinEn pOdhu

Word for Word Meanings

thAragaNam –  group of stars’
pOr – (their) movement
viriththu uraiththa – one who let it be known widely (through the SAsthram of astrology)
vem nAgaththu unnai – you (emperumAn) who are the antharAthmA (indwelling soul) of thiruvanananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) who is very fiery for enemies
theriththu – meditating upon
ezhudhi – writing about
vAsiththum – reading (what had been written)
kEttum – hearing (from many people)
vaNangi – bowing down
vazhipattum – carrying out thiruvArAdhanam (elaborate worship)
pUsiththum – worshipping
pOdhu pOkkinEn – I am spending my time
AgavE – since I did like this
thariththirundhEn – I was existing

vyAkyAnam

thAragaNappOr virithu uraiththa vem nAgaththu unnai – you thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEshan) who explained elaborately on the movement of groups of starts with the help of astrology. Here the term unnai (you) refers to emperumAn who is the indwelling soul of AdhiSEshan.

theriththu – knowing; understanding; meditating. Here, meditating  is the most apt meaning since it gels with the words which follow.

theriththu – initially meditating with the mind

ezhudhi – writing what has been meditated upon, through books

vAsiththum – reading what has been written by self as well as by others.

kEttum – hearing what has been told by great personalities such as mudhal AzhwArgaL (who had preceded this AzhwAr); also instructing disciples and making them to hear.

vaNangi – without having any pride thinking “I am so knowledgeable”, thinking that this is also due to his grace, bowing down to his divine feet, without any possessiveness.

vazhipattum pUsiththum – worshipping him through the three faculties of mind, speech and body. Since AzhwAr has used two words with similar meanings, AzhwAr hints that worshipping emperumAn is his prime method of spending time.

pOkkinEn pOdhu – there is nothing further to be done for uplifting the AthmA (soul). Others have been corrected to the extent possible. Now all that remains to be done for the time to be spent here is to engage in useful way. I did that by following the above, says AzhwAr.

AgavE thariththirundhEn – Thus, despite living in this cruel samsAram, I was able to exist. Alternatively, if asked as to the purpose for which he did this, AzhwAr would say, for the purpose of existing.

We will take up the 64th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 62 – thiru ninRa pakkam

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avathArikai

After becoming happy with his eminence, AzhwAr saw the lowliness of others. In this pAsuram, he feels sad that the reason for this is their bewilderment, as well as making others to be bewildered, with other deities who are born from a womb just as they themselves were, and still thinking of them as supreme beings. The identity for SrIvaishNava is the inability to tolerate sorrows of others.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thiru ninRa pakkam thiRavidhenRu OrAr
karu ninRa kallArkku uraippar thiruvirundha
mArvan sirIdharan than vaNdulavu thaNduzhAy
thAr thannaich chUdith thariththu

Word for Word Meanings

thiru irundha mArvan – having divine chest in which periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) has taken residence

(due to that)
sirIdharan than – emperumAn who got the divine name of SrIdhara
vaNdu ulavu thaN thuzhAy thAr thannai – the cool divine thuLasi garland towards which beetles come
sUdi – donning it (on the head)
thariththu – getting to exist because of that
thiru ninRa pakkam thiRavidhu enRu OrAr – those who could not ascertain that nArAyaNa, who has pirAtti aptly fitting, is the supreme being
karu ninRa – brahmA, rudhra et al who also stayed in a womb (just like themselves)
kallArkku uraippar – will instruct fools  (that brahmA, rudhra et al are supreme beings)

vyAkyAnam

thiru ninRa pakkam thiRavidhu – without any restriction on the type of entity, whichever entity that pirAtti chooses to manifest herself in, becomes the supreme entity. Did not vEdhas also come to the same conclusion as mentioned in the SlOkam “SradhdhayA dhEvO dhEvathvam aSnuthE” (due to pirAtti, emperumAn attains the quality of being dhEva)! parASara bhattar has also mercifully mentioned in SrI guNarathna kOSam “apAngA bhUyAmsO yadhupari param brahma thadhabhUth ” (the entity on which pirAtti’s grace fell became parabrahmam (supreme entity)), and “vEdhAnthAs thathvachinthAm murabhidhuraSi yathpAdhachihnais tharanthi ” (on looking at whose chest on which the footprints of pirAtti’s divine feet have been implanted, the vEdhAnthas concluded their debate on supremacy)!

thiRavidhenRu – The word thiRavidhu means having all entities under its control and not comprehendable by anyone unless it reveals itself.

OrAr – if people had the knowledge, they would have known that ‘this entity is like this’. But they do not have that knowledge! There is no sign that they have knowledge.

karu ninRa – dhEvathAs such as rudhra et al, who are also born like samsAris, out of a womb. Didn’t vEdha, while speaking about the birth of rudhra, say “ushasi rEthO’sinjath” (brahmA deposited his semen with the deity of dawn), confirming that rudhra too stayed in a womb and was born?

karu ninRa kallArkku uraippar – these samsAris will instruct other samsAris, who are as foolish as they are, without any knowledge about SAsthras, that these deities (born out of a womb) are supreme entities.

thiruvirundha mArvan sirIdharan – there is a worm which does not have any connection with mango fruit; however it is called as mAmbazha uNNi (mango-worm). It is in the same way that devotees of other deities, who do not have any connection with pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) call their deities with the prefix SrImAn. In the case of the paramapurusha (supreme being) on whose chest pirAtti has taken residence saying as in thiruvAimozhi 6-10-10agalagillEn iRaiyumenRu” (I am not capable of separating from emperumAn even for a moment), the name SrIdharan is a very apt name. It is only to show emperumAn’s unique greatness that sage vyAsa brought out in 12 divine names the connection with pirAtti as mentioned in SrI vishNu sahasranAmam  608-619 “SrIvathsavakshA: SrIvAsa: SrIpathi: SrImathAm vara: SrIdha: SrISa: SrInivAsa: SrInidhi: SrIvibhAvana: SrIdhara: SrIkara: SrEya: SrImAn” (one who has the divine mole on his chest; the dwelling place of lakshmi; the consort of lakshmi; the head of those blessed by lakshmi; one who grants wealth; wealth of lakshmi; husband of lakshmi; treasure of lakshmi; one who praises lakshmi; one who sustains lakshmi; one who is born with lakshmi and one who has lakshmi). There are some texts which give this verse as thiruvirundha mArbil sirIdharan. The meaning is identical.

sirIdharan than vaNdulavu thaN thuzhAyth thAr thannaich chUdiththariththu – the garland of thuLasi which sirIdharan (consort of lakshmi) is wearing is dripping with honey, to seek which beetles throng the garland. Followers of emperumAn will wear the divine garland which has been removed from emperumAn, in line with periyAzhwAr’s thiruppallANdu pAsuram 9sUdik kaLaindhana sUdum iththoNdargaLOm” (these servitors who would wear the garland, clothes etc which have been removed from emperumAn). They will realise their existence once they wear this garland.

We will go on to the 63rd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 61 – manakkEdham sArA

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avathArikai

Once AzhwAr mercifully said “virumbuvadhE viLLEn manamemperumAn established himself firmly in AzhwAr’s mind saying “even if you and your mind forget me, I will not” just as nammAzhwAr said mercifully in thiruvAimozhi 1-10-10maRappanenRu sendhAmaraikkaNNodu maRappaRa ennuLLE manninAn” (thinking that I will forget, emperumAn, with his lotus-like eyes, came and established himself firmly in my mind so that I will not forget). Looking at this, AzhwAr is elated saying “if others think of emperumAn, the supreme being will merely remove the sorrows of their minds. However in my case, he establishes firmly in my mind, without any cause, falling head over heels, like a firmly rooted plant. No one else has this wealth”.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

manakkEdham sArA madhusUdhan thannai
thanakEdhAn thanjamAkkoLLil enakkEdhAn
inRonRi ninRulagai EzhANai OttinAn
senRonRi ninRa thiru

Word for Word Meanings

madhusUdhan thannai – emperumAn who killed the demon madhu
thanakkE thanjam A thAn koLLil – if one takes(emperumAn) as his refuge
manak kEdham – troubles of the mind
sArA – will not reach
onRi ninRu – (without letting go) standing firmly
Ezh ulagai – in all the seven worlds
ANai OttinAn – emperumAn who rules with his sceptre
inRu – today
thAn – he himself
senRu – coming (to me)
onRi ninRa thiru – the wealth which is fitting (in me)
enakkE – is only for me and for no one else.

vyAkyAnam

manakkEdham – if we consider this as a derivative of the Sanskrit word mana: kEdha:, it will mean sorrows of the mind. Alternatively, this word can be split into manaththukku Edham which will mean faults of the mind such as ignorance etc.

manakkEdham sArA madhusUdhan thannaith thanakkE thAn thanjamAk koLLilemperumAn had killed the demons madhu and kaitabha when they stole the vEdhas and spread ignorance in the world, and protected brahmA, rudhra et al. If one takes such emperumAn as the means, emperumAn will destroy ignorance in his mind just as he destroyed madhu / kaitabha and shower his grace on him.

thanakkE thAn thanjamAk koLLil – this implies that this is the status of svagatha svIkAra nishtA – one who holds on to emperumAn on his own efforts. Those who surrender are of two types – those who are svagatha svIkAra nishtA [just now explained] and paragatha svIkAra nishtA – one who looks up to emperumAn to enable him to hold on to emperumAn, thinking “the owner will hold on to his possession when he wants”.

Thus AzhwAr spoke of the status of svagatha svIkAra nishta in the first two lines. In the next two lines, AzhwAr speaks about the way emperumAn distinctly treats paragatha svIkAra nishtA – himself.

enakkEdhAn inRonRi ninRulagai EzhANai OttinAN senRonRi ninRa thiruemperumAn is referred to as one who pervades all the worlds both inside and outside, as mentioned in nArAyaNa sUktham “antharbahiScha thathsarvam nArAyaNasthitha:” AzhwAr says that he got the great wealth of such emperumAn who is like a well fitting great emperor of all the worlds, who came on his own into this mind and stayed firmly.

enakkEdhAn – the affection which emperumAn has towards those who look up to him is many times more than the affection that emperumAn has towards those who seek him out on their own. Thus his affection towards herdsmen, herdswomen, herdsgirls, cows, calves is ten times deeper than with others. This is the greatest treasure which is hidden in such pramANams (authentic sources of information) such as AzhwArs’ pAsurams “thivaththilum pasunirai mEyppu uvaththi” (you are more joyous tending to cows than you are in paramapadham), “kanRu mEyththu inidhugandha” (one who is the most joyous tending to calves), “kAli mEykka vallAn” (one who is strong in grazing cattle), “kanRu mEyththu viLaiyAda vallAn” (one who is strong in grazing and playing with calves) etc.

This pAsuram explains clearly the meaning of the vEdha vAkyam (saying of vEdha) “prajApathis thvam vEdha I prajApathim thvO vEdha I yam prajApathir vEdha sa puNyO bhavathi” (supreme being attains one (on his own). One attains supreme being, seeking him out, on his own. Of these, whoever supreme being attains on his own, is the best).

We will move on to the 62nd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 60 – AL pArththu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr tells emperumAn to ensure that he (AzhwAr) retains the quality of being a servitor always.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

AL pArththu uzhitharuvAy kaNdukoL enRu nin
thAL pArththu uzhitharuvEn thanmaiyai kEtpArkku
arum poruLAy ninRa aranganE unnai
virumbuvadhE viLLEn manam

Word for Word Meanings

kEtpArkku – for those who would like to know (with their own efforts)
aru poruLAy ninRa aranganE – Oh thiruvarangA who became impossible to know supreme entity!
AL pArththu uzhi tharuvAy – one who goes searching “will I get anyone who will be under my control?”
nin thAL pArththu uzhi tharuvEn thanmaiyai – my basic nature of seeking out your divine feet
enRum kaNdukoL – you should mercifully shower your glance on me so that this lasts forever
unnai virumbuvadhE – my nature of desiring you
manam – in my heart
viLLEn – I am unable to avoid

vyAkyAnam

AtpArththu uzhitharuvAy – Oh one who is going out, searching “Is there anyone who is willing to be my servitor?”

kaNdukoL enRum thAtpArththu uzhi tharuvEn thanmaiyai – make sure that my quality of moving around with the desire of attaining your divine feet is always present. The duty of stabilising my quality of being under your control is yours.

kEtpArkku arum poruLAy – For those who desire to attain through their efforts of listening (to SAsthrams), memorising them and meditating on them, you are impossible to attain, except through your mercy. The word kEtparkku referring to listening is applicable equally to memorising and meditating. Has it not been said in kata upanishath 3-23 “nAyamAthmA pravachanEna labhyO na mEdhayA na bahunA SruthEna” (he is difficult to attain through different modes of listening, memorising and meditating)!

ninRa aranganE – Just as it is mentioned in kata upanishaths 3-23 “yamEvaisha vruNuthE thEna labhyas thasyaisha AthmA vivruNuthE thanUm svAm” (whoever this supreme entity desires, such person attains this supreme entity through him. This supreme entity shows such person his divine form), oh thiruvarangA, you have come and reclined here in order to become simple to those of your devotees to whom you wish to show yourself!

unnai virumbuvadhE viLLEn manam – Even if I do, my mind will not stop desiring you who would go in search of servitors. The opinion here is that you should ensure that I always remain with this quality [of desiring to be your servitor].

We will move on to the 61st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 59 – anbAvAy

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Adhi kESavap perumAL with ubhaya nAchchiyArs (SrIperumbUthUr)

avathArikai

achyuthan (emperumAn), seeing the affection of AzhwAr who said AkkinEn anbu, was readying to serve AzhwAr by massaging his hands and legs. AzhwAr indicates to him in this pAsuram, the proper order.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

anbAvAy AramudhamAvAy adiyEnukku
inbAvAy ellAmum nIyAvAy pon pAvai
kELvA kiLaroLi en kEsavanE kEdinRi
ALvAyk kadiyEn nAn AL

Word for Word Meanings

anbu AvAy – one who is the epitome of affection (towards me)!
Ar amudham AvAy – One who is like complete nectar!
adiyEnukku inbu AvAy – one who created for me (the experiencing of your) enjoyment!
ellAmum nI AvAy – one who is all other enjoyment for me!
pon pAvai kELvA – Oh the consort of mahAlakshmi!
kiLar oLi – (due to the union with mahAlakshmi) having radiant splendour
en kEsavanE – Oh emperumAn (my Lord)!
kEdu inRi – without any fault
ALvAykku – for you who would take in a servitor
adiyEn nAn – I, the servitor,
AL – am a servitor

vyAkyAnam

anbAvAy – you are the epitome of affection. Starting from “nAnmuganai” (1st pAsuram), AzhwAr had been emphasising on emperumAn’s supremacy. Once he starts expressing his experience, he concludes that affection is emperumAn’s form. This is similar to those who said nArAyaNanE namakkE paRai tharuvAn (he will provide us with kainkaryam towards him) in the beginning, called him as mAlE (one who is affectionate) when they approached him. Alternatively, this could be construed as AzhwAr who told earlier AkkinEn anbu (making his as well as others’ affection towards emperumAn) realises that it is emperumAn who created affection in him, and hence calls him ennudaiya anbAgavum AnavanE (one who became by affection). Thus this could be interpreted as AzhwAr saying (1) one who created your love towards me and (2) one who created affection in me towards you.

AramudhamAvAy – you are the supremely enjoyable entity for me. As epitome of affection, only you are the most complete nectar for me. Apart from creating affection in me, you offered me yourself as an outlet for that affection.

Ar amudhamAvAy – Complete nectar. This is nectar which does not have any admixture with salt, which was earlier given to the celestial entities!

adiyEnukku inbAvAy – For me, who is your servitor and a unique entity of enjoyment for you, you offered me the scope of enjoying brahmAnandham (supreme bliss), which is enjoyment in your matter. The word inbu refers to the supreme bliss of enjoying emperumAn.

ellAmum nI AvAy – this refers to emperumAn granting nithyamukthAnubhavam (enjoyment of nithyasUris and mukthars) and ubhayavibhUthi anubhavam (enjoyment of both spiritual realm and materialistic realm). Just as SrI bhagavath gIthA SlOkam 7.19 says “vAsudhEvas sarvam” (everything is vAsudhEvan) and nammAzhwAr’s thiruvAimozhi pAsuram 6-7-1uNNum sORu parugu nIr thinnum veRRilaiyum ellAm kaNNan” it is emperumAn who is the sustaining, nourishing and enjoying entities for AzhwAr.

pon pAvaik kELvA – Oh the consort of lakhsmi who is of golden complexion! The implied meaning here is that emperumAn bestowed all the above because of the proximity of mahAlakshmi.

anbAvAy – pon pAvai kELvAemperumAn who normally says as in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.19kshipAmi” (I push them (into demonic births)) and as in varAha purANam “na kshamAmi” (I do not forgive them), and who is hot similar to fire, became the epitome of affection due to connection with mahAlakshmi, just as hot water with cold water. Did not nammAzhwAr too mercifully say in thiruvAimozhi 10-10-7 “kOlamalarpAvaikku anbAgiya en anbEyO” (Oh one, who is the love of mahAlakshmi who sits on a beautiful flower,  who became affection personified for me!)

AramudhamAvAy  – pon pAvai kELvA – just as thirumangai AzhwAr says in periya thirumozhi 6-1-2 “amudhil varum peNNamudhu uNda emperumAnE”  (Oh my emperumAn who took the nectar of woman who came from the nectar of thiruppARkadal!) emperumAn became Aramudhu (complete nectar) after consuming mahAlakshmi who is the epitome of the essence of nectar.

adiyEnukku inbAvAy – pon pAvai kELvA – it is her nearness which gives him his own experience. Hasn’t nammAzhwAr too mercifully declared in thiruvAimozhi 1-6-9tharuma varum payanAya thirumagaLAr kELvan” (emperumAn bestows the supreme benefit as the consort of periya pirAttiyAr (SrI mahAlakshmi))!

adiyEnukku inbAvAy – pon pAvai kELvA – it won’t appear to be appealing if given by brahmachAri (bachelor) nArAyaNa! The meaning conveyed here is that emperumAn is sweet to AzhwAr just as he is to periya pirAttiyAr. nammAzhwAr too mercifully mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 4-5-8namakkum pUvinmisai nangaikkum inbanai”(the entity who is sweet to us and to SrI mahAlakshmi who resides on a flower).

ellAmum nIyAvAy – pon pAvai kELvA – AzhwAr implies that emperumAn’s ability to sustain, nurture and to be an enjoyable entity for us is due to her connection. pAvai – the best among women as mentioned in the saying “nArINAm uththamAvadhU:kELvan – one who is sweet to her.

pon pAvai kELvA kiLar oLi – due to his union with periya pirAtti, emperumAn attained resplendent radiance. vEdhas said “SradhdhayA dhEvO dhEvathvamaSnuthE ” (due to pirAtti, the supreme entity attains radiance). vAlmIki said in SrI rAmAyaNam “athIva rAma: SuSubhE’dhikAmayA vibhu: SriyA vishNuriva ” (just as the all-pervading vishNu is manifested by SrIdhEvi, SrI rAma is manifested by pirAtti). AzhwArs’ pAsurams also bring out the same meaning, such as in thiruppallANdu 2vadivAy nin valamArbinil vAzhginRa mangai” and thiruvAimozhi 10-6-9  “thigazhginRa thirumArbil thirumangai thannOdum thigazhginRa thirumAlAr”.

kiLar oLi en kEsavanE – attaining radiance from SrI mahAlakshmi and being my Lord. One who has the bunch of locks which she likes and which is mentioned by vEdham as “hiraNya kESa” (one with golden coloured locks). kEsavan one who has excellent locks – the locks which are praised by vEdhas and by those who follow vEdhas.

kEdinRi ALvAykku adiyEn nAn AL – one who makes me as a servitor without any hurdle for kainkaryam (service) and experience. adiyEn, who is a servitor, has to carry out service. The implied meaning is that you do not have to massage my limbs and carry out service (to me).

Wouldn’t punarukthi (the fault of repeating a word) be mentioned for adiyEn and AL since both refer to the same person (AzhwAr)? The word adiyEn refers to SEshathvasvarUpam (the basic nature of being a servitor) while AL refers to being the entity for whom servitorship is the refuge. Hence there is no fault of repetition. Is it required of him to indicate this to the omnisicient emperumAn? AzhwAr is indicating to him that it is not proper on the part of emperumAn who is the epitome of love, to bring himself to a lowly level and carry out service to him [AzhwAr].

We will take up the 60th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 58 – ennenjamEyAn

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avathArikai

After AzhwAr chastised those who were arguing for oneness between emperumAn and other deities, they became followers of emperumAn. Looking at this, AzhwAr is elated and says “to emperumAn who granted me benefits in many ways, I made the world to show its affection”. With the previous pAsuram, the parOpadhESam (instructing others) of this AzhwAr has ended. The pAsurams from here onwards will reflect AzhwAr’s experience, his instruction to those who have corrected themselves and have become followers of emperumAn, on how to spend their time purposefully and his dejection on seeing how some people are still losing this experience.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

ennenjamEyAn iruL nIkki empirAn
mannanja munnorunAL maNNaLandhAn ennenja
mEyAnai illA vidai ERRAn vevvinai thIrththu
AyAnukkAkkinEn anbu

Word for Word Meanings

en nenjamEyAn – one who resides permanently in my heart
iruL nIkki empirAn – one who bestowed a favour on me by removing the darkness of ignorance (from my heart)
man anja – for the kings to be terrified
mun oru nAL – once upon a time
maN aLandhAn – measuring the earth
en nenjam mEyAnai – emperumAn who(with that divine form) does not ever leave my heart
illA – one who did not take emperumAn in the heart
vidai ERRAn – rudhra, who has bull as his vehicle
vem vinai – the huge sin
thIththu – making it disappear
AyAnukku – emperumAn who existed (due to that)
anbu AkkinEn – created affection (in the world)

vyAkyAnam

en nenjamEyAnemperumAn remained aptly in my heart. After attaining AzhwAr’s heart, even paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) was not apt for him. The same meaning has been conveyed  by several AzhwArs, including this AzhwAr who has sung in thiruchchandhaviruththam 65 “niRpadhum Or veRpagaththu” (emperumAn stood in the distinguished thiruvEngadamalai ) and in thiruchchandhaviruththam 64 “ninRadhendhai Uragaththu” (stood in thiru Uragam), and by nammAzhwAr in periya thiruvandhAdhi 68 “kallum kanaikadalum vaikundhavAnAdum pullenRozhindhanakol EpAvam vella nediyAn niRam kariyAn uLpugundhu nIngAn adiyEnadhuLLaththagam” (emperumAn left thiruvEngadam, thiruppARkadal and SrIvaikuNtam due to which these places lost their grandeour and grass started sprouting in these places due to want of attention. emperumAn, who is tall and dark, entered my mind and will never leave it) and in thiruvAimozhi 3-8-2nenjamE neeLnagarAga irundha en thanjanE” (Oh emperumAn, my refuge, who remained in my heart, considering it as a huge town) and by periyAzhwAr in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5-4-9 “panikkadalil paLLigOLaippazhagavittu Odivandhen manakkadalil vAzhavalla mAyamaNALa nambi”(Oh the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi , who is with amazing activities and who is  complete in all aspects! You left your mattress in thiruppARkadal and resided in the ocean of my mind).

What is the reason for taking roots in AzhwAr’s heart?

iruL nIkkiemperumAn had taken residence in AzhwAr’s heart in order to remove the darkness of  ignorance, initially in AzhwAr’s mind and later on, from the minds of other people.

ennenjamEyAn iruL nIkki – if he stays in paramapadham where there is no darkness, he cannot remove any darkness. Hence he decided to enter my heart which was full of darkness and got the famous name of iruLnIkki (one who removes darkness).

iruL nIkki empirAn – he favoured me by removing my ignorance and ignorance of other people.

Who is this entity? AzhwAr explains further . . . .

man anja munnorunAL maNNaLandhAn – it was emperumAn who measured the worlds with his feet when the egoistic kings on earth were terrified looking at the status of mahAbali who was ruling all the three worlds.

iruLnIkki empirAn maNNaLandhAnAzhwAr says that the purpose of emperumAn’s measuring the worlds was only to occupy AzhwAr’s mind and remove his ignorance.

maNNaLandhAn en nenjamEyAnai – since emperumAn was not satisfied even after measuring and seizing the three worlds, he entered the mind of AzhwAr with lot of affection.

en nenjamEyAnai illA vidai ERRAn – Siva, who has bull as his vehicle, did not have emperumAn in his heart. On a few occasions when his sathva guNa (purely good quality) is at its peak, Siva will tell emperumAn “ahamapi thE dhAsa:” (I too am your servitor) but otherwise he will oppose emperumAn, being prominent with thamas and rajas guNa (passion and ignorance).

vidai ERRAn vevvinai thiriththu – even though Siva did not take emperumAn in his heart due to his bad qualities, when he was cursed by brahmA and started roaming all over the world to get rid of the curse, emperumAn took pity on him and removed his curse.

vevvinai thIrththu AyAnukku – did not emperumAn think that he had lost his existence when Siva roamed all over the place to get rid of the brahmakapAla (severed cranium of brahmA) and that he regained his existence only after removing the curse with his own hands by filling up that cranium! AzhwAr wonders at emperumAn’s simplicity.

AyAnukku AkkinEn anbu – For such an entity who became a benefactor even for one who opposed him, apart from rendering him affection, I made the others in the world to render affection. Isn’t keeping me in such a position the greatest benefit that emperumAn endowed on me!

We will move on to the 59th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 57 – orungirundha nalvinaiyum

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avathArikai

Starting with the first pAsuram, until the previous pAsuram those who had spoken of supremacy to brahmA and rudhra as well as those who said that these two entities are equal to emperumAn were rejected. People who argued that all the three deities (brahmA, vishNu and rudhra) are one and the same, now started the argument, giving the following strategy: vEdhas (nArAyaNOpanishath etc ) say “sa brahmA sa Siva:” and “brahmA nArAyaNa: SivaScha nArAyaNa:” (brahmA is nArAyaNa; Siva is nArAyaNa). Hence brahmA, rudhra and nArAyaNa are the same entity. When such is the case, arguing whether this entity is superior or that entity is superior is against vEdhas.

AzhwAr rubbishes this argument in this pAsuram. He tells them “you will go to horrible ways! Along with “brahmA nArAyaNa: SivaScha nArAyaNa” there are also other verses such as “SakraScha nArAyaNa:, kAlaScha nArAyaNa:, dhiSaScha nArAyaNa:, vidhiSaScha nArAyaNa:, Urdhvancha nArAyaNa:, adhaScha nArAyaNa:, antharbahiScha nArAyaNa:, nArAyaNa EvEdham sarvam yadhbhUtham yachcha bhavyam” (indhra is nArAyaNa, time is nArAyaNa, directions are nArAyaNa, intermediate regions are nArAyaNa, above (upper world) is nArAyaNa, below (lower world) is nArAyaNa, inside and outside are nArAyaNa, what was in the past, what is there now and what will be are all nArAyaNa ) which will tell you that apart from sentient entities such as indhra et al, insentient entities such as directions, time etc are also referred to in the same breath. Will you then bring about equality between the supreme entity and insentient entity? Understand that all these entities are emperumAn’s wealth, physical body, effect, being sustained, being controlled, being servitors, being attribute etc. Thus, one can say that everything is him and in the same breath, vEdhas say that brahmA and rudhra are also him. Is there any entity which does not have him [as indwelling soul]? Thus, with the help of vEdhas, AzhwAr rejects those who try to establish thrimUrthi (oneness among three forms) philosophy.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

orungirundha nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn
perungurundham sAyththavanE pEsil marungirundha
vAnavardhAm dhAnavardhAm thAragaidhAn ennenjam
AnavardhAn allAdhadhen

Word for Word Meanings

pEsil – if one were to talk the truth
peru kurundham sAyththavanE – Oh kaNNapirAn who uprooted the kurundha tree (a type of  wildlime)!
orungirundha nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn – he is the executor for the puNya (virtues) and pApa (vices) which are with jIvas (souls).
marungu irundha – staying close-by
vAnavardhAm – celestial entities
dhAnavardhAm – demonic entities
thAragaidhAn – earth
en nenjam AnavardhAm – the sarvESvaran who stays in my heart
allAdhadhu en – what entity is there without that sarvESvaran?

vyAkyAnam

pEsil – if one were to talk with vEdha vAkyams (verses from sacred texts) such as “brahmA nArAyaNa:  SivaScha nArAyaNa:

orungirundha nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn – he himself is the pApa and puNya which are always with us. Just as the vEdha vAkyam says “Esha Eva sAdhu karma kArayathi I Esha Eva asAdhu karma kArayathi II” (this paramapurusha (supreme being) makes the jIva to carry out good deeds; this paramapurusha instigates the jIva to carry out bad deeds too), since it is emperumAn who executes the virtues and vices, he is mentioned in the vEdhas as virtues and vices themselves. Is it correct, because of this, to equate karmas, which exist for a transient time, with him?

orungirundha nalvainaiyum thIvinaiyum – just as it is mentioned in brahmavaivarththam prakruthi kaNdam 26-90 “avaSyanubhOkthavyam krutham karma SubhASubham  I nA bhuktham kshIyathE karma kalpakOtiSathairapi II”(the [results of] good and deed bad deeds carried out (by jIvAthmAs) have to be necessarily experienced. Even if it takes hundreds of crores of kalpams (a very long period related to the life cycle of brahmA), these cannot be got rid of unless experienced), the puNya and pApa that we earn will not leave us unless we experience them compulsorily.

perungurundham sAiththavanE nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn – when emperumAn incarnated as krishNa, kamsa had set upon krishNa many demons in order to kill him. One of them entered a kurundham tree on which krishNa used to climb often. krishNa broke that tree, killing that demon, thus eliminating one of the enemies of the herdsmen. Just as he effortlessly eliminated the enemy of herdsmen, emperumAn will remove our enemies too (our sins) through his vow as he had mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18-66sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi”. Since karma is controlled by him, he is referred to as virtuous and viceful deeds.

Is this all?

marungirundha vAnavardhAm – (AzhwAr tells samsAris that) since brahmA, rudhra et al are at a far away distance, there may be a bewilderment in your minds that they are one with emperumAn. But in SAsthras, aren’t celestial entities such as indhra, agni (deity for fire), vAyu (deity for wind), sUrya (sun) et al, who are chEthanas like us and are near us, also mentioned as emperumAn? Do not vEdhams say “SakraScha nArAyaNa” “thathEvAgnis thadh vAyu: thadh sUryas thadhu chandhramA:” (that brahmam itself is agni, that itself is vAyu, that itself is sUrya and that itself is chandhra (moon)). Can we say svarUpaikyam (oneness with emperumAn) for these celestial entities?

AzhwAr further mercifully says, when told “what if we say that they have svarUpaikyam?”

dhAnavar thAm – isn’t it said that emperumAn is also the sinful demons? Can we say oneness for these demons with him?

When told “What if we say that there is svarUpaikyam between emperumAn and chEthanas (sentient entities)?”  AzhwAr responds saying . . . .

thAragaidhAn – even insentient entity earth is nArAyaNa. Do not vEdhas proclaim that insentient entities are also nArAyaNa as in “dhiSaScha nArAyaNa: vidhiSaScha nArAyaNa: nArAyaNa EvEdham sarvam ” (directions are nArAyaNa, intermediate regions are nArAyaNa, all these are nArAyaNa)! Can one say oneness for achEthana (insentient) entities which are full of faults with the supreme entity who is the opposite of any fault?

Who is that entity who is all of these?

 en nenjam AnavardhAn – just as it is mentioned in subAlOpanishath “manaScha nArAyaNa” (mind is nArAyaNa), AzhwAr says that the one who is in his heart is all of these too.

Is this all? AzhwAr further clarifies . . .

allAdhadhen – what entity is there among those mentioned in SAsthras which is not nArAyaNa? vEdhas say “nArAyaNa idham sarvam” (nArAyaNa is all these), “sarvam kalvidham brahma thajjalAn” (since all these (entities) appear, live and fade away in brahmam, these are all brahmam only). Thus, if the argument that brahmA, rudhra et al are to be considered as one with nArAyaNa is to be accepted as valid, then svarUpaikyam (oneness in form) has to be accepted for all sentient and insentient entities which is totally faulty. Since all entities such as brahmA, rudhra et al cannot sustain if separated from him and sustain themselves due to him, we have to consider that everything is emperumAn himself. Thus the opinion is that concepts such as Athmaikyam, dhEvaikyam, thrimUrthyaikyam (oneness with all sentient entities, oneness with all celestial entities, oneness with the three mUrthis) will not be valid.

We will take up the 58th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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