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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 46 – payinRadhu arangam

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, it was mentioned that since emperumAn’s followers are attached to him, they gave up worldly pursuits. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr says that emperumAn, leaving aside the pleasures in SrIvaikuNtam, comes to samsAram and attaches himself to his followers. The pAsuram says that apart from his followers, emperumAn has no profit or loss. If the follower tells emperumAn that he has given up everything, as mentioned by SrI vibhIshaNa in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19-5 “parithyakthA mayA lankA mithrANi cha dhanAni cha” (kingdom, friends and wealth have been given up by me), emperumAn tells him, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10-19 “apyaham jIvitham jahyAm thvAm vA sIthE sa lakshmaNAm, na thu prathigyAm samSruthya brAhmaNEbhyO viSEshatha:” (Oh sIthA! I may give up my life, lakshmaNa as well as you, but will never give up my vow, especially that which had been made to brAhmaNas) and considers his follower as everything. It is this act of emperumAn which makes the follower also to learn from him. In SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 17-18 “sarvEshAm hi sa dharmAthmA varNAnAm kuruthE dhayAm chathurNAm vayas thAnAm thEna thE thamanuvrathA” (that Sri rAma, who is the dharmasvarUpi (epitome of all rightesouness) showers mercy on the people in the four varNams (classifications based on their profession and qualities) and in the four age-groups; hence, they are also very affectionate towards him). Once a sage by name saubari took fifty forms to marry fifty damsels. In the same way emperumAn also takes different forms to enjoy his follower. If through emperumAn’s mercy someone like saubari can take multiple forms, should one say anything about the number of forms that emperumAn himself would take, of his own freewill and desire! Even for carrying this out, it is emperumAn who had to struggle and not these people, says the AzhwAr. He says that there is no limitation to the number of divine places (dhivyadESams) where he has taken residence.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

payinRadhu arangam thirukkOtti pannAL
payinRadhuvum vEngadamE pannAL payinRadhu
aNi thigazhum sOlai aNi nIrmalaiyE
maNi thigazhum vaN thadakkai mAl

Word by Word Meaning

maNi thigazhum – shining like a blue gem
vaN thadakkai – being magnanimous, having rounded divine hands
mAl – emperumAn
payinRadhu – residing permanently
arangam thirukkOtti – at thiruvarangam and at thirukkOttiyUr
pal nAL – for a very long time
payinRadhuvum – also residing permanently
vEngadamE – at thirumalai
pal nAL payinRadhuvum – living permanently for a very long time
aNi thigazhum sOlai – having beautiful gardens
aNi – being a jewel-piece for the world
nIrmalai – at thirunIrmalai

vyAkyAnam

payinRadhu arangam thirukkOtti – unlike incarnations when emperumAn had to go back to his paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) after fulfilling the purpose for which he had taken the incarnation, at thiruvarangam periya kOyil (the big temple at Srirangam) emperumAn resides permanently, with happiness.

thirukkOtti – it is the same at thirukkOshtiyUr too. When he is residing here, there is no need to exclude another place!

pannAL payinRadhuvum vEngadamE – residing for a long time at thirumalai. thirumalai was the divine place where he set his divine golden feet initially, with a view to residing at many divine places in archAvathAram (incarnations in divine deity form).

pannAL payinRadhu aNi thigazhum sOlai aNi nIrmalaiyE – in the same way he has been residing for a long time at thirunIrmalai, which is having beautiful gardens.

Who resides like this?

maNi thigazhum vaN thadakkai mAlemperumAn with a form which removes ennui like a blue gemstone, being magnanimous with his rounded divine hands. Since he gave himself to the people of this world for enjoying him, and since he is beautiful, he is referred to as being magnanimous. nammAzhwAr, in his thiruvAimozhi 2-7-11 says “enakkE thannaiththandha kaRpagam” (he is like the celestial wish-fulfilling tree, but gave himself to me) and in thiruvAimozhi 2-7-5vittilangu senjOdhi” (emperumAn displays his eyes which are like reddish lotus, shining brightly).

mAl – it could be construed as ‘greatness’ in which case it would refer to his being greater than everyone and everything else. Alternatively, it could be construed as ‘being infatuated’ in which case it would refer to his being infatuated with his followers.

We shall take up the 47th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 45 – uLadhenRu iRumAvAr

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that those who praise emperumAn like this will not feel happiness or sorrow whether they get or do not get other benefits. He says that those who hold on to the divine feet of emperumAn, who is very sweet to nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam), will not bother about getting wealth or losing it.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

uLadhenRu iRumAvAr uNdillaiyenRu
thaLardhal adhanarugum sArAr aLavariya
vEdhaththAn vEngadaththAn viNNOr mudi thOyum
pAdhaththAl pAdham payinRu

Word by Word Meaning

aLavu ariya vEdhaththAn – one who is mentioned by the boundless vEdhas
vEngadaththAn – one who is dwelling in thiruvEngadam [thirumalai hills]
viNNOr mudi thOyum pAdhaththAn – emperumAn whose divine feet are worshipped by (the crowns of) nithyasUris
pAdham – in his divine feet
payinRu – those who are familiar with
uLadhu enRu iRumAvAr – will not feel proud that they have (wealth)
uNdu illai enRu – (wealth was) there yesterday and got destroyed today, saying so
thaLardhal adhan arugum sArAr – they will not go anywhere near the characteristic of being slack

vyAkyAnam

uLadhu enRu iRumAvAr – a person, who has been in abject poverty right from birth, suddenly gets a huge treasure. Soon he starts behaving unlike anyone else in the world. Forgetting his past, he insults his parents and his teachers due to his being wealthy now. If someone talks about paralOkam (SrIvaikuNtam) he will laugh derisively at them.  However, those who are always with emperumAn will not respect wealth as an entity at all. Hence they will not even know its existence.

uNdu illai enRu thaLardhal adhan arugum sArAr – if one has to say the opposite of the earlier phrase (uLadhu enRu iRumAvAr), it should be said as “illai enRu thaLarAr”. However, in the phrase present in the text, it is seen as uNdu illai enRu thalArAr. The purpose of saying this way is that in the case of one who has been in penury for a long time, if that state of penury continues, he will tolerate it and will not feel sad. Unlike that, if a wealthy person becomes poor in between, it will create a huge sorrow for him and make him feel slackened. Isn’t it the thought that he was rich once upon a time and that he is not so now, that would make him feel enervated? Those who attain emperumAn will be without this listlessness. Being rich once and not having that wealth later would make the person feel “we were comfortable earlier. But we are suffering now” and be a reason for the weariness. When arthArthi (one who is asking for wealth for the first time) does not get it, it will not make him feel sad. But an Arththan (one who wants to get back lost wealth) will feel sad if he does not get back his wealth. Just as being with emperumAn and being separated from him are desirable, getting wealth and losing it will create sorrow. Would being separated from emperumAn be desirable? In thiruviruththam 2nd pAsuram it says “azhunIr thuLumba alamaruginRana vAzhiyarO” – the friend of the nAyaki (lead female character), looking at her tears, says “these tears are due to the deep love that the nAyaki has towards the nAyakan (lead male character, in this case emperumAn himself) and this sight is a great one, being reflective of that love. Hence, this love should remain like this always, without any change” and blesses her (vAzhiyarO). In aSOka vanam (in lankA), sIthAppirAtti was suffering in separation from SrI rAma and was in tears. Seeing this, hanuman asks her “kimartham thava nEthrAbhyAm vAri sravathi SOkajam” (who for are the sorrowful tears welling up in your divine eyes?) (These indicate that there are instances where separation from emperumAn is also celebrated). The distinction of gyANis from the worldly people is the sorrow that they have because of separation from emperumAn! Isn’t it this separation which is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 6-7 “uNNum sORu” and 6-5 “thuvaLil maNimAdam” decads? thiruvAimozhi 6-5-7 says “munnam nORRa vidhikolO mugilvaNNanthan mAyangolO” (it is either due to my good deeds or his (emperumAn’s) mercy (that she has become like this)). bhImasEnan on seeing the exhaustion in hanuman’s body says “nirguNa:paramAthmAsau dhEham thE vyApya thishtathi” (emperumAn having the bow without the arrow in place, is seen all over your body). Thus in several instances, it has been said that separation is also desired.

Moreover,

adhan arugum sArAr – Even the gyAni (knowledgeable person) who does not have any listlessness due to loss of wealth, will have the sadness of not having wealth. But those who have attachment towards emperumAn will not have even that repentance. Only if they consider wealth as important will they have repentance! They are not the people who think initially that wealth is permanent and later feel that it is not. The feeling of sorrow will happen only if something which was considered as permanent disappears! The reason for such people not having happiness or sorrow is because emperumAn, to whom they are attached, does not have them.

aLavariya vEdhaththAn – Unlike the wealth that we have seen so far, which is not there one day and appears later, this wealth [emperumAn] is always present. The supreme being is not identified by inference or by perception. He is established by vEdhams (sacred texts) which have not been written by any one person and which are unbounded and faultless. emperumAn is known only through vEdhams.

aLavariya vEdhaththAn – He is established by the boundless vEdhams. He is like a wealth which will not diminish even as it is being consumed. Hasn’t thirukkuRundhANdakam mercifully referred to him as “nidhiyinai”(emperumAn is the wealth)! Is it not this wealth which remains after excesses such as aiSvaryam (worldly wealth) and kaivalyam (AthmA enjoying itself) have been filtered out! The material wealth’s pride is that it can be seen. Unlike this, should emperumAn’s greatness be felt only through inference? For one who wishes to see emperumAn, what is the purpose in telling him that emperumAn is established only through vEdhams?

vEngadaththAnemperumAn who has the pride of being known only through vEdhams, is dwelling in thiruvEngadamalai [thirumalai hills] only because he can be seen by everyone and he remains there as the epitome of simplicity .

Is such an entity, who has all the greatness in him, and who has to be known only through vEdham, equal to others? If that were the case, your (AzhwAr’s) wealth has become manifested to the eyes just like our (material) wealth.

viNNOr mudi thOyum pAdhaththAn – AzhwAr says that even nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam) will suffer like him. thiruvEngadamalai has some greatnesses which are not seen in paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam). nithyasUris, who have no connection with samsAram (materialistic realm) at all, thinking of emperumAn’s simplicity, give themselves up to him and offer their heads at the divine feet of emperumAn . He is very much liked by nithyasUris. If one accepts emperumAn, and is an expert on vEdhams, should he not support when emperumAn, who is liked very much by nithyasUris, takes residence at thirumalai?

vEdhaththAn vEngadaththAn – As mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath 1-4 “yO vEdha nihitham guhAyAm paramE vyOman” (whoever knows about the treasure hidden in paramAkASam (SrIvaikuNtam)), apart from reading in copper inscriptions (vEdhams) that wealth exists,  the place where that wealth manifested itself so that it could be seen by the eyes is thiruvEngadam. For experts in vEdham, the great treasures are only the divine places (dhivyadhESams) where emperumAn takes residence with happiness.

viNNOr mudithOyum pAdhaththAn pAdham payinRu uLadhenRu iRumAvAr – For those who have attained the divine feet of such an emperumAn, is there anything else to think of?

payinRu uLadhenRu iRumAvAr – When they approach emperumAn they will not think of the profit/loss which accrue out of material wealth. There is no place for these people either to feel arrogant or listless. This is because the entity emperumAn is such that one cannot think of anything else.

uLadhenRu iRumAvAr – arrogance due to scholarliness, wealth and clan that one is born in, will surround ignorant people, as mentioned in the saying “vidhyAmathO dhanamatha:” while gyANis (those with knowledge) will ride over them.

arugum sArAr – Just as vibhIshaNa gave up everything prior to approaching SrI rAma as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19-5 “parithyakthA mayA lankA mithrANi cha dhanAni cha” (the kingdom of lankA, friends and wealth have been given up by me), while they have to give up all materialistic things, they will feel happy that all these entities have gone away from them.

We shall take up the 46th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 44 – siRandhArkku

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that those who do not attain emperumAn like this do not have any knowledge. Just as emperumAn’s followers are apt for us, those who are not his followers are most inapt and are to be given up! Only those who are related to emperumAn are to be respected while others are not to be respected. AzhwAr says that he does not have any connection with such people.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

siRandhArkkezhu thuNaiyAm sengaNmAl nAmam
maRandhArai mAnidamA vaiyEn – aRandhAngum
mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu maRRavan pEr
OdhuvadhE nAvinAl uLLu

Word by Word Meaning

siRandhArkku – the great SrIvaishNavas (followers of emperumAn)
ezhu thuNaiyAm- support, which is the reason for uplifting
sem kaN mAl – emperumAn’s, who is having reddish eyes
nAmam – divine names
maRandhArai – those who forget
mAnidam A –  [considered as having been] born in the species of humans
vaiyEn – I will not keep in my heart
aRam thAngum mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu – having the heart which says “Oh mAdhava who establishes rightesouness!”
maRRu – and
avan pEr – his divine names
nAvinAl OdhuvadhE – reciting with tongue
uLLu – keep meditating (that it is apt for us)

vyAkyAnam

siRandhArkku – those who have attained emperumAn, considering his divine feet as most appropriate. Just as krishNa has said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7-18gyAnI thu Athmaiva mE matham” (it is my opinion that the knowledgeable person who desires only me, is my AthmA), those who have been referred to as gyAni (knowledgeable) by emperumAn himself.

ezhu thuNaiyAm – he [emperumAn] will be the companion (guide) on the way for such people so that they do not forget him. For those who attain his divine feet, he will remove their involvement in worldly pursuits, create involvement for them in himself, and at the time of their death, he will precede the AdhivAhikars (those who guide the AthmA in its journey towards paramapadham, after it crosses the world of vidhyuth (lightning) ) towards SrIvaikuNtam). He will hand-hold the AthmA and take it to paramapadham just as he had mentioned in varAha charamaSlOkam “nayAMi paraAm gathim” (I take them to exalted status).

sengaNmAl – due to his motherly affection, which is the reason for being a companion, he has reddish eyes. This implies how he will act towards those who do not forget him and the reason why we should not forget him.

nAmam maRandhArai – those who forget his divine names

mAnidamA vaiyEn – will not consider them to be human beings. AzhwAr says that he will not think lowly of those who do not know his divine names. I may even consider them to be omniscient since they have the qualification to know him henceforth. But the one who has forgotten him, after being born as a human being, fit to follow sacred texts and after knowing his sweetness, is not a human at all. krishNa called arjuna, who had forgotten the gIthA that he had discoursed to him, in mahAbhAratham aSvamEdhikha parvam 17-19 as “dhurmEdhAhyasi pANdava” (Oh ignorant pANdava!).

mAnidamA vaiyEn – Can one,  who AzhwAr considers in his divine mind as “not a human”, be a human! If one looks at a pebble and thinks it is a gem, it will not become a gem, will it! Whatever an expert in gems calls a gem, will be a gem. In the same way, only the person, who AzhwAr considers in his divine heart as human, will be a human. Following his footsteps, thirumangai AzhwAr has mercifully mentioned in periya thirumozhi 11-7-9 “AnvidaiyEzh anRadaththArkku ALAnAr allAdhAr mAnidavar allar enRu en manaththE vaiththEnE” (I firmly kept in my mind that the one who does not attain emperumAn who killed the seven raging bulls, is not a human at all). Hasn’t it been said in narasimha purANam 16-13 “gyAnEna hIna: paSubhissamAna:” (one who does not have knowledge is equivalent to an animal!). Knowledge is that which is mentioned by poygai AzhwAr in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 67oNdAmaraiyAL kELvan oruvanaiyE nOkkum uNarvu” (knowledge will attain only the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi).

mAnidamA vaiyEnAzhwAr says that it can be engraved on stone or copper plate that those who are not like that are not  humans (implying that this opinion is very firm). In other words, those who are given up by AzhwAr, who in turn are those who have been given up emperumAn himself, have no further refuge. Hence, those who have been given up by AzhwAr will not be considered by anyone as humans.

aRam thAngum mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu – Having the intelligence that it is only emperumAn, the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, with his mercy, who protects everyone. Alternatively, having the knowledge that emperumAn, the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, wears the righteousness of protecting the world. Doesn’t emperumAn protect the world, being kindled by pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) and to make her happy! (this is the reason why AzhwAr is referring to emperumAn here as mAdhavan,  the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi).

mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu – having the knowledge that it is only the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi is like this. We can also construe this as AzhwAr calling his heart and telling it “Oh heart! Try to recite the divine names of emperumAn, who protects the world, with your tongue. Meditate on him”.

The thoughts in the heart went towards

aRam thAngum mAdhavanE – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi who sustains righteousness.

nAvinAl maRRu avan pEr OdhuvadhE – reciting the divine name which refers to the union of emperumAn with pirAtti, viz. dhvayam (the couplet which is mentioned at the time of surrendering to emperumAn in the presence of pirAtti).

nAvinAl – the purpose of having the tongue

uLLu – recite (meditate).

We shall move on to the 45th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 43 – thOLiraNdettEzhum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that it is not possible for us to give up worldly pursuits; we cannot think of emperumAn too; it would be better to hold on to the divine feet of his followers who are firmly engaged with him with the belief that he will remove the enemies of his followers. He says that he need not worship emperumAn’s shoulders; it is apt to worship those who worship him.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thOL iraNdu ettu Ezhum mUnRum mudi anaiththum
thALiraNdum vIzhach charam thurandhAn thAL iraNdum
Ar thozhuvAr pAdham avai thozhuvadhu anRE en
sIr kezhu thOL seyyum siRappu

Word by Word Meaning

thOL iraNdu ettu Ezhum mUnRum – twenty shoulders
mudi anaiththum – all the heads (which sprouted)
thAL iraNdum – the two legs
vIzha – to be destroyed
saram thurandhAn – emperumAn who shot arrows
thAL iraNdum – two divine feet
thozhuvAr Ar – whoever worships (their)
pAdham avai – divine feet
thozhuvadhu anRE – isn’t worshipping them
en sIrkezhu thOL seyyum siRappu – the help  provided by my beneficial shoulders (to me)

vyAkyAnam

thOL iraNdu ettu Ezhum mUnRumB – rAvaNa’s twenty shoulders (2+8+7+3)

mudiyanaiththum – his heads which could not be kept count of, as they kept on sprouting even while they were being severed

thAL iraNdum vIzha – making the two feet, which are the support for his shoulders and heads, to fall down

saram thurandhAn – the purpose of saying individually the shoulders, heads and legs is to provide some pastime for SrI rAma’s arrows when they were shot. AzhwAr mercifully gives the sequence in which the arrows played. This implies that even though rAvaNa was also created by emperumAn only, since he became an enemy to his followers, emperumAn had to destroy him.

saram thurandhAn thAL iraNdum – the two divine feet of chakravarthy thirumagan (son of dhaSaratha chakravarthy). Aren’t they the target to be attained by us! (implying that only the one who removes our enemy is to be attained).

Such two divine feet

Ar thozhuvAr – in whatever species we are born, with whatever knowledge that we have, worshipping emperumAn’s divine feet is what is required. The greatness or lowliness for a person comes out of worshipping or not worshipping his divine feet. It is always beneficial for one, whoever he may be, to worship emperumAn’s divine feet. nammAzhwAr has mercifully stated this in his thiruvAimozhi 3-7-1pARkadal sErndha paramanaip payilum thiruvudaiyAr yavarElum avar kaNdIr” (whoever worships emperumAn who is reclining in thiruppARkdal (milky ocean), in whichever clan he is born or whatever qualities he has, he is a great person).

Ar – whoever he may be. That person can be a rAkshasa such as vibhIshaNa, or a monkey such as sugrIva or hanuman, or a regal personality such as arjuna or even a devil such as ghaNtAkarNan.

pAdham avai thozhuvadhu anRE – the person who worships emperumAn can be anybody. Even with such a person, his divine feet are apt to be attained. Attaining emperumAn is similar to holding on to someone’s hands for getting a work carried out. Attaining him through his follower is similar to holding on to his divine feet for the same work. In the latter case, it will be impossible to refuse help.

pAdham avai thozhuvadhanRE – what is being sought is not equality with followers, but attaining their feet [being a servitor to emperumAn’s followers].

en sIrkezhu thOL seyyum siRappu – the assistance which my shoulders can provide to me while desiring a benefit. The eminence which my beautiful shoulders can provide for me.

sIr kezhu thOL – AzhwAr gives the difference between our shoulders and those of emperumAn’s follower (the shoulders of emperumAn’s follower worship the divine feet of emperumAn while my shoulders worship the divine feet of the follower, which is more apt). Hence it is enough if one worships such shoulders. The purpose of one’s body is to attain purushArtham (goal). AzhwAr is terming his shoulders as sIr kezhu thOL since they have provided the benefit of attaining the followers of emperumAn.

We shall take up the 44th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 42 – ninaippan thirumAlai

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avathArikai

AzhwAr, getting dejected with the worldly pursuits, says that only those who think of emperumAn will not enter samsAram again.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

ninaippan thirumAlai nINda thOL kANa
ninaippAr piRapponRum nErAr manaippAl
piRandhAr pirAndhu eydhum pErinbam ellAm
thuRandhAr thozhudhArath thOL

Word by Word Meaning

thirumAlai – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi
nINda thOL kANa ninaippan – to enjoy (his) divine shoulders, I think of him
ninaippAr – those who think (like this)
piRappu onRum – any type of birth [in any of the classes of dhEvas, humans, animals and plants]
nErAr – will not attain
ath thOL – those divine shoulders
thozhuvAr – those who worship
manaippAl pirAndhAr piRandhu eydhum inbam ellAm – the small [worldly] pleasures which those who attain since they are born in samsAram (materialistic realm)
thuRandhAr – they detest [them]

vyAkyAnam

ninaippan thirumalai – isn’t the consort of thirumagaL (SrI mahAlakshmi) apt to be meditated upon! It is similar to thinking of one’s mother and father. AzhwAr thinks of emperumAn just like how a person who has gone to another country, thinks of his parents. He says that he thinks of the way SrI rAma and sIthAppirAtti were together seen in the ASram (hermitage) of sage SrI athri bhagavAn. He says that it is similar to the way he saw perumAL and pirAtti in the corridor of mrigaNdu maharishi in thirukkOvalUr. Just as lakshmaNa said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 8-31 “bhrAthA bharthA cha bandhuScha pithA cha mama rAghava” (SrI rAma is my elder brother, lord, relative and father), the purpose of thinking of emperumAn is not for begging him to obtain any benefit.

If not, then for what?

nINda thOL kANa – Instead of seeing the shoulders which have wizened due to separation from pirAtti, I want to see his divine shoulders which have become larger due to his being together with pirAtti. To see the shoulders which appear sweet because of his being together with her. It is not obtaining benefits such as attaining heaven etc.

What should be done with the births which present a hurdle to think of him?

ninaippAr piRappu enRum nErAr – Those who think of emperumAn this way will not attain any birth, ever. If the text is taken to be piRappu onRum nErAr, the entity which goes by the name birth will not come anywhere near such a person.

manaippAl – in the  house

piRandhAr piRandhu eydhum – those who are born in various houses [various births]. The benefit that they attain, after being born like this . . . .

pErinbam ellAm – all the pleasures. AzhwAr terms the worldly pursuits as pErinbam (great pleasures).

The heaviness of these pleasures which prevents one from approaching emperumAn all these days ..

thuRandhAr thozhudhAr ath thOL – Aren’t they the ones who had renounced such petty pleasures! They are the ones who worship the divine shoulders of emperumAn.  Alternative interpretation – who can renounce these petty pleasures and worship emperumAn unless emperumAn himself shows his shoulders to the one who thinks of him?

We shall take up the 43rd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 41 – poruLAl amarulagam

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In the previous pAsuram, did not AzhwAr say “think of the divine feet of emperumAn who is decorated with SrI mahAlakshmi on his chest?”. He takes that instruction for himself and tells his divine mind not to forget emperumAn, who has a beautiful form which removes all the ennui and confers happiness, in the first place.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

poruLAl amarulagam pukkiyal AgAdhu
aruLAl aRam aruLum anRE aruLAlE
mAmaRaiyOrkkIndha maNivaNNan pAdhamE
nI maRavEl nenjE ninai

Word by Word Meaning

amarulagam – the world of dhEvas [heaven]
poruLAl – with wealth
pukku iyal AgAdhu – is not proper to enter
aruLAl – with mercy
aRam – through the fruits of puNya (good deeds)
aruLum anRE – will grant with his mercy
aruLAlE – through his mercy
mA maRaiyuOrkku – for the parama vaidhikas (those who stand by vEdhas, the sacred texts)
Indha – one who offered himself
maNivaNNan pAdhamE – the divine feet of emperumAn who has blue complexion
nenjE – Oh my heart!
nI maRavEl – do not forget
ninai – keep meditating

vyAkyAnam

poruLAl amar ulagam pukkiyal AgAdhu – there are two interpretations: (1) with wealth as purushArtham (end goal), not entering  the apt place for one’s svarUpam (basic nature), mOkshalOkam (SrIvaikuNtam); (2) not considering places such as brahmalOkam etc as a goal and not attaining them. Just as SrI guNarathna kOSam 21 says “surapuri yadhgachchathO dhurgathi:” (you made those who wanted to attain you to think of dhEvalOkam too as hell), reaching dhEvalOkam is considered as lowly. Just as brAhmaNas would not go anywhere near places inhabited by those born in lowly clans, one should not even go near svargam (heaven).

aruLAl aRam aruLum anRE – why so? Why is it that it is considered as an inappropriate place? The chEthana (sentient entity) likes only materialistic possessions. If he does not get them, he becomes sorrowful. emperumAn, who has immeasurable mercy, unable to tolerate his sorrow, may give him what he desires, saying “why should the chEthana lose out on wealth? Let him have it”. chEthana has sensory perceptions which are active. Hence when he desires wealth, he may even say “do what is righteous for you”. This is similar to a mother yielding to a child which desires to eat sand. He may even say, just as he had told a brAhmaNa by name gOvindhaswAmy, mentioned in periya thirumozhi 5-8-5 “bOgam nI eydhip pinnum nammidaikkE pOdhuvAy” (stay in the world for some time, enjoy all the worldly pleasures and then reach my SrIvaikuNtam). aRam refers to the benefit obtained through righteousness. If svargam is obtained, it will be inimical to the svarUpam (basic nature) of chEthana. Even for obtaining lowly benefits, one needs the mercy of emperumAn. AzhwAr says, that being the case, why not attain emperumAn himself with the help of that mercy.

aruLAlE mAmaRaiyOrkkIndha maNivaNNan pAdhamE – the divine feet of the one who gives himself through his mercy. He gave mOksham to great sages such as sukar (son of vEdha vyAsar), vAmadhEvar et al who detested the materialistic life and prayed to him to grant his divine feet. Just as it is said “sukhO muktha: vAmadhEvO muktha:” (sukar attained mOksham, vAmadhEvar attained mOksham), he granted them SrIvaikuNtam through his mercy. If the text is taken as mAmaRaiyORku (singular number) it will refer to sage mArkaNdEya who was granted nithyathvam (permanency). If the text is taken as mAmaRaiyOrkku (plural number) it can be taken to refer to the sages in dhandakAraNyam, to whom he gave his beautiful form itself to enjoy. Hasn’t it been mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 1-13 “rUpasamhananam lakshmIm saukumAryam suvEshathAm dhadhruSu: vismithAkArA: rAmasya vanavAsina:” (the sages, who dwell in forests, looked with amazement at SrI rAma’s beautiful form, gentleness and the aptly fitting guise of sage). rUpasamhananam – natural beauty; lakshmIm – radiance over the beauty; saukumAryam – the gentle form of his divine body, which, even by looking at it, will become red [it is so gentle and soft]; suvEshathAm – such was his guise as a sage that even the dress made of bark and the matted hair looked like ornaments on him; vanavAsina: dhadhruSu: sages who dwell in forests saw him. Who beheld the sight which is normally held by whom? rig ashtakam 1-2-7 says “sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:” (nithyasUris always behold the sight of vishNu). Thus, the sight, normally seen by nithyasUris in SrIvaikuNtam, was seen in the forest by the sages!

maNivaNNan pAdhamE – wasn’t it his beautiful form that he gave the sages! AzhwAr tells his heart to think constantly, without forgetting, of the divine feet of emperumAn who has bluish complexion which will remove the fatigue of those who see him. Oh heart which manifests knowledge, do not forget this matter which has been exclusively created for you! Oh heart, you need not be lectured upon! Do not consider these words as having been uttered in an assembly for the sake of utterance! Forgetting emperumAn is equivalent to keeping desire in worldly matters. AzhwAr tells his heart not to forget, so that his heart will not contemplate on worldly matters.

We shall take up the 42nd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 40 – surukkAga vAngi

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In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr had said that the essence of all vEdhams is reciting emeprumAn’s divine names. Instead of saying something for namesake, he tells people in this pAsuram, to think of the meaning of those divine names, emperumAn, soon. Any entity other than him does not have the characteristic of an entity. Hence, only he is apt to be attained. He says that instead of attaining at one’s convenience, attain him immediately.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

surukkAga vAngi sulAvi ninRu aiyAr
nerukkAmun nIr ninaimin kaNdIr thiruppolindha
AgaththAn pAdham aRindhum aRiyAdha
bOgaththAl illai poruL

Word by Word Meaning

aiyAr – phlegm (a mucous material)
surukkAga vAngi – contracting the body
sulAvi  ninRu – surrounding the body fully [spreading to all parts of the body]
nerukkA mun – before it starts troubling
thirup polindha AgaththAn pAdham – the divine feet of emperumAn who is decorated with SrI mahAlakshmi on his chest
nIr ninaimin kaNdIr – please think of [his divine feet]
aRindhum – even if you are conversant with matters relating to emperumAn
aRiyAdha – those which will make you ignorant
bOgaththAl – enjoying worldly pursuits starting with Sabdham (the five sensory perceptions)
poruL illai – there is no purpose

vyAkyAnam

surukkAga vAngi sulAvi ninRu aiyAr nerukkA mun nIr ninaimin kaNdIr – phlegm, which is present everywhere in the body, will start giving trouble during the last days. At that time, the sensory perceptions of the chEthana (sentient entity) will not be under his control and will not allow him the desire to think of emperumAn. Thus, before such a situation arises, think of emperumAn immediately.

surukkAga vAngi – phlegm will start contracting the body, made of five elements, to look like a purse with a double string [so that it can be contracted fully at the neck].

sulAvi ninRu – it will spread all over the body and kill the person

aiyAr nerukkA mun – before phlegm starts troubling

nIr ninaimin – please keep this in your mind. It is not enough if you say that you will do it. You have to do it. Has it not been mercifully mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 1-3-8mALumOr idaththilum vaNakkodu mALvadhu valamE” (even at the time of leaving this body (at the time of death) it is better to bow down [to emperumAn] and leave)! For those who are trying to attain emperumAn through bhakthi yOgam (the path of devotion) it is compulsory to think of emperumAn at the time of death. For those who are trying to attain emperumAn through emperumAn himself, there is no such compulsion (as mentioned in varAha charamaSlOkam). If one were to think of dhvaya manthram [emperumAn] in the last stage, irrespective of these two states, it is welcome.

But should one have to think [of emperumAn], to the point of hurting oneself, at that stage?

thiruppolindha AgaththAn  – AzhwAr is asking whether emperumAn’s physical beauty is such that it can be forgotten. One need not fear that one has not attempted to attain emperumAn in a long time and feel guilty. This is because as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116-44 “na kaSchinnAprAdhyathi” (there is none who has not committed a mistake), pirAtti is always there with emperumAn to plead on our behalf. Hence think of the divine feet of emperumAn who is made to look radiant by pirAtti.

aRindhum aRiyAdha bOgaththAl illai poruL – despite being knowledgeable about emperumAn there is no purpose in going after worldly pursuits just like ignorant people do. There is no purpose in going after worldly pursuits which will make even a knowledgeable person to appear as ignorant. Even though sugrIva maharAjar had total devotion towards SrI rAma, since he was immersed in worldly pursuits for some time, he had to be reminded [about his responsibility] like others. aRindhum aRiyAdha bOgam can also refer to wealth which does not allow one to give up worldly enjoyments despite knowing that they are harmful. Another interpretation – even if one enjoys worldly pursuits to a large extent, he cannot clearly understand what he had enjoyed and thus even such a person is made to look ignorant. Thus there is no benefit out of enjoying worldly pursuits. Has it not been mercifully mentioned in SrI vishNu purANam 6-5-87 “sandhruSyathE vApyavagamyathE vA thathgyANamagyAna mathOnya dhukkam” (except seeing and knowing about emperumAn, knowledge about all other things is ignorance)! The knowledge which does not lead to attaining emperumAn is not knowledge at all. It will be termed only as ignorance. If a person knows about everything other than emperumAn, he will be called as ignorant only. Even if he does not know about anything other than emperumAn, he will be referred to us a knowledgeable person only. In the pAsuram, while referring to emperumAn, it says nIr ninaimin (you think) while referring to worldly pursuits it says aRindhum, meaning one should understand fully about those worldly things. If one were to ask whether it is comfort that one gets through other entities, in reality since they prevent one from attaining the real benefit that one should go after, they create only discomfort. Other entities, other than creating no purpose, also become hurdles to attaining the real benefit. This is brought out well in this pAsuram.

We shall take up the 41st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 39 – Oththin poruL

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How to praise through the mouth [as mentioned in the previous pAsuram]? Through reciting thirumanthram (ashtAksharam) which is the gist of all vEdhams (sacred texts), without diminishing its dignity as mentioned in upanishaths, and attaining [emperumAn]. This is OK for those who are able to attain him. AzhwAr says that for those who cannot attain him this way, it is enough if they can recite the divine names of thirumAl  (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi) which would be gist of vEdhAnthams (upanishaths). When asked “vEdhAthams say that indhra (lord of celestial entities) et al are fit to be attained  but you say that thirumAL is fit to be attained” AzhwAr responds saying  “you people are talking ignorantly about the superficial meaning of vEdhAnthams, without understanding the inner meaning. Please know the inner meaning of those statements and understand that in those places where vEdhAntham says that indhra et al are fit to be attained, it says that it is only thirumAl, who has those entities as his body and is their inner residing soul who is fit to be attained”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

Oththin poruL modivum iththanaiyE uththaman pEr
Eththum thiRam aRImin EzhigAL Oththadhnai
valleerEl nanRu adhanai mAttIrEl mAdhavan pEr
solluvadhE Oththin surukku

Word by Word Meaning

uththaman pEr – with the divine names of emperumAn, who is the most supreme among all entities
Eththum thiRam – the activity of praising
iththanaiyE – just this much
Oththin poruL mudivum – is the essence of meaning of vEdhams
Oththu adhanai valleerEl – if you are capable of knowing the meaning of vEdham
aRimin – do know
EzhaigAL – Oh people, impoverished by ignorance!
nanRu adhanai mAttirEl – if you do not have the capability to know that meaning
mAdhavan pEr solluvadhE – reciting the divine names of SrIman nArAyaNan is
Oththin surukku – the gist of vEdham
aRimin – know, at least, this.

vyAkyAnam

Oththin poruL mudivum iththanaiyEAzhwAr says “what I am going to say now is the essence of all inner meanings of vEdham”. Hasn’t emperumAn himself declared in SrI bhagavath gIthA 15-15 “vEdhaiScha sarvai: ahamEva vEdhya:” (through all vEdhams, only I am known)!

poruL mudivum – Isn’t this the limit of the benefit that we would attain!

uththaman pEr Eththum thiRam – knowing the way of reciting the divine names of the supreme being who can take this confused jIvAthmA, who had  thought of emperumAn when he was in good physical and mental state, from this world to SrIvaikuNtam. emperumAn is such a supreme being that he can protect in a way as mentioned in varAha charama SlOkam “sthithE manasi susvasthE SarIrE sathi yO nara: dhAthu sAmyE sthithE smarthA viSvarUpancha mAmajam” (whoever thinks of me, who has the universe as my body and who is without any birth, in a state of good health and balanced state of mind, with all the three dhAthus (the elements of kapam, piththam and vAtham which are related to breathing, digestion and bone joints) in balance) “thathastham mriyamANanthu kAshta pAshANa sannibham aham smarAmi madhbhaktham nayAmi paramAm gathim” (in later years, when he is like a log of wood or stone, in his last stages of life, I think of him, my devotee, and take him to a glorious state). Thus emperumAn is capable of protecting even when the jIvAthmA is not in a position to think of him. Reciting the divine names of such an emperumAn alone is proper.

uththaman pEr Eththum thiRam – reciting the divine names of the entity who has everything else as his attributes. uththaman  – one who provides all protections. mukundhamAlA 34 says “uththarthumarhasi harE purushOththamOsi ” (Oh hari! You, the supreme being, are fit to protect)! krishNa says in SrI bhagavath gIthA 15-19 “yO mAmEvamasammUdO jAnAthi purushOththamam sa sarvavidhbhajathi mAm sarvabhAvEna bhAratha” (one who knows me, the supreme being, without any bewilderment, knows all the ways by which he can attain me and is one who worships me in all aspects ). One should know that emperumAn has everything as his attribute.

pEr – the word which refers to the quality mentioned earlier. In other words, thirumanthram (ashtAksharam). This thirumanthram also contains all the words in it, just like him. hArIthasmruthi 3-45 says “sarvam ashtAksharAnthasththam” (everything present in the four vEdhams is present in the eight lettered thirumanthram). Aren’t there sayings such as “OmithIdham sarvam” (everything is praNavam), “akArO vai sarvA vAk” (for all words, the letter akAram ‘a’ is foremost)!

aRimin EzhaigAL – Oh fickle minded people who think that there is something else to be known! Please know this.

EzhaigAL – How sad it is that I have to tell you all that there is nothing else to be known other than emperumAn! How sad that when the apt entity emperumAn is there you are all involved with worldly matters! It implies that these are ignorant people who take in only the words and not the inner meanings.

Oththadhanai valleerEl – if you are capable of carrying out everything mentioned in the vEdhams without any shortcomings

aRimin – then know. Practising vEdhams with their ancillaries. If you care capable of understanding the inner meaning by listening about vEdhAntham, then know you ignorant people, that reciting the divine name of the supreme being is the essence of all vEdhams. Keep this in your mind.

nanRadhanai mAttIrEl – if you are not capable of carrying out what has been said, viz., carrying out in an orderly way samskArams (rituals) such as upanayanam (wearing yagyOpavIdham, the sacred thread), practising vEdhams with ancillaries, knowing the meanings of vEdhams, carrying out activities as mentioned in vEdhams without any shortcoming and finally seeing emperumAn.

mAdhavan pEr solluvadhE Oththin surukku – reciting the divine names of emperumAn, the consort of Sri mahAlakshmi, is the essence of all that has been said in vEdhams.

mAdhavan – is it not pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who identifies emperumAn himself! AzhwAr says “Consider that the sayings of one who attained knowledge through emperumAn’s mercy [AzhwAr himself] are the true meanings. Believe me who has seen emperumAn with his mercy” Since it has been mentioned that reciting emperumAn’s divine names is the essence, it should be considered that in the context of not carrying out what has been mentioned in vEdhams (nanRadhanai mAttirEl), everything has been thought of such as practising vEdham etc.

We shall move on to the 40th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 38 – emekkenRu irunidhiyam

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When asked as to what we should do to fulfil the purpose of taking this birth, AzhwAr says that only reciting the divine names of the consort of thirumagaL (mahAlakshmi) instead of claiming ownership of others’ possessions will be the purpose of this birth and the activity that we should carry out. He says that instead of treating wealth as purushArtham (goal), enjoying emperumAn is the only apt activity for everyone.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

emakkenRu irunidhiyam EmAndhirAdhE
thamakkenRum sArvam aRindhu namakkenRum
mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu maRRavan pEr
OdhuvadhE nAvinAl Oththu

Word by Word Meaning

irunidhiyam – great wealth
emakku enRu – thinking that it is for oneself
EmAndhu irAdhE – instead of feeling arrogant
thamakku enRum sArvam aRindhu – knowing the entity which will always protect us
namakku enRum mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu – having the heart with conviction that “it is only emperumAn who is everything for us at all times”
maRRu – on top of that
avan pEr – his divine names
OdhuvadhE – to recite with tune
nAvinAl Oththu – apt for our tongue to recite like vEdham.

vyAkyAnam

emakkenRu irunidhiyam EmAndhirAdhE – one who thinks that wealth is for him instead of knowing about those who do not think of wealth as important

irunidhiyam emakku enRu EmAndhirAdhE – Considering others’ huge wealth as one’s own. Later, praising emperumAn and getting emboldened to keep one’s legs on the head of yama (lord of righteousness). Just as it is mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 9 “Anandham brahmaNO vidhvAn na bibhEthi kuthaSchana” (one who knows the happiness of emperumAn will not be afraid of anything), one who is without any fear. Is it apt to consider emperumAn’s wealth as one’s own? When emperumAn who is the epitome of happiness is there, would one desire a little bit of gold? The mere thought of wealth will bring in sadness. But in the case of one who thinks of emperumAn, he becomes fearless as mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 6 “athasO bhayangathO bhavathi” (he becomes fearless).

thamakku enRum sArvam aRindhu – think that it is only emperumAn who is the refuge. Thinking that the only permanent refuge for us is emperumAn. emperumAn thinks of the jIvAthmA as being always for him, even when the jIvAthmA does not know what is apt for him.

namakku enRum mAdhavanE ennum manam padaiththu – having the heart considering that it is only thirumAl (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi) who is our refuge. Having the heart, considering that it only thirumAL who is apt to be enjoyed. Hasn’t it been mercifully mentioned in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 12-1 “mAdhavan enbadhOr anbu thannai uRRirundhEn” (I had strong desire for mAdhavan)!

mAdhavan – it is said that it is only emperumAn who is with pirAtti (mahAlakshmi), who is apt to be attained.

manam padaiththu – It has been prayed for in jithanthE SlOkam 1-11 “vigyAnam yadhidham prAptham yadhitham sthAnamArjitham, janmAntharEpi mE dhEva mAbhUth thasya parikshaya:” (Oh emperumAn! There should be no shortcoming in any birth to the knowledge and the deep belief that I have that you are the means for attaining you and you are the fruit of my attaining you). There is no need for emperumAn to create them (jIvAthmAs) now. Aren’t they existing already!

maRRu avan pEr OdhuvadhE nAvinAl Oththu – Only reciting his divine names is the activity with the tongue. It is the activity for the tongue to keep reciting about the twin entities of emperumAn and pirAtti. It is said that this is the manthram (vEdhic hymn) to be pronounced. In harivamSam 183-8, rudhra says “harirEkas sadhAdhyEya:” (hari (emperumAn) is the only one who is apt to be meditated upon always). In thirunedundhANdagam 4, thirumangai AzhwAr says “mandhiraththai mandhiraththAl maRavAdhu enRum vAzhudiyEl vAzhalAm mada nenjamE” (Oh humble heart! If we constantly remember manthram (emperumAn) with the manthram (hymn) without forgetting, we can live happily).

We shall take up the 39th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 37 – irundhaN kamalaththu

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AzhwAr says that all those births in which we do not attain emperumAn are wasted. If emperumAn who is to be attained, is not attained, then it is wasted. When emperumAn asks “if I am not attained, will the births be wasted?”, AzhwAr responds saying “it is my opinion”.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

irundhaN kamalaththu irumalarin uLLE
thirundhum thisaimugainaith thandhAy porundhiya nin
pAdhangaL Eththip paNiyAvEl pal piRappum
EdhangaL ellAm emakku

Word by Word Meaning

Iru – large
thaN – cool
kamalaththu – the navel which is like lotus flower
iru malarin uLLE – inside the great flower
thirundhu – capable
ninthisaimuganai – nAnmugan (brahmA)
thandhAy – Oh emperumAn, the benefactor, gave us!
porundhiya – fitting with all
nin – your
pAdhangaL – divine feet
Eththi – praising handsomely
paNiyA El – if not utilised in worshipping with bowed head
emakku – for us
pal piRappum ellAm – the various births that we take
EdhangaL – totally useless

vyAkyAnam

irundhaN kamalaththin iru malarin uLLE – inside the large flower shooting from  very cool lotus-like navel of emperumAn. irumalar – large flower. This implies that the dwelling place for brahmA is expansive. If the word irumai is taken to mean greatness, the meaning will change to: inside the expansive, cool and unique flower. If the text itself is taken as thirumalar the world thiru will refer to the radiance of the flower.

thirundhu thisaimuganaith thandhAy – emperumAn gave brahmA the capability so that while creating the worlds, brahmA need not come every time to seek guidance. He gave brahmA both gyAnam (knowledge) and vEdham (spiritual texts) so that there would not be a need to ask emperumAn at every step [of creating the worlds].  Hasn’t SvEthAsvathara upanishath 6-18 mentioned “yO brahmANam vidhadhAthi pUrvam yO vai vEdhAmScha prahiNOthi thasmai . . . . .  mumukshUr vai SaraNamaham prapadhyE” (I, desiring  mOksham, surrender to him  . . . . who created brahmA, who gave him vEdham)! Thus it mentions that the one who created brahmA is the apt entity to be surrendered to. thandhAyAzhwAr says thandhAy as if emperumAn did a favour to AzhwAr by creating brahmA. Probably he says so since this creation helped him to attain emperumAn.

porundhiya nin pAdhangaL Eththip paNiyAvEl – the others will not fit with each other [fit here refers to being amiable]. emperumAn is the only one who fits with all. The entire world fits him. Being humble towards him is the only requirement. If one does not surrender to his divine feet praising him, it would lead to many types of births.

nin pAdhangaL Eththip paNiyAvEl – Everything would become wasted if we do not fulfil your expectations and do not become your servitors. Just as sumithrA told lakshmaNa in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 40-5 “srushtathvam vanavAsAya” (you were sired by me only to follow SrI rAma to the forest), all the days would be good days if we continue to serve emperumAn.  The purpose of taking a birth will be served only if we attain emperumAn.

palpiRappum – all the births that we take due to our karma (deeds). As mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 3-9-10senRu senRAgilum kaNdu” (even if many births pass by, emperumAn hopes that the jIvAthmA will realise in one birth and approach him), emperumAn creates many births for this jIvAthmA so that some birth, out of the innumerable births, will bear fruit. The reason for using the plural number in EdhangaL is because of the varied types of difficulties undergone by the jIvAthmA in each birth. AzhwAr says that all those difficulties are there only for him.

paNiyAvEl – if I do not say that I, desiring liberation, surrender as mentioned in SvEthAsvathara upanishath 6-18 “mumukshurvai aham prapadhyE

emakku EdhangaL – those births will become wasted. The purpose of life is only to attain emperumAn. If it is anything other than this, it is useless, says the AzhwAr. Hasn’t gAruda pUrvabhAgam 222-22 said “yanmuhUrtham kshaNam vApi vAsudhEvO na chinthayathE sA hAni: thanmahachchidhram sA bhrAnthis sA cha vikriyA” (if one doesn’t think of vAsudhEvan (emperumAn) in any moment in a muhUrtham (approximately one and a half hours), that will be destruction; that will be disaster; that will be bewilderment; that will be evil disposition).

We shall move on to the 38th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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