Author Archives: Sarathy Thothathri

About Sarathy Thothathri

Disciple of SrImath paramahamsa ithyAdhi pattarpirAn vAnamAmalai jIyar (29th pattam of thOthAdhri mutt). Descendant of komANdUr iLaiyavilli AchchAn (bAladhanvi swamy, a cousin of SrI ramAnuja). Born in AzhwArthirungari, grew up in thiruvallikkENi (chennai), presently living under the shade of the lotus feet of jagathAchArya SrI rAmAnuja, SrIperumbUthUr. Learned sampradhAyam principles from (varthamAna) vAdhi kEsari azhagiyamaNavALa sampathkumAra jIyar swamy, vELukkudi krishNan swamy, gOmatam sampathkumArAchArya swamy and many others. Full time sEvaka/servitor of SrIvaishNava sampradhAyam. Engaged in translating our AzhwArs/AchAryas works in Simple thamizh and English, and coordinating the translation effort in many other languages. Also engaged in teaching dhivyaprabandham, sthOthrams, bhagavath gIthA etc and giving lectures on various SrIvaishNava sampradhAyam related topics in thamizh and English regularly. Taking care of koyil.org portal, which is a humble offering to our pUrvAchAryas. koyil.org is part of SrI varavaramuni sambandhi Trust (varavaramuni.com) initiatives.

SrI varavaramuni dhinacharyA

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

mamunigal-srirangammAmunigaL – srIrangam

eRumbiappA-kAnchieRumbi appA – kAnchIpuram

e-book : https://1drv.ms/b/s!AiNzc-LF3uwygiLuw_fN8xu7W54C

Introduction

Sri Varavaramuni Dinacharyai, a good treatise, was composed by Sri Devaraja Guru, also called Acharya Erumbiappa. He was a renowned scholar and poet. He is one among the eight disciples of Manavala Mamunigal famously known as Ashtadiggajas of Satsampradaayam. He considered Mamunigal as God and authored several works like Varvamuni Kavyam, Varavaramuni Champu, Varavaramuni Sathakam and so on. His life history is described in Yathindra Pravanva Prabhavam of Pillai Lokam Jeeyar. He lived during the period of Mamunigal i.e. 1370 and 1443. He wrote a treatise called Sri Varavaramuni Dinacharyai, which meticulously covers the ritualistic practices of Mamunigal from the time he wakes up till the time he rests back in the bed in a day. This work consists of three parts. They are Purva Dinacharyai, Yathiraja Vimsati and Uttara Dinacharyai. As the names indicate, Purva Dinacharyai talks about activities carried out by Mamunigal in the first part of a day and Uttara Dinacharyai the second part. Since, Mamunigal includes the worship of Sri Ramanuja daily by way of reciting Yathiraja Vimsati, this stotra was included in the middle of this treatise.

“Vadhula Veeraraghava Suri”, otherwise called Sri U.Ve. Tirumazhisai Annappangar Swami, wrote a commentary in Sanskrit around 260 years ago. Based on this commentary, Sri U.Ve.T.A.Krishnamacharya Swami of Tirupati, wrote a lucid commentary in Tamil. Following this, adiyen is attempting the English version of the same.

TAKSwamiSri U.Ve.T.A.Krishnamacharya Swami

  • thaniyan (Invocation)

Saumyajamatru yoginndra Caranambuja shatpadam |
Devaraja gurum vande divyajnana pradam subham ||

I prostrate before Devaraja Guru, who had sweet experience like a beetle at the lotus feet of Mamunigal, preaches Brahma jnana (divine wisdom) to those who approach him, and is enlightened by the wisdom and religious practice.

English Translation by: Dr.M.Varadarajan, MA, MA, PhD, Chennai and Sri vangIpuram sadagopan

Originally published in SrI rAmAnuja dharasanam magazine.

Other languages:

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thiruvAimozhi – 1.2.5 – aRRadhu paRRu

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

antharyamiIntroduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In this 5th pAsuram, nammAzhwAr identifies the internal hurdle and remedy for approaching bhagavAn.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, the venerable emperumAn being the most apt goal to be attained is explained by nammAzhwAr.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

While approaching emperumAn (to be relieved from samsAram), an internal hurdle could arise. nammAzhwAr is mercifully giving a remedy for that as well. One who desires indhra’s position would not care for wealth in this earthly realm. One who desires for brahmA’s position would not care for indhra’s position. One who desires for AthmAnubhavam (enjoying one self in kaivalya mOksham) would not care for any worldly pleasures. One who approaches emperumAn who is filled with most auspicious qualities and having eternal divine forms, will not care for any of the previously mentioned aspects. Thus nammAzhwAr highlights the internal hurdle and its remedy.

pAsuram

அற்றது பற்று எனில்–உற்றது வீடு உயிர்
செற்றது மன்னுறில்–அற்று இறை பற்றே

aRRadhu paRRu enil uRRadhu vIdu uyir
seRRadhu mannuRil aRRu iRai paRRE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

paRRu – attachments towards aspects outside bhagavath vishayam
aRRadhu enil – when given up
uyir – AthmA
vIdu – mOksham
uRRadhu – attained
adhu – that kaivalya mOksham which is enjoyment of oneself
seRRu – eradicate
manna uRil – approaching bhagavath vishayam firmly to be well engaged
aRRu – giving up attachments towards other aspects
iRai – Iswara
paRRu – submit to him

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

When attachments towards aspects outside bhagavath vishayam are given up, AthmA is fit to attain (kaivalya) mOksham (being free from samsAram and enjoying oneself).  Eradicating such thought of kaivalya mOksham, giving up attachments towards everything else and approaching emperumAn to be firmly engaged with him, submit to Iswara.

First nammAzhwAr explains the common aspect of being liberated from sufferings and then instructs that one should approach emperumAn to be fully engaged in eternal kainkaryam.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

When giving up attachments towards worldly pleasures, one will see the most shining AthmA (self). Without getting trapped in that, one should approach emperumAn at that stage itself to be fully positioned in one’s true nature.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • aRRadhu paRRu enil – When attachment towards worldly pleasures in the material realm are given up
  • uRRadhu vIdu uyirAthmA attained liberation. Pure knowledge and nature of AthmA are hidden from oneself due to attachment towards worldly pleasures. Once such attachment is given up through yOgAbhyAsam (constant practice of ashtAnga yOga), AthmA will shine radiantly. Since that is realised as eternal, fully knowledgable and blissful, one may develop attachment towards enjoying oneself.
  • seRRu adhu – Completely defacing that thought
  • mannuRil (manna uRil) – When approaching the ultimate goal (bhagavath kainkaryam) which has nothing higher than that
  • aRRu iRai paRRE – While approaching him, have full faith in him and submit to the supreme master. Its also explained as “iRai paRRi, iththai aRap pAr” (submit to emperumAn and try giving up the attachments to worldly pleasures) as explained in mUnRAm thiruvanthAdhi 14 “mARpAl manam suzhippa mangaiyar thOL kaivittu” (by having our mind focussed on emperumAn, attachment towards worldly attachments will fall out).

In the next article we will the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.2.4 – illathum uLLathum

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

vibishana_saranagathivibhIshaNa gave up everything and approached srI rAma

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

nammAzhwAr explains the glories of emperumAn who is being approached.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, nammAzhwAr explains the distinct nature of emperumAn who is worshipped after giving up worldly attachments.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Same as nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

nammAzhwAr explains the most enjoyable nature of emperumAn who is approached which is contrary to the not-so enjoyable nature and defective nature of worldly pleasures which are given up.

pAsuram

இல்லதும் உள்ளதும்–அல்லது அவன் உரு
எல்லையில் அந்நலம்–புல்கு பற்று அற்றே

illadhum uLLadhum alladhu avan uru
ellaiyil annalam pulgu paRRu aRRE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

illadhum – non-existing, due to constant transformation of the entity itself, achith (matter) is indicated using the word “asath”
uLLadhum – existing, due to unchanging nature, chith (soul) is indicated using the word “sath”
alladhu – not,  different from
avan – his
uru – svarUpam (nature)
ellaiyil – unlimited
annalam – having (the previously explained) quality of bliss
paRRu aRRu – giving up attachment towards other worldly pleasures
pullu (pulgu) – approach him with devotion

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

bhagavAn is distinct from chith (sentients) which are unchanging by nature and achith (insentients) which constantly change into different forms. So, after giving up attachment towards other aspects, approach with devotion, such bhagavAn who is filled with bliss.

As “pullu” indicates abundance of friendliness, it highlights the loving nature of this devotion.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

If someone says “We can pursue bhagavAn only if he is distinct from and more glorious than the worldly pleasures which are to be given up”, AzhwAr explains to them that bhagavAn is devoid of any defects, filled with all auspicious qualities, being distinct from chith and achith and because of all of these, he is most enjoyable. Thus, give up attachment to these faulty aspects and approach him.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • illadhum – non-existing – It is not said as non-existing because of lack of pramANam (authentic explanation) of achith or because of achith being an  illusory aspect (as explained by adhvaitha/mAyAvAdha philosophers). It is due to the fact that achith is perishable (has total transformation of itself) that it is said as “illadhu“.
  • uLLadhum – existing – due to the distinction from “illadhu“, i.e., chith does not change itself ever, it is called “uLLadhu“.
  • illadhum uLLadhumchith and achith are explained as sath and asath in srIvishNu purANam “yadhasthi yannAsthi” (existing and non-existing)  and thaiththirIya upanishadh “sathyanchcha anruthancha” (truth and false). It can also be explained as achith which is the abode of AthmA and AthmA which resides in achith – in this context “il” in thamizh is explained as house and “uL” is explained as “that which is inside”.
  • alladhu avanuru – his nature is different from achith which is perishable and AthmA which becomes bound in achith (body) and considers “I am enjoying, I am suffering, etc”.
  • ellaiyil annalam – Many pramANams are highlighted to explain bhagavAn‘s blissful nature. He is explained as such in thaiththirIya upanishath “Anandhamaya:” (filled with bliss), thiruvAimozhi 1.1.2 “uNar muzhu nalam” (filled with gyAnam and Anandham), srIvishNu purANam 6.5.84 “samasthakalyANaguNAthmakOsau” (naturally having all auspicious qualities) etc.
  • pulgu – For one who fully knows the auspicious qualities, bhagavAn who is filled with such auspicious qualities is most enjoyable, similar to embracing a beautiful woman for some one who is desiring worldly pleasure.
  • paRRu aRRE – One should give up other attachments and then pursue emperumAn. One cannot be “iru karaiyan” – i.e., one who holds on to both vishayAntharam (worldly pleasures) and bhagavath vishayam (devotion towards bhagavAn). As explained in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.7, “paRRilAr paRRa ninRAnE“, bhagavAn is pursued by the ones who have given up all attachments to vishayAntharam (worldly pleasures) and sAdhanAntharam (other means to attain him).

In the next article we will the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.2.3 – nIr numadhu

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

vishnu-rescuing-jivathma

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In this pAsuram, nammAzhwAr briefly instructs as to what is to be given up.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, nammAzhwAr mercifully explains the process of renunciation briefly.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

A question is raised to AzhwAr – “you are saying that if we understand the defects, we can give up (attachment to worldly aspects). We have already spent our time in this world since eternity. It looks endless too. Don’t we need a really long time to give up that which was accumulated over very long time?” nammAzhwAr briefly explains that which is to be given up. He explains the cause for being in samsAram with worldly attachments and the remedy for the same.

pAsuram

நீர் நுமது என்று இவை–வேர் முதல் மாய்த்து
இறை சேர்மின் உயிர்க்கு அதன் –நேர் நிறை இல்லே

nIr numadhu enRu ivai vEr mudhal mAyththu
iRai sErmin uyirkku adhan nEr niRai illE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nIr numadhu enRu ivai – those which are known as ahankAram and mamakAram
vEr mudhal mAyththu – destroying them completely along with the ruchi (taste) and vAsanA (habit/impressions) like pulling out a plant along with its root.
iRai – the master
sErmin – reach out to him
uyirkku – For the AthmA
adhan nEr – fitting/suitable
niRai illai – no fulfillment

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Give up ahankAram and mamakAram and reach out to the master. For the jIvAthmA, there is nothing more fulfilling and suitable than that.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

Fully give up ahankAram and mamakAram (along with the ruchi and vAsanA) which will destroy the jIvAthmA and reach out to emperumAn.  There is nothing more fulfilling for the nature of jIvAthmA.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Both periyavAchchAn piLLai and nampiLLai explain ahankAram and mamakAram nicely in their vyAkyAnam using the following pramANa slOkam from srIvishNu purANam.

anAthmani Athma budhdhiryA asvE svamithi yA mathi: |
avidhyAtharusambhUthibIjamEthath dhvividhA sthithtam ||

Considering that which is not AthmA (i.e., body) as AthmA and considering that which is not one’s property (i.e., AthmA and that which is owned by the AthmA which are fully owned by bhagavAn) as one’s own are the two seeds for this tree of samsAram (which is the cycle of birth and death based on ones actions). Here ahankAram is considering the AthmA as body – dhEhAthma abhimAnm. mamakAram is considering oneself as the owner – sva svAthanthriyam. Both need to be eradicated and one should understand that oneself is AthmA (ahankAram eliminated) and oneself is totally owned by bhagavAn (mamakAram eliminated).

  • nIr numadhu enRu – You and yours. When instructing others, it is common to use “You and yours”. Also, AzhwAr would not say “nAn ennadhu” (I and mine) – since even the thought of such ego will singe his tongue as he is fully realised that he belongs to emperumAn only. Also, ahankAram (nAn) indicates two aspects  – the egoistic thought of jIvAthmA as an independent entity and confusing it with the body. Once we understand that rAvaNa et al were destroyed due to their egoistic attitude, we can easily give up that ego and independent thought and consider ourselves as subservient to emperumAn. We also need to not confuse ourselves with our body. Both aspects need to be eliminated.
  • ivai vEr mudhal mAyththu – Eliminating completely. That means developing strong faith that these (ahankAram and mamakAram) are not real goals. When two trees stand bound together, if one tree is poisoned, that will eventually die out and the other tree will survive and grow. Similarly, if the ahankAram and mamakAram (first tree ) are destroyed, the AthmA (second tree) will nicely blossom. It can also be explained that if the ahankAram and mamakAram (first tree) are destroyed, samsAram (second tree) will be automatically destroyed. We already saw the vishNu purANa slOkam which explains ahankAram and mamakAram as the cause for bondage. The remedy is also given in srIvishNu purANam itself in slOkam 6.7.11 “achyuthAham thavAsmIthi saiva samsAra bhEshajam” (Oh achyutha (one who does not let his devotees slip/fall)! I am being your servant. This thought alone is the remedy for the disease of samsAram/bondage). Since emperumAn who is the rakshaka (protector) is always waiting to protect/uplift us, if only jIvAthmA has vilakkAmai (not refusing his help), all hurdles will be removed.
  • iRai sErmin – give up unfitting aspects and approach emperumAn who is the true master. jIvAthmA approaching emperumAn is like a ship that lost its way finding the shore.
  • uyirkku adhan nEr nirai illE – There is nothing more ideal for the jIvAthmA than taking shelter of emperumAn. Initially, bhagavath sambandham (realising one’s connection with bhagavAn) will be hitham (like medicine, that which is good but may not be likable that much) and subsequently priyam (very likable). This is most fitting for the AthmA which is eternal and known by its gyAnam (knowledge), Anandham (bliss) etc.
  • Finally, nampiLLai summarises – Just as it is explained in vishNu dharmam “samsArArNava magnAnAm vishayAkrAntha chEthasAm | vishNupOtham vinA nAnyath kinchidhasthi parAyaNam ||” (For the ones who are having the mind which is attached to worldly pleasures and is immersed in the ocean of samsAram, there is no means (to be uplifted) other than the boat of srIvishNu who is all pervading), the only means for being uplifted is emperumAn who is explained as the boat that connects both the material and spiritual realm.

In the next article we will the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.2.2 – minnin nilaiyila

Published by:

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srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

SONY DSC

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

Can we give up things which we are used to for a very long time?

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

Can we give up things which we are used to for a very long time? nammAzhwAr says that when we understand their defects such as impermanence, etc., they can be easily given up.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, to facilitate the process of renunciation (giving up), nammAzhwAr identifies the impermanent nature of the aspects which are to be given up.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In the first pAsuram, nammAzhwAr instructs everyone to give up all aspects other than bhagavath vishayam and surrender unto emperumAn. When some one questions “You are asking us to give up worldly attachments. But we have been used to it since time immemorial. How we can we give them up now?”. nammAzhwAr replies through this pAsuram “when you understand the defects of the worldly aspects, they can be given up”.

pAsuram

மின்னின் நிலையில–மன்னுயிர் ஆக்கைகள்
என்னும் இடத்து இறை–உன்னுமின் நீரே

minnin nilaiyila mannuyir AkkaigaL
ennum idaththu iRai unnumin nIrE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

uyir – AthmA (soul)
man – filled with likeable aspects
AkkaigaL – bodies which are the cause for bondage
minnin – more than a lightning
nilai – state of appearing and disappearing immediately
ila – not having
ennum idaththu – as explained in
nIrE – yourself
iRai – the master
unnumin – meditate upon him

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

jIvAthmA accepts many bodies (birth after birth) which are liked by him. But these bodies are so impermanent that they are not even having the permanent nature of a lightning which appears and disappears in a flash. Seeing this, you meditate upon the supreme lord who is the master.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

AzhwAr says when one analyses and understands the impermanent nature of the body etc which are related to the jIvAthmA, then those impermanent aspects can be easily given up.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Also, for the singular usage of uyir (jIvAthmA – soul) and plural usage of AkkaigaL (sarIram – bodies), periyavAchchAn piLLai quotes bhagavath gIthA 2.22 “vAsAmsi jIrNAni” slOkam, where emperumAn explains that just as a person acquires new clothes when the old ones are unusable, the AthmA too will acquire a new body when the old one becomes unusable (at the time of death). So, the same AthmA, continually acquires a new body birth after birth.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • minnin nilaiyila – In the case of lightning we, at the least, know that it exists only for a moment. It is both insignificant and impermanent. But, the body, even though impermanent, creates an illusion in the mind that it is permanent and leads to all kinds of troubles. Just like when someone places his hand on a snake thinking that it resembles sandalwood paste which has beautiful fragrance, coolness, softness etc and if he is informed that he is keeping his hand on a snake, he cannot resist taking his hand away (seeing the danger). Similarly, when the real defects of this temporary body (and material realm) such as insignificance and impermanence are highlighted, one can easily give it up.
  • mannuyir AkkaigaL – the bodies in which the AthmA is well seated; it is also explained as the different bodies pursued by the eternal jIvAthmA. nampiLLai gives a beautiful example – “thiRandhu kidandha vAsalgaL thORum nuzhaindhu thiriyum padhArththam pOlEyiRE ivan thirivadhu” (Just like a dog that will enter into any house that has an open door and come out, AthmA enters so many bodies through the cycle of birth and death). Here, the usage of singular AthmA is considered as a representative for all AthmAs which pursue many bodies.
  • ennum idaththu – the defects are so much – even more than bhagavAn‘s auspicious qualities.
  • nIrE – you can understand it just by observing yourself (since the impermanence is quite obvious). There is no need for pramANam (sAsthram, etc) or AchArya upadhEsam (instructions from an AchArya) to understand this.

In the next article we will the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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thiruvAimozhi – 1.2.1 – vIdumin muRRavum

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srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> Second decad

azhwar-thiruvadi-thozhal

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

nammAzhwAr instructs us to give up attachments to all matters except bhagavath vishayam and submit oneself at the lotus feet of srIman nArAyaNan who is the master of everyone.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In this padhigam (decad), in the first pAsuram, nammAzhwAr orders everyone to perform Athma samarppaNam (submitting oneself) to bhagavAn with the prerequisite of giving up attachments to everything else.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

nammAzhwAr instructs to give up other matters and hold on to bhagavath vishayam which is appropriate for the nature of jIvAthmAs.

pAsuram

வீடுமின் முற்றவும்–வீடுசெய்து
உம்முயிர் வீடு உடையான் இடை–வீடு செய்ம்மினே

vIdumin muRRavum vIdu seydhu
ummuyir vIdu udaiyAn idai vIdu seymminE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

muRRavum – All (self-centered) means which are hurdles to worship emperumAn
vIdumin – give up without any attachment; not only that
vIdu seythu – after giving up
um uyir – yourself
vIdu udaiyAnidai – the master who is the controller of mOksham (liberation)
vIdu seymmin – submit unto him. It is also said as “vIdu isaiminE” which means “Agree to submit unto him”.

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Give up all self-centered means which are hurdles to worship emperumAn,  After giving up, submit yourself unto the master who is the controller/giver of mOksham.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

Give up the association of all matters which are different from bhagavath vishayam. Submit oneself as a servant. Surrender unto the master. samarppaNam (submitting) means communicating oneself that one is a servant to emperumAn.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai”s vyAkyAnam.

  • vIdumin – To highlight the importance of giving up that which is being held on, nammAzhwAr first says “give up”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai”s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vIdumin – vIdumin itself can mean “give up”. It can also be said that “vidumin” has been stretched to sound “vIdumin”. Why AzhwAr is emphasising the “giving up” first without indicating what is to be given up? When a small child gets hold of a snake, the mother (or elders) out of fear will say “drop” first and then say “the snake”. Similarly, when a house is on fire, onlookers may scream “get out” first and then say that the house is on fire. Similarly, Azhwar says “give up” first. Also, as seen in vibhIshaNa’s life in srI rAmAyaNam yuddha kANdam, “thaykthvA puthrAmscha dhArAmscha” (Giving up the sons and wife) and “parithyakthA mayA lankA” (lankA was fully given up me) – first vibhIshaNa gave up everything and then surrendered to srI rAma – AzhwAr is also instructing in the same order. “vIdumin” is a plural world – It is not that someone who was distressed by the worldly matters approached AzhwAr and asked him for advise. AzhwAr out of his eagerness, instructs everyone to relieve them from the suffering in this world.
  • muRRavum – Everything. When a chaNdALa’s (dog-eater) house is given to a brAhmaNa, everything is cleared out and then given. Similarly, while giving up, everything should be given up since all world attachments are based on ahankAram (considering oneself as body) and mamakAram (considering oneself as the owner).
  • vIdu seythu – The repetition here is to emphasise the importance of “giving up”. When a prince somehow is imprisoned even before being crowned, first being released from the prison would be the primary goal. Similarly, giving up everything itself is important first.
  • ummuyir vIdu udaiyAnidai – There are several explanations for this.
    • As explained in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “yasya AthmA sarIram, yasya pruthvi sarIram” (all jIvAthmAs are his body, earth is his body) – bhagavAn is the owner of both the AthmA and its vIdu (house – residing place) which is the body.
    • The one who has yourself (AthmA) as the residing place.
    • The owner to whom yourself should be submitted.
    • vIdu (mOkhsam – paramapadham) – The one who is the owner of paramapadham.
  • ummuyir – yourself. I am suggesting for the well-being of yourself, not your body. And it is not for the well-being of me but for you.
  • udaiyAnidai – Now, AzhwAr is using general term “Owner/master”. When one develops taste towards bhagavath vishayam and asks “who is the master?”, AzhwAr will say “vaNpugazh nAraNan” (the most glorious srIman nArAyaNan) at that time. As the owner, he is trying to protect you all along. You too, accept his ownership without thinking “me, mine” and submit unto him. Since he is the owner, we cannot argue with him.
  • manusmruthi 8.92 is explained in detail by nampiLLai “yamO vaivasvathO rAja ya sthavaisha hrudhi sthitha: | thEna chEdhavivAdhas thE mA gangAm mA kurUn gama: ||” (The one who controls yama (the controller of death), one who is born in the sun dynasty  or one who is residing in the center of sun, the one who is liked by everyone, the one who is explained popularly in antharyAmi brAhamaNam, he is residing in your heart. If you give up arguing with him, that is sufficient – you need not visit holy rivers and holy places).  nampiLLai highlights that emperumAn is always within our heart to help us. Atonement without giving up ahankAram and mamakAram is like packing a condemned material in a nice package and offering it. Also, bhagavAn is the owner. AthmA is the best object which is stolen by us (i.e., considering oneself to be independent instead of being dependent on emperumAn). Before atoning (submitting) one should give up the stolen object – but that stolen object is oneself. But, there is no one else to submit. So, you just submit yourself to the master. Submitting means agreeing to his ownership and our servitorship.

In the next article we will the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.2 – vIdumin

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srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum

Previous Decad

sriman narayanan-nanmazhwarsrIman nArAyaNan – nammAzhwAr

Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

It is natural for devotees (who are fully focussed on bhagavAn alone) to share and discuss the svarUpa (divine nature), rUpa (forms), guNa (qualities), chEshtitha (activities) etc of bhagavAn with many. Seeing that there are not many who are purely focussed on bhagavAn alone, nammAzhwAr considers “Even if we have to transform them to be purely focussed on bhagavAn alone, let that happen and then we can share this experience together”. He starts instructing detachment towards worldly matters which is the first step in bhakthi yOgam which is a means to becoming fully focussed on bhagavAn.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

nammAzhwAr, after enjoying emperumAn‘s parathvam (supremacy), being blissful, as explained in bhagavath gIthA 10.9 “bhOdhayantha: parasparam” (discussing with each other) – one cannot bear without discussing with others about these divine matters, realises that there is none  qualified to have discussion with him. nammAzhwAr contemplates the method to reform worldly people and share these divine matters with them. He realizes that “chEthanas (sentients  – ones with knowledge) usually reject/avoid unfavourable aspects and accept favourable aspects. Similarly, let me highlight what is unfavourable for them in this samsAram and the enjoyable nature of bhagavath vishayam and reform them”. He instructs them about the temporary and insignificant nature of this world and the pure bhagavAn who is filled with auspicious qualities and instructs them to pursue bhakthi yOgam [path of devotion] to worship him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

nammAzhwAr mercifully explains the process of worshiping emperumAn through parOpadhEsam (instructions to others) in this decad. Since emperumAn is the sarvasmAthparan (most supreme) and he is to be worshipped, aspects which are considered as hurdles in his worship are to be given up. AzhwAr explains how such unfavourable aspects are to be given up. He also explains the insignificant nature of worldly matters and the glorious nature of bhagavAn. He also explains how the hurdles are removed and the true goal is accomplished.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Same as nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

mOksha sAsthram has 2 aspects – thathvam (truth about the entities) and upAsanam (process to achieve mOksham). In the first decad, thathvam is explained clearly. This decad is the summary of upAsanam related aspects.

thirumAlai ANdAn explains this decad with respect to prapaththi as heard from ALavandhAr. emperumAnAr too was doing the same until he completed srI bhAshyam (commentary from vEdhAntha/brahma sUthram). Subsequent to completion of bhAshyam (to present consistent views between vEdhAntham and thiruvAimozhi), he started explaining this decad with respect to bhakthi yOgam. embAr too followed the same principle.

nammAzhwAr‘s bhakthi (devotion) and prapaththi (surrender) are indistinguishable (in one aspect he looks like performing prapaththi and in another aspect he looks like performing bhakthi) and he has abundance of both (due to his unflinching love/devotion towards emperumAn).

nammAzhwAr was fully blessed by emperumAn with blemishless knowledge and he in turn performs saraNAgathi to emperumAn in various pAsurams. So, his bhakthi itself was blessed by bhagavAn and his bhakthi is something which is part of the goal (to perform kainkaryam one needs devotion – that devotion/desire is AzhwAr’s bhakthi which was blessed by bhagavAn himself). bhakthi is explained as being supported/decorated by karmA (activity) and gyAnam (knowledge) – i.e., by following the process of karma yOgam and gyAna yOgam, one’s mind gets purified and engages in bhakthi yOgam. But for AzhwAr, bhagavAn‘s mercy takes the role of karmam and gyAnam.

So, nammAzhwAr is explaining sAdhya bhakthi (bhakthi that is part of bhagavath kainkaryam). If we consider, nammAzhwAr to be instructing sAdhana bhakthi (bhakthi yOgam as explained in vEdhAntham), a few contradictions will arise:

  • Since he has full knowledge of everything (and not a confused person) – he would not practice one thing (saraNAgathi/sAdhya bhakthi) and instruct some thing else (sAdhana bhakthi yOgam) to others.
  • Based on previous point, If we say, he is instructing sAdhana bhakthi, then his own greatness that “he was fully blessed with blemishless knowledge/devotion by bhagavAn‘s causeless mercy” will become invalidated.
  • Finally, “apasUdhrAdhikaraNa nyAyam” which explains that “sUdhra (persons of 4th varNam) cannot engage in sAdhana bhakthi” will be invalidated. This is explained in detail in arumpadham. There was a virtuous king named jAnasruthi. When two rishis wanted to bless him, they took the form of 2 hamsa (swan) birds and flew on top of him. While crossing him, one bird told the other “please ensure that your shadow does not follow on jAna sruthi (since he is a virtuous king)”. The other bird asks “Why should I be careful? Is he like raikva?” Hearing this jAnasruthi went searching for the mahAn [a great person] named raikva (who he understood to be a great mahAn from the words of the second bird). He found raikva to be in the most abominable form and yet requested him to teach brahma vidhyA. First raikva says he should perform service to learn brahma vidhyA. jAnasruthi replies he does not have time to perform service to raikva due to administrative duties. Then raikva says “bring lots of wealth” and jAnasruthi obliges and offers his everything. Seeing his great desire raikva says that since jAnasruthi is a sUdhra, he will teach him brahma vidhyA. emperumAnAr while explaining the word “sUdhra” here, says that one who has not undergone upanayanam (sUdhra) is not qualified to learn brahma vidhyA. But he explains that, here sUdhra is explained as “sOchanAssUdhra:” (one who is with sorrow is a sUdhra) – since jAnasruthi was lamenting greatly due to lack of brahma vidhyA, he is qualified to learn the same. Thus, while sAdhana bhakthi is only applicable for thraivarNikas (brAhmaNa, kshathriya and vaisya), sAdhya bhakthi is applicable for everyone. And since nammAzhwAr is instructing to all jIvAthmAs who are bound in this material world, he is explaining sAdhya bhakthi only.

From the above, it is concluded that nammAzhwAr is instructing the same sAdhya bhakthi  (which he received from bhagavAn out of his unconditional grace) to others.

A few questions arise on why he is instructing to others after fully experiencing bhagavAn in the previous decad.

  • Is he instructing others since he has seen bhagavath vishayam fully (and there is nothing left to experience)? No. As he himself explains in thiruvAimozhi itself, there is no end to bhagavAn‘s glories and it cannot ever be fully experienced. He too has unlimited desire to experience bhagavAn more and more. So, this is not the reason.
  • In some cases, one develops taste towards something but after sometime, one will start losing interest. Is bhagavath vishayam like that? No, as he himself says in thiruvAimozhi 2.5.4 “eppozhudhum nAL thingaL ANdu Uzhi UzhidhoRum appozhudhaikku appozhudhu en ArAvamudhE” (Everyday, month, year, epoch after epoch, everytime you are so new and nectarean) – he is ever tasteful.
  • Is this for AzhwAr to be seated as an AchArya (master)? No.
  • Is this for name, wealth and fame? No.
  • Is it to fulfil injunctions of sAsthram that says an AchArya must teach the sishya? No.

His teachings are the outcome of his own overflowing blissful experience. bhagavath vishayam is not to be enjoyed alone. He seeks out for good companions to share this blissful knowledge and only finds samsAris (materialistic persons). Just like he was attached to bhagavath vishayam, samsAris were attached to worldly pleasures. He could not bear the suffering of samsAris and desperately wants to remove their sufferings. nanjIyar often explains “if one has vaishNavathvam (vaishNava quality), he himself will know that. When he sees others sufferings and suffers for that he can consider himself to be a vaishNava. When he sees others sufferings and feels ‘let them suffer’, he cannot consider himself to be a vaishNava”.

To uplift them, AzhwAr explains the limitations of wordly pleasure and benefits of bhagavath vishayam. Realizing that, he explains insignificant/temporary nature of worldly pleasures and the eternal/glorious nature of bhagavAn, bhagavAn‘s relationship with jIvAthmAs are not something new and it is always there for every jIvAthmA, the manthram that is to be pursued for such persons who realise bhagavAn, his most worshippable nature and finally the need for detachment towards worldly pleasures and surrendering to emperumAn.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
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thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.11 – kara visumbu

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

azhwar-thiruvadi-thozhalnammAzhwAr thiruvadi thozhal (worshiping) at the lotus feet of srIranganAthan during adhyayana uthsavam

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, nammAzhwAr concludes that these 10 pAsurams are offered as devotional service at the lotus feet of emperumAn who is explained in the 10 pAsurams in great detail (same is explained in nampiLLai‘s introduction).

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, summarizing the supremacy of bhagavAn that is explained previously, AzhwAr declares that the result of (learning/reciting/understanding) this decad is mOksham.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • In the first pAsuram, bhagavAn having auspicious qualities, being the master of nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and having beautiful and distinct form are explained.
  • In the second pAsuram,  bhagavAn‘s svarUpam (true nature) – the abode of the previously said aspects (auspicious qualities, being with spiritual realm and having divine body) – is explained as distinct from chith and achith.
  • In the third pAsuram, AzhwAr enjoys the leelA vibhUthi (material realm) which is similar to nithya vibhUthi in the sense that both are owned/controlled by him.
  • In the fourth pAsuram, AzhwAr says that the leelA vibhUthi’s svarUpam (true nature) is under bhagavAn‘s control.
  • In the fifth pAsuram, AzhwAr says that the existence of the material realm is also under bhagavAn‘s control.
  • In the sixth pAsuram, AzhwAr says that action and inaction are under bhagavAn’s control.
  • In the seventh pAsuram AzhwAr says that since jagath (material realm) and Iswara share body and soul relationship, the aikyam (union) explained between jagath and Iswara is based on sarIra-Athma bhAvam.
  • In the eighth pAsuram, AzhwAr refutes kudhrushtis (ones who misinterpret vEdham).
  • In the ninth pAsuram, AzhwAr refutes sUnyavAdhis (ones who reject vEdham and say that everything is void).
  • In the tenth pAsuram, AzhwAr explains the convenient nature of emperumAn‘s vyApthi (omni-presence).

Thus, bhagavAn‘s parathvam (supremacy) is elaborately established by AzhwAr previously. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr says that ones who engage in this decad, gets the same result (bhagavath kainkarya mOksham) as he (AzhwAr) had got.

pAsuram

கர விசும்பு  எரி வளி நீர் நிலம் இவை மிசை
வரனவில் திறல்வலி யளி பொறை யாய் நின்ற
பரன் அடி மேல் குருகூர்ச் சடகோபன் சொல்
நிரனிறை ஆயிரத்து இவை பத்தும் வீடே

kara visumbu eri vaLi nIr nilam ivai misai
varanavil thiRalvali aLi poRai Ay ninRa
paran adi mEl kurukUrch chatakOpan sol
niraniRai Ayiraththu ivai paththum vIdE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kara – since AkAsam is more sUbtle than others, it is said as invisible or strong
visumbu – AkAsam – ether
eri – agni – fire
vaLi – vAyu – air
nIr – jalam – water
nilam – bhUmi – earth
ivai misai – being the abode or having them as attributes
varan – best
navil – sabdham – words (attribute of ether)
thiRal – heat (attribute of fire)
vali – bhalam – strength (attribute of air)
aLi – coolness (attribute of water)
poRai – forbearance (attribute of earth)
Ay ninRa – being these dharmi (elements) and dharmams (their attributes)
paran – the most supreme
adi mEl – on the lotus feet (which removes sorrows)
kUrukUrch chatakOpan – one who is born in AzhwArthirunagari and one who wins over bhAhyas and kudhrushtis who are identified by sata (ignorance, etc)
sol – mercifully spoken
niraniRai Ayiraththu – enriched/complete due to the words, meanings, tunes, music etc coming together
ivai paththum – these 10 pAsurams which reveal his supremacy
vIdE – (vidappattana – submitted) offered to the lotus feet of emperumAn. Since these 10 pAsurams lead one to mOksham, vIdE (vIdu = mOksham in thamizh) can also be taken as indicating the ultimate result.,

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

These 10 pAsurams (which are mercifully spoken and which are most enriching/complete) are offered by nammAzhwAr (who is born in AzhwArthirunagari) at the lotus feet of emperumAn who is the supreme lord and is the abode of pancha bhUtham (AkAsa, vAyu, agni, jalam and bhUmi) and their respective qualities (sound, strength, heat, coolness and forbearance) or has them as his attributes. Just like vAlmIki is glorified in srI rAmAyaNam bAla kaNtam 4.1 for his trustworthy nature, here AzhwAr ‘s trustworthy nature is highlighted. Since the count 1000 is highlighted, bhagavAn who is the divine force behind these pAsurams is established. This padhgam (decad) falls under the thamizh poem category of “kali viruththam“.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

This thiruvAimozhi (padhigam/decad) explains emperumAn who has two vibhUthis – nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm – bhOga upakaraNa – tool for his joy) and leelA vibhUthi (material realm – leelA upakaraNa – tool for his sport). AzhwAr focusses this on his lotus feet since it is the most suitable object of worship. Looking at the beauty of the words, meaning, tune, truthful nature of the pAsurams etc AzhwAr desires that 1000 such pAsurams are sung to glorify emperumAn.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kara visumbu … ivai misaipoRai Ay ninRa – By explaining the five elements and their qualities – leelA vibhUthi is explained. leelA vibhUthi is explained as upalakshaNam (a sample) for nithy vihUthi. Thus, the supreme lord who is the master of both realms.
  • kurukUrch chatakOpan – As said in srI rAmAyaNam bAla kANtam 4.1 “vAlmIkir bhagavAn rushi:” (the most knowledgable sage vAlmIki), here AzhwAr‘s name is revealed to highlight his trustworthy nature.
  • nira niRai – Can be “niral niRai” (made of best words and filled with great meanings) or “niran niRai” (Having 4 lines where line is similarly composed and matching the tunes of music etc in proper andhAdhi (last word/letter in one pAsuram matching next pAsuram’s first word, letter etc.,) format as explained for srI rAmAyaNam slOkams).
  • Ayiram – Similar to srI rAmAyaNam bAla kANtam 2.41 “…kAvyam rAmAyaNam kruthsnamIdhrusai: karavANyaham” (Let me compose this epic called srI rAmAyaNm in such manner) which was composed by vAlmIki (by the blessings of brahmA), AzhwAr who was fully blessed by emperumAn with blemishless knowledge declares that he is going to compile these pAsurams. Also, since his experiences cannot be revealed at once, he says he will reveal them in 1000 pAsurams in sequence. Also, it can be said that, since bhagavAn‘s greatness cannot be explained in a few words, AzhwAr says he will explain them over 1000 pAsurams.
  • ivai paththum vIdE – These are offered at the lotus feet of emperumAn. It can also be explained as – Just like when one looks at a field that has paddy crop and says “this field is filled with paddy” (even when it is not grown, yet indicating the result will be paddy), here, AzhwAr says these 10 pAsurams will lead to vIdu (mOksham).
  • AzhwAr mercifully explains that bhagavAn‘s mercy gave him blemishless knowledge, that knowledge leads him to mOksham and one who engages in this prabandham in any manner, will also get the same benefit.

Thus ends the English translation for thiruvAimozhi 1st centum 1st decad.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE charaNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE charaNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE charaNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE charaNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE charaNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE charaNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE charaNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE charaNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE charaNam

In the next article we will see the next padhigam (decad).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.10 – parantha thaN paravai

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

Mahavishnu-universes

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

bhagavAn pervades in each atom of the drops of water in the ocean, in the subtlest achith (matter) particles which exist from the earth to the sky and in the jIvAthmAs which exist inside each such particle. Even inside those jIvAthmAs, he pervades most casually/conveniently as if he is staying (all by himself) in a huge universe. Yet, he is invisible to others and he is the one who annihilates everything. nammAzhwAr instructs his mind to worship the lotus feet of such emperumAn who is clearly established in vEdham.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

nammAzhwAr explains the convenience of bhagavAn‘s vyApthi (omni-presence that was explained previously) in this pAsuram.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Previously nammAzhwAr explained that bhagavAn has the material realm as his subordinate (like body for the soul), the one who is omni-present, the abode of everything, controller and the master. But when jIvAthmA is bound inside a body, he becomes limited within the limitation of that body – would paramAthmA also go through similar difficulties/limitations? No. He pervades without any limitations in the most convenient manner.

pAsuram

பரந்த தண் பரவை யுள் நீர் தொறும் பரந்துளன்
பரந்த அண்டம் இது என நில விசும்பு ஒழிவு அறக்
கரந்த சில் இடம் தொறும் இடம் திகழ் பொருள் தொறும்
கரந்து எங்கும் பரந்துளன் இவை உண்ட கரனே

parandha thaN paravai uL nIr thoRum parandhuLan
parandha aNdam idhu ena nila visumbu ozhivu aRak
karandha sil idam thoRum idam thigazh poruL thoRum
karandhu engum parandhuLan ivai uNda karanE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

parandha – spread everywhere
thaN – Since its not mixed with other bhUthams, ocean is naturally cool (which is the natural quality of water)
paravai uL – inside the EkArNava (singular water mass which is the source of everything)
nIr thoRum – in each drop of water
parandha aNdam ithu ena – Like being in the huge aNdam (egg shaped universe)
parandhu uLan – being present without any limitation
nilam – in the earth
visumbu – in the higher planets
ozhivu aRa – in every particle
karandha – in the most subtle manner (invisible)
sil idam thoRum – Even in the most minute places
idam – in those places
thigazh – self-effulgent
poruL thoRum – in the jIvAthmAs
karandhu – hiding inside in such a way that even those pervaded objects do not know his existence
engum – everywhere
parandhu uLan – being the omni-present one
ivai uNda karan – one who consumed all these during samhAram and stayed firm

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Just like staying conveniently (all by himself) in the huge universe, he stays in each drop of the water in the naturally cool ocean in the most subtle matter. He is present even inside the most minute places and inside the self-effulgent jIvAthmAs who reside in those minute places in such a manner that the pervaded objects do not realise his presence. He, being the omni-present being, consumed everything during samhAram (annihilation) and remained firm.

With this, it is established that bhagavAn is omni-present in both kAraNa dhasai (causal stage) and kArya dhasai (resulting stage) even in the most subtle chith and achith in the most convenient way without any limitation.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

Included in the introduction itself.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • parandha thaN paravai uL nIr thoRum parandhu uLan –  In the cool and large ocean, bhagavAn has pervaded in every drop of water which itself is made of minute atomic particles.
  • parandha aNdam idhu ena – One may question “Will the bhagavAn who is explained in chAndhOgya upanishath 3.14 as ‘… jyAyAn antharikshAth …’ (though this paramAthmA is in my heart, he is greater than the earth etc) be cramped within the minutest atomic particle?” – AzhwAr answers that saying “No, he stays most conveniently in there just as he is staying in a huge universe by himself”.
  • nila visumbu ozhivaRa – Is he only pervading the minute particles of water? No, he is pervading earth, sky, this universe, all other universes, etc – everywhere which is explained further.
  • karandha sil idanthoRum – everywhere – in the space between eye-lids where minute beings live (and die quickly even by the force of closing the eye-lids) – even in those subtlest beings, he is fully pervaded.
  • idam thigazh poruL thoRum – Even inside the jIvAthmAs of those subtlest beings.
  • karandhu – hidden so that no one sees him, even those entities which were pervaded by him do not see/know him.
  • engum parandhuLan – When a chEthana/jIvAthmA pervades the body in which he lives, he pervades through his knowledge – gyAna vyApthi (i.e., jIvAthmA exists in the heart and through the dharma bhUtha gyAna understands and controls everything related to that body). But bhagavAn‘s vyApthi is not gyAna vyApthi – it is svarUpa vyApthi (pervaded naturally and fully in every place). bhagavAn is vibhu (great) and jIvAthmA is aNu (atomic – minute).
  • ivai uNda karanE – if bhagavAn is so huge and these atomic particles are miniscule, how can he stay inside these comfortably without being cramped? He can do it because he is omni-potent (all-capable). As explained by thirumangai AzhwAr in periya thirumozhi 11.5.3 “thayiruNda pon vayiRu ivvEzhulugumuNdum idamudaiththAl” (krishNa’s golden (most-likable) stomach which contains the curd/yoghurt eaten by him, has more space even after consuming the 7 layers of planets) – Just like emperumAn as a small child could consume all of the world and still have space left in his stomach, he can be great yet he can stay comfortably in the minutest particle.
  • karan – who is firmly known by the most authoritative vEdham.

In the next article we will see the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.9 – uLan enil uLan

Published by:

srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

leela-vibhuthione universe in leelA vibhUthi in manifested state – as drawn by srIperumbUthUr 1st embAr jIyar swamy based on vishNu purANam and pUrvAchAraya granthams

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

After rejecting kudhrushtis who accept vEdham but misinterpret them, this pAsuram rejects sUnyavAdhis (philosophers of voidness) who say “there is no pramANam (scriptures), there is no pramEyam (goal/bhagavAn); everything is sUnyam (void). Thus there is no vEdham, no bhagavAn (who is the object of vEdham) and no existence of this realm (which is his wealth)”.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

Similar to piLLAn‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, nammAzhwAr refutes mAdhyamika baudhdha philosophers (a type of sUnyavAdhi – voidness philoshopher) who is considered as the primary amongst vEdha bhAhyas (the ones who reject vEdham).

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Previously, nammAzhwAr refuted those who partially took some aspects of pramANam (scriptures) and pramEyam (goal) and thus misunderstood bhagavAn‘s svarUpam and his attributes/qualities. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr refutes sUnyavAdhi who rejects both pramANam and pramEyam. Even before the sUnyavAdhi starts giving any reason for his argument, AzhwAr himself declares the truth about bhagavAn who is with vibhUthi (great wealth of (spiritual realm and) material realm).

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In this pAsuram, nammAzhwAr refutes sarva sUnyavAdhi (one who says everything is void in all aspects). He refutes as done by srI bhAshyakArar (emperumAnAr) in srI bhAsyhyam. Since bhAshyakArar is after the times of AzhwAr, we can conclude that bhAshyakArar writes his refutal in srI bhAshyam based on AzhwAr‘s explanations.

Previously kudhrushtis argued that brahmA, rudhra et al are supreme based on some pramANams. But AzhwAr establishes that srIman nArAyaNan is the supreme lord, the entire material realm is for his service just like body is for the AthmA and these are revealed in vEdham.

When we say “something does not exist”, we first need to define that something and then only reject the existence of that thing. Due to the fact that “something” is defined first, it cannot be made void. Merely saying something does not exist (without defining the entity) will not explain complete voidness. sarva sUnyavAdham (complete voidness) can never be established (If there is a proper word that will always indicate some entity. It can never point to non-existing entity. For example if we say “there is no rabbit” – that means rabbit generally exists but it does not exist here at this place. Even if we create composite words like “rabbit-horn” (which is contradictory since there is no horn for rabbit) and say that does not exist, it will only prove that there is no connection between rabbit and horn – but both rabbit and horn exist separately.Thus, sarva sUnyavAdham can never be established).

AzhwAr tells the sUnyavAdhi that you can neither prove voidness by accepting bhagavAn‘s existence nor by rejecting bhagavAn‘s existence. In either case, your desire (of establishing voidness) will not be fulfilled. I will take your word of “bhagavAn does not exist” and prove that bhagavAn exists. Generally, we explain the meaning of a word that indicates the presence or absence of an entity (i.e., when we say something exists, that means that entity exists in a particular place, time and form. Similarly when we say an entity does not exist, that means that entity does not exist in particular place, time and form). If we do not agree to this common platform of debate, you do not have the qualification to participate in the debate.

pAsuram

உளன் எனில் உளன் அவன் உருவம் இவ்வுருவுகள்
உளன் அலன் எனில் அவன் அருவம் இவ்வருவுகள்
உளன் என இலன் என இவை குணம் உடைமையில்
உளன் இரு தகைமையொடு ஒழிவிலன் பரந்தே

uLan enil uLan avan uruvam ivvuruvugaL
uLan alan enil avan aruvam ivvaruvugaL
uLan ena ilan ena ivai guNam udaimaiyil
uLan iru thagailmaiyodu ozhivilan paranthE

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

uLan enil – if said to be existing as per own philosophy (vaidhika philosophy)
uLan alan enil – if said to be non-existing as per other philosophy (avaidhika philosophy)
uLan – Should be considered as existing since there should be an entity (substratum) for sath bhAvam (existence) or asath bhAvam (non-existence) while making a statement; thus,
uLan ena ilan ena ivai – that which is said as existing or non-existing
guNamudaimaiyil – having as attribute
ivvuruvugaL ivvaruvugaL – those aspects with form or without form in this material realm
avanuruvam avanaruval – having them as prakAram (attribute) that shows or hides
iru thagaimaiyodu – having two different aspects
uLan – being
parandhu – pervading everywhere
ozhivilan – present without ever ceasing to exist

Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

bhagavAn is the substratum for both existence (as per AzhwAr‘s vaidhika philosophy) or non-existence (as per avaidhika philosophy) – so, bhagavAn must be understood/accepted as existing  while making a statement about him. He is the one who pervades everywhere without ever ceasing to exist and has both with-form and form-less manifestation of this material realm as his two types of aspects which shows and hides him respectively.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

AzhwAr tells a sUnyavAdhi “You cannot prove bhagavAn‘s non-existence through his presence or absence. In general, bhAvam (presence) or abhAvam (absence) of an entity/attribute is based on the place, time and form. When we say bhagavAn is present, that means he is present within gross forms which are visible  and when say bhagavAn is absent, that means he is present within subtle forms which are invisible. Even for other entities (chith and achith), the same rule applies – they either are present in gross or subtle forms. Thus being with form (gross) or without form (subtle) are just his attributes. Thus in either case he exists”. Thus sUnyavAdhi is refuted.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam. nanjIyar highlights that his pAsuram is explained according to kUraththAzhwAn‘s explanation.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • avanuruvam ivvuruvugaLbhagavAn exists with the universe which he controls as explained in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “yasya AthmA sarIram yaya pruthivI sarIram” (all jIvAthmAs are his body, earth is his body) and has this universe as his sarIram (body) and sEsham (subordinate) – this is the sthUlarUpam (gross form). When it is said as uLAn alan (he does not exist) he exists in the unmanifested (sUkshma – subtle) form.
  • avanaruvam ivvarugaL – This is explained as the meaning of the word “nAsthi” (non-existence) which really explains a different state of existence. “gatOsthi” (pot exists) indicates an object with an opening at the top with a rounded structure. “gatO nAsthi” indicates a different state – when it is not here means it is present else where; when it is not present now means it is present at some other time; it cannot be said that pot does not exist in any form at all times.
  • uLan ena ilan ena ivai guNam udaimaiyil – Having the existence (in gross form) and non-existence (existence in subtle form) as qualities indicate that both of them are his attributes.
  • uLan iru thagaimaiyodu – He has both types of behaviour of being in existence and being not in existence which are indicated by the words “uLan” and “ilan“.
  • ozhivilan parandhE – I (AzhwAr) established his existence through the word “uLan“. You (sUnyavAdhi) established his existence through the word “ilan“. So, both of us have established the truth. AzhwAr also says “Just like his existence is established, can we not understand that he exists with this wealth of nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and leelA vibhUthi (material realm)?”.

Note: kAnchI P.B aNNangarAchAryar swamy says at the end of his detailed explanation for this pAsuram in his dhivyArththa dhIpikai commentary – “It cannot be explained in any more detail – this should be heard in detail under learned scholars” – what to speak about this English translation? The translation here is to develop the taste in hearing word-by-word kAlakshEpam of these wonderful granthams which are the only way to get reasonable understanding of these pAsurams.

In the next article we will see the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
srIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org