Author Archives: Sarathy Thothathri

About Sarathy Thothathri

Disciple of SrImath paramahamsa ithyAdhi pattarpirAn vAnamAmalai jIyar (29th pattam of thOthAdhri mutt). Descendant of komANdUr iLaiyavilli AchchAn (bAladhanvi swamy, a cousin of SrI ramAnuja). Born in AzhwArthirungari, grew up in thiruvallikkENi (chennai), presently living under the shade of the lotus feet of jagathAchArya SrI rAmAnuja, SrIperumbUthUr. Learned sampradhAyam principles from (varthamAna) vAdhi kEsari azhagiyamaNavALa sampathkumAra jIyar swamy, vELukkudi krishNan swamy, gOmatam sampathkumArAchArya swamy and many others. Full time sEvaka/servitor of SrIvaishNava sampradhAyam. Engaged in translating our AzhwArs/AchAryas works in Simple thamizh and English, and coordinating the translation effort in many other languages. Also engaged in teaching dhivyaprabandham, sthOthrams, bhagavath gIthA etc and giving lectures on various SrIvaishNava sampradhAyam related topics in thamizh and English regularly. Taking care of koyil.org portal, which is a humble offering to our pUrvAchAryas. koyil.org is part of SrI varavaramuni sambandhi Trust (varavaramuni.com) initiatives.

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.7 – panjich chiRu kUzhai

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

No specific introduction.

pAsuram

panjich chiRu kUzhai uruvAgi maruvAdha
vanjap peN nanjuNda aNNal mun naNNAdha
kanjaik kadandhavanUr kadalmallaith thalasayanam
nenjil thozhuvAraith thozhuvAy en thUy nenjE!

Word-by-Word meanings

panji – soft like cotton
siRu –  small
kUzhai – having hair
uruvAgi – having a form
maruvAdha – not aligning
vanjam – having mischief
peN – pUthanA’s
nanju – poison in her bosom
uNda – mercifully consumed
aNNal – being the lord of all
mun – previously
naNNAdha – one who did not approach and surrender
kanjai – kamsa’s thoughts
kadandhavan – krishNa who crossed, his
kadal mallaith thala sayanam – merciful reclining in sthalasayanam in thirukkadalmallai
nenjil – with their heart
thozhuvArai – those who worship
en – obedient towards me
thUy – very pure
nenjE – Oh heart!
thozhuvAy – try to worship

Simple translation

Having a small form with soft hair which resembles cotton, being the lord of all, krishNa mercifully consumed the poison in the bosom of pUthanA who was not aligning with him and was mischievous. Previously, he crossed the thoughts of kamsa who did not approach and surrender unto him. Oh very pure heart who is obedient towards me! Try to worship those who worship such krishNa’s merciful reclining in sthalasayanam in thirukkadalmallai, with their heart.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

panjich chiRu kUzhai uruvAgi – krishNa is having a toddler’s form where he is having soft hair which is as soft as cotton and cannot be gathered and placed in a knot. Alternatively – since kUzhai is a term which indicates a woman’s hair, this could be explaining pUthanA’s hair which is small and cannot be gathered and placed in a knot. [A question arises] Since she is in the beautiful disguise of mother yaSOdhA, would she not have dressed up like her? [Why small hair?] Though she can dress up as much as possible, the [demoniac] hair will naturally show up.

maruvAdha vanjap peN – Having unfavourable attitude in her heart, but covering it with favourable mood, she will come carefully. pUthnA who came in a disguise.

nanjuNda aNNal – The lord who consumed her poison. It is said in harivamSam “sthanyam thath vishasammiSram rasyamAsIth jagathgurO:” (her breast-milk which was poisoned, was very sweet for krishNa who is the lord of the universe). He protected himself who is the lord of the universe [emphasis on aNNal].

mun naNNAdha … – Previously, AzhwAr explained about the killing of the enemies sent by kamsa. Now he is talking about the killing of this evil kamsa who is the root of all the enemies. Killing kamsa who remained thinking “I will not let him live in any way”, emperumAn arrived at thirukkadalmallai to help the favourable ones. Those who worship such thirukkadalmallai.

nenjil thozhuvArai – Those who are unable to even open their mouth due to overwhelming experience in their heart.

thozhuvAy – Instead of searching for thirukkadalmallai and the nAyanAr (lord) who is present there, just consider these devotees as your goal and worship them.

en thUy nenjE – You are very pure to remain in thadhIya SEshathvam (being subservient to bhAgavathas).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.6 – pulankoL

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

No specific introduction.

pAsuram

pulankoL nidhikkuvaiyOdu puzhaik kaimmA kaLiRRinamum
nalangoL navamaNikkuvaiyum sumandhu engum nAnRosindhu
kalangaL iyangum mallaik kadalmallaith thalasayanam
valamkoL manaththAravarai valam koL en madanenjE!

Word-by-Word meanings

pulan – senses
koL – that which captivates
nidhik kuvaiyOdu – along with heap of gold
puzhai – having hole
kai – having hand [trunk]
mA – huge
kaLiRRinamum – herd of elephants
nalam koL – good
nava maNik kuvaiyum – collection of nine types of gems
sumandhu – carrying
engum – wherever seen (due to the weight of the loaded materials)
nAnRu – lowered
osindhu – swaying
kalangaL – boats
iyangum – moving around
mallai – greatness
kadal mallaith thala sayanam – one who is mercifully reclining on the ground in thirukkadalmallai
valam koL manaththAr avarai – those who consider circum-ambulating him matches their true nature
en mada nenjE – Oh my obedient mind!
valam koL – You circumambulate them and be uplifted

Simple translation

thirukkadalmallai has the greatness of having boats which are swaying and moving around; these boats are lowered in level due to carrying heap of gold which captivates the senses, herd of huge elephants which are having trunks (hand with a hole at the end) and good collection of nine types of gems. Oh my obedient mind! You circum-ambulate those who consider circum-ambulating emperumAn who is mercifully reclining on the ground in such thirukkadalmallai, matches their true nature, and be uplifted.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

pulan koL nidhik kuvaiyOdu – With heap of gold which makes those who see it to think “mamEtham” (why should I not have it?).

puzhaik kai mA kaLiRRinam – Herd of huge elephants which have trunks (hand with hole at the end).

nalam … – Nine types of gems.

nalam koL – They are such good that they need not be brought to the shore and tested by experts to prove their value. The value can be readily seen then and there.

sumandhu – Since these are good materials, people will load them into the boat without considering whether the boat can handle them or not.

sumandhu engum nAnRu osindhu – thalasayanam in thirukkadalmallaim which has the greatness of these boats are fearfully moving around making one think “it is going to break this side; it is going to break on the other side” due to the weight of the loaded materials. AzhwAr is not speaking about these because he has some use for them. But he is considering them to be decorations for the dhivyadhESam just as the gardens are.

valam koL manaththAr avarai – Those who have their hearts immersed in thirukkadalmallai. nanjIyar would mercifully explain “I was once following piLLai thirunaRaiyUr araiyar and [parASara] bhattar while they were circum-ambulating the temple. Unlike us who do it as a duty in a hurried manner, they were glancing at the beauty of the divine residences, divine towers as if they were imbibing them with their eyes”.

avarai valam koL – We cannot remain in their mood. But we should engage in following their foot steps.

en mada nenjE – AzhwAr is saying “You are like-minded with me and you are obedient towards me”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.5 – pichchach chiRu peeli

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

No specific introduction.

pAsuram

pichchach chiRu peelich chamaN kuNdar mudhalAyOr
vichchaikkiRai ennum avviRaiyaip paNiyAdhE
kachchik kidandhavanUr kadalmallaith thalasayanam
nachchith thozhuvArai nachchu endhan nannenjE!

Word-by-Word meanings

pichcham – bunch of peacock wings
siRu – small
peeli – having peacock feather
samaN guNdar – the lowly amaNas (jainas)
mudhalAyOr – et al
vichchaikku – for all knowledge
iRai ennum – will have someone as the controller;
avviRaiyai – such person who is established by them
paNiyAdhu – without surrendering unto

(for the sake of devotees)
kachchi – in thiruvehkA
kidandhavan – one who is mercifully reclining in
Ur – the abode (where emperumAn arrived for the sake of his devotee, puNdarIka)
kadal mallaith thala sayanam – (mercifully reclining) in sthalasayanam in thirukkadalmallai
nachchi – desiring
thozhuvArai – those who worship
endhan – my
nenjE – Oh mind!
nachchu – (you too) desire and worship

Simple translation

People such as the lowly amaNas having bunch of peacock wings and small peacock feather, have someone as the controller for acquiring knowledge. Oh my mind! You desire and worship those who desire and worship one who is mercifully reclining in thiruvehkA and is doing the same in stahalasayanam in thirukkadalmallai, without surrendering unto such controllers of other groups.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

pichchach chiRu peeli samaN kuNdar – Assuming the form of favourable persons (devotees) such as holding a bunch of peacock wings and holding a peacock feather branch in another hand, they will make people think “How righteous are these people!”

samaN kuNdar – The lowly people who have taken up the amaNa philosophy. kuNdu – deep. Indicates the depth of lowliness. The lowly persons who reject vEdham.

mudhalAyOr – Others starting with them. Here AzhwAr is referring to baudhdhas and lOkAyathas.

vichchaikku iRai ennum – While they reject bhagavAn who is revealed exclusively and fully through vEdham, they will imagine a new lord who is omniscient; now, they will have to search for authentic scriptures to prove that lord is indeed omniscient; they will try to prove that with their own words; subsequently the unauthentic nature of such works will be exposed; in this manner, they will have someone as the controller of knowledge.

avviRaiyaip paNiyAdhE – AzhwAr is saying avviRai (that god) keeping his face away from them [showing dislike].

paNiyAdhE – Not surrendering unto him [their lord] and following him, considering them to be trustworthy.

kachchi … – For the sake of his devotees, emperumAn reclined in thiruvehkA in opposite direction and having the opposite hand as head rest. thirukkadalmallai is the abode where he is mercifully reclining on the ground for the sake of his devotee, puNdarIka. The abode which is considered by bhagavAn as the ultimate destination.

nachchith thozhuvArai – Instead of worshipping as a duty while having the mind elsewhere, those who consider the result of their desire is to worship him. Show friendship towards those who worship thirukkadalmallai considering the greatness of such worship.

endhan nal nenjE – [Oh mind!] I am telling this due to my desire. I need not tell this to you who have greater desire towards him irrespective of my instruction. Am I showing the path to you who shows me the path? SrI vishNu purANam 6.7.28 “mana Eva manushyANAm kAraNam bandha mOkshayO:” (mind is the main reason for a man’s bondage and liberation).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.4 – viNdArai

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

AzhwAr says “those who immerse in him meditating upon how emperumAn,though having the ability to destroy the enemies, is still reclining here thinking to accept them by reforming them to be favourable, are not just lords for myself but for my whole clan”.

pAsuram

viNdArai venRu Avi vilanguNNa melliyalAr
koNdAdum mallagalam azhalERa venjamaththuk
kaNdAraik kadalmallaith thalasayanaththu uRaivArai
koNdAdum nenjudaiyAr avar engaL kula dheyvamE

Word-by-Word meanings

viNdArai – enemies
venRu – destroyed (their)
Avi – body
vilangu – animals such as dogs, jackals etc
uNNa – to eat
mel iyalAr – tender natured women
koNdu – desirously
Adum – to embrace
mal – strong
agalam – (rAvaNa’s) chest
azhal – fire
ERa – to catch (and consume)
venjamaththu – in the cruel battle
kaNdArai – one who saw (to eliminate that fatigue)
kadal mallaith thala sayanaththu – one who is mercifully reclining in sthalasayanam in thirukkadalmallai
koNdAdum nejudaiyAr – those who are having in their heart and cherish that
avar – them
engaL kula dheyvam – are the lords for our clan

Simple translation

emperumAn saw that the enemies are destroyed and their bodies are eaten by dogs, jackals etc and that the strong chest of rAvaNa, which was desirously embraced by tender natured women, caught fire in the cruel battle; those who are having in their heart and cherish such emperumAn who is mercifully reclining in sthalasayanam in thirukkadalmallai, are the lords of our clan.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

viNdArai venRu – He will only defeat those who say as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 36.11 “na namEyam” (even if I am split into two, I will not bow to someone; my body will only fall backward) even when given good advice. After killing vAli, building a bridge over the ocean, surrounding the town of lankA, limiting lankA inside its fort, sending angadhap perumAL thinking “will he become favourable?” and giving good advice through him, and after rAvaNa did not heed to any of that, SrI rAma destroyed all his soldiers in his presence, and as he came fighting unable to bear that, when he remained unarmed being humiliated by SrI rAma, as he returned the next day and requested “you can even kill me”, only then SrI rAma killed rAvaNa. He only kills the enemies. Where there is even a slight doubt of favourable attitude, he would surrender as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 4.19 “sugrIvam SaraNamgatha:” (SrI rAma surrendered to sugrIva) and in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 4.18 “sugrIvam nAtham ichchathi” (SrI rAma is desiring to have sugrIva as his lord).

perumAL (SrI rAma) said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.3 “na thyajEyam kathanchana”  (I don’t abandon by any means, those who befriend me) and in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.34 “Ethath vratham mama” (I won’t fail anyone who surrenders unto me. This is my vow). mahArAjar said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17.27 “vadhyathAm” (Let vibhIshaNa be killed). bhattar explains here – both SrI rAma and sugrIva mahArAja are caring for those who are surrendered unto them.

Avi vilanguNNa – To have eagles and vultures feed on the life which they (demons) greatly cared for, he killed them. How was that done? As the birds and animals jumped on the bodies of the demons when they were almost dead, they took away the remaining life from the demons.

mel iyalAr … – On the chest which was nurtured by the pampering of tender women, which was never approached by fire just as dogs will fear wild beasts, same fire entered.

venjamaththu mal agalam azhal ERak kaNdavArai – Unlike rAvaNa who moved the princes [SrI rAma and lakshmaNa] away from sIthAp pirAtti with the help of evil persons through mischief and who came with the disguise of a favourable person and took away sIthAp pirAtti, perumAL fought in an honest battle; pirAtti said “rAvaNa! Your action does not befit brave persons”.

azhal ERak kaNdArai – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 111.82 “adhyavai nirbhayA lankAm pravishtA: sUryEraSmaya:” (Today, sun along with his rays, entered lankA fearlessly) – as rAvaNa was lying dead, maNdOdhari, his wife said “Sun’s rays are entering inside your regime” thinking that such act will wake him up (since sun would never enter lankA without fear when rAvaNa was alive). Making fire enter the chest of such respectable rAvaNa.

kadal mallaith thala sayanaththu uRaivArai – emperumAn is reclining thinking “only when one does not obey soft advice, one needs to be shown the stick”. Such emperumAn.

koNdAdum nenjudaiyAr – Those who become immersed in him thinking “With what expectation has he arrived here? Isn’t it for us?” as in thiruchchandha viruththam 63 “ninRirundhu vehkaNaik kidandhadhenna nIrmaiyE” (What a simplicity in standing, sitting and reclining in thiruvehkA!) [those who are like thirumazhisai AzhwAr].

engaL kula dheyvam – Our view is not limited to saying as in sthOthra rathnam 6 “kula dhaivatham thath pAdhAravindham” (the divine lotus feet of the lord for our clan) [We extend it up to his devotees being our lords].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.3 – Enaththin uruvAgi

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

No specific introduction.

pAsuram

Enaththin uruvAgi nilamangai ezhil koNdAn
vAnaththil avar muRaiyAl magizhndhu Eththi valangoLLa
kAnaththin kadalmallaith thalasayanaththu uRaiginRa
gyAnaththin oLi uruvai ninaivAr en nAyagarE

Word-by-Word meanings

Enaththin uruvAgi – Being in the form of varAha
nilamangai – SrI bhUmippirAtti’s
ezhil – (without disturbing the) beauty
koNdAn – freed the connection (from the wall of the universe) and accepted
vAnaththil avar – dhEvathAs such as brahmA et al
muRaiyAl – as per their respective position
magizhndhu – being joyful
Eththi – praise
valam koLLa – to serve favourably
kAnaththin – forest (in the western side)
kadal – having ocean (in the eastern side)
mallai – in mallApuri
thala sayanaththu – in sthalasayanam
uRaiginRa – mercifully reclining
gyAnaththin oLi uruvai – one who has a luminous form revealing knowledge
ninaivAr – those who meditate upon
en – for me
nAyagar – will be lords

Simple translation

Being in the form of varAha, emperumAn freed the connection of SrI bhUmip pirAtti with the wall of the universe and accepted her; to be joyfully praised and served favourably by dhEvathAs such as brahmA et al as per their respective position, such emperumAn who has a luminous form revealing knowledge, is mercifully reclining in sthalasayanam in mallApuri having forest in the western side and ocean in the eastern side; those who meditate upon such emperumAn will be my lords.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

Enam … – Just as those, who would like to engage with their dear ones, would dress up the way as their dear ones would like, emperumAn accepted the form of varAha and hid his earlier form. Just as a king would decorate the bed room and get noticed by the main consorts, emperumAn showed the beauty in the form of mahAvarAha and accepted SrI bhUmip pirAtti’s beauty. Since earth, one of the forms of SrI bhUmip pirAtti, was consumed by the ocean, to rescue such earth, he accepted the form of varAha which will not retract from water and mud, uplifted the earth and protected the same. SrI bhUmip pirAtti was captivated by his great quality thinking “One who leads the assembly of nithyasUris has taken this form for my sake!” and lost her beauty to him.

vAnaththil avar – nithyasUris in paramapadham.

muRaiyAl magizhndhu Eththi – People here praise him thinking “this is good [for us]”, but those in parampadham praise him out of love.

muRaiyAl … – Wherever they go, they will praise in the proper manner. To praise and serve favourably in the manner it is done in paramapadham.

kAnaththu … – While SrI bhUmip pirAtti lost her beauty and the nithyasUris were praising, he ignored them and desired for the forest, matching the animal species he is born in. Matching the form of varAha, he desired the forest.

kadal mallaith thala sayanaththu – Those who are meditating about how bhagavAn is present here in advance to protect everyone thinking “We cannot wait until the deluge to protect them”.

gyAnaththin oLi uruvai – One who is an embodiment of gyAnam.

ninaivAr en nAyagarE – Instead of being one-sided love, they too will think “he (AzhwAr) has come here for us” as my lords. When we don’t become their servitors, we won’t serve anyone else too.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.2 – pArvaNNa – 2

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “Now, we have known as to who you don’t get along with; do you have any one with whom you fit well?” AzhwAr responds “We don’t care about their birth, conduct etc; they can be anyone; as long as they have this [devotion towards bhagavAn], they can rule over us”. Alternative view – When asked “We have understood how you deal with the unfavourable ones; now, tell us how you deal with the favourable ones” AzhwAr responds “I have no right to either think about them or not think to about them; they are the ones who have full right towards me”.

pAsuram

pArvaNNa madamangai pani nanmAmalark kizhaththi
nIrvaNNan mArvagaththil irukkaiyai mun ninaindhu avanUr
kArvaNNa mudhu munnIrk kadalmallaith thalasayanam
Ar eNNum nenjudaiyAr avar emmai ALvArE

Word-by-Word meanings

pAr vaNNam – having earth as her form
madam – having noble qualities
mangai – SrI bhUmip pirAtti
nIr vaNNan – nIrvaNNan’s (the one who is as cool as ocean)
irukkaiyai – being seated (on his left side)
pani – cool
nal – beautiful
mA – best
malark kizhaththi – periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who is having reddish lotus flower as her birth place
mArvagaththil irukkaiyai – being seated on the right side of his divine chest
mun – first
ninaindhu – thought
avan – bhagavAn for whom even purushakAram (recommendation) is excessive, his
Ur – being the town
kAr vaNNam – having black complexion
mudhu – ancient
mun nIr – near the ocean
kadal mallai – in thirukkadalamallai
thalasayanam – reclining on the ground
eNNum nenju udaiyAr Ar – those who have the minds which meditate on
avar – them
emmai – us
ALvAr – can rule.

Simple translation

emperumAn who is cool as ocean is having SrI bhUmip pirAtti, who is having earth as her form and noble qualities, on his left side; he is having periya pirAtti who is having cool, beautiful, best, reddish lotus flower as her birth place, on the right side of his chest; those who have the minds which meditate upon his such presence first in this manner and who consider his reclining on the ground in the town thirukkadalmallai which is near the black coloured, ancient ocean as the abode of such bhagavAn for whom even purushakAram is excessive, can rule us.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

pAr vaNNA mada mangai – SrI bhUmip pirAtti who has earth as her form, and who is full with qualities such as forbearance etc.

pani nal mA malark kizhaththi – One who has the rejuvenating, well blossomed, beautiful lotus flower as her birth place.

Both of them,

nIrvaNNan mArvagaththil irukkaiyai mun ninaindhu – Meditating upon their presence on the left side and the right side of his divine chest. Can also be recited as “nIrvaNNan mArvagaththil pani nal mA malark kizhaththi“. When the mother and father are together, children can quickly go and approach them.

avan Ur … – Rejuvenating thirukkadalmallai where he is permanently residing, giving up his residence in parampadham. There is a dark coloured, ancient and matured water body, that is ocean. The dhivyadhESam near such ocean.

Ar eNNum nenjudaiyAr – Being born in any birth, we only expect them to be having the heart which thinks this abode.

avar … – In whatever stature they are in, they are qualified to engage us in their service, without showing any evidence.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumozhi – 2.6.2 – pArvaNNa – 1

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

AzhwAr is saying – Those who think that when both SrI bhUmip pirAtti who ensures that our mistakes do not get noticed by his divine heart, and periya pirAttiyAr who makes him forgive our mistakes as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116-45 “nakaSchin nAparAdhyathi” (there is none who has not committed a wrongful deed) when he notices them due to his sarvagyathvam (omniscience), are present next to him, he is easily approachable for us, to not lose him, and who think about his eternal abode in their hearts, are the ones who enslave us.

pAsuram

pArvaNNa madamangai pani nanmAmalark kizhaththi
nIrvaNNan mArvagaththil irukkaiyai mun ninaindhu avanUr
kArvaNNa mudhu munnIrk kadalmallaith thalasayanam
Ar eNNum nenjudaiyAr avar emmai ALvArE

Word-by-Word meanings

pAr vaNNam – having earth as her form
madam – having noble qualities
mangai – SrI bhUmip pirAtti
nIr vaNNan – nIrvaNNan’s (the one who is as cool as ocean)
irukkaiyai – being seated (on his left side)
pani – cool
nal – beautiful
mA – best
malark kizhaththi – periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who is having reddish lotus flower as her birth place
mArvagaththil irukkaiyai – being seated on the right side of his divine chest
mun – first
ninaindhu – thought
avan – bhagavAn for whom even purushakAram (recommendation) is excessive, his
Ur – being the town
kAr vaNNam – having black complexion
mudhu – ancient
mun nIr – near the ocean
kadal mallai – in thirukkadalamallai
thalasayanam – reclining on the ground
eNNum nenju udaiyAr Ar – those who have the minds which meditate on
avar – them
emmai – us
ALvAr – can rule.

Simple translation

emperumAn who is cool as ocean is having SrI bhUmip pirAtti who is having earth as her form and noble qualities, on his left side; he is having periya pirAtti who is having cool, beautiful, best, reddish lotus flower as her birth place, on the right side of his chest; those who who have the minds which meditate upon his such presence first in this manner and who consider his reclining on the ground in the town thirukkadalmallai which is near the black coloured, ancient ocean as the abode of such bhagavAn for whom even purushakAram is excessive, can rule us.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

pAr … – SrI bhUmip pirAtti who has the earth as her form, who has noble qualities; she remains the abhimAnini (one who owns the entity); even for bhagavAn, she remains the teacher who teaches patience. Even when we commit all offences towards her and kick her, we can remain remorseless thinking “We kicked the earth” – that is her nature. She is known as kshamA.

pani nal mA malark kizhaththi – The chief woman who is so tender to not think about others’ mistakes. One who engages bhagavAn who is known as in chAndhOgya upanishath “sarvagandha:” (origin of all fragrances) in her enjoyability and makes him not realise the offences of the devotees; one who is born in the lotus flower, being made of the fragrance giving buds. With this, it is explained that she is as enjoyable as bhagavAn.

Both of these divine consorts,

nIrvaNNan mArvagaththil irukkaiyai mun ninaindhu – Meditating upon the presence of SrI bhUmip pirAtti on the left side and SrI mahAlakshmi mercifully present on the right chest of emperumAn who is having ocean like cool form. When one thinks “Both the divine consorts who perform purushakAram, are present there together”, then there is no shortcoming in approaching him. When the mother and father are together, there is no hesitation for the children to approach them. mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 49 “yathra krushNau cha krushNA cha sathyabhAmA cha bhAminI …” (where krishNa, arjuna, dhraupadhi and the beautiful sathyabhAmA are (intimately) present) – when no one could enter the intimate place where krishNa, SrI sathyabAmAp pirAtti, arjuna and dhraupadhi were resting together having their feet on each other, the guards informed “sanjaya has arrived”. krishNa said to the guards “He is someone who would be very joyous seeing this presence of ours. Not just that, he can narrate it to our enemies to create terror in their hearts. Let him enter”. Same SlOkam “na chAbhimanyur nayamau tham dhESam abhijagmadhu:” (The place which cannot be reached even by abhimanyu, nakula and sahadhEva, was reached by sanjaya et al) – When mother and father are together, children can easily approach them. But krishNa blessed sanjaya with the divine vision which could not have been seen even by such children. [Such devotees can rule us – says AzhwAr]

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.1 – naNNAdha – 2

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

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Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

In this [decad], in the first pAsuram, AzhwAr is speaking about not getting along with abhAgavathas (non-devotees). Though both (being friendly with bhAgavathas (devotees) and shunning abhAgavathas) are required, what is the reason for this sequence (first explaining shunning abhAgavathas and then about being friendly with bhAgavathas)? Since there is no end to being favourable, it is sufficient to vow for it; but only if one shuns abhAgavathas, can one become friendly with bhAgavathas. Hence this is highlighted first. Usually, eliminating hurdles is required before pursuing the means. SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn too followed the sequence as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19.5 “parithyakthA mayA lankA” (I have abandoned lankA) and in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17.14 “thyakthvA puthrAmScha dhArAmScha” (I have abandoned my children and wife) and in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17.14  “rAghavam SaraNam gatha:” (I have surrendered to SrI rAma).

Without caring for himself and troubling himself, sarvESvaran churned the ocean and gave the nectar to dhEvathAs who seek benefits other than kainkaryam; when such sarvESvaran thought “will there be anyone who at least shows as much attachment dhEvas showed towards nectar?” and mercifully reclined waiting for them, when there are people who ignore him and spend their time in other matters, I will not consider them as an entity – says AzhwAr.

pAsuram

naNNAdha vAL avuNar idaippukku vAnavaraip
peNNAgi amudhUttum perumAnAr maruviniya
thaNNArndha kadalmallaith thalasayanaththu uRaivArai
eNNAdhE iruppArai iRaippozhudhum eNNOmE

Word-by-Word meanings

naNNAdha – those who did not approach him
vAL – having sword
avuNaridai – amidst the asuras (demons)
peNNAgip pukku – entering with a feminine disguise
vAnavarai – dhEvas (saintly persons)
amudhu Uttum – one who feeds nectar
perumAnAr – having greatness
maruva – to remain firmly
iniya – being an enjoyable abode
thaN Arndha – remaining cool always
kadal – present on the seashore
mallai – in SrI mallApuri
thala sayanaththu – on the divine mattress which is the ground
uRaivArai – one who mercifully reclines
eNNAdhu – without thinking about
iruppArai – those who remain in that dhivyadhESam
iRaippozhudhum – even for a moment
eNNOm – we will not think about

Simple translation

emperumAn mercifully reclines on the divine mattress which is the ground in SrImallApuri which is an enjoyable abode, is always cool, and is present on the seashore; he is having the greatness to remain firmly there; he entered with a feminine disguise, amidst asuras who did not approach him and were having sword. We will not think about those who remain in such dhivyadhESam without thinking about such emperumAn, even for a moment.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

naNNAdha vAL avuNar idaippukku – Entered amidst demoniac persons for the sake of dhEvathAs who seek other benefits. When sarvESvaran created various species he ensured that there is difference between dhEvas (saintly) and asuras (evil) entities. He explained the same in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16th chapter. At that time, arjuna asked “Which group do I belong to?” and krishNa answered in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.5mA Sucha: sampadham dhaivIm abhijAthO’si pANdava ||” (Oh son of pANdu! Do not grieve (thinking “am I born as an asura?”); you are born as a dhEva (divine person) to fulfil the wealth of dhEvas) saying “Why are you worrying? Aren’t you a noble person?”. These are not just humans having demoniac nature, but are born in demoniac clan itself. Unlike kamsa who was born in kshathriya clan as the son of ugrasEna who was noble, but was still evil, these demons are naturally non-aligned with ISvara and are also armed.

vAL avuNar idaip pukku – Did he enter there seeing devotees as said in thiruppaLLiyezhuchchi 10 thodai oththa thuLavamum kUdaiyum polindhu thOnRiya thOL” (the shining shoulders which carry the flower-basket that contains properly prepared thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi) garlands)? He entered amidst those who are set out to harm others, having weapons.

When asked “Did he go there for the sake of those who understand his greatness?” AzhwAr responds,

vAnavarai – While they need some help, they show their teeth (being friendly with expectation) and subsequently push him away remaining as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.14ISvarO’ham” (I am the controller of everyone). Generally, dhEvathAs consider bhagavAn to be one among them, and only on occasions such as the time when bhagavAn made a blowing sound to effortlessly break the bow of rudhra when there was a competition between bhagavAn and rudhra, will they understand his greatness. Instead of knowing about his greatness through such competition, it is better to simply consider him to be one among them. There is not much difference between the asuras and dhEvathAs in this context. The asuras try to destroy those who are protected by bhagavAn; dhEvathAs are seeking for benefits from bhagavAn – that is the difference.

When asked “Even when helping them, could he do it without affecting his true nature?” AzhwAr responds,

peNNAgi – Even while minimising his own stature, he would go as a messenger, be a charioteer etc. That shows his simplicity. But this is even worse than that. He who is the supreme man, accepted a feminine form. As said in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 61.6 “ahamasmi mahAbAhO” (Oh broad-shouldered! I will do whatever you say) and in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 34.40 “imausma muniSArdhUla kinkarau samupasthithau” (Oh best among sages! We are surrendered to you; you order us), he will humbly walk around obeying the words of the sages. bhagavAn who is purushOththama minimised his own stature, which is not matching his true nature.

[An incident explaining bhagavAn’s feminine form is highlighted here from the lives of nanjIyar and nampiLLai]

nampiLLai mercifully told me about the following incident – In the eastern region, in the town of aiyAru (present day thiruvaiyARu), a government officer had arrived and was distributing free funds/lands. nanjIyar had sent me to get some donation, along with other SrIvaishNavas. While I was waiting for the officer in the assembly hall, many persons came and worshipped me. A rudhra bhaktha (devotee of Siva) who was crooked said to me “We heard that you are very good in explaining thamizh poems. In our literature [dhEvAram] there is a phrase ‘ariyallAl dhEviyillai [aiyan aiyarAnArkkE]’ (There is no better wife than hari for rudhra). Please explain the meaning for this phrase”. I responded “I have not learned this”. He insisted saying “But don’t you know everything?” I responded “If you are asking this to add some glories to your dheyvam (rudhra) and bring some disrepute to ISvaran (SrIman nArAyaNan), let me explain to you. While it is explained in purANams that bhagavAn is purushOththaman, and if he minimised his stature for the sake of his devotees, that will only add to bhagavAn’s glories. On the other hand, if rudhra goes behind bhagavAn (knowing well about him) in feminine form, just as a lusty person would follow a sORALvi (a man disguised as a woman to take a cooking job or a eunuch) thinking that person to be a female, that only makes rudhra to be ignorant. Isn’t it understandable that the person who promoted this story is both non-trustworthy and ignorant?”

amudhUttum – Even if he minimises his stature in this manner, if he at least got the dhEvathAs to be immersed in him, that will be good. But they are so immersed in their own body and are only liking the nectar he gives.

Uttum – emperumAn kept the task of churning and other hardships with himself and gave the task of drinking the nectar to dhEvathAs, and when they swallowed the nectar, he felt satisfied as if they helped him. If they asked “We need nectar”, he could have simply acquired it and given to them; but assuming a form to get that tactfully and feeding them shows his great quality. Just as a mother would wake up her child, feed it and feel satisfied, emperumAn did it as if it is a benefit for him.

When asked “What is the reason for doing this?” AzhwAr explains

perumAnAr – The relationship [with jIvAthmAs] based on bhagavAn being the SEshi (lord).

maruviniya … – The abode which is enjoyable to remain.

thaNNArndha – Very rejuvenating abode. That is, where everyone is free from the complaint “we are not fully protected as in SrIvaikuNtam”.

kadalmallaith thalasayanam – When his devotee puNdarIkar was trying hard to see him, he arrived for the sake of his devotee, and mercifully reclined having his divine head at the side of the foot of his devotee. This is the abode where he reclined in such manner.

uRaivArai – Since it is an abode which is dear to his devotees, he firmly remains there without leaving. Here as well, he is reclining amidst those who are having demoniac nature.

eNNAdhE iruppArai – The one who mercifully arrived and reclined in thiruppARkadal (milk ocean), one who can joyfully reside in SrIvaikuNtam without any shortcoming, is new mercifully residing amidst samsAris (materialistic people) for our sake. Instead of thinking in this manner as said in thiruchchandhaviruththam 63 “ninRu irundhu vehkaNaik kidandhadhu enna nIrmaiyE” (What a great quality of standing, sitting and reclining in thiruvekkA?) those who have no interest in him and are engaged in eating, dressing up and engaging in worldly aspects.

iruppArai – Not thinking about him and shying away from him are due to not having exhausted the [bad] karma which makes them do those things; but due to having consciousness one should atone thinking “we did not do these things”; those who remain even without such atonement.

iRaippozhudhum eNNOmE – There are times when we count or think about chEthanas (sentient beings) who are ignorant, even at such times, I will not think about them. There are times when we count insentient entities, even at such times, I will not think about them. Though they think highly about themselves, I will not think about them with any respect. It appears that only when AzhwAr thinks to be sentient, they will be considered as such. thirumangai AzhwAr too said in periya thirumozhi 11.7.9 “mAnidavar allar enRu en manaththE vaiththEnE” (I considered them in my heart, not to be humans). AzhwAr is saying “I placed in my heart” as if it is carved in rock or copper plates. AzhwAr himself reveals his identity to be as said in periya thirumozhi 2.6.10 “adigaL adiyE ninaiyum adiyavargaL tham adiyAn” (I am the servitor of those devotees who are always thinking about the divine feet of bhagavAn). For AzhwAr, gyAnam (knowledge) and Anandham (bliss) are not the main identities for the self, but it is bhAgavath SEshathvam (servitude towards bhAgavathas).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6.1 – naNNAdha – 1

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periya thirumozhi >> Second centum >> Sixth decad

Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

One who fulfils the desires of even those who seek other benefits from him and not remain joyful to be with him; when such emperumAn comes and waits in this dhivyadhESam hoping that someone who likes him will come, and when there are people who simply eat, dress-up and spend their time in that manner without thinking about his simplicity, AzhwAr says “I will not consider such persons to be existing”.

pAsuram

naNNAdha vAL avuNar idaippukku vAnavaraip
peNNAgi amudhUttum perumAnAr maruviniya
thaNNArndha kadalmallaith thalasayanaththu uRaivArai
eNNAdhE iruppArai iRaippozhudhum eNNOmE

Word-by-Word meanings

naNNAdha – those who did not approach him
vAL – having sword
avuNaridai – amidst the asuras (demons)
peNNAgip pukku – entering with a feminine disguise
vAnavarai – dhEvas (saintly persons)
amudhu Uttum – one who feeds nectar
perumAnAr – having greatness
maruva – to remain firmly
iniya – being an enjoyable abode
thaN Arndha – remaining cool always
kadal – present on the seashore
mallai – in SrI mallApuri
thala sayanaththu – on the divine mattress which is the ground
uRaivArai – one who mercifully reclines
eNNAdhu – without thinking about
iruppArai – those who remain in that dhivyadhESam
iRaippozhudhum – even for a moment
eNNOm – we will not think about

Simple translation

emperumAn mercifully reclines on the divine mattress which is the ground in SrImallApuri which is an enjoyable abode, is always cool, and is present on the seashore; he is having the greatness to remain firmly there; he entered with a feminine disguise, amidst asuras who did not approach him and were having sword. We will not think about those who remain in such dhivyadhESam without thinking about such emperumAn, even for a moment.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

naNNAdha – AzhwAr is going through similar emotions of that of SrI vidhurar. When krishNa entered SrI vidhura’s residence, he thought “samspruSan Asanam SaurEr mahAmathirupAviSath” (The very wise vidhura checked the seat which he placed for krishNa). Similarly, AzhwAr is feeling fearful for emperumAn entering the group of demons. When one is very wise, it appears that they will become greatly bewildered like an agitated ocean. As SrI vidhura observed how krishNa faced danger through the deceptive seat and mischief, when he mercifully arrived at dhuryOdhana’s residence and feared thinking “Did we also not take birth in the same family? Since we are also among those who are in this materialistic world, should I trust myself?” and due to unnecessary doubting himself, checked the seat which he himself offered to krishNa. piLLai uRangAvilli dhAsar will always hold on to the handle of his sword whenever namperumAL goes on a procession and worship him, and vowed to kill himself if there was even a shake to the palanquin. Considering that, the SrIvaishNavas would call him as mahAmathi (very wise). It appears that being bewildered in the matters of bhagavAn, is the reason to be called as mahAmathi. Those who fear unnecessarily for bhagavAn’s well-being are known as mahAmathi.

naNNAdha – They [demons] are embodiment of hatred towards bhagavAn’s matters. There are some who are born as humans but have demoniac nature. Unlike those, these are the ones who are born in demoniac bodies. Further, emperumAn entered into the group of demons who are armed.

When asked “Did he go and enter for the sake of those who are like prahlAdha?” AzhwAr replies

vAnavarai – He went for the sake of dhEvas who pridefully think themselves to be at par with bhagavAn as said in “We are as eternal as you [bhagavAn]”.

peNNAgi – He who is purushOththaman accepted the form of a woman which does not match his nature.

amudhUttum – He is of the nature to grant the wishes of those who remain satisfied thinking “salt water [nectar] is sufficient for us” instead of having love towards him saying “We need you”. Their focus is only on drinking the nectar. emperumAn took up on himself activities such as churning the ocean etc.

perumAnAr – [He did it] Just as a mother who would wake up her child and feed it. What a natural relationship!

maruviniya – It appears that there are those who relish the enjoyable bhagavAn. emperumAn is firmly reclining, thinking “Will there be anyone who seeks me who is known, as said in chAndhOgya upanishath, as ‘sarva rasa:‘ (origin of all tastes)”.

maruviniya … – One who eternally resides on the ground in thirukkadalmallai which is an enjoyable abode, which is very rejuvenating and where small droplets of waves splash on his divine form, having affection towards his devotee named puNdarIka.

eNNAdhE – It is apt for the chEthanas to always feel, think and say “emperumAn who should be residing amidst nithyasUris (eternal servitors of bhagavAn in paramapadham), has entered this samsAram and is staying on the ground!” and serve him; those who don’t do that. Those who don’t care about bhagavAn’s matters and are simply engaged in taking care of the body.

iRaip pozhudhum eNNOmE – Those who remain without atonement for not thinking about him. There are times when one may count insignificant entities. AzhwAr says “Even at those times, I will not think about them”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumozhi – 2.6 – naNNAdha

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periya thirumozhi >> Second Centum

<< Previous decad

bhUthaththAzhwAr (thirukkadalmallai)

First pravESam (Introduction):

In pAncharAthra SAsthram, SaraNAgathi is defined as in ahirbudhnya samhithA 36-38 “aham asmi aparAdhAnAm AlayaO’kinchanO’gathi: | thvamEva upAyabhUthO mE bhavEthi prArthanAmathi: || SaraNAgathirithyukthA sA dhEvEsmin prayujyathAm ||” (The intellect which prays saying “I am an abode of all faults; have no other means; no other refuge too; you be my means” is SaraNAgathi. Let that be done towards this lord). This principle of SaraNAgathi was observed by this AzhwAr (thirumangai AzhwAr) in periya thirumozhi 1.6vANilA muRuval” and in periya thirumozhi 1.9thAyE thandhai“. He repeated the same in periya thirumozhi 2.5.7kANAdhu thiri tharuvEn kaNdu koNdEn” (I got to see such sarvESvaran, who was not seen and whom I searched) and periya thirumozhi 2.5.9thoNdanEn kaNdu koNdEn” (I, the servitor, have seen).

ahirbudhnya samhithA 37 – 27, 28 “shOdA hi vEdha vidhushO vadhanthyEnam mahAmunE | AnukUlyasya sankalpa: prAthikUlyasya varjanam || rakshishyathIthi viSvAsO gOpthruthva varaNam thathA | Athma nikshEpa kArpaNyE shadvidhA SaraNAgathi: ||” (Oh great sage! Those who know vEdham identify this SaraNAgathi in six ways. They are – vowing to remain favourable towards bhagavAn and bhAgavathas, refraining from unfavourable aspects, having faith that bhagavAn, the owner, will protect his belongings, praying to bhagavAn to protect the self, placing the self under his protection, being empty-handed) – this explains the natural outcome of surrendering to bhagavAn. AzhwAr is explaining in this decad that he has acquired these aspects.

Both of these cannot be said as SaraNAgathi’s lakshaNam (identity) since they are contradictory to each other as the former one says “thvamEva” highlighting upAya nairapEkshyam (non-expectation of anything from the person who surrenders) and the latter one explains SaraNAgathi to have limbs (expectation). Hence, the former one must be said as SaraNAgathi’s identity and the latter one to be said as natural outcome of SaraNAgathi.

It is said in bhArathvAja smruthi “paSur manushya: pakshIvA Echa vaishNava samSrayA: | thEnaiva thE prayAsyanthi thath vishNO: paramampadham ||” (Whoever it may be – four limbed animals, humans and birds, when surrendered to vaishNavas, due to that connection, one will attain vishNu’s highest abode of paramapadham, that connection with bhAgavathas is a means to reach bhagavAn irrespective of knowledge and conduct matching the knowledge. Even birds and animals are considered here [as those which can be delivered]. Are surrendering to bhagavAn [as seen in periya thirumozhi 1.6 and in periya thirumozhi 1.9] and surrendering to bhAgavathas [as seen here] different? Is surrendering to bhAgavathas not the ultimate stage of surrendering to bhagavAn? One can surrender to bhagavAn directly or through bhAgavathas. Here it is talking about this difference. [Still] Without surrendering to bhAgavathas, there is no way to engage in bhagavAn.

nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 18mARAya dhAnavanai vaLLugirAl mArviraNdu kURAgak kIRiya kOLariyai vERAga EththiyiruppArai vellumE maRRavaraich chAththiyiruppar thavam” (The strong narasimha mUrthi split the chest of the demon hiraNya kashyap who is standing as an opponent, with sharp finger nails, into two; the good deed of the ultimate devotees of worshipping such emperumAn as distinguished entity, will be defeated by those who attain such devotees who worship him.

Who are vERAga Eththiyiruppar (the worshippers of the distinguished emperumAn)? Who are maRRu avaraich chAththiyiruppar (those who depend on such worshippers)? Do we have any example? Yes. vERAga Eththiyiruppar – Those who are like periyAzhwAr who do not care for self but show concern towards the well-being of sarvESvaran on seeing him; maRRu avaraich chAththiyiruppar – those who are like ANdAL who said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 10.10 “villi pudhuvai vittu siththar thangaL dhEvarai vallaparisu varuvipparEl adhu kANdumE” (if vittuchiththan (periyAzhwAr) calls out to emperumAn, then we will see and worship emperumAn).

Now, AzhwAr considers those who are engaged in the qualities such as simplicity of emperumAn in dhivyadhESams (where emperumAn resides joyfully) as bhAgavathas (devotees) and those who are indifferent towards such dhivyadhESams as abhAgavathas (non-devotees).

In this, AnukUlyasya sankalpa: – Vowing to engage in favourable aspects, does not end with doing a particular act. It continues forever, even after reaching paramapadham. But prAthikUlyasya varjanam – refraining from unfavourable aspects stops once one reaches paramapadham. Engaging in favourable aspects follows refraining from unfavourable aspects since refraining from unfavourable aspects must occur first. AzhwAr is highlighting how such refraining from unfavourable aspects occurred to him, in the first pAsuram. As one gives up unfavourable aspects, favourable aspects will naturally follow since the relationship with bhagavAn is eternal. One should only avoid what [unfavourable aspects] one imposed upon oneself.

Second pravESam (Introduction):

Note: This is seen in the commentary for second pAsuram.

In the matter of these chEthanas (sentient beings) who have been drowned in this samsAram (material world) forever, sarvESvaran, in his divine heart, made a kind gesture as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 5.21 “suhrudham sarvabhUthAnAm” (one who is friendly towards all beings). If a jIvAthmA’s good deed leads to good result, it is obvious that bhagavAn’s mercy will also lead to a good result; hence, it will fructify some day in some situation. Due to that, the chEthana becomes favourable towards ISvara and based on that ISvara will specially shower his merciful glance at the chEthana. Subsequently, the chEthana develops taste and faith towards ISvara, and considers ISvara to be prApaka (means) and prApya (goal). AzhwAr explains how he became like that and how such a person remains in this world.

[Explanation about being together with bhAgavathas]

Now, in upAyam (means) – after pursuing sarvESvaran who is omniscient, omnipotent, the lord of both paramapadham and samsAram, who has no unfulfilled desires, as the upAyam, as he will assume all the burdens of the chEthana and manage that, and as the chEthana need not do anything in response to his [bhagavAn’s] act, he does not have anything to do for his well-being.

Since the upEyam (goal) is kainkaryam (service) to be done in the special abode of paramapadham, after shedding one’s body and traversing through the special path of archirAdhi gathi, this [being together with bhAgavathas] cannot be directly said as goal too.

When one does not have anything to do in prApakam (means) and being together with bhAgavathas does not get considered under prApyam (goal), will this be considered as worldly enjoyment? No, that is also not applicable, since the goal is already determined [as eternal kainkaryam to SrI mahAlakshmi and SrIman nArAyaNan] and the means is pursued for that specific goal. That is, detachment in fake goals will be a prerequisite for faith in the real goal. Hence, worldly enjoyment is to be totally kept away.

In SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66 “sarva dharmAn parithyajya“, bhagavAn ordered to abandon all dharmams – both ordained acts and the acts which are done as atonement for sins. If that is the case, when we don’t atone for the sins, will they not keep accruing? No. They will not accrue, based on the true nature of bhagavAn who is the upAyam [who cannot tolerate his devotee suffering] and the true nature of the person who surrendered [who will not engage in sinful acts]. Also, since one is sure to attain the goal after shedding the body, the sins will not bother the person who surrendered. Now, since bhagavAn who is filled with all auspicious qualities is pursued as the means and there is nothing for the individual to perform acts which are bound by rules in SAsthram, with the consideration of such acts being the means, the acts which are performed by him after acquiring true knowledge, will not be contrary to the means pursued and the goal to be accomplished. [Hence the individual will abide by SAsthram and act accordingly, without considering any of his acts to be upAyam] That is because, he should remain different from the ignorant ones who act as they desire, without  any respect to the rules of SAsthram.

Just as a forthcoming flood in a river will be revealed ahead by some symptoms, as the enjoying bhagavAn along with bhAgavathas is shown as the goal, and since this is the last body for the surrendered person, it should be seen occurring here. What are those aspects to occur here? Being unable to mingle with abhAgavathas and being unable to sustain without bhAgavathas. AzhwAr is mercifully explaining [in this decad] how these aspects occurred to him. As a wife becomes more knowledgeable about her husband, she will develop attachment towards him; only when she desires for another man, she will be disliked by him; while explaining the identity of prapannas, it was said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 68thiruvadi than nAmam maRandhum puRam thozhA mAndhar” (even if they forgot emperumAn, they won’t worship any one other than emperumAn); as one develops knowledge that sarvESvaran is the desirable one, one may develop attachment towards bhAgavathas. As part of this knowledge, one should give up the relationship with abhAgavathas.

Now bhAgavathas are those who inform us in the beginning that bhagavAn is the upAyam, and hence remain purushakAra bhUthas (those who recommend and unite AthmAs with bhagavAn). This prapanna, being a chEthana, having taken their help, should remain grateful to them. In the ultimate stage, since they are the ultimate stage of goal, they are as desirable as bhagavAn. In the meantime [until one reaches paramapadham], since they will remain as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10-9bOdhayantha: parasparam” (discussing with each other), they are desirable at all stages for the prapannas.

It is explained in ahirbudhnya samhithA 37 – 27, 28 “shOdA hi vEdha vidhushO vadhanthyEnam mahAmunE | AnukUlyasya sankalpa: prAthikUlyasya varjanam || rakshishyathIthi viSvAsO gOpthruthva varaNam thathA | Athma nikshEpa kArpaNyE shadvidhA SaraNAgathi: ||” that SaraNAgathi is in six ways. It is also explained in ahirbudhnya samhithA 36-38 “aham asmi aparAdhAnAm AlayaO’kinchanO’gathi: | thvamEva upAyabhUthO mE bhavEthi prArthanAmathi: || SaraNAgathirithyukthA sA dhEvEsmin prayujyathAm ||” (The intellect which prays saying “I am an abode of all faults; have no other means; no other refuge too; you be my means” is SaraNAgathi. Let that be done towards this lord) that the prayer “You have to be my upAyam” highlights his Akinchanyam (having no other means). If we accept one of these and reject the other one, the rejected one will be aprAmANyam (not authentic). How can both of these be reconciled without missing any of the principles? Since, in “thvamEva” (You only), as the non-expectation of any other upAyam is visible, the definition of SaraNAgathi is given in the latter SlOkam; in the former SlOkam, the natural aspects which follow SaraNAgathi are highlighted. If we observe the true nature of SaraNAgathi, it will not tolerate any help from anyone else; if we observe bhagavAn who accepts the surrender of the jIvAthmA, it is obvious that the jIvAthmA should have these aspects.

While the SlOkam highlights these six aspects as limbs in “shadvidhA SaraNAgathi:“, why are these explained as natural outcome for the jIvAthmA? In “prArthanAmathi: SaraNAgathi:“, as the intellect doing the prayer is in the chEthana, the grantor of the goal is exclusively bhagavAn only. In the “AnukUlyasya sankalpa:” SlOkam, when these aspects are followed as per the rules and are considered as limbs, if the chEthana does not desire the goal, he can abandon these limbs. But because these aspects are according to the true nature of the chEthana, they can never be abandoned and if abandoned, it will damage the true nature of the self. [For example] When one does not desire to reach heaven, one can avoid performing jyOthishtOma, but one can never abandon the nithyAnushtAnams (daily rituals) which have no specific result based on the performer of those rituals [Similarly, for a chEthana, as per his nature, he has to be surrendered to bhagavAn and subsequently “AnukUlyasya sankalpa:” etc will occur as natural outcome].

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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