Category Archives: periya thirumozhi 1st centum

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.8 – kaRRilEn kalaigaL

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

The poets who were invited in previous pAsuram asked “If you look at our previous conduct, how can we become experts in the principle you are explaining?” AzhwAr responds “What an ignorance! I who was worse than you have now become qualified to advice you in this subject; hence is there anyone who is unqualified for this?”

pAsuram

kaRRilEn kalaigaL aimpulan karudhum
karuththuLE thiruththinEn manaththai
peRRilEn adhanAl pEdhaiyEn nanmai
perunilaththAruyirkkellAm
seRRamE vENdith thiritharuvEn thavirndhEn
selgadhikkuyyumAReNNi
nalthuNaiyAgap paRRinEn adiyEn
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

kalaigaL – SAsthrams
kaRRilEn – I have not learned (from an AchArya);
aim pulan – five senses
karudhum – sought out
karuththuL – in matters
manaththai – mind
thiruththinEn – intentionally engaged;
adhanAl – due to this
pEdhaiyEn – I who am ignorant
nanmai – good thoughts
peRRilEn – did not have;
peru – vast
nilaththu – earth
Ar – filled
uyirkku ellAm – for all creatures
seRRamE – ways to harm
vENdi – thinking
thiritharuvEn – roaming around;

(though I was roaming around for a long time, due to his merciful glance)
thavirndhEn – I was freed from all of that;
selgadhikku – to go to paramapadham which is the apt destination (through archirAdhi mArgam)
uyyum ARu – path to be uplifted
eNNi – considering
adiyEn – I who am a servitor
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – the divine name, nArAyaNa
nal thuNaiyAga – as good help
paRRinEn – held on.

Simple translation

I have not learned SAsthrams. I intentionally engaged in the matters which are sought out by the five senses. Due to this, I, who am ignorant, did not have any good thoughts. I was roaming around the vast earth which is filled with creatures thinking about ways to harm them. I was freed from all of that. Considering to go to paramapadham which is the apt destination, as the path to be uplifted, I, who am a servitor, held on to the divine name, nArAyaNa as good help.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • kaRRilEn kalaigaL – Since I did not follow an AchArya and learn from him by repeating the words he uttered, I have not acquired knowledge in SAsthram.
  • aim pulan karudhum karuththuLE – thiruththinEn manaththai – Had I focussed my mind on emperumAn and withdrawn the senses which were attached to worldly pleasures, from those pleasures at least sometimes, and made them focus internally, that would have led to pursuing a noble path; as the senses such as hearing etc were engaged in worldly pleasures and took me in the path which were pleasing to them, I facilitated the mind to follow them.
  • thiruththinEn manaththai – Those who are attached to worldly pleasures, will take up medication to increase the pleasure. Similarly, I forcefully engaged my mind in worldly pleasures.
  • peRRilEn adhanAl pEdhaiyEn nanmai – Due to lacking knowledge in SAsthram and being engaged in worldly pleasures, I became ignorant and did not think about my [real] well-being.
  • peru nilaththu Ar uyirkku ellAm seRRamE vENdith thiritharuvEn – Not only was I not doing anything good for the self, but was also constantly thinking about ways to harm others. I was looking for ways to harm all others and survive happily. nanjIyar would frequently say “One can know whether one has bhagavath sambandham (relationship with bhagavAn) oneself”. When one sees someone suffering, if one feels compassionate and says “Alas!”, one can understand “We have bhagavath sambandham”; if one thinks “he should suffer more”, then one can understand “We don’t have bhagavath sambandham”. This can be split as “peru nilaththu Ar uyirkku ellAm” (for the creatures who are filling this vast world) or “perunilaththAr uyirkku ellAm” (for the life of all the people of this world).
  • thavirndhEn – I don’t know the reason. I just observed that I am freed from all of the aforementioned aspects. He himself said previously in 1st pAsuram “uyvadhOr poruL” (the principle which helped me to be uplifted), 5th pAsuram “AzhiyAn aruL” (the mercy of sarvESvaran, who has the chakra) and 5th pAsuram “sikkenath thiruvaruL peRREn” (firmly got his divine mercy).
  • sel gadhikku uyyum ARu eNNi – There is a destination to be reached – paramapadham. Contemplating the travel to that abode and being uplifted there.
  • nal thuNaiyAgap paRRinEn adiyEn – Unlike tying oneself to a rock and jumping into a river, holding on to what is said in garuda purANam 220.16 “pAdhEyam puNdarikAksha nAma sankIrthanAmrutham” (Chanting of the divine names of the lotus-eyed lord is the food/pastime during the journey), I held on to the one which will help us reach the shore.
  • nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – The divine name of the entity who helps us reach the shore. It is said in varAha charama SlOkam “nayAmi paramAm gathim” (I carry my devotees to the highest abode).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.7 – iRpiRappu

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

In this pAsuram, AzhwAr is saying “Those who are ignorant may lose emperumAn, but how are you who are intelligent and poets like me, losing him?”

pAsuram

iRpiRappaRiyIr ivaravar ennIr
innadhOr thanmaiyenRu uNareer
kaRpagam pulavar kaLaikaN enRulagil
kaNdavA thoNdaraip pAdum
soRporuLALeer sollugEn vammin
sUzhpunal kudandhaiyE thozhumin
naRporuL kANmin pAdi nIr uymmin
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

ulagil – for the residents of this earth
thoNdarai – those who roam around doing menial services
il – greatness of (their) household life
piRappu – greatness of (their) birth
aRiyIr – not knowing
ivar – those who are wealthy now
avar – were previously in poverty
eNNIr – without knowing
thanmai – their nature
innadhu enRu – is in this particular manner
uNarIr – not knowing
kaRpagam! – Oh generous ones who resemble desire fulfilling kalpaka tree!
pulavar – for learned persons
kaLaigaN – Oh protector!
enRu – saying in this manner
kaNdavA – as thought in the heart
pAdum – praising
sol – for words
poruL – and meanings
ALIr – you who are experts
vammin – come over;
sollugEn – I am informing you (so that you don’t lose the apt goal);
nIr – you who are like me
punal – by water
sUzh – surrounded
kudandhai – ArAvamudhan emperumAn who is mercifully residing in thirukkudandhai
thozhumin – worship;
nArAyaNA ennum – the word which explains “I am all kinds of relationship”
nAmam – divine name
pAdi – speaking fully
uymmin – be uplifted;
nal poruL kANmin – see, this is the ultimate principle.

Simple translation

Oh poets who are experts in words and meanings, who roam around doing menial services to the residents of this world without knowing the greatness of their household life and birth, and without knowing that those who are wealthy now were in poverty previously, and without knowing that “their nature is in this particular manner”, who tell them “Oh generous ones who resemble desire fulfilling kalpaka tree! Oh protector of learned persons!” and praise them as thought in your hearts! Come over. I am informing you. You who are like me should worship ArAvamudhan emperumAn who is mercifully residing in thirukkudandhai which is surrounded by water; be uplifted by speaking the divine name which explains “I am all kinds of relationship”; see, this is the ultimate principle.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • il piRappu aRiyIr – Know about how they are placed in their gArhasthyam (household life) and their birth.
  • ivar avar ennIr – When a person who was previously suffering due to poverty become rich now, without knowing “This must not have been acquired by his ability; he must have been blessed by sarvESvaran”, you are thinking that such person is like Sriya:pathi (lord of SrI mahAlakshmi) who is wealthy from birth. Alternatively,
  • ivaravarennIr – if seen as a single word, it means “you are unable to see the difference between any two persons”.
  • innadhOr thanmai enRu uNarIr – You cannot know the knowledge/ability of such person.
  • kaRpagam – You are saying “he will grant without thinking about any aspects”.
  • pulavar kaLaigaN enRu – Such a person will hide when knowledgeable poets come to him seeking wealth. These poets will call such a person as “Our lord”.
  • ulagil kaNdavA thoNdaraip pAdum – In this world, superficially praising those who are roaming around with lowly conduct.
  • sol poruL ALIr – You who are experts in words and their meanings. There is none who can beat you in word-play and there is none who is as good as you in understanding the principles.
  • sollugEn vammin – As I show you the entity which matches your expertise in words and meanings, you come over.
  • sUzh punal kudandhaiyE thozhumin – You need a river and a capital city – for you to praise someone in your poems. When you praise someone, you need someone who owns rivers, mountains and cities.
  • nal poruL kANmin – You realise this ultimate principle. That is, emperumAn is the goal as well as the means.
  • pAdi nIr uymmin nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – I showed you the entity (bhagavAn) which is the best amongst the principles which are known by words. Now you sing the divine names of such entity and be uplifted – says AzhwAr. The short form of thirumanthram, that is akAram (syllable “a”), is explained in  nArAyaNa anuvAkam “ya: parassa mahESvara:“ (nArAyaNa, the lord of lords). Among the words, akAram is the best. Among the principles which are explained through the words, ArAvamudhan emperumAn is the greatest.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.6 – empirAn endhai

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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Introduction to the vyAkyAnam

When asked “You are greatly celebrating this divine name. What is the meaning for it?” AzhwAr explains in this pAsuram. Instead of chanting the divine name [as part of thirumanthram] and getting a result out of it, and making it ancillary for karma yOgam (gyAna yOgam and bhakthi yOgam), since AzhwAr is of the opinion that the result is attained by meditating upon the meanings of it, he is explaining the meanings. nammAzhwAr too, while speaking about thirumanthram [especially the divine name, nArAyaNa], will explain about the meaning either before or after, to emphasise on the meaning, since it is said in SAsthram “gyAnAn mOksham” (True knowledge leads to liberation).

pAsuram

empirAn endhai ennudaich chuRRam
enakkarasu ennudai vANAL
ambinAl arakkar verukkoLa nerukki
avaruyir seguththa em aNNal
vambulAnjOlai mAmadhiL thanjai
mAmaNik kOyilE vaNangi
nambigAL! uyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn 
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

nambigAL! – Oh those who are complete (with enjoying bhagavAn’s qualities)!
em pirAn – being my benefactor
endhai – being my father
ennudaich chuRRam – being all my relationships
enakku arasu – being my ruler
ennudai vAzh nAL – being my life-span
arakkar – rAkshasas (demoniac people)
verukkoLa – to be scared
ambinAl – with arrows
nerukki – suffocating them
avar uyir – their lives
seguththa – destroyed
em aNNal – the eternal abode of sarvESvaran, who is my lord
vambu – fragrance
ulAm – blowing
sOlai – garden
mA – lengthy
madhiL – having fort
thanjai mA maNik kOyilE – thanjai mA maNik kOyil only
vaNangi – worshipped
nAn uyya – to be uplifted (like all of you)
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – the divine name, nArAyaNa
kaNdu koNdEn – I got to realise.

Simple translation

Oh those who are complete (with enjoying bhagavAn’s qualities)! sarvESvaran, being my benefactor, father, all my relationships, ruler and life-span, created fear in the rAkshasas by suffocating them with arrows and destroyed their lives. I only worshipped such sarvESvaran, who is my lord who is residing in thanjai mA maNik kOyil which is having garden with blowing fragrance and lengthy fort. To be uplifted, I got to realise the divine name, nArAyaNa.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • empirAn – My benefactor.
  • endhai – My father.
  • ennudaich chuRRam – One who remains all types of relationships starting with the mother who gives birth.
  • enakku arasu – One who eliminated my vices and ruled over me.
  • ennudai vAzh nAL – My life-span.
  • ambinAl arakkar verukkoLa nerukki avaruyir seguththa em aNNal – My lord who destroyed the rAkshasas by causing fear in them by suffocating them with his arrows instead of destroying them with his sankalpa (will). Thus he concludes with saying “emperumAn is my swAmi (lord)”. With this, what is explained in subAla upanishath “mAthA pithA bhrAthA nivAsaS SaraNam suhrudhgathirnArAyaNa:” (SrIman nArAyaNan is mother, father, brother, abode, refuge, friend, goal), is elaborated here.

When asked “How did you get all of these?” AzhwAr says,

  • vambulAnjOlai mAmadhiL thanjai mAmaNik kOyilE vaNangi – I kept worshipping thanjai mAmaNik kOyil only, which is having eternally blooming garden and lengthy fort. As I meditated upon emperumAn’s saulabhyam (easy approachability) where he is present announcing “I am all types of relationships for you”, I received all these.
  • nambigAL – AzhwAr could be addressing either those who are caring only for the body holding on to matters other than bhagavAn or those who are complete due to enjoying bhagavAn’s qualities.
  • uyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn – AzhwAr is saying either “I got to see emperumAn to be uplifted, while you are suffering due to worldly attachments” or “I too reached the shore as you did knowing the ways to be uplifted”.
  • nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – I got to realise the divine name which explains that emperumAn is all types of relationships.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.5 – kaLvanEn AnEn

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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pAsuram

kaLvanEn AnEn padiRu seidhiruppEn
kaNdavA thirithandhEnElum
theLLiyEn AnEn selgadhikkamaindhEn
chikkenath thiruvaruL peRREn
uLLelAm urugik kural thazhuththozhindhEn
udambelAm kaNNanIr sOra
naLLiruL aLavum pagalum nAn azhaippan
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

kaLvanEn AnEn – (Previously, bhagavAn’s possession AthmA) I stole;
padiRu – very evil acts
seydhu iruppEn – I kept doing;
kaNda A – any aspects seen
thirithandhEnElum – even after engaging
thiru aruL – (his) merciful glance
sikkena – firmly
peRREn – I got;
theLLiyEn AnEn – I acquired clarity (about his lordship and my servitude);
sel – to travel in (archirAdhi mArgam, the path leading to paramapadham)
gadhikku – to paramapadham
amaindhEn – became complete, to go;

(further)
uL elAm – all that which are inside (i.e., bones, nerves) my body
urugi – melting
kural – tone
thazhuththu ozhindhEn – stuttered;
udambu elAm – everywhere on my body
kaNNa nIr sOra – to have tears of happiness flow over
naL – dense
iruL aLavum – throughout the night
pagal aLavum – throughout the day
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – the divine name, nArAyaNa
nAn – I, the servitor
azhaippan – got to call out.

Simple translation

Previously I stole this AthmA which is owned by bhagavAn; I kept doing very evil acts; I firmly received his merciful glance even after engaging in worldly aspects which were seen; I acquired clarity about his lordship and my servitude; I became complete and ready to travel to parampadham; all that which are inside my body are melting and my tone stuttered; throughout the dense night and day, I, the servitor, got to call out the divine name, nArAyaNa to have tears of happiness flow over my body. kaNdavARu is written as kaNdavA and ellAm is written as elAm.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • kaLvanEn AnEn – In comparison with someone who stole firewood, the one who stole precious gems, will acquire more sins; in comparison to someone who stole the wealth of SUdhra, the one who stole the wealth of brAhmaNa, will acquire more sins; I stole the best entity, that is AthmA; I claimed ownership of a belonging of sarvESvaran; [hence, I accumulated great sin, from both the object which is stolen and from whom it is stolen].
  • padiRu seydhiruppEn – If it itches inside the neck/throat, one cannot scratch to eliminate the itch. In this manner, I became a great thief who accumulated great sin. Not only did I consider my body to be self, but when I saw Ashtikas (faithful ones) who think “this AthmA is a servitor of ISvara”, I would ask them “How can there be an AthmA which is different from body? How can there be an ISvara?” and steal bhagavAn’s possession in this manner.
  • kaNdavA thirithandhEnElum – I was simply following on a bodily platform without knowing the truth instead of withdrawing from the aspects which are forbidden by SAsthram. As said in sthOthra rathnam 58 “nrupaSu:” (animal in a human body), I would seek out the pleasures which are attained from others, from own mother as well.
  • theLLiyEn AnEn – While I was like this, [suddenly] like those who understand the difference between essence and extraneous aspects, and engage in what is allowed and avoid what is forbidden [in SAsthram], I became knowledgeable.
  • sel gadhikku amaindhEn – I became to be thought and said by emperumAn as in “He is acting in a manner to remain in samsAram forever; from now onwards, he does not belong in this samsAram, he belongs in paramapadham”. There is an abode which should be reached – that is, paramapadham. I became complete, to belong there.

When asked “You first said ‘kaNdavA thirithandhEn‘ and then said ‘theLLiyEn AnEn‘. This seems contradictory!” AzhwAr says,

  • sikkenath thiruvaruL peRREn – I got his grace, to not have to look back ever.

When asked “What benefit did you get?” AzhwAr says,

  • uL elAm urugik kural thazhuththu ozhindhEn – The bones and nerves inside the body melted and that is shown in my stuttering tone.
  • udambelAm kaNNa nIr sOra – SrIvishNu thathvam “AhlAdha SItha nEthrAmbu: pulakI krutha gAthravAn” (One who is having cool happy tears due to blissful experience of bhagavAn etc – the purpose of everyone is to see such persons). All over the body, tears overflow as necklace with five layers and necklace with three layers.
  • naL iruL aLavum pagalum nAn azhaippan nArAyaNA ennum nAmam –  Both the night when worldly pleasures are enjoyed and the day when wealth for future enjoyment is earned, are fully spent in reciting the divine name by me.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.4 – venRiyE vENdi

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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pAsuram

venRiyE vENdi vIzhporutkirangi
vERkaNAr kalaviyE karudhi
ninRavA nillA nenjinai udaiyEn
enseygEn? neduvisumbaNavum
panRiyAy anRu pAragangINda
pAzhiyAn AzhiyAn aruLE
nanRu nAnuyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

venRiyE – Victory only
vENdi – desired
vIzh – that which will be destroyed
porutku – for wealth
irangi – worrying
vEl kaNAr – with the women whose eyes resemble spear
kalaviyE – union only
karudhi – considered
ninRavA nillA – not being firm on anything
nenjinai – heart
udaiyEn – I who am having
en seygEn – what will I do; (not having the means to reach you, I am unable to do anything)
anRu – on the day when earth was engulfed by deluge
nedu – tall
visumbu – sky
aNavum – growing to touch
panRiyAy – having the form of varAha (wild boar)
pAragam – earth
kINda – uplifted
pAzhiyAn – the strong one
AzhiyAn – sarvESvaran’s
aruLE – by mercy only
nAn – I who was attached to worldly pleasures
nanRu – properly
uyya – to be uplifted
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – the divine name nArAyaNa
nAn – I who was prideful
kaNdu koNdEn – realised.

Simple translation

Desiring for victory only and worrying for the wealth which will be destroyed, only considering the union with the women whose eyes resemble spear, what will I, who am having the heart which is not firm on anything, do? The strong sarvESvaran having the form of varAha who grew up to the tall sky, on that day the earth was engulfed by deluge, uplifted the earth. To be properly uplifted by such sarvESvaran’s mercy only, I who was attached to worldly pleasures and was prideful, realised the divine name nArAyaNa.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • venRiyE vENdi – He only desires for victory even over father or teacher. He always tries to push-down everyone else and become prominent. He is even desiring to win over aspects where he should remain subservient.
  • vIzh porutku irangi – Only due to having a little bit of wealth, one disrespects others. But since it is impermanent, he will lose and will cry out for that. On top of trying to win over respectable persons instead of being subservient to them, he will also remain crying due to having attachment for wealth which should not be cared for. Alternative explanation – having dhEhAthmAbimAnam (considering body as self), not just considering oneself to be greater than all, but also will think about the impermanent body to remain forever and worry for that.
  • vEl kaNAr kalaviyE karudhi – While having wealth, he will let his wife wear saffron clothes and let her go. But on losing the wealth, if he calls out for her, just as others, his wife will also look sharply with her spear like eyes and question him. At that time, he will think “I should have made ornaments with my wealth and decorated her with them”. He will try to decorate his wife with the lost wealth.
  • ninRavA nillA nenjinai udaiyEn en seygEn – When the whole world is engaged in the means for UrvasI sAlOkyam (to remain in heaven where Urvasi lives), arjuna with great detachment, worshipped her [considering her as his mother], when she approached him and tried to seduce him; such arjuna said that even the wind blowing from the opposite direction can be controlled but the heart/mind cannot be controlled as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 6.34chanchalam hi mana: krishNa pramAthi balavadh dhrudam |thasyAham nigraham manyE vAyOr iva sudhushkaram ||” (Because , mind is (naturally) wavering, strong and hence bewildering and firm (in pulling us towards worldly pleasures). I think that it is very difficult to restrain it, like controlling a fierce storm). How can I engage my mind in a means which is apt to attain you, when my heart cannot focus on any matter for more than a fraction of a moment? It will only facilitate my loss of you.
  • en seygEn – arjuna became sorrowful after hearing from bhagavAn about many upAyams (means) in eighteen chapters of SrI bhagavath gIthA, which are impossible to practice. For AzhwAr, everything is causing fear [even without getting instructed like that].

When asked “If you remain like this, what would you consider as the means for the goal?” AzhwAr says “When the world which was engulfed by deluge, was incapable to save itself, there was the one who protected it. Such emperumAn will be my means”

  • nedu visumbu aNavum panRiyAy anRu pAr agam kINda pAzhiyAn AzhiyAn aruLE – Only when world which was engulfed by deluge could engage in protecting itself, I who am having heart which is engulfed by worldly pleasures can contemplate about my well-being. One who grew out of the space in sky, eagerly assumed a form which is much larger than what is to be protected. When the world was engulfed in the deluge and was about to be destroyed, bhagavAn assumed the form of mahAvarAham (great wild boar) which will not withdraw seeing water and mud. He assumed the form which will grow on seeing abundance of water. nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 11.8mAsudambil nIr vArA mAnamilAp panRiyAm” is explained here. While seeing his divine consort (bhUmippirAtti) where her body is not cared and is immersed in the deluge as in “pAsi thUrththu” (having moss all over), bhagavAn who is her beloved husband, not caring for his own body, acquired a divine form which had dirt on it. mAnamilA – Being free from the pride of being sarvESvara. When the demon mArIcha [rAvaNa’s uncle] assumed the form of a mystical deer, other deer came by, smelled him, realised that he is not a real deer and ran away from him. Unlike that, what is said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 120.11 “AthmAnam mAnusham manyE” (I consider myself as a human being) is felt by him here also [to feel one among the wild boars].
  • pAr agam kINda – As the whole world was resting on the wall of the oval shaped universe, emperumAn freed the world and brought it out.
  • pAzhiyAn – One who has great strength.
  • AzhiyAn – While protecting he does not need any tool [as in the case of rescuing the world]; but if he needs a tool, he has the sudharSana chakra weapon in his hand.
  • aruLE – Considering me to be totally lost due to having pride where one should not have, worrying for that which is not worthy of worrying, desiring to enjoy worldly matters which will lead to hell and having wavering mind, due to his mercy, sarvESvaran thought “He will never be able to uplift himself” and having that only as the reason, tried to uplift me. Both aruLE or aruLAlE, are acceptable.
  • nanRu nAn uyya – I became similar to nithyasUris who are known as asprushta samsAra gandhar (those who are untouched by defects of samsAra), instead of being known as one who remained as said in “venRiyE vENdi vIzh porutkirangi vERkaNAr kalaviyE karudhi“, has become pure.
  • nAn kaNdu koNdEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – AzhwAr spoke about himself as having pride and greed as in “venRiyE vENdi vIzh porutkirangi“; I who was like this acquired the result which is acquired by those who are having noble qualities such as amAnithvam (being free of pride) etc.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.3 – sEmamE vENdi

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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pAsuram

sEmamE vENdith thIvinai perukkith
therivaimAr uruvamE maruvi
UmanAr kaNda kanavilum pazhudhAy
ozhindhana kazhindha annALgaL
kAmanAr thAdhai nammudai adigaL
thammadaindhAr manaththiruppAr
nAmam nAn uyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

sEmamE – well-being only
vENdi – desiring (but without not performing virtuous duties which are required for that)
thIvinai – sins
perukki – increasing
therivaimAr – of women
uruvamE – physical beauty only
maruvi – thinking about
kazhindha – wasted
annALgaL – those times
UmanAr – mute persons
kaNda – saw
kanavilum – more than the dream
pazhudhAy – being useless
ozhindhana – lost; hence
kAmanAr – for cupid
thAdhai – being the father
nammudai – for all of us
adigaL – being the lord
tham – him
adaindhAr – for those who hold as refuge
manaththu – in the heart
iruppAr – sarvESvaran who firmly remains
nAmam – word
nArAyaNA ennum – nArAyaNa
nAmam – divine name
nAn – I who was running behind worldly pleasures
uyya – to be uplifted
nAn – who is too lost for redemption
kaNdu koNdEn – realised.

Simple translation

Desiring only for the well-being, but increasing the sins, only thinking about the physical beauty of women, all those times were wasted and were more useless than the dream seen by mute persons; hence, I who was running behind worldly pleasures, got the word nArAyaNa which is the divine name of sarvESvaran who is the father of cupid, who is the lord for all of us and who firmly remains in the heart of those who hold him as refuge; I who am too lost for redemption, realised such divine name for me to be uplifted.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • sEmamE vENdi – One will be thinking in the heart “There should be no troubles from enemies, kings et al for us; we should be protected by all”.
  • thIvinai perukki – When one looks out for the well-being, one should also engage in suitable righteous activities which lead to such well-being; but one will accumulate sins only.
  • theirvaimAr uruvamE maruvi – One will only reap the results of the sinful activities, if one does not engage in righteous activities; the sins committed will lead to engagement in worldly pleasures.
  • uruvamE maruvi – When one sees deep inside the hearts of such women, one can easily give them up. Their hearts will be poisonous with selfish motives; if one engages in the heart, one can see the ignoble qualities, one can retract; it will be easy to hide the defects in the form.
  • maruvi – Such forms will be meditated upon as SubSrayam (auspicious abode).
  • UmanAr kaNda kanavilum pazhudhAy – UmanAr – mute persons. A mute person won’t be able to reveal the dream he saw – he can only think about it; even unlike that, enjoying these worldly pleasures for a long time, one will not even be able to recollect what one enjoyed. Alternative explanation – while a mute person cannot speak about his dream, he can at least think about it; but the enjoyment of these worldly pleasures cannot even be thought about since that will only cause fear (for the repurcussions). There is nothing worthy to recollect and even if there is, that will only cause fear.
  • ozhindhana kazhindha annALgaL – SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 5.5 “na mE dhukkam priyA dhUrE na mE dhukkam hruthEthi vA | EthadhEvAnusOchAmi vayOsyA hyathivarththathE ||” (I am not feeling distressed that the one who is dear to my heart is at a far away place or that she has been abducted. I am only feeling sad that she is ageing) – I am not upset that my dear wife is far away from me, that can be remedied by traveling there; I am not upset she was abducted by a powerful demon, that can be remedied by severing his head; my only sorrow is this – “vayOsyA hyathivarththathE” – I cannot get back the lost time with my arrow!

When asked “Are these defects not present in the entity (bhagavAn) you are holding on to?” AzhwAr says,

  • kAmanAr thAdhai – His form itself is attractive; his physical beauty will add to the greatness. He is the creator of cupid who bewilders the world with his beautiful form. He goes through the same emotions on seeing emperumAn, which are observed by the world on seeing him. SrI bhAgavatham 10.32.2 “sAkshAn manmatha manmatha:” (For the cowherd girls, krishNa appeared like a cupid of cupids).
  • nammudai adigaL – Not just that he is free from the defects which are present in worldly aspects, the worldly aspects are inapt while he is apt.
  • nammudai adigaL – sarvasvAmi (lord of all).
  • thammadaindhAr manaththiruppAr – Unlike those women who would showcase their forms and attract the men, take away everything possessed by the men, not presenting themselves to the men and driving the men away, emperumAn will firmly remain in the heart of those who have even the slightest attachment towards him. He will even abandon his grand assembly in paramapadham and have the hearts of such devotees as his abode.
  • thammadaindhAr manaththiruppAr nAmam – The divine name which spells out all the aforementioned aspects. Having beautiful physical form, being the lord of all, easy approachability and motherly forbearance are revealed in this name.
  • nAn uyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn – I, who was getting destroyed as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “asannEva” (as good as matter), realised him to be uplifted.
  • nAn kaNdu koNdEn – I who had reached the stage to think “Is there no vision?” acquired the desired benefit. I who had thought as “I won’t exist anymore, there is no possibility of vision” got uplifted and also saw emperumAn’s divine name.
  • nAn uyya nAn – “nAn” (I) is repeated twice as an outlet for the joy acquired.
  • nArAyaNa ennum nAmam – I got to recite the divine name which is to be recited by those who have control over internal and external senses as said in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6.4.23 “SAnthO dhAntha uparathas thithikshus samAhithO bhUthvA AthmanyEvAthmAnam paSyEth” (One who has control over internal and external senses, who has no attachment towards activities (in the context of getting the fruits), who has patience and who has undisturbed mind can see the bhagavAn who is present within the self). I who was having ignoble qualities as said in “sEmamE vENdith thIvinai perukkith therivaimAr uruvamE maruvi“, acquired the result which is acquired by those who are having noble qualities.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 1.1.2 – AviyE amudhE

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

Previously AzhwAr said “vAdinEn” and “iLaiyavar kalaviyE karudhi OdinEn“, without realising that there is bhagavAn, until then and with deep attachment towards worldly pleasures. Now, AzhwAr is explaining how he enjoyed those pleasures, how he wasted the time all along and how he realised the divine name to even redeem the lost time.

pAsuram

AviyE! amudhE! ena ninaindhurugi
avaravar paNaimulai thuNaiyA
pAviyEn uNarAdhu eththanai pagalum
pazhudhu pOyozhindhana nALgaL
thUvisEr annam thuNaiyodum puNarum
sUzhpunal kudainthaiyE thozhudhu en
nAvinAl uyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam 

Word-by-Word meanings

AviyE – Oh my life!
amudhE – Oh one who is enjoyable for me like nectar!
ena – saying these many praises
ninaindhu – thinking about the insignificant pleasures they give
urugi – melting like ice
avaravar – of those women
paNai – large
mulai – bosoms
thuNaiyA – having as protection
pAviyEn – I who am a sinner
uNarAdhu – without knowing “sarvESvaran is the rakshaka (protector)”
eththanai pagalum – forever
nALgaLum – everyday
pazhudhupOy ozhindhana – was wasted;
thUvi – with wings
sEr – matching
annam – swan
thuNaiyodum – with its female counterpart
puNarum – living together
punal – with water
sUzh – surrounded
kudandhai – ArAvamudhAzhwAr in thirukkudandhai
thozhudhu – worshipped
nAn – I who was immersed in worldly pleasures
uyya – to get uplifted
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – the divine name “nArAyaNa”
en nAvinAl – with my tongue
kaNdu koNdEn – praised and realised.

Simple translation

Thinking about the insignificant pleasures the women give, saying these many praises such as “Oh my life! Oh one who is enjoyable for me like nectar!”, melting like ice, considering their large bosoms as protection, without knowing “sarvESvaran is the rakshaka (protector)”, I who am a sinner, wasted everyday forever. Swan with matching wings, is living together with its female counterpart in the water surrounding thirukkudandhai. To get uplifted, I who was immersed in worldly pleasures worshipped ArAvamudhAzhwAr in such thirukkudandhai by praising the divine name “nArAyaNa” with my tongue and realised the divine name.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • AviyE amudhE – Whatever is to be said in bhagavath vishayam as said in thiruvAimozhi 8.1.1AviyE! amudhE! alai kadal kadaindha appanE!” (you are my life; you are the most enjoyable nectar; oh great benefactor who performed difficult tasks and helped others!) and thiruvAimozhi 3.8.7AviyE! AramudhE! ennai ALudaith
    thUvi am puL udaiyAy!” (Oh one who is my prANa, one who is fully and eternally enjoyable, one who has beautifully winged periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) as your vehicle to enslave me). Whatever is to be said towards the apt lord, I said those towards inapt persons. Both dhArakathva (being the support) and bhOgyathai (enjoyability) are fully present without any shortcoming only in bhagavath vishayam. These words were spoken towards those who are unfavourable rather than being a support and are disgusting rather than being enjoyable. I told as in uththara rAma charitham 3.26 “thvam jIvitham thvamasi mE hrudhayam madhIyam” (You are my life and heart).
  • ena ninaindhu – nanjIyar would mercifully explain “this is thought about in several ways in this manner”. nampiLLai humbly asked nanjIyar “Can we say AzhwAr was thinking as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.6.2ninaidhoRum sollum thoRum nenjidindhugum” (every time I think about him, every time I speak/hear about him, my heart becomes broken)?” nanjIyar mercifully responded “You are explaining this even better than AzhwAr”.
  • ena ninaindhu urugi – They will contemplate in this manner and remain like melted ice in an unconscious state.

When asked “How long did they remain in worldly pleasures in this manner?” AzhwAr says,

  • avaravar – Time is eternal, AthmA has been there forever, the bodies AthmA acquired were countless and the aspects enjoyed in each of the body are also countless; AthmA remained immersed in all of those aspects. Hence, it is said as “avaravar” (respective).
  • paNai mulai – Those [bosoms] are unlike bhagavAn who feels for the suffering AthmAs as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10.9 “hrIrEshAhi mamAthulA” (I am feeling immensely ashamed), and SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 8.3 “nathyajEyam” (I will not abandon even if he has faults). They will grow multi-fold having the torment of the men who became attracted as the fertilizer thinking “we have trapped a lowly/helpless person; all his possessions belong to us now”. They don’t have the compassion to let the person enjoy them thinking “he is melting to get us”!
  • paNai mulai thuNaiyA – Desiring for a lump which is made of skin, flesh, fatty matter and bone, one remains as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.8thayaradhaRku magan thannai anRi maRRilEn thanjam AgavE” (other than such SrI rAma, who appeared as the son of dhaSaratha chakravarthi, I will not have anyone, even another form of bhagavAn, as my refuge). Having great attachment towards them, not just with the thought of “we are having bodily attachment towards them now” but thinking “these will grant us even what is to be attained in after-life”. This is because, the person has forgotten about after-life. One who should have emperumAn as protection as said in thirunedundhANdagam 16 “thunnu kuzhal karu niRaththu en thuNaiyE” (Oh my protection who is having very dark complexion of dense hair!)
  • pAviyEn – This is the insult attained by AthmA who is eternal, singular in form, identified by gyAnam (knowledge) and Anandham (bliss) and is similar to SrI kaushthubam (the crown jewel on emperumAn’s chest) for ISvara.
  • uNarAdhu – Not realising that emperumAn has the AthmA to be engaged in his service only.
  • eththanai pagalum pazhudhu pOy ozhindhana nALgaL – We have wasted all the time thus far. We have wasted forever – just as water which had overflown the dam and reached the ocean for no benefit. As perumAL felt sorrow for having lost his time with sIthA as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 5.5 “na mE dhukkam … vayOsyA hyathivarthathE” (My biggest sorrow is … sIthA’s age is passing by without being enjoyed [by me (SrI rAma)])
  • pazhudhu pOy ozhindhana nALgaL – The time which should have been spent as done by iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) in serving sIthAp pirAtti and SrI rAma, was simply wasted. The time which should have been spent with kainkaryam in a precious manner, was wasted.
  • thUvi sEr … – Such AthmA who was going down in this manner, redeemed with the dhivyadhESams which are present in this world.  thUvi – wing. The abode where swan which has the beauty acquired by its wings, lives together with his spouse. The abode which is the refuge for all creatures. Since hamsa is fully comparable to bhagavAn, it can be said that ArAvamudhAzhwAr (bhagavAn) joyfully lives in thirukkudandhai along with periya pirAttiyAr. The abode where bhagavAn who is SaraNya (refuge) lives without any shortcoming. There is no shortcoming in this abode since pirAtti who pacifies bhagavAn when he shows anger and bhagavAn who becomes pacified [and accepts AthmAs] are residing.
  • sUzh punal – Even the insentient water (river) will go around the dhivyadhESam on approaching it. The abode which eliminates the fatigue for those who are suffering.
  • kudandhaiyE thozhudhu – As said in mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 75 “avaSA: prathibEdhirE” (They honoured krishNa without even realising), AzhwAr saw himself worshipping bhagavAn, though he did not have any real intention to do so.
  • en nAvinAl – With my tongue which said “AviyE! amudhE!“. Just as saying “I attained fame by begetting this child” [AzhwAr feels happy for having the tongue]. Though the physical tongue is different in this birth now in comparison to previous births, as the sense of speech [subtle aspect in tongue] is carried across different bodies, there is nothing wrong in AzhwAr saying “My tongue”.

With the body, which praised worldly people,

  • uyya nAn kaNdu koNdEn – I who said in periya thirumozhi 6.2.2 “maRandha madhiyin manaththAl iRandhEn eththanaiyum” (Due to forgetting you forever and not having intelligence, I lost you all along), realised myself for my being uplifted.
  • kaNdu koNdEn – Just as meditating upon thirumanthram’s meanings matches the true nature of the self, reciting it also matches the true nature of the self. Azhwar is saying that he realised what is apt and what was lost all along.
  • nArAyaNA ennum nAmam – That which is said in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 95nA vAyil uNdE“. [pAsuram is explained here]
    • nA vAyil uNdE – One need not search for a tongue.
    • namO nArAyANA enRu OvAdhu uraikkum urai uNdE – OvAdhu does not mean “without break”; since there are only eight syllables, one can recite this without becoming tired. This is unlike sahasrAksharI mAla manthram (a thousand syllabled manthram) which makes one think “Instead of learning and reciting this, hell seems to be a better option”
  • ennum nAmam – I saw (realised) the divine name, to make the previously wasted time to become purposeful. mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 17senRa nAL sellAdha sengaNmAl engaLmAl enRanAL ennALum nALAgum” – The day when we realise that reddish-eyed bhagavAn is our lord, occurs; senRa nAL – ennALum nALAgum – Due to facilitating in the progress towards reciting thirumanthram, even the past times will feel auspicious and the present times will be good. By reciting thirumanthram, it can be guaranteed that there will be no disaster in the future.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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periya thirumozhi – 1.1.1 – vAdinEn vAdi

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> First decad

Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

Just as nammAzhwAr did not realise the full impact of the benediction he received after visualising emperumAn and thought about his previous state and contemplated in thiruviruththam 1 “inninRa nIrmai ini yAmuRAmai” (I cannot tolerate these lowly aspects anymore), thirumangai AzhwAr too, after being accepted by bhagavAn, contemplated his previous states and says “vAdinEn” (I suffered).

pAsuram

vAdinEn vAdi varundhinEn manaththAl
perundhuyar idumbaiyil piRandhu
kUdinEn kUdi iLaiyavar thammOdu
avar tharum kalaviyE karudhi
OdinEn Odi uyvadhOr poruLAl
uNarvenum perumpadham therindhu
nAdinEn nAdi nAn kaNdu koNdEn
nArAyaNA ennum nAmam

Word-by-Word meanings

perum thuyar – being the recipient of great sorrow
idumbaiyil – in the body which is the cause for all sorrows
piRandhu – being born
kUdinEn – being unable to distinguish between body and soul, and remained closely together;
kUdi – having remained in this manner for a long time
iLaiyavar – young women
tharum – giving
kalaviyE – union only
karudhi – thinking about
avar thammOdu – following their foot steps
OdinEn – ran behind them;
Odi – in this manner, not remaining in any place, running around many matters seeking joy
manaththAl – with the intellect which was following the worldly pleasures
varundhinEn – experienced sorrow; further,
vAdinEn – suffered (like a support-less creeper);
vAdi – having suffered
uyvadhu – for being uplifted
Or poruLAl – a nice principle (sarvESvaran’s mercy)
uNarvu enum – gyAnam (knowledge)
perum – big
padham – state
therindhu nAdinEn – understood as it is, analysed “bhagavath vishayam (matters relating to bhagavAn) is good and samsAram (bondage in material world) is bad”;
nAdi – having analysed
nAn – I, who am unqualified to recite the divine name
nArAyaNA ennum – nArAyaNa
nAmam – the divine name
kaNdu koNdEn – got to see.

Simple translation

Being the recipient of great sorrow, being born in the body which is the cause for all sorrows, being unable to distinguish between body and soul, I remained closely together with the body; having remained in this manner for a long time, only thinking about the union given by young women, ran behind them, following their footsteps; in this manner, not remaining in any place, running around many matters seeking joy, with the intellect which was following the worldly pleasures, I experienced sorrow; further, I suffered like a support-less creeper; having suffered, I understood as it is, the great state of gyAnam with the help of a nice principle (sarvESvaran’s mercy) which leads to being uplifted, and analysed “bhagavath vishayam (matters relating to bhagavAn) is good and samsAram (bondage in material world) is bad”; having analysed, I, who am unqualified to recite the divine name, got to see the divine name, nArAyaNa.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • vAdinEn – Like a shoot which lost its supporting stem; since the AthmA cannot be destroyed, AthmA is suffering (without being fully destroyed). If emperumAn decided to protect, there is qualification in the AthmA to be protected. As every AthmA is having the apt qualification to remain with bhagavAn as sIthA pirAtti said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.6 “ananyA rAghavENAham” (I always remain united with SrI rAma), once AzhwAr realised such relationship, there is nothing wrong in saying “vAdinEn” for having lost such enjoyment thus far. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 17.4 “yaScha rAmam na paSyath thu” is explained here.
    • rAmam – The apt target for the eyes; one who is not seeing such SrI rAma. ya: – However great he may be. thu – Even if this (seeing SrI rAma) is lost. It is specifically highlighted [with thu], to say that the loss of not being seen by SrI rAma is much greater.
    • yancha rAmO napaSyathi – Even the most inferior person will not be missed by SrI rAma’s merciful glance.
    • yam – However inferior he may be. The most inferior person will be seen by SrI rAma [to be blessed by him]. thiruvAimozhi 1.3.4yArum Or nilaimaiyan ena aRivaraiya emperumAn yArum Or nilaimaiyan ena aRiveLiya emperumAn” (Such emperumAn is having a state that is not understandable by those who are not devoted to him and is understandable by those devotees even though they may be very ignorant) – he will be beyond the knowledge of brahmA et al and will be under the auspices of cowherd girl (yaSOdhA and others) and hunter (SrI guhap perumAL and others). Irrespective of one’s greatness, if he did not have the dharSan of namperumAL’s procession at least one day, he is not great; even the most inferior person will not be missed by his glance; those who are not seen by such emperumAn, will not even be considered on a par with achith (matter). He will be counted among those who are discarded – everyone will look down upon such a person. When asked “Will he be despised only by a few like vasishta et al?”
    • nindhithas sa vasEl lOkElOkE – nindhitha: There is none who does not despise such person. Those who are immersed in worldly pleasures, will be blamed now and will also go to hell in next life, yet he will think “I am doing something good”; will such a person [who was not seen by SrI rAma] think like that?
    • svAthmApyEnam vigarhathE – He will despise himself as well. When one misses out on the thirukkaiththala sEvai (namperumAL being carried by archakas in their hands), one will think “I who missed to witness today’s procession can live through death if I get camphor and lemon (as prasAdham from emperumAn]”; if these are the words of those who lost just one puRappAdu (procession) of namperumAL, the one who lost bhagavAn forever cannot say anything other than “vAdinEn“.
  • vAdinEn – What state of AzhwAr does this word represent? When he was enjoying worldly pleasures, since he remained joyfully at that state, there is no suffering then; after starting to enjoy bhagavAn, there is no suffering; hence this is the state where AzhwAr had acquired knowledge about the true nature of the self and then contemplated about his previous situation. Only while attaining the ultimate result, will the previous situations not be remembered anymore; such previous remembrance will not occur as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran idham SarIram” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm); since AzhwAr acquired true knowledge, his previous situations appear to him in front of his eyes.
  • vAdi – The repetition of this word can be combined with both the previous and subsequent words; it appears to be implying that this loss has been occurring forever and is also causing subsequent disaster; it appears to be implying that this attachment to worldly pleasures was not just occasional, but would redeem oneself after atoning, but was occurring forever; and not stopping with that, it appears to be hinting at the further disaster it is causing.

When asked “What is the subsequent disaster?”, AzhwAr says,

  • varundhinEn manaththAl – I experienced suffering in the mind too. Senses will be attached to worldly pleasures, and while trying to enjoy them, they will fail, and even if they succeed, there is no real enjoyment in these pleasures; I suffered in my mind also; since I was unable to divert the mind which is the root of all senses, to focus internally, I suffered in my mind. With this, it is explained that  being engaged in worldly pleasures like Sabdha (sound) etc [sparSa (touch), rUpa (form), rasa (taste) and gandha (fragrance)], I was unable to think about the divine feet of emperumAn.
  • perum thuyar idumbaiyil piRandhu – [This body, i.e. matter] caused taste in worldly pleasures, created impressions, increased desire and hatred, and due to the ignorance and virtuous/vicious acts being the cause for the occurrence of [another, repeated] body, I took birth. Both thuyar and idumbai mean sorrow; with this, the body is both the abode of sorrow and the cause for sorrow. Being capable of being both the abode of sorrow and the cause for subsequent countless sorrows.

Why did AzhwAr say “vAdinEn” first instead of saying “perum thuyar idumbaiyil piRandhu kUdi, vAdinEn“? As the relationship with karma is beginning-less and connection with achith (matter) is also pravAha rUpENa nithyam (it is eternal in a continuous stream of births), AzhwAr is just picking something in the middle and is starting with that.

  • piRandhu – Though AthmA has no birth and death, he is said to be born and dead, in prevalent terms as spoken by everyone. [It is really, acquiring body and relinquishing the same]
  • kUdinEn – AthmA who is eternal, in a singular form and is identified by his knowledge and bliss, and is subservient to bhagavAn, is said as celestial being, human being and so on.
  • kUdinEn – AthmA remained so closely united with the body, that one thinks that the AthmA cannot exist without the body.
  • kUdinEn – By saying kUdinEn – it appears that, this [material body] is not natural for the AthmA, is acquired due to a reason and is extraneous. When Iron is heated, the fire sparks subtly enter the iron and due to the close connection, iron acquires the heat and colour of the fire. Similarly, this AthmA too, due to being together with achith, has become like achith to be called as achith. Just as the iron loses the colour but remains hot for a long time, even after fire sparks leave the iron, AthmA considers self to body for sometime even after acquiring knowledge.
  • kUdi – Remaining together to be unable to tolerate the separation from body. After acquiring knowledge, one will pray hard to have the body removed. In this “kUdi“, it appears that the togetherness of AthmA and achith is forever and so is the subsequent disaster which occurred.

When asked “What is the subsequent disaster?”, AzhwAr says,

  • iLaiyavar thammOdu avar tharum kalaviyE karudhi OdinEniLaiyavar (youth) – To be unable to analyse that attachment towards worldly pleasures is disaster, and to be unable to understand the greatness of bhagavath vishayam and engage in it, the young girls will show their youth and attract.
  • thammOdu – Whatever is said in mUla samhithA “chAyAvA sathvam anugachchEth” (like a shadow following its owner), is all observed towards these young women; when they find a nice garland, instead of decorating themselves with that or considering themselves as respectable, they will offer it to the women. Whatever is said in parama samhithA “yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi thEna thEna saha gachchathi” (wherever the lord goes, the servitor follows), is observed towards these young women.
  • avar tharum kalavi – While initially being approached, they will speak sweet words, but once the person is trapped, they will move away, to increase the longing in the person.
  • kalaviyE karudhi – Here the usage of the word “karudhi” (contemplating) is significant. Only if they could enjoy, could that be highlighted. Here, only the man is desiring for such union. Since the man has committed sins, he can only desire and the enjoyment will not occur. When there is no scope for enjoyment, the man should withdraw from the efforts. But as they keep moving away, the man’s desires will increase further considering “there is some enjoyment”. This is due to his own sins.

When the man understands that there is nothing enjoyable in a woman, he should withdraw from further efforts to get her. Instead of doing that, the man will seek the next woman and keep on doing the same thing.

  • OdinEn – This worldly enjoyment is not of a nature to retain the enjoyer for more than a fraction of a moment; union with woman is such that, one will have to carry the tools for enjoyment with her, and after enjoyment, one should bathe to purify oneself. Knowing well the defects of such union, to cover it up, one carries perfumes and so on and tries to enjoy with her. Even what is perceivable by the senses (i.e. the defects) are unable to help [in stopping from the indulgence]. Though one does not need SAsthram to understand the defects of these aspects and can perceive directly with one’s own senses, they remain irresistible! Attachment for worldly pleasures is similar to a snake with open hoods. While it is waiting to swallow the prey, the prey will go and hide under the shade of its hoods. The joy acquired in this worldly pleasures is similar to a person who is about to be hanged, but feeling thirsty, becomes satisfied on quenching his thirst. One is perceiving that among the many sorrows, a particular aspect is joyful. The real bliss is explained in SrIvishNu purANam 6.5.59 “sukhabhAvaika lakshaNA” (bhagavath vishayam is the real bliss).
  • Odi – It appears that even though this has been the routine forever, somehow, it has led to some goodness. I ran away escaping the helping hands of sarvESvaran himself who comes saying “I will protect”.
  • uyvadhu Or poruLAl – When I ran behind the worldly pleasures being immersed in them and fell down out of fatigue, emperumAn protected me due to his mercy having that as the reason saying “Now, he will not be able to withdraw from this on his own”. With the good principle which leads to being uplifted. Good principle is bhagavath krupai. Due to respect, AzhwAr is indicating it in a concealed manner; in the fourth pAsuram, he will explicitly identify it as “AzhiyAn aruL” (mercy of one who carries sudharSana chakra). nammAzhwAr, being unable to wait any further, explicitly mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1 “mayarvaRa madhi nalam aruLinan” (emperumAn granted me knowledge which is well-matured as devotion). I got an opportunity for being uplifted while I was engaged in sinful activities which lead to self-destruction as said in periya thirumozhi 1.9.2 “nAnE nAnAvidha naragam pugum pAvam seydhEn” (I committed many sins which will lead me to many hell) and thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “pala nI kAttip paduppAyO” (Will you keep me in this samsAram, showing many of these worldly aspects?). While I remained as said in thaithtirIya upanishath “asannEva bhavathi” (he is as good as non-existing), a good principle to make me as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “santhamEnam thathOvidhu:” (he is known to be existing), occurred.
  • uNarvenum perum padham – jithanthE sthOthram 1-11 “vigyAnam yadhidham” (this great knowledge). Just as flood enters the place where one is sleeping on a mat [unexpectedly].
  • perum padham – The greatness of this is such that we can say “Even he is not required, knowledge about him is sufficient”.
  • thirindhu – Since worldly pleasures are with boundary, I returned after realising that there is nothing to enjoy in them.
  • therindhu – Alternative for thirindhu. In this case, once knowledge dawned, everything was understood clearly. It appears that hence, previous situations were considered as darkness.
  • nAdinEn – As the knowledge dawned, I started analysing “What did I go through previously? What am I going to suffer in future?”
  • nAdi – In the worldly pleasures, even when I consciously tried to get them, since it only leads to disaster, there is no result; but when I set out to engage in bhagavath vishayam, it leads to result.
  • nAn – I who said “OdinEn“. Just as the one (SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn) who ate the remnants of rAvaNa in his palace for a long time, became part of rAma gOshti (SrIrAma’s team), even without taking a bath. vElvetti nambiyAr (A SrIvaishNava), once on a thirukkArthigai day, sent a message through a person to nampiLLai who was mercifully stationed in a village which was located east of SrIrangam. The message read “If I asked this question to anyone, they will think that I am ignorant and that there is none who can clarify this doubt; you should clarify this doubt”. The question is “When perumAL (SrI rAma) surrendered to the ocean,he followed proper rules such as facing east etc and surrendered; is this prapaththi (surrender) also having prerequisites, like rest of the upAyams (means)?” nampiLLai mercifully explained – this is not a prerequisite for prapaththi, this happened due to the nature of those who pursued the means; as the rAkshasa clan is lowly and unqualified, SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn who is one among the clan advised SrI rAma as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19.31 “samudhram rAghavO rAjA SaraNam gandhumarhathi” (SrI rAma should surrender to the king of ocean); we did not see SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn following any rules and we saw SrI rAma following the rules”. With this, it is explained that, for prapaththi, an unqualified person need not earn qualification and a qualified person need not give up his qualification. Everyone is qualified as (s)he is. That is, this prapaththi can be pursued by everyone.
  • kaNdu koNdEn – AzhwAr says so since it feels as if a wealth-less person is acquiring wealth and as if that wealth is hereditary.
  • nAn kaNdu koNdEn – Feels as if the one who lost it himself found it.
  • nArAyaNA – Since there is no praNavam, nama: and chathurthi (to make it complete ashtAksharam), just accepting that we are part of his wealth (which is indicated by the divine name, nArAyaNa) is sufficient; implies that, to acquire the result, the limbs of the manthram are not required.
  • ennum nAmam – “ennum” highlights the renowned nature of this divine name which is revealed in nArAyaNa anuvAkam (sUktham)  which does not speak about anyone else. “nAmam” implies that it is desirable as it is, the right time is when the person acquires desire and the person who sets out to recite the name is the qualified person. nanjIyar asked parASara bhattar “Should one be pure while reciting thirumanthram or is that not required?” bhattar mercifully explained “Not required. When one goes to take sacred bath in gangA, should he first take bath in a water-body before? When it is ready to bestow great benefits now, will it also not bestow the qualifications which are required?”

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumozhi – 1.1 – vAdinEn

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

periya thirumozhi >> First Centum

AzhwAr only had two qualities – adhvEsham (non-hatred) and understanding of worldly pleasures to be lowly. Also, emperumAn considered AzhwAr’s rasikathvam (being one who relishes enjoyable aspects) as the reason, thought “Let me make all his sins since time immemorial, to be a target of my mercy”. To make AzhwAr understand emperumAn’s greatness in comparison to the lowly nature of the worldly pleasures, just as some generous ones will grant wealth along with the silk cloth which contains the wealth, emperumAn fully manifested his svarUpa (true nature), rUpa (forms), guNa (qualities) and vibhUthi (wealth), by first bestowing the thirumanthram (SrI ashtAksharam). AzhwAr enjoyed the same and became grateful thinking “emperumAn accepted me who is unqualified considering such disqualification as the reason” and hence repeated the divine name “nArAyaNa” (which is the anchor of thirumanthram) which was shown to him once, nine times and called out emperumAn. One cannot do anything in return for bhagavAn’s help and need not do as well [as bhagavAn does not expect anything from the AthmAs]; one should simply remain grateful for the favour bestowed upon the self, to distinguish oneself from achith (matter).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumozhi – First centum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

periya thirumozhi

thirumangai AzhwAr with kumudhavalli nAchchiyAr

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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