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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 100

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As he advised in this way, he was satisfied, and seeing the way his divine mind was loving the enjoyable experience of the divine feet of emperumAnAr and so it was rushing for it, amudhanAr prays to emperumAnAr – your highness should not show something else and besot me.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – Addressing his divine mind that was discouraged about getting the true destiny, amudhanAr cajoled his mind and said that if we worshiped him who is the charama parvam (ultimate state of being devoted to AchAryan), then he would not leave our destiny to ourselves; and amudhanAr told his mind about how as people of other philosophies, that are those who reject vEdhas and who mis-interpret vEdhas, had spread all over the world and were getting the people (AthmA) to be destroyed, he won all of them through the true path of SAsthram, and he is in the position of kaRpakam tree;  as he told this to his mind, then like how SrI rukmiNi pirAttiyAr after hearing about the glory of krishNan was very eager to marry Him, amudhanAr’s divine mind was very eager like a bee to drink the honey from the divine lotus, that is emperumAnAr’s feet; as emperumAnAr gave his divine glance to such state of his mind, amudhanAr prays to emperumAnAr about the state of this mind, and prays – kindly do not show me some other matter and besot me.

pOndhadhu en nenju ennum pon vaNdu unadhu adippOdhil oN seer
Am theLi thEn uNdu amarndhida vENdi nin pAl adhuvE
eendhida vENdum irAmAnusa! idhuvanRi onRum
mAndhakillAdhu ini maRRonRu kAtti mayakkidalE                      – 100


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

pon vaNdu – beautiful bee
en –  that is my
nenju ennum – mind
pOndhadhu – came
nin pAl – to you
uNdu – to drink
theLi – clear (transparent)
thEn – honey
oN seerAm – that is, your  auspicious qualities like chaithyam (refreshingly cool), mArdhavam (softness), saurabhyam (fragrant), etc.,
pOdhil – from the flower
unadhu – that is your
adi – divine feet,
amarndhida vENdi – and stay there for ever (nithya vAsam);
Not give anything else than what it desired,
eendhida vENdum – your highness should give
adhuvE – that only,
irAmAusa! – Oh udaiyavar!
Even if your highness gave something else, like how if one feeds grass to amruthAsi (one who is used to drinking nectar (dhEvas)),  it would not go below his throat,
idhu anRi – other than this
mAndhakillAdhu – it would not accept/consume
onRum – any thing else;
If your highness wishes, you can make even that happen (but)
ini – now (from now on)
mayakkidal – please do not besot me
maRRonRu  kAtti –  by showing something else.


Starting with pOndhadhen nenju’ –

irAmAnusA – Oh emperumAnAr!

 rukmiNi pirAtti wishing to marry krishNan after hearing about his vaibhavam

en nenju ennum pon vaNdu –  The bee (shat padham – 6-legged) that is my mind which is thinking about the great help which your highness performed;

Saying ‘pon vaNdu’ is because since he is the one who keeps thinking on manthra rathnam (dhvayam), as said in ‘sakalam kAlam dhvayEna kshipan’ (Spend your time saying dhvayam), and ‘manthra rathnAnusandhAna santhathasppurithAdharam’ (lips of mAmunigaL would keep moving by reciting manthra rathnam), since it is thought about in all places, at all times, and in all states, as abhiyukthar also divined as ‘lakshmee chakshuranudhyAna thath sArUpyamupEyushE – namOsthu meenavapushE’ (Due to keeping on thinking about the eyes of thAyAr that look like fish, emperumAn became a fish), by thathkrathu nyAyam, for his mind that is always thinking about Sat padham (dhvaya manthram that is of 6-words), it is possible to get the quality of shat padham (6-legged (bee)), the most distinguished bee, is the saying.

You see, amudhanAr always celebrates shat padham only (dhvayam, which has six parts) {or, as in many previous pAsurams where he celebrates his mind}. (Or, since emperumAnAr
always celebrates shat padham (dhvayam), since amudhanAr’s mind wants to do the same, it became shat padham (bee)).

{Translator’s note: shat padham – Also means 6 legs – those of AchAryan, his wife, and his son.  AchAryan – can be emperumAnAr
in this context; wife – can be kUraththAzhvAn whose divine feet emperumAnAr
showed to amudhanAr (paNi seyvadhu gruhiNikkiRE – though one is hired by the husband, one should serve the wife at home – mumukshuppadi); and son – thirukkurugaip pirAn piLLAn whom emperumAnAr considers as his son.

And you see, these are the divine feet which amudhanAr celebrates at all times.

unadhu adippOdhil oNseerAm theLi thEn uNdu amarndhida vENdi nin pAl – As said in ‘pApakriyasya SaraNam bhagavath kshamaiva – sAchathvayaiva kamalA ramaNErthi thAyath kshEmassa Evahi yatheendhra bhavachchrithAnAm [yathirAja vimSathi – 18], your highness, who, to save all the sentient, performed SaraNAgathy in the divinely radiant divine feet of  thiruvarangach chelvanAr (SrIranganAtha), in the presence of SrI ranga nAyakiyAr; from such you, to drink the clear honey that is your divine qualities of chaithyam (refreshingly cool), mArdhavam (softness), saurabhyam (fragrant), etc., and as saying ‘un adik keezh amarndhu pukundhEnE [thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10]’ (~am being under your divine feet), am praying to you, for me to be near you like your shadow and lines in the feet.

pOndhadhu – reached.

As said in ‘gurupadhAmbujam dhyAyEth’ (Always be thinking about divine feet of AchAryan), it is meditating on your divine feet;

oN seer –  beautiful qualities;

saying nin pAl is – in the divine feet of your highness; pAl – to (you).

adhuvE eendhida vENdum – Other than what my wavering mind is loving to get, without showing something else, please give only that. You see amudhanAr is asking like this with the wish as – Please give only the experience of the honey of the lotus feet of your highness.

As said in ‘vishNO:padhE paramE madhva uthsa:’ (honey flowing from thrivikraman’s divine feet),

rasamhyEvAyam labhdhvAnandhee bhavathi’ (reaching the honey that is divine feet of emperumAn and becoming happy (and what else would he wish for?)),

sarva gandha: sarva rasa:’ (emperumAn’s divine body is the source of all fragrance and taste), and,

‘un thEnE malarum thiruppAdham [thiruvAimozhi – 1.5.5]’ (Your divine feet that is the origin of honey), and,

thavAmruthasyandhini pAdha pankajE [sthOthra rathnam](how would any mind fixed on your divine feet look for anything else?),

if you say – There is something else that is more enjoyable than this, and I will give you that – ,

idhu anRi onRum mAndhakillAdhu – As said in ‘eedhE innam vENduvadhu endhAy [thiruvAimozhi – 10.8.10]’ (~(got your divine feet, doing services, and) I pray for more of this), we have got the taste only for the honey in the divine feet of your highness, so, if giving something other than that, then, like how if one feeds grass to amrthAsi (one who is used to drinking nectar (dhEvas)),  it would not go below his throat, the beautiful bee that is my mind would not eat that; so,

adhuvE eendhida vENdum – please grant only that, says amudhanAr.

When some recite as ‘anbAl adhuvE eendhida vENdum’, it says, please grant it with love.

anbu -> love. mAndha -> eat.

ini maRRonRu kAtti mayakkidalE – Given this, please do not show something else and delude (me).

mayakku – delude/besot;

You see, amudhanAr is feeling uneasy to even utter ‘showing bhagavath vishayam’ (emperumAn), and so is saying ‘showing “something else”.

mAndhakillAdhu – if your highness wishes, you can make even that to happen (set me up in prathama parvam);  even then, my mind would not cooperate to that case;  your highness always attempts to do something only based on the individual’s desire, isn’t it?

Has your highness not considered in your mind the meaning said in ’sthithErvindhE makarandha nirbhbharE madhuvrathE na ikshurakamhi veekShathE’ (How would someone having mind that is resting on your lotus divine feet dripping with honey, be wishing for something else?)  (In the same way my mind would not look for anything else than your divine feet, in charama parvam).

paramAchAryar (AlavandhAr) too in the case of prathama parvam (emperumAn) said this as ‘thavAmrutha syandhini pAdha pankajE nivESidhAthmA kathamanyadhichchathi’ [sthOthra rathnam 27](how would any mind fixed on your divine feet look for something else?)

ini maRRonRu kAtti mayakkidalE –  amudhanAr is saying – not even consider any thing else.

nammAzhvAr too divined this meaning in case of prathama parvam (emperumAn), as ‘pala nee kAttip paduppAyO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.9], ‘innam keduppAyO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.8]’, ‘nERi kAtti neekkudhiyO [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 6]’.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

pOndhadhu … mAndhakillAdhu – Nature of a bee is to keep looking for flowers for honey. If it gets a flower pregnant with honey, will it even lift its head to look at something else?  For a bee, honey is the only food. It would not eat anything else. That is why it is also called as ‘madhu vratham’.

After a bee drinks honey in full, it would not move from there.

It is quite a match for a ‘pon’ vaNdu (bee) (mind) to come and settle down under ‘poR’ kaRpagam (tree).

Due to meditating often on shatpadham (dhvayam), his mind also became shatpadham (bee (six legs)).  piLLai lOkam jeeyar would tastefully comment that this is like how bhagavAn meditated on the fish-like eyes of lakShmI and He became a fish.

adhuvE eendhida vENdum – only if you give what is wished for would it be considered as granting the purushArtham, isn’t it?

Not just following the restriction mentioned in ‘gurupAdhAbujam dhyAyEth’ (always think about AchAryan’s divine feet), but my mind, by itself, has involved in the divine qualities of yours and has attempted to keep thinking about it continuously; it is emperumAnAr only who should grace for my mind to be immersed in the experience of your qualities more and more – is the prayer of amudhanAr.

ini maRRonRu kAtti mayakkidal – whereas emperumAn might divert our attention towards many many lowly pleasures, emperumAnAr can only divert by showing the great pleasure that is emperumAn’s divine feet. By this, amudhanAr is showing his status of being in charama parvam (subservience to AchAryan).

In this pAsuram it is so enjoyable to see amudhanAr considering emperumAnAr
with – ananyArha SEshathvam (not belonging to anyone other than emperumAnAr), ananya SaraNathvam (not having any other means than emperumAnAr), and ananya bhOgyathvam (not considering anything else as enjoyable than emperumAnAr).

That is, by saying ‘unadhu adippOdhil amarndhida nin pAl’ (be under your divine feet) – while it would have been enough to use the words ‘unadhu adippOdhil amarndhida’, using additional words ‘nin pAl’ shows that he does not want to go to someone else, but only to emperumAnAr, and so it shows ananya Seshathvam.

Saying ‘adhuvE eendhida vENdum’ it shows that emperumAnAr only is the means of getting what is desired. Since it is emperumAnAr himself who is requested to grant it, it shows ananya SaraNathvam.

Saying ‘idhuvanRi onRum mAndhakillAdhu’ shows obviously the ananya bhOgyathvam.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 99 – Part 4

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thaRkach chamaNarum sAkkiyap pEygaLum thAzh sadaiyOn
soRkARRa sOmbarum sUniyavAdharum nAn maRaiyum
niRkak kuRumbu sey neesarum mANdanar neeNilaththE
poRkaRpakam em irAmAnusa muni pOndha pinnE                     –  99


vyAkyAnam – continued

neeNilaththE (neeL nilaththa) – in the big world where there is vast space for these many different types of people of philosophies that reject or mis-interpret vEdhas, to exist;  neeL – vastness of area.

poR kaRpagam – like a very desirable kaRpagam tree, most generous, and since saying with special words as ‘pOR’ kArpagam – unlike that other kaRpagam tree that is of material realm, and which is unintelligent, and desirable only for those wishing for material objects, this one is a distinguished kaRpagam that is not of material realm, shining by itself, desirable for everyone, and of great generosity of voluntary ever-lasting help of saving us, by giving meanings through SrIbAshyam. Like the distinguished nature of the benefits given by the kaRpagam tree, this kaRpagam (emperumAnAr) is also of distinguished nature.

em irAmAnusa muni – While the whole world is on one side, and I the most adverse am on the other side, to save me only he is devoutly thinking – that is, emperumAnAr.

emperumAnAr – thirumAlirunchOlai (azhagar kOyil)
(Photo courtesy: geethAchAryan magazine cover)

pOndha pinnEafter he arrived

mANdanarAll those following the cruel philosophies were finished. That is, through SrIbAshyam, subdued each of those philosophies, and they become losers.

chAruvAka matha neeRu seydhu samaNach chedik kanal koLuththiyE
   sAkkiyak kadalai vaRRuviththu miga sAngiyak kiRi muRiththida *
mAru seydhidu kaNAdha vAdhiyargaL vAy thakarththu aRamiguththu mEl
   vandha pAsupathar sindhi Odum vagai vAdhu seydha ethirAsanAr *
kURumAkuru madhaththodu Ongiya kumArinal madham avaRRin mEl
  kodiya thaRka saRam vitta pin kuRugi mAyavAdhiyarai venRida *
meeRi vAdhil varum pARkaran madha vilakkadikkodi eRindhu pOy
  mikka yAdhava madhaththai mAyththa peru veerar, nALum miga vAzhiyE.

                                                                            [Arththi prabandham – 29]

that is, thinking about the way in which he won these opposing philosophies, and for the wealth of valor that came from that, this mangaLASAsanam is divined by our jeeyar.


gAtha dhAtha kathAnAm kaLathi kamanikA kApeeli kvApi leenA
   kSheeNA kANadha vANee dhruhiNa hara kira: saurabham nArabhandhE –
kShAmA kaumArila ukthi: jagathi kurumatham kauravAth dhUravAntham
  kASa sangA Sangar AthE; bhajathi yathipathau badhra vEdheem thrivEdheem.
                                                                             [yathirAja sapthathi 70],

(emperumAnAr sat on the divine seat made by the three vEdhas; what happened immediately? Arguments of baudhdhas slid away immediately. The path advised by kapilar went and hid somewhere. Advice of kANAdhar faded away. Philosophies of nAnmukhan and Sivan lost their fragrance. kumArila bhattar’s arguments lost; prabhAkarar’s philosophy was removed by pointing out that there is too much of imagination. Is it even required to mention that ones like Sankarar’s arguments also were condemned?) –  is the same meaning as divined by abhiyukhthar (vEdhantha dhEsikan).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vi(dhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :


Part 4

mANdanar neeNilaththE poR kaRpagam … pOndha pinnEWhereas the kaRpakam tree came to the earth due to kaNNan that was for his beloved, emperumAnAr who lives there [in paramapadham], descended to earth due to kaNNan (emperumAn) asking (for His devotees), and he descended to this world for them, to give them the true meanings of vEdhas and for them to be saved; so this kaRpagam came and gave good meanings (poruL / arththam means ‘wealth/comforts’, and also, ‘meaning’).

Those of other philosophies are finished and gone without trace. So, this state won’t be destroyed (that is, the state of ours having subservience towards emperumAnAr, and more than that, our subservience towards his devotees (as based on question of his mind starting from pAsurams 97 through 99)) . Oh mind! So do not be discouraged – is what amudhanAr says, is the meaning.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 99 – Part 3

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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<< previous part (pAsuram 99 – part 2)

thaRkach chamaNarum sAkkiyap pEygaLum thAzh sadaiyOn
soRkARRa sOmbarum sUniyavAdharum nAn maRaiyum
niRkak kuRumbu sey neesarum mANdanar neeNilaththE
poRkaRpakam em irAmAnusa muni pOndha pinnE – 99


vyAkyAnam – continued – Part 3

(Continuing from about how emperumAn by Himself (as buddha), and through rudhran got the asuras and rakShasas who did not follow His orders, to get confused by introducing these other philosophies).

In mOksha dharmam of mahAbhAratham, sarvESvaran told about this:

bhudhdhO nAma munirbhUdhvA mOhayishyAmi mAnavAn’ (I am budhdha and am going to confuse people),–

‘thadha:paSchAth bhavishyanthi muNdA:kAshAya vasasa: (After my incarnation many would shave their head fully, wear kAshAyam, and roam around)-

thEshAm alpa tharO dharma: iha lOkE parathra cha’ (They (baudhdhas) will possess lowly religious manner in here and in the other world as well) –

‘thEshAm dhaththancha bhukthancha basmee bhavanthi kAshtavath’ (whatever they eat and whatever we eat that is given by them, would become like ash, wood, etc.) –

‘viprASSrAdhdhEshu vadhAsyanthi mayi dudhdhathvamAgathE’ (if anyone associated to budhdha would come, SrAdhdham should be stopped and not exchange any item with them ) –  –

(if there is any association with baudhdhas),

alpa thOyAsthathO mEghA: alpasasyA vasundharA‘ (if there is any association with them, then clouds will be devoid of rain; land would not grow anything) –

alpa kSheerAsthadhO gAva:‘ (there would not be milk in any cow, ) ,

‘alpa vidhyAScha brAhmaNA:‘ (brAhmaNas would not be able to learn well) –

nivarthha yagya svAdhyAya piNdodhaka vivarjithA:‘ ((those brAhmaNas would not be able to learn SAsthram, fulfill their karmas for their ancestors,) –

anadhyAyEshvadheeyanthE’ ((brAhmaNas) would learn/repeat vEdhas during anadhyayana period (when it is not supposed to be learned/repeated),

brAhmaNASSaucha varjithA:‘ ((brAhmaNas) would not be having honesty, not follow precepts, guidelines),

agni hOthrAScha naSyanthi‘ ((brAhmaNas) would not be doing agnihOthram (karma to be done using sacred fire)),

guru pUjA: praNaSyathi‘ (worship of guru would be lost) –

brAhmaNAs sarvayagyEshu pracharanchi sa dhakShiNA:‘ (would do yajyam (worshiping rites) only for dhakShiNa (money)) –

thath prajyA:praLayam yAnthi kAlaka dharmENa chodhithA:’ (That is why, instigated by Time, there would be annihilation (praLayam)) –

naSruNvanthi pithu: puthrA: nasnushA na sahOdharA: – nabharthyA na kaLathrANi bhavishyathi adharOththaram’ (Son would not listen to (obey) his father, younger brother would not listen to (obey) his elder brother, wife would not listen to (obey) her husband, everything would be upside down);

When rudhran was detailing about the glory of EkAdhaSi, and at that time, as he recollected in this context, mentioned that one should not talk to or go near such pAshaNdis during EkAdhaSi – hearing this, pArvathi asked ‘If so, why do you wear their discard-able signs/marks in you?’.

Starting from ‘namuchAdhyA mahAdhaithyA: purA svAyambhuvEntharE’ (namuchi (who is prahlAdhan’s later generation), and other asuras went and saw directly), even though  those rAkshasas were devotees of vishNu, they troubled His devotees like indhra, and invaded their abodes; the affected ones went and surrendered to the sarvESvaran that is SrIman nArAyaNan, and appealed about the dangers that have come to them; hearing this, emperumAn thought ‘Those rAkShasas while being my devotees, have violated by rules, etc., so I will make them disinterested in Me, and then I shall finish them’,

and said, (addressing rudhran):

‘ithyAkarNya harEr vAkyam dhEvAnAm abhayArthinAm‘ (as dhEvas appealed to emperumAn, as emperumAn started saying this, they were happy) –

thAnScha vrudhdhAn vidhi thvAthmA mAha purushOththama:’ (eager to know what emperumAn is going to say)

Sri bhagavAn uvAcha ;- ‘thvancha rudhra mahAbhAhO mOhanArtham suradhvishAm – pAshaNdA charaNam dharmam kurushva sura saththama‘ (Oh rudhra! Who wishes well for dhEvas! For causing confusion among asurAs, conduct the pAshaNda dharmam.) –

thAmasAni purANAni rasayasva cha thAn prathi, mOhanAnicha SasthrANi thvam kurushva mAhAmadhE’ (Oh one having great intellect! Create thAmasa purANam also, to confuse/distract them!),  (They should get interested in it, become disinterested in Me, and then I will finish them),

and He advised as said in

‘vamSathAmScha mahAmuni:- thavaSakthyA samAviSya kurushva jagathO hitham‘ (as advice – using your Sakthi do good for the world) –

kathyn sEvathE viprA: thAmasAni jagathrayE – purANAni chaSAsthrANi thvathparENOpabrmhitha:‘ (create purANams and SAsthrams that talk about you)-

‘thathA pASupatham SAsthram thvamEva kuru suvratha’ (Oh the good soul! You create the pAsupatha SAsthram as well) –

‘gangAnanchaiva pAshaNda mahA SaivAdhi bhEdhatha:’ (with various ways that is, your having gangA in your hair, Siva, (pAsupatha, etc)), – –

avalambhya matham samyak vEdha bhAhyAth dhvijOththamA:‘ (~let them reject vEdhams and be associated to the philosophies you create) –

basmAdhi dhAraNAs sarvE bhabhUvusthEtha samSaya:’ (they will be with ashes smeared in their body)- –

‘thvAm parathvEna Samsanthi sarvaSAsthrEshu thAmasA:‘ (they will misunderstand the words of SAsthram, and will take you as the supreme god) –

ahamabhyavathArEshu thvAncha rudhra mahAbala – – thAmasAnAmmOhanArtham pUjayAmi yugE yugE’ (I will incarnate and will worship you in each yugam to misdirect them) – –

mathadhEvathavashtabhyA thathayanthE na samSaya:’ (they will be destroyed by following this religion, there is no doubt about it)

– commanding so, you wear these signs/marks in you so that they would follow your words”,

and be in this way. Hence, my appearance matches emperumAn’s command, thus answered rudhran to pArvathi.

And then rudhran said, ‘prathamam hi mayai vOktham Saivam pASupathAdhikam‘ (first I created the Saiva philosophy that is pAsupatham),

mathSakthyAvESithair viprai: samprOkthA nithatha:param – – mAyAvAdham asaSchAsthram prachchannam baudhdhamuchyathE’ (then I myself born as Sankarar to spread mAyAvadham that is against SAsthram, and which is a hidden form of baudhdham) –

mayaiva khathitham dhEvi kalau brAhmaNa rUpinA’ (in kali yugam I will be born as a brAhmaNa, that is, Sankarar) –

apArtham Sruthi vAkhyAnAm dharSitham lOka garhitham’ (I will create words against that of Sruthi (vEdham), which will be rejected by noble ones (and accepted by lowly ones)) –

karma svarUpa thyAjyam yath athraiva prathipAdhyathE’sarva karma paribrashtam vikarthamasththa thadhuchyathE. parESa jeevayOraikyam mayAthraprathipAdhyathE’ ((I am going to talk a lot about leaving the ordained activities; it will be said by me that jeevAthmA and paramAthmA would become one (aikyam) –

brahmaNObya param rUpam nairgguNyam vakSyathEmayA‘ ( I will say that brahmam does not have any qualities (and thus steal its qualities) –

sarvasya jagathObhyathra mOhanArtham kalau yugE’ (~In the coming yugam, I will give meanings that would confuse them all)- –

‘vEdhArthavan mahA SAsthram mAyAvAdham avaidhikam’ (saying that I am giving the meanings of vEdham I will spread mAyAvAdham that is against SAsthram),

mayaiva vakShyathE dhEvi asthAm nASa kAraNAth’ (These are said by me to destroy them) – this is, in detail, as rudhran said in pAdhmOththarakaNdam, umA mAhESvara samvAdham (conversation).

What is shown in this pAsuram about those who reject vEdhas and those who mis-interpret vEdhas, is applicable (upalakshaNam) also to the five philosophies – sAnkyam (by kapilAchAryar), yOgis (by brahmA himself), bhAtta (by kumarila bhattar), prAbhAkara (by prabhAkaran), EkAyanar (mAdhva philosophy).

Author of eedu (vyAkyAnam to thiruvAimozhi) took up these five as well for discussion – as along with other philosophies.

(In short):

sAmkya, yOgis are – those who say – Since it is said ‘sadhEva sOmyEdhamagra Aseeth’ (It was only being as sath before), and ‘sathvam rajas thama ithi guNA: prakruthi sambhavA:’, it says that the creator/cause of the world is the pradhAnam that is of sathvam (tranquility), and rajas (action/aggression), and thamas (inaction / confusion / laziness), which is talked about by the word ‘sath’, and,

since it says ‘ahankAra vimUdAthmA karththAhamithimanyathE [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’ (Though he does not do anything, the jeevAthmA thinks that he is doing), AthmA is having the state of performing something (karthruthvam) due to its association with prakruthi (material realm) only, and not by its own nature, and,

since it says ‘prakruthE:kriyamANAni’ [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’, that prakruthi itself is having karthruthvam, and,

there is no eeSvaran distinguished from the one represented by prakruthi, and the eternal association of AthmA with that prakruthi is samsAram, and, understanding the different/separation between prakruthi and that purushan (AthmA), is mOksham.

(A man who can walk but not see, carrying a man who can see but not walk – this is the example of association between prakruthi and jeevAthmA, given by this philosophy)

bhAtta and prAbhAkarar are – those who say – Since it is said as ‘AthmAnObhahava: prOkthA: nithyAs sarvakathAsthathA – anyairmathi mathAm SrEshta thathvAlOkana thathparai:’, and as,

‘bhudhdheendhriya SareerEbhyObhinna AthmA vibhurdhruva: – nAnAbhUtha prathikShEthra marthatha gyAnEshupAsathE’,

that is, AthmAs are eternal, many in number, present everywhere (in many bodies), and distinguished from body, etc.,

and since it is said

badhyathE sahilOkasthu ya:kAmya prathishidhdhakruth – kAmya karmANi kurvANair  kAmya karmAnu rUpatha:‘ (AthmA is bound in this world by performing actions seeking benefits for oneself) –

‘janithvaiva upa bhOkthavyam puna:kAmya palam narai:’ (he will have to be born to experience the karmas; and will again accumulate the results of actions of that birth) –

‘krimi keetAdhi rUpENa janithvAthu nishidhdha kruth, nishidhdha pala bhOgisyAth athOyO narakam vrajEth’ (~he is born in various forms, performs undesired acts, and as a result of experiencing it, gets into hell),

the AthmAs are associated to samsAram by eternally performing forbidden acts for their own benefits,

and since it is said,

yathAdhya jagathO bhudhdhi thathA kAlAntharEshvapi – pravAhOnithya Evaisha: ka:karthEthicha kEchanacha’ (nobody created the world – it is eternal by liking as a stream (like how earlier generations would have seen this world, it continues to exist)),

world is eternal in the form of a flowing stream (pravAham),

and since it is said,

‘na dhEvathA chathurthyantha viniyOdhruthE parA’, there are these other things that are present only for me, and there is no separate entity as god to be had,

and since it is said,

‘vEdhaika vihitham karma mOkShatham nAparanthatha:’ as per what is said in vEdham, and by performing yajyam, etc., that are done without interest in own benefit, a new sense (apUrvam) is generated in AthmA, and due to that getting relief from the ties of karmas, and AthmA attaining just its previous state (kaivalyam, AthmA enjoying self) is mOkSham.

EkAyanar are – those who say – As said in ‘thvath priyam lOkanAtham’, not accepting subservience to mithunam (lakshmI and emperumAn), but accepting only brahmam without the SrI (lakShmI),

and since it is said in lakShmI thanthram as :

SakthibhissEvithA nithyam srushti sthithithyAdhibhir apara:’ (periya pirAttiyAr is worshiped as with many powers of creation, well being, etc.) –

‘dhvA thirmshat (320) Satha SAhasra (100,000) srushti Sakthibhir AvruthAm vruthA thadhviguNAbhiScha dhivyApi sthithi Sakthibhi:’ (~She is surrounded by divine power to create numerously)-

‘nathastha dhviguNAbhiScha yukthAsa samhrutha Sakthibi: – nAyikA sarva SaktheenAm sarvaSakthi mahESvarI‘ (She is eeSvarI for all the power, being the head of all the powers, and is having the name of mahESvarI) –

Ekam thath paramam brahmashAtguNyasthimitham maha: – bhAva bhAvamatheethasya SakthirEshAnapAyinee thath dharma dharmadhI dhivyA jyOthsnEva himatheegithE – naiva SakthyAvinAkaSchith bhakthi mAnasthi kAraNam’ (~She is the Sakthi, that is, mahAlakShmI, who does not stay away from emperumAn; She adds brightness, and encourages Him for the good; emperumAn does not stay separated from lakshmI),

(but) they say that there is no lakshmI  having distinguished Sakthi (active power), and creation, well being, etc., who belongs to emperumAn, they say that such power of emperumAn to do creation, etc., itself is lakshmI, that is brahmam would be having them as its attributes (viSishtam), (and that Sakthi is pradhAna Sakthi, and other are apUrNa Sakthi, and brahmam would be having all these as its attributes).

{ To be continued in part 4 }

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vi(dhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :


Part 3

— No additional vyAkyAnam here –

{ Continued in part 4 }

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 99 – Part 2

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thaRkach chamaNarum sAkkiyap pEygaLum thAzh sadaiyOn
soRkARRa sOmbarum sUniyavAdharum nAn maRaiyum
niRkak kuRumbu sey neesarum mANdanar neeNilaththE
poRkaRpakam em irAmAnusa muni pOndha pinnE                     –  99


vyAkyAnam – continued as part – 2

sUniya vAdharum (are) mAdhyamikar who say that only sUnyam (voidness) is thathvam (reality); even though they are also in the category of sAkyar, amudhanAr is separating it because of its cruelty. Those spreading this bhaudhdha philosophy are of four types – vaibhAshikar, sauthrAnthikan, yOgAchAran, and, mAdhyamikan; among these, (only) the first three mentioned above have commonly accepted that knowledge is kshaNikam (momentary); other than elements and qualities of elements (bhUtha bauthikam), they did not accept Agamam (vEdham, etc).

Among them, vaibhAshikar is – One who says – Formed by the assembling of “paramANu” (of each of pruthvi, appu, thEjas, and vAyu (they don’t talk about AkASam)) combining to form each such category of bhUtham (element), bhUthams combine to become dhEham, indhriyam, etc., (body, faculties/senses etc.,) at global level which is the world we see, and within those body and faculties/senses is AthmA which is prathyak AthmA, who is aham sarva gOcharan), and so is based on prathyakSham (seen) that is the world; the knowledge about this world is transient (kShaNikam), all matters known by knowledge would be with creation and destruction, AthmA is that transient knowledge itself, thinking of world or knowledge as stable/ever-existing is samsAram (life in material world), and realizing that such knowledge is unstable/transient is mOksham (liberation).

sauthrAnthikan is – One who says – What is learned by knowledge by seeing external things is about the diversified nature of things (different attributes of things in the world ((vaichithriyam / vichithram), like its shape, color, etc.)), and that diversified nature is how knowledge understands such things even when those things do not exist anymore; since now the knowledge knows about such things based on prior seeing, it is to be concluded that such diversified knowledge (vaichithriyam / vichithram) of things is based on anumAnam (guess/conjecture based on prior seeing);

diversified nature of things in the world has created diversified nature (vaichithriyam) in knowledge;

and such knowledge is transient (kshaNikam); thinking of world or knowledge as stable/ever-existing is samsAram, and realizing that such knowledge is transient is mOksham.

yOgAchAran is – One who says – like attributes (AkAram (like shape, color, etc.)) of external things, knowledge (gyAnam) also has got/knows (such) attributes, and (so) there is no need for those things to exist (gyEyam), it is there in the knowledge itself; since an external thing and the word to name it/describe it are always together and cannot be separated, it is enough to have the knowledge about it, and the thing need not exist; knowledge itself has got such diversified information, and there is none of those external things existing; and realizing that such knowledge is transient is mOksham.

SrI parAsara bhattar mentioned these three together as a group in: ‘yOgAchArO jagadh apalapayathra sauthrAnthikasthu , eevaichithriyAdhanumithipadham vakthi vaibhAshikasthu | prathyakSham thathkShaNikayathi thE ranganAtha! thrayO(S)pi, gyAnAthmathva kShaNabhidhurathE chakShathE thAn thath kshipAma: || [SrI rangarAja sthavam – uththara sathakam – 8]’

(Out of the four baudhdhas, yOgAchAran is hiding the world, nullifying it; sauthrAnthikan says that that world is understood by anumAnam due to varying attributes of knowledge; while vaibhAshikan is saying that this world which is there to see, as one which gets destroyed in a moment (transient); these three are saying that knowledge itself is AthmA and that knowledge is destroyed in a moment (transient); we are rejecting all these three);

(Note: these three are described here when talking about mAdhyAmikan who argues that nothing internal or external exists. These three are included as sAkkiyap pEygaL earlier in this pAsuram; next is the one describing sUniya vAdhar separately due to their cruel arguments).

mAdhyamikan is – one who says – Understanding that there is pramANam, pramEyam, and, pramAthA is a confusion (bhramam) (of mind); only the argument of sUnyam (voidness) is the ultimate happiness;

(What I say is what my guru budhdha said, but) the aforementioned three followers said that there is existence of mind and sentience, etc., and that there is existence of transient knowledge – these are only based on the learning from guru who taught them these based on their level of ability to understand / inclination to follow.

Thus mAdhyamikan says, as said in ‘nasan nachAsan na sath asath nachApyanubhayAthmakam chathush kOti vinir muktham thaththvam mAdhyamikO vidhu:’, it cannot be said as sath, asath, or sadh asth, or different from sadh asath – one which is distinguished from these is the thathvam; knowing that it is sUnyam in sUnyam, is mOksham (understanding with AthmA which is sUnyam, that it is all sUnyam is mOksham)– is how they show as greatness of their philosophy.

(His argument as an example: Is something made from an existent thing or non-existent thing? If from non-existent thing, then how can a non-existent thing result in an existent thing? So it would be just a non-existent thing only as a result; if you say that from an existing thing (mud), a so far non-existent thing is formed (pot), then – it is possible to make pot only when mud becomes non-existent (converted to pot); so it is also about non-existent ones – so everything is non-existent, that is sUnyam).

{ Summary of these four baudhdha philosophies:

Philosophy External world Knowledge (Internal) samsAram mOksham
vaibhAshikar Exists, understood by prathyakSham (seeing, etc.) Exists but Transient (kshaNikam) is – Not understanding this about knowledge is – Understanding this about knowledge
sauthrAnthikar Understood by anumAnam (based on prior experience / conjecture) Exists but Transient is – Not understanding this about knowledge is – Understanding this about knowledge
yOgachAran sUnyam (Not exists) Exists but Transient is – Not understanding this about knowledge is – Understanding this about knowledge
mAdhyamikar sUnyam (Not exists) sUnyam (Not exists) is – Not understanding that everything is sUnyam? is – Understanding that everything is sUnyam (he accepts there is mOksham)


nAn maRaiyum niRkak kuRumbu sey neesarumunlike those baudhdha, etc., (who as seen previously, did not accept ‘Sabdham’ (SAsthram) as reference as they considered it as anumAnam, sUnyam, etc.), the mAyAvAdhis discussed here, while accepting the four vEdhas that are rig etc., as authoritative reference, did not say the true inner meanings as shown by upabrahmaNa, upabrahmitham, due to their thAmasa (ignorant) mind that is ‘sarva arthAn vipareethAnScha budhdhissA pArtha thAmasee [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’ (Oh arjuna! Your mind of thamas is pulling you to some other meaning), they came up with untrue/contrary meanings, and setting true meanings aside into corner and confusing the people of the world by their deceptive arguments, and as said in ‘bibhEthyalpa SruthAth vEdhOmAmayam pratharishyathi’ (Without understanding properly he has given wrong meanings (says vEdham)),  even as they are accepting vEdhas, even as they are as sages, they are very lowly (for misinterpreting) – such mAyAvAdhis;

Saying kuRumbu sey neechar – is about Sankara, bhAskara, and yAdhava together – for these three, pramANam (reference/SAsthram, vEdham), and pramEyam (knowledge (from pramANam)) are accepted in the same manner;

Sankaran is – One who says:  Since it is said ‘sadhEva sOmyEdhamagra Aseeth EkamEva adhvitheeyam’ (Oh saumya (beautiful child)! brahmam was sath (existing) during pralayam (annihilaition), before that it was sath, it was as One and there is no other second entity), nirviSEsha chinmAthram itself is brahmam (brahmam is without having any of three types of bhEdham (differentiation from others and itself) (that is, not having sajAtheeya (nothing of its kinds), vijAtheeya (nothing of some other kind), svagatha bhEdhams (no difference within itself)), does not have any qualities (like form, name, etc), it is with just knowledge only; it is anirvachaneeyam (not describable)),

and since it is said, ‘Evam jAgrath prapanchOyam mayi mAyA vijrumbitha:’ (brahmam is affected by ignorance (avidhyA) and gets confused (bhrama) ) – this world that is there to see, is learned to be present due to mAyA, and so would be false in existence;

and since it is said ‘indhrOmAyadhi: pururUpa eetheeyathE’, that brahmam itself is affected by mAyA and gets confused – and that is samsAram (being in this world); and when this confusion is eliminated by understanding that those things created by it and itself are same and thus gets aikya bhAvanA (realising the singular nature) – then that is mOksham.

(upAdhi (one which causes confusion) is the body, and it gets confused that there is jeevAthmA in each body; both bodies and jeevAthmAs are non-existent; only brahmam exists, is the argument of Sankaran)

bhAskaran is – One who says: Since it is said, ‘avidhyOpa bhramitham brahma jeeva ithyabitheeyathE’ (brahmam itself thinks of itself as jeevan (AthmA), due to being covered by ignorance (avidhyai)); that brahmam, getting combined with mind and other senses/faculties of bodies which Do exist, attains the imagined state as a jeeva (AthmA) due to confusion – that, is samsAram; (like a mirror which Does exist, and the reflections within it which do not exist inside the mirror; mirror is upAdhi since it is due to mirror that one thinks that the things shown by mirror are true),  (unlike Sankaran, existence of upAdhi (bodies, etc.) is accepted by bhAskaran);

The thought that the world is true (example, what is reflected in the mirror) would not go away for brahmam by an understanding knowledge that what is seen does not exist ((example) because by looking at the mirror again it would think that those things reflected are existing), so as said in ‘vidhyAncha avidhyAncha yasthath vEdha ubhaya(gm)saha – vidhyayA mruthyum theerthvA avidhyA amrutham aSnuthE’ (~by karmam remove samsAram and by gyAnam attain mOksham), by breaking the upAdhi (body) (like breaking the mirror, so that it would be clear for ever that what would have been seen in it is known to be not existing), the way to break that upAdhi is by the knowledge of upAsanam (worship/meditation) which is as per the varNASramam, as said by the vEdham, in ‘thathvamasi’ etc.

Once the upAdhi is destroyed, as said in ‘gata dhvamsE gatAkASO na bhinna: napasAyathA’  (there is space (AkASam) inside a pot, and there is space beyond (outside) it (mAhA AkASam); once the pot is broken, these two spaces would get combined; in the same way once upAdhi (body) is gotten rid of, then AthmA that is inside and outside would become one), like the combining of space once a pot is broken, when upAdhi (body, etc.) is removed, AthmA and brahmam (paramAthmA) would be combined and become one – and that is mOksham.

yAdhavan is – One who says:  When thinking that brahmam which is existing, being true, and with non-sentient and sentient which are Not different from itself,  brahmam is confused by thinking that such non-sentient and sentient are different from itself – this is samsAram (tied to being in this world, with such confusions).

Since it is said as ‘vidhyAncha avidhyAncha’, and ‘upAbhyAmEva pakShAbhyAm yathAkE pakShINAm gathi: – thadhaiva gyAna karmabhyAm prApyathE brahma SAsvatham’ (Like how a bird needs two wings to fly, one needs karmam (deeds) and gyAnam (knowledge) together by which to destroy the upAdhi (knowledge of bhEdham (thinking that it is different from non-sentient and sentient)) and so attain mOksham),

by the combining of knowledge (gyAnam) and karmam, that knowledge of bhEdham (differentiating) would be destroyed – and that, is mOksham.

It is emperumAn himself and also through rudhran, who spread these philosophies to confuse the asuras and rAkShasas who were not following emperumAn’s orders (which he gave through SAsthram, etc).

(Details of that would be continued in the next part).

Summary of three philosophies that mis-interpret vEdhas, as discussed above.

Philosophy External world samsAram mOksham
Sankara Not exists is the thinking of brahmam that the world exists.


brahmam does not have any quality, place, etc.

is – when this confusion is eliminated by understanding that those things created by it and itself are same and thus gets aikkya bhAvanai.
bhAskara Body, mind, senses exist is the combining of brahmam with body, mind, senses, etc., and thinking that it is a jeevAthmA is – By karmam and by gyAnam need to remove the confusion, and attain mOksham respectively.
yAdhava Not exists is – thinking that sentient and non-sentient are different from itself is – By the  combining of karmam and gyAnam, remove the confusion and attain mOksham

{ To be continued in Part 3 }

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vi(dhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

(Continued as part – 2)

nAn maRaiyum niRkak kuRumbu sey neesarum – by this he talks about kudhrushtis (those who mis-interpret vEdhas). The others that are jaina and bhudhdha did not have any reference text so they set their philosophy by whatever came to their mind; but kudhrushtis took vEdhas as reference, but without being under its control they forced their own opinions on those vEdhas. Oh! what a sorrow this is! – laments amudhanAr.

neesar – lowly people. As said in ‘niRam kiLarndha karum sOdhi nedunthagaiyai ninAiyAdhAr neesar thAmE [periya thirumozhi – 11.6.8]’, having the black hued divine body, naturally present greatness of knowledge, strength, and actions (for emperumAn) are the meanings from the four vEdhas – not taking up these meanings are the kudhrushtis – so they are lowly.

{ To be continued in part 3 }

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 99 – Part 1

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

When said ‘nammai nam vasaththE vidumE – manamE naiyal’, isn’t this the place having people in abundance who reject or misinterpret vEdhas, who remove intellect when there is tendency to gain it; amudhanAr replies – you see, after emperumAnAr incarnated they all became losers.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram as he talked about staunch faith as he said whether after surrendering to emperumAnArnammai nam vasaththE vidumE’?

that is true, but isn’t this the place ruled by the trouble makers who reject or misinterpret and badly affect the vEdhas that give true knowledge and also practices in accordance to that knowledge?

After emperumAnAr who due to his ability to grant all the destinies  and so is called ‘kaRpakam’ (desire fulfilling tree that grants all the wishes) incarnated in this big world, those in the path of such lowly philosophies were lost along with their roots, says amudhanAr.

Note: There are 11 philosophies that reject vEdhas (or, give meanings completely outside of vEdhas), and 6 philosophies that misinterpret vEdhas – this is as shown by nampiLLai in eedu.
In this pAsuram, 9 philosophies are specified, as shown by commentator – we consider them as upalakShaNam for rest of the philosophies.
Sankarar of those days was vaishNava adhvaithi; vaLLalAr et al were Saiva advaithis (follow Saiva Agamam but do not accept form, characteristics etc. of Sivan); nAyanmArs were Saiva viSishtAdhvaithis (they accept that there is form and characteristics for Sivan); AzhvArs and AchAryasSrIvaishNava viSishtAdhvaithis);

thaRkach chamaNarum sAkkiyap pEygaLum thAzh sadaiyOn
soRkARRa sOmbarum sUniyavAdharum nAn maRaiyum
niRkak kuRumbu sey neesarum mANdanar neeNilaththE
poRkaRpakam em irAmAnusa muni pOndha pinnE                     –  99


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As said in ‘tharukkinAl samaN seydhu [periya thirumozhi – 2.1.7]’ (~samaNa (kShapaNa) philosophy just based on tharkkam (arguments)),

tharkkam – maintaining their philosophy by the ability to do tharkkam (debates/suppositions),
chamaNarum –  Arhathar (jaina), and,
as said in ‘chamaNarum sAkkiyarum’,  when counting those who reject vEdhas, then these are there for the 2nd finger in the counting, such neighboring/thOL theeNdi (rubbing the shoulder, standing next to each other; are together for bad ways) –
pEy – like ghosts, not knowing when to hold on and when to leave, but always holding on to whatever wrong they hold on to,
sAkkiyargaLum – baudhdhar, and,
thinking that the world should worship him as eeSvaran, for that,
thAzh sadaiyOn – with full of long matted hair, performed thapas as means, and by the permission of emperumAn spread the mOha SAsthram – that rudhran’s
sol – words of such Agamam (works), (pAsupadham)
sOmbarum – Saivas that are of thAmasa (lazy, lethargic, smear ashes from crematorium, etc.) characteristics
kaRRa – who learned that Agamam;
and, those who say that there is no pramANam, pramEyam, or pramAthA,
sUniya vAdharum – that are the mAdhyamikas who argue that everything is non-existent,
and unlike them,
nAl – that which is of four types, viz rig, etc.,
maRaiyum – while accepting such vEdhas as authoritative reference, as said by ‘thishtathsu vEdhashu’ (even in the presence of vEdhas),
niRka – even when it is present,
saying wrong meanings that are not related to vEdhas in any way,
kuRumbu sey – and setting vEdhas aside (in to a corner),
neesarum – the lowly mis-interpreters,
mANdanar – were all finished
irAmAnusa muni pOndha pin – after the arrival of emperumAnAr
neeL nilaththE – in to the big world,
pon – (gold) who is very desirable
kaRpakam – and very generous like kaRpakam (tree that gives anything wished for),
em – and who helped us (too) learn it (vEdhas, the debates) correctly.
Through SrIbAshyam he won each of such philosophies and subdued them (asathkalpam), and so they lost, is the point.

sAkkiyar is – sAkthEyar.
When mAdhyamikar  are also in the group of sAkkiya, it is mentioned separately here due to its terrible ways.


thaRkach chamaNarum – As said in ’tharukkinAl samaN seydhu [periya thirumozhi – 2.1.7]’ (~samaNa (kShapaNa) philosophy just based on tharkkam (arguments)), unlike using the arguments that go with that of authoritative references, creating a philosophy based on arguments matching their own liking, and nurturing that – such Arhathar (jaina);


thaRkach chamaNarum – are those who say that the reason (for everything) is minute atom (paramANu),  and naiyAyikar and vaiSEshikar who say ‘pAshANa kalpA mukthi:’ (losing everything and becoming like stone is mOksham), and the jaina who reject vEdham and its path;

Saying in thamizh as chamaNar for kshapaNakar.

Since naiyAyikar and vaiSeshikar mainly use tharkkam,  it is reasonable to refer to them also as thaRkar.

sAkkiyap pEygaLum – when counting those who reject vEdhas, then these are there for the 2nd finger in the counting, such neighboring one (thOL theeNdi (rubbing the shoulder, standing next to it – are together for bad ways) – who do not have any sense of what is to be followed and what is to be rejected, graheetha grahi (holding on to their understood arguments (without thinking)), that is – baudhdhar, and,

sAkkiyar  is – sAkya:

jainar are – As said in ‘angeekruthyathu Sabhdha bangi kusruthim syadhasthi  nAsthi adhikAm viSvam thvath vibhavam jagajjinamathEnEkAnthamAchakshathE’ (can accept the (wrong) arguments seven in number in combination of something as present, not-present, and cannot say definitively (e.g., a thing is present in one place, but it is not present in another place, etc) – this is how jaina establish about the world), in the form of cause/effect and source of action/result (kArya kAraNa) (e.g., mud is cause (no change in it), and pot/cup, etc., are effects (changed to become these items),  jagath (world) would be – having vikAram (bhinnam/changes) and not having vikAram,  eternal  (mud is always existing in some form) and not-eternal (as the resulting pot may break and become mud), and, is true and untrue,  and,

as said in ‘sva dhEhamAnAhyAth mAnO mOhAth dhEhAbhimAnina: – krimikeetAdhi paryantham dhEha panjara vardhina:’  (in the body that is a cage, there are worms etc., living; AthmA would take the size/form of the body it takes, since AthmA is affected by the effects of body),  AthmAs would be having size/form as the body that is based on each of their karmas, is their philosophy, and,

as said in ‘prANijAthamahim santha: manOvAkkAya karmabhi: dhigambarAScharanthyEva yOginA brahmachAriNa: ((they are) great in mind, speech, and body, and are bachelors, quite naked)   – mayUrapinja hasthAsthE krutha veerAsanAthikA: (holding a bunch of peacock feathers, sitting on veerAsanam (posture)) – pANipAthrEshu bhunjAna: (they don’t eat out of a plate/vessel, but by hand only), lUnakESAScha maunina:  (they tie their hair by picking each strand at a time, and they do not talk but keep mum) – sadhA kshapaNakAchArya  kruth manthrA dhurAsathA: – gurUpathishta mArggENa gyAna karma samuchchayAth (they think that knowledge and karma (deed) together give mOksham which is as their guru taught to them) – mOkShO bandha virakthasya jAyathE bhuvi kasyachith’ (in these ways one gets mOksham and avoids samsAram (being in this material world)),  by maladhArnAhimsA etc., (applying feces on their body, etc.,), and by knowledge of AthmA, they are liberated from material realm, and keep going (no concept of reaching) in upper path – that is mOksham,  is how they would say, whatever comes to their mouth, in detail, such contradictions to vEdhas.

Saying chamaNar – is including chArvAkar (smart speeches) (lOkAyatha philosophy (they say believe only what is seen in the world).  They were included as chamaNar in eedu (vyAkyAnam to thiruvAimozhi) as well.

They (chArvAkar) are – as said in ‘prathivyApasthEjOvaryurithi thathvAni’ (only accept pruthvi, appu, thEjas, and, vAyu as thathvams, and not accept AkASam, and such bhUthAntharams)they say that thathvam (truth/existence), is pruthvi, etc., such four only; they say that AkAsam, etc., such bhUthams do not exist, and

as said in ‘thEbhyaS chaithanya kiNvAdhibhyOmadha Sakthivath’ (like alcoholic beverage (surA bAnam) having some power in it which is not visible, but that power which we get when we consume), and, ‘kramukapala thAmbUla dhaLa avayavAdhishu prathyEka vidhyamAnasyApi ragasyEvAvaya vini samyOga viSEshAdh dhEhArambaka paramANu samSlEsha viSEshA dhEva dhEha chaithanya AvirbhbhAva na anupanna:’,  like how if we take the surA drink in a pot and keep it in sunlight, then it would undergo changes (vikAram) of movement, etc. which seem to appear automatically by itself,  and

like how when biting together betel leaves, pAkku (betel nut), and suNNAmbu (lime calcium paste), a new item would form, in the mix of pruthvi, appu, thEjas, and vAyu, a chaithanyam  (knowledge) would form,  and,

as said in ‘prathyakSha gamyamEvAthi nAsthyadhrushta madhrushtatha:  (only what is seen is truly existing and there is nothing existing that cannot be seen) – adhrushtavAdhibhiSchAbinA: na adhrushta dhrushtamuchyathE – kvAbi dhrushtamadhrushtanchE thadhrushtram pruthak Evatham – nithyAdhrushtam kathamsathsyAth SaSaSrungAthi sannibam – nakalpyau sukha dhu:kabhyAm dharmA dharmauparairiha – svabhAvEna sukhee dhu:kee bhavEnnAnyaththi kAraNam – SikinaSchakrayEth kOvAkOkilAnka: prakUjayEth – svabhAva vyadhirEkENa vidhyathE nAsya kAraNam – iha lOkAth parOnAnya ssvargO asthi naragOnavA’ (there is no other world than this, there is nothing present as heaven or hell),

there is only the meaning of those which can be seen physically, there is nothing else; the happiness and sadness of that AthmA (product of pruthak, etc.) are the heaven and hell; there is no other good or bad karmas, or the rights or wrongs created by them, and

as said in ‘mOkshasthu  maraNamaprANa samgyavAyu nivarththanam, athasthadharththan nAyAsam karththum ahathi paNditha:’ (if breath goes away then that is mOksham), that death which is understood is only the mOksham, there is nothing else out there – – and so they would confuse by saying a line of arguments contradicting Sruthi.

{ Note:
Typical arguments among philosophies are in the following: what is AthmA, what is the cause of world, what are thathvams, what is pramANam by which we learn,  what is the means for getting mOksham, and what is mOksham.

naiyAyikar vaiSEshikar are –  As said in ‘prathyakSha: anumAna upamAna SabdhA: pramANAni’ (What is seen, understood based on inference, are examples, sound (heard from elders) are the authoritative references), and, ‘thrithA pramANam prathyakSham anumAnAam AgamAdhithi, thribhErithai: pramANaisthu jagath karthA avagamyathE (using the authoritative references we need to understand the cause of creation of the world) – thasmAth adhuktha karmANi kuryAth thasyaiva thrupthayE (the karmas said in SAsthram, what the brahmam says  to do, should be done for the satisfaction of that brahmam), bhakthyai va cha archaneeyOsau bhagavAn paramESvara: (that paramESvaran can also be worshiped by devotion),  thath prasAdhEna mOkshOssyAth karaNO paramAthmana: (by the blessing of that brahmam itself, mOksham would be attained) – karaNOparamEdhyAthmA pAshANavath avasththitha:’, (losing everything, being like a stone, is mOksham),

that is, prathyaksham (what is seen), etc., the four are authoritative reference, and since Sabdham (heard from elders; SAsthram) is based on prior learning (anumAnam), only the rest, that is, prathyakshAm etc., are authoritative references;  and upAdhAna kAraNam (cause, like mud that would become pot) of world are paramANu (most fundamental unsplittable element), and, nimiththa kAraNam (instrumental cause only, like a potter) is AnumAnika eeSvaran (can know eeSvaran by anumAnam (inference) only);  samsAram is eternal, by eeSvarOpAsthi (by meditating on eeSvaran), happiness and sorrows would go away and become pAshANa kalpam (become like a stone) which is the mOksham – is how they say showing such arguments in limelight (uthprEskha).

(akshapAdhar, kaNAdhar belong to naiyAyikar vaiSEshikar).

(They gave an example as proof of their argument – like how small strings are joined together to form a cloth, in the same way, small, unsplittable, “parmANu”s would join together and so on and form the world;  emperumAnAr posed – in the given example, the strings join only on two sides with other strings, and there are some parts of the string that are not touching any strings; so in a cloth there are parts that are not joined, and parts that are joined; so when two “paramANu”s join, there should be parts that touch and not touch; is that the case?

They replied – let it be so. emperumAnAr then asked – that means a paramANu has a part that is touching and another part that is not touching – that means a paramANu must be size enough to split. Do you accept that? They replied  – no, paramANu cannot be split; in that case, by theory, paramAnu cannot join to make the world was emperumAnAr’s conclusion to them).

thAzh sadaiyOn sol kaRRa sOmbarum – That the whole world should worship him by (wrongly) thinking of him as eeSvaran, and to qualify for that, wearing full long matted hair, being in the form of penance (sAdhanam), as said by ‘mOha SAsthrANi kAraya’ (you shall create the mOha SAsthram), by the permission of emperumAn, he spread mOha SAsthram – such rudhran’s words of religious text (Agamam) is what they learn, the ones who are having very much the thAmasa qualities; they are the pAsupathar.

In this pAsuram, after talking about baudhahar, the pAsupathar are mentioned – this is to show that they are also those who reject vEdhas;

As said in ‘pradhAna kAraNathvAbhyugama sAmyAth –  SAnkya nirAsana ananthara bhAvithvE pASupadha nirAsansya prApthErabhi – saugathA Arhatha nirAsana anantharam thath prathikShEpa: thasya athyantha vEdha bAhyathva gyApanAya krutha:’  (Like Sankya philosophy, pAsupathar also accept that prakruthi (pradhAnam / material) is the source of world (upAdhAna kAraNAm (like a mud used for pot, the world); both accept  an eeSvaran as nimiththa kAraNam (like a potter); so why jaina and baudhdha are talked about and only after that the pAsupathar, by vEdha vyAsar? Since sAnkyar is an incarnation of emperumAn (to confuse away those who are not following vEdhas), if pAsupadhar is said next, then one might think that may be pAsupathar is also emperumAn; so to avoid that, pAsupathar is said after jaina and bhaudhdha.)

– so divined SruthaprakASikAchAryar, when explaining (sangathi) for the (SrIbhAshya) adhikaraNam named ‘pathyurasAmanjasyAth’;

(similar to how maNavALa mAmunigaL  in upadhEsa raththina mAlai included madhurakavi AzhvAr  along with ANdAL and emperumAnAr for their being subservient to their AchAryan);

They (pAsupathar) are – pradhAnam (prakruthi / material realm) is upAdhAna kAraNam (source) for world, nimiththa kAraNam (like potter) is Agama sidhdha eeSvaran (rudhran); and

as said in ‘mudhrikA shatka thathvagya: paramudhrA viSaradha:’ (one must wear six marks in their body, etc.,; such person does not have next birth),
bhagAsanastham AthmAnam’ (think of Sivan as present above yOni),
dhyAthvA nirvANamruchchathi ‘ (by constantly thinking of Sivan in that way, one attains nirvANa (liberation) –
kaNdikA ruchi kanchaiva guNdalancha SikAmaNi: – (wearing specific things in their  (1) body (2) neck, (3) ears, (4) head),
‘basma yagyOpaveethancha mudhrAStakam prachakShathE’  (5) smear ashes in body, (6) wear holy string, are the six marks)
– Abhir mudhritha dhEhasthu  nabhUya iha jAyathE (body which is marked with these six, would not be born again in this world)
– rudhrAkSha kankaNam hasthE jatAchaikAchamasthakE (wearing rudhrAkSha seed garland in neck, having matted hair in head, bracelet in arm),
‘ kApAlam basmanA snAnam’ (holding skull in hand, bathe in ashes in a crematorium),
dhyAnam praNava pUrvakam’ (uttering the SlOka on Siva),
‘ dheekShA pravESa mAthrENa brAhmaNO bhavathi thathkShaNAth’ (if one attains such devotion, will become a brahmaNa),
kAbAlam vrathamAsththAya yathirbh bhavathi mAnava:’ (any type of person would then become a sage),

as said in the Agamam of all-knowing rudhran, in the pAsupatha Agamam – wearing six marks, meditate on Sivan held above yOni, worshipping the demi god with surA (alcoholic beverage), set oneself among the burning dead bodies in a crematorium and take the ashes and smear on oneself, and utter the SlOka on Siva, by such deeds, and thereby becoming equal to pasupathi is mOksham

– this is how they would completely support and talk about completely contradicting the meanings of Sruthi (SAsthram).

sUniya vAdharum { to be continued in part 2 }.


From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vi(dhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

Part 1

thaRkach chamaNarum – Just by the strength of tharkkam and without being considering to be meaningful as per pramANam (authoritative reference),  they protect their philosophy – they are jainar.

The things we see in this world as existing are not really existing, and are really non-existent – is the contradicting quality that they prove in one thing itself using the strength of the tharkkam (logical arguments);

sAkkiyap pEygaLum – Many among them did not know what to hold on to and what to reject, and did not follow the teachings of their guru bhudhdhar but held on to their own principles unreasonably, and so are referred to as pEy.

bhudhdhar had at first taught his disciples that ‘sarvam sUnyam’ (everything is imaginary/false/void); He advised them that by four types of continuous meditation (bhAvanai) one should get the supreme destiny.  Some who heard these advises accepted the four types of bhAvanai, and reasoned that if everything is sUnyam, then like the things outside, the knowledge that is inside also would have to be considered sUnyam; in that case the whole world would be blind; so they accepted that only those outside (that is, world) is sUnyam, (that is, prathyakSham (what is seen) is imaginary/does not really exist), but considered knowledge as existing; and they asked questions to their guru but held on to their belief;  these were called yOgAchAra – since they asked questions (yOgam) to their guru (and concluded that his answers are what they thought they were), and since they accepted the four types of bhAvanai and implemented them in their custom and practice, they were called yOgAchArar  (yOga – knowledge; AchAra – practicing).

The four types of bhAvanai are – Thoughts that everything is kshaNikam, dhu:kam, svalakShaNam, sUnyam.

kshaNikam are – that get destroyed in just one moment (moment to moment);  due to this bhAvanai, everything falsely appear to be ever-present;

dhu:kam – this bhAvanai prevents falsely viewing as pleasures;

svalakShaNam – this bhAvanai is the thinking that since everything is destroyed in just one moment, it is not possible to show a thing as an example for another thing, and so they don’t have a generic quality, and so each thing is unique to themselves; due to this the confusion that everything is of common quality is removed;

sUnyam – by this bhAvanai, the confusion that this a true thing is removed.

A few other disciples said that it is not acceptable to say that there is no knower or things that are known by the knower; if they are truly not there, then how is it possible to form different types of knowledge? Due to the wonderful nature of mind, what it perceived as actually existing, must be actually existing – this is known by anumAnam (guessing based on experience of prior sighting).

These people were called ‘sauthrAnthikar’; that is, after listening to their guru, they held on to the view that based on anumAnam the world is understood. Now, it can also be said that since they asked ‘Till what end would the sUthram apply? (Only I know the end of the sUthram told by the guru: sUthra antham – sauthrAnthikar)’, they are known by this name.

Some others said – it is wrong to say things are understood based on anumAnam (guess based on prior knowledge/sighting); for them who say there is no prathyakSham (sighting), how would it be possible to know about something by anumAnam which depends on prior sighting? By prathyakSham, reason possible (hEthu sAdhyam), it is to be accepted to  be inseparable, isn’t it? ; It is also contradictory to what is experieneced directly in the world;  Like how the things outside are accepted based on experience (anumAnam), in the same way due to the experience of sighting them (prathyakSham, the outside things are also true as seen by authoritative reference of prathyakSham (seen). While they are having the internal knowledge and outside things as known/visible by prathyakSham, guru advised them that everything is imaginary/just perception, so that they would gain vairAgyam (asceticism). For those who hold on to belief that knowledge only is truth, he told that everything other than knowledge is sUnyam; for those who are adamant that like knowledge the outside things are also true, he advised that even though the outside things are true, they are only known by anumAnam;  this is a contradicting statement.

So they are known as ‘vaibhAshikar’ (vi-bhAsha – saying things by changing their truth).

Other than saying that the things outside are also present by prathyakSham, there is no difference between sauthrAnthikar and vaibhAshikar.

baudhdhar of these three sort did not accept fully the advice of their guu, and were controlled by the ghost that is there adamence, so he refers to them as ‘sAkkiyap pEy’.

Among all these three, there is no differene of opinion about saying that everything get destroyed in a moment, and knowledge of that is AthmA. So, all the three are talked about together here.

SrI parAsara bhattar also shows this in Sri rangarAja sthavam, uththara Sathakam – 8.

thAzh sadaiyOn sol kaRRa sOmbarum – that is, rudhran having matted hair.  It shows the appearance of being engaged in penance. purANas show that he performed thapas and by the permission of emperumAn, authored Saiva Agamam, that is a mOha SAsthram.

The upAdhAna kAraNam that changes to world is prakruthi thathvam.  Saiva philosophy is that eesvaran shown by Agamam is nimiththa kAraNam. Philosophy of vEdham is that both upAdhAna kAraNam and nimiththa kAraNam is parabrahmam shown by vEdhas, that is, SrIman nArAyaNan only.

vEdha vyAsa bhagavAn too had first criticized sAnkya philosophy which acepts prakruthi thathvam as upAdhAna kAraNam, but at that point did not criticize pAsupatha philosophy of same opinion, and instead he criticised baudhdha and jaina next whose philosophies are completely irrelevant to vEdham, and then only did he criticize pAsupatha (Saiva) philosophy – to show that it is also completely irrelevant to vEdham. This is clearly explained in SruthaprakASika as well.

amudhanAr’s opinion is also that like how emperumAn came in a concealed way as budhdha and spread mOha SAsthram (to ruin those who were completely against vEdhams), He gave permission to rudhran to spread Saiva Agamam in the same vain, and so amudhanAr talks about this among the baudhdhas.

sUniya vAdharum  – { to be continued in part 2 }.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 98

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

As he spoke about such help of emperumAnAr (showing him kUraththAzhvAn’s divine feet),  his mind thought – it is due to looking at karmas that eeSvaran who is having absolute relationship had left (me) circling through heaven, hell, and womb; so due to the relationship with prakruthi, bad taste would rise and might lead into bad ways – so, would this goodness continue till the end (of attaining true goal)? – thinking so, his mind felt weak; amudhanAr says (to his mind) – when surrendered to emperumAnAr, he won’t let us down, so you do not have to worry about attaining the goal.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

As amudhanAr thought about how emperumAnAr set him on the noble path (of being devoted to the divine feet of kUraththAzhvAn) and became happy, his divine mind said – even though you say like this, since sarvESvaran who controls everything has vowed to give fruits based on respective eternal karmas, it is due to looking at our karmas only that He had let us roam without any break, in heaven, hell, and womb; since we still have association with prakruthi which can generate such karmas, it is possible to be involved in bad ways due to growth of bad old taste and become target of punishment; only if this goodness continues till the time of attaining goal should you be able to stay worry free like this? – and so his mind was weak; amudhanAr replies (to his mind) – since emperumAnAr would not let down those who have surrendered to him, hereafter you do not have to worry about attaining the true goal.

idumE iniya suvarggaththil innam naragil ittuch
chudumE avaRRaith thodar tharu thollai suzhal piRappil
nadumE ini nam irAmAnusan nammai nam vasaththE
vidumE charaNam enRAl manamE naiyal mEvuthaRkE              –  98


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr
nam – who incarnated to lift us up,
charaNam enRAl – if we just said just one sentence that you are the shelter (charaNam),
idumE – would he keep us
suvarggaththil – in heaven,
which for those who are in the material realm, due to the enjoyment of sound, taste, etc., would seem sweet;
innam – even after surrendering to his divine feet
sudumE – would he burn us
ittu – by keeping
naragil – in hell;
Since karma that is spent in such heaven and hell is the reason for birth,
nadumE – would he set us up
piRappil – in birth
thollai – which is eternal
suzhal – and make us go in such cycles,
thodar tharu – which follow
avaRRai – heaven and hell;
ini – during the remaining time of future
nammai vidumE – would he let us be
nam vasaththE – as per our interest;
(he would not);
manamE – Oh mind,
naiyal – do not become weak
mEvudhaRku – about attaining the goal.

mEvu – match/fit; that is, attaining;

Like how saying “don’t cry for food” (in thamizh colloquy), it means ‘don’t worry about getting the food, you are sure to get it’,  ‘naiyal mEvudhaRku’ implies the same regarding getting the goal;

nadumE –> establishing/setting us in a place;

SrIvaikuNtam (paramapadham)


manamEOh mind which is fearful in this way!

em irAmAnusanAs said in ‘sAkshAn nArAyaNO dhEva: kruthvAmarthyamayeem thanUm | magnAn udhdharathE lOkAn kAruNyAch chAsthra pANinA’ (~ like nArAyaNan himself, he (AchAryan) took up a human body, to uplift those who are immersed born in this world, using the SAsthram in his hands, by his kindness), and,

pApadhvAnthakshayAyacha | SrImAn Avira bhUthbhUmau rAmAnuja dhivAkara:’ (for the effects of our evil deeds to be destroyed, the one having the wealth of SrIvaishNavam appeared in this world, that is the sun SrI rAmAnujar),

eliminating the three karmas, that are ‘munnai vinai, pinnai vinai, Araththam [prArabdham] [Arththi prabandham – 34]’ (deeds of the past, future, and what is being effected now),

and vowing to lift us up from the mud slush of material world, he came and incarnated in this ‘kodu ulagam [thiruvAimozhi – 4.9.7]’ (~ cruel world); such emperumAnAr;

charaNam enRAlAs said in ‘rAmAnujasya charaNau SaraNam prapadhyE’, and, ‘SaraNamEmi rAmAnujam’, and, ‘irAmAnusan charaNE gathi [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 13], and ‘mUlE nivESyamahathAm nigamadhrumANAm mushNan pradhArka bhayam thrudhanaika dhaNda: – rangESa bhaktha jana mAnasa rAja hamsO rAmAnujaS SaraNamasthu munissvayathna:’ (~vEdha vEdhantham is a tree that is grown big and with many branches; mAyAvAdhis could not handle it and so did not give proper meanings to it, whereas emperumAnAr who holds thridhaNdam provided proper meanings; devotees of rangESan, that is, AzhvArs, in whose lotus mind  ramAnuja is the rAja hamsam living around such lotus; we hold on to the divine feet of that rAmAnuja muni), and,

rAmAnujAya munayE nama ukthi mAthram kAmAthurO(S)pi kumathi: kalayan nabheekShNam – yAmAmananthi yaminAm bhagavaj janAnAm thAmEva vindhathi gathim thamsa: parasthAth [rAmAnujAshtakam] (Even if one is of bad mind and afflicted by other desires, if he often utters just the word ‘rAmAnujAya nama:’, then he would reach the mOksham which the yOgis who recite His names would reach),

if we just do the saying of one sentence ‘dhevareerE charaNam’ (~only you are my shelter);

iniya suvarggaththhilfor those who are under the attraction of material world due to the matters of sound, taste, etc., it would look completely enjoyable – such heaven;

inimai -> sweetness/enjoyability.

Heaven is -> As said in ‘thraividhyAmAm sOmapA: bhUthapApA: yagyairishtvA svarggathim prArththayanthE – thE puNyamASAdhya surEndhra lOkam aSnanthi dhivyAn dhivi dhEva bhOgAn – thE tham bhukthvA svargga lOkam viSAlam kSheeNE puNyE marthya lOkam viSanthi’ (doing yAgam, yagyam to go to heaven, saving all the puNyams for it, reaches heaven, and enjoys enjoyments beyond human level in the most sprawling heaven, spends good karmas, and after exhausting it, returns to birth),

a place that is perishable one day,  and obtained based on efforts (sOpadhika), that is of such nature, in such a heaven –

idumE – will emperumAnAr put and keep us there?  (No he would not).

As said in ‘thandhu:kEna sambhinnam’ (sadness is broken away), etc., even though compared to this material world that heaven is more distinguished, it is similar to hell, and is most adverse only, for mumukshus (those who wish to get liberated (from the cycle of birth etc));

It is as said in ‘dhEvEndhrathvAdhikam padham EthEvai nirayAsthAtha sthAnasya paramAthmana:kshEthrANi mithrANi dhanAni nAtha puthrAScha dhArA: paSavO gruhANi | thvath pAdha padhma pravaNAth vruththEr bhavanthi sarvE prathikUla rUpA:’, (~ the post of dhEvEndhran, etc., land, friends, wealth, husband, sons, wife, cows, etc., houses, etc., would be felt as different forms of hurdles, when one’s devotion increases towards your divine feet);

nammAzhvAr too divined ‘pala nee kAttip paduppAyO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.9]’ (Are you trying to finish me by showing to my eyes lowly pleasures?), and,

pOra vaiththAy puramE [thiruvAimozhi – 5.1.5] (You kept me away into matters other than You), and,

neRi kAtti neekudhiyO [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 6]’ (Are You trying to show me other paths/means to keep me away from You?), and,

aRpa sArangaL avai suvaiththu aganRozhindhEn [thiruvAimozhi – 3.2.6]’ (I had stayed away from You and toiled as I enjoyed lowly pleasures),

kUvik koLLum kAlam innam kuRugAdhO [thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.9]’ (Would the duration of getting me (to Your divine feet) not shorten?),

thus they consider the pleasure of material realm as adverse and as detrimental to the nature of AthmA;

innum narakil ittuch chudumEAs said inupAya upEya bhAvEna thathvatha: sarva dhESikai: .. sUniSchidhAngri padhmAya’ (~It is the AchAryan who is the means and destiny), after  becoming dedicated only to him by considering his divine feet only as the means and destiny, would he put us in suffering in raurava and such hells which are fearful just upon hearing about them and which are very unbearable?  (no, he would not);

As said inkruchrENa dhEhAn nishkrAnthim yAmya kinkara dharSanam ||‘ (~ as he comes out (of the body) he sees the servants of yama), ‘yAthanA dhEha sambandham yAmya pAsaischa karshaNam | ’ (~pulled by the servant of yama inflicting pain), ‘ugra mArga kadhakklESam yamasya purathassthithim ||’ (~suffers going through terrible route to the abode of yama), ‘thanniyOgavacha yAthayAthanASchacha sahasracha: |’ (~ takes the form of thousands of painful bodies), ‘SruthvA smruthAvAcha dhUyEham thath pravESa bhayAkulaha: ||’ (~ I hear about all the aforementioned dangers, and am very afraid to enter into this),

and in ‘kadum solAr kadiyAr kAlanAr thamarAl paduvadhOr kodumiRaikku anji [periya thirumozhi – 1.6.5]’ (~fearing the hardship by rude servants of yaman who would use harsh words),

and in ‘eNNiRandha thunbam tharu nirayam pala [rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 30]’,

in such hells; would he be neutral to our going to such hells and suffer?  (no he would not);

avaRRaith thodar tharu thollaich chuzhal piRappil nadumE As said in ‘karma brahmOdhbhavam vidhdhi [SrI bhagavath gIthA – 3.15]’ (know that body (brahma) gives forth action), for the gaining of good and bad karmas which are reason for those heaven and hell, the body is the source for it, as indicated by the word ‘brahma’, it is based on this that this cycle continues, and,

as said in ’chakrasthE bhrAmyamANE svakarmabhi: (~ due to his karma he keeps taking birth) and,

mARi mARip pala piRappum piRandhu [thiruvAimozhi – 2.6.8]’ (in many births (such as dhEva (celestial), thiryak (animal), manushya (human), sthAvara (plant) forms), while being born again and again (in same form of birth too)),

would he set us up in the series of births and go in cycles like in a wheel? (no he would not).

That is, would he let us do acts and be  involved in that?

nadumE would he establish us/set us up ?

ini nammai nam vasaththE vidumE To the divine feet of emperumAnAr, being ‘nizhalum adi thARum [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 31]’ (amicable like shadow and lines of divine feet), that is, us who have become completely subservient, would he make us independent-minded in the remaining time of future, and let us be according to our taste (in other matters) and become svaira sanchAri (going in the ways of our own reckoning)?  (no he would not).

That is, for us who have surrendered to the divine feet of emperumAnAr, and having the distinction of being ‘thanakkEyAga enaik koLLum [thiruvAimozhi 2.9.4]’ (this act of enslaving me exclusively for him), he would divine such that none of the unwanted things would touch us – is the point.

It is as said in ‘thriNeekrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: rAmAnuja padhAmbOja samASrayaNa Salina:’ (those who surrender to emperumAnAr think of other things as to be neglected), and,

mathana kathanai: naklishyanthE yathISvara samSrayA: [yathirAja sapthathi](those who have reached emperumAnAr would not worry about good and bad things)

mEvudhaRku about the destiny which is prayed for by us as said in ‘adiyArgal kuzhAngaLai – udan kUduvadhu enRu kolO [thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.10]’ (~Oh when would I be able to join the groups of devotees (in SrIvaikuNtam)?), and

rAmAnujArya vaSaka: parivarthisheeya [sundhara bAhu sthavam] (we want to be under a corner of the shadow of divine feet of emperumAnAr )

naiyal – do not be doubtful/weak;

mEvu – match/fit; that is, attaining;

Like how saying “don’t cry for food” (in thamizh colloquy), it means ‘don’t worry about getting the food, you are sure to get it’, ‘naiyal mEvudhaRku’ implies the same regarding getting the goal;

Considering the words of SAsthram, ‘nAbhuktham ksheeyathE karma kalpakOti Sathairapi, avaSyam anubhOkthavyam krutham karma SubhASubham’ (~for how much ever crores of years you experience the fruits of your karmas, they would not diminish; and its effects have to be definitely experienced in the form of good and bad),

sarvESvaran is of the nature of instigating us into worldly affairs; would emperumAnAr, who also gives full importance to SAsthram, ignore us – was the fear of amudhanAr’s mind. Addressing his own mind, amudhanAr says  – even after surrendering to emperumAnAr and being in charama parva nishtai (devoted to AchAryan only), he would not make us be affected by the heat of material world till the time of getting the destiny, unlike it would happen for upAsakar (those in bhakthi yOgam, etc.)

manamE naiyal mEvudhaRkE – he is saying so by treating mind like a sentient; his advise is such that it could reform even a non-sentient, you see!

It is said too, nakalu bhAgavathAyam avishayam gachchanthi’ (if they are devotees then they are not under consideration by yaman), and,

parihara madhusUdhana prapannAn prabhuraham anya nruNAm na vaishNavANAm’ (~do not go near the residence of emperumAn’s devotees; I am not the lord for them; they are my lord), and,

thyaja bata dhUra tharENa thAn apApAn’ (leave those devotees; they are not of any sins),.

thirumazhisaip pirAn divined this meaning too in the matter of prathama parvam (emperumAn), in ‘eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE [thiruchchandha viruththam – 115]’ (Oh poor mind! why are you (unnecessarily) immersed in the sea of sadness (when emperumAn is well set inside us)? ).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

iniya suvarggaththil Since it would appear to be good, it is said as ‘iniya’ suvarggam.

Since emperumAnAr has incarnated to lift us up, would he let us be tied to worldly affairs?

nammai nam vasaththE vidumE We who spoiled ourselves by doing what we wanted. Will he let us continue in that path in the future, even after surrendering to him? (he would not).

This shows the differences between emperumAn and emperumAnAr.

emperumAn conducts us based on karmas; emperumAnAr conducts us based on krupai (kindness).

Since He is a svathanthran (independent), we might fear that He might let us continue in our independent ways and be stuck in the cycles of birth, etc.  But since emperumAnAr is not a svathanthrar, but is subservient to Him and his AchAryan (parathanthrar), he would not let us be independent-minded.  A parathanthrar would not give svathanthram, isn’t it?

This is shown also in SrIvachana bhUshaNam – ‘svathanthranai upAyamAgap paRRina pOdhirE ipprasankam thAn uLLadhu’ (when surrendered to the independent emperumAn as the means, these alternating thoughts of doubt and comfort of getting mOksham would arise), and maNavALa mAmunigaL’s vyAkyanam saying “this doubt does not occur when we have surrendered to AchAryan as the means, as he is in the form of parathanthram, and since he is only focused on getting us mOksham, and so we can always be without any fear is the thought”.

Here, for those in charama parvam (devoted to AchAryan), true destiny is AchAryan’s divine feet, and it is assured that we would get that.

AzhvAr prayed ‘kodu ulagam kAttEl’ (don’t show/keep me in this cruel world), and emperumAnAr incarnated to satisfy that for us.

Thus he assured his mind that we are sure to get the true destiny.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 97

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

When asked – In this way, it is not just till emperumAnAr, but till those who consider him as everything, is the destiny, is your state  – how did you get the taste for this? amudhanAr replies – even that is due to the mere grace of emperumAnAr.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – as amudhanAr said ‘nam iRaivar – irAmAnusan thannai uRRavarE’, like (emperumAnAr) said ‘sarvam yadhEva niyamEna madhanvayAnAm (everything is nammAzhvAr for me), one who is dependent on emperumAnAr as ‘thEvu maRRu aRiyEn, is the strongest accompaniment for me’, he is asked ‘in this way, not just till emperumAnAr, but to those who are like shadow and lines of feet (foot steps) of emperumAnAr are the destiny for you – how did this come to occur?’,

amudhanAr replies, there are those who are subservient to him seeing and hearing his glory which is ‘dhikkuRRa keerththi’ (glory spread in all directions), but there are none who are subservient to the disciples who consider him as everything, was the thought of emperumAnAr, and so in the beginning itself he made me subservient to such disciples associated with him – so I got this taste (of subservience to emperumAnAr’s disciples) due to emperumAnAr’s grace.

thannai uRRu Atcheyyum thanmaiyinOr mannu thAmaraith thAL
thannai uRRu Atcheyya ennai uRRAn inRu – than thagavAl
thannai uRRAr anRith thanmai uRRAr illai enRu aRindhu
thannai uRRArai irAmAnusan guNam sARRidumE                          –  97


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

uRRAr anRi – There are only those who are subservient to
thannai – him,
illai enRu – and none
uRRAr – who are involved in the
thanmai – nature of
guNam sARRidum  – doing praises of qualities
uRRArai – of those who are subservient to
thannai – him;
aRindhu – thinking so,
irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr
than – by his
thagavAl – grace
inRu – now/today
uRRAn – divined his acceptance of
ennai – me
uRRu – by making me not know of anything else
mannu –  other than the ones that match with each other
thAmarai – and which are most enjoyable
thAL thannai – that is, the divine feet of,
AL cheyya –  and (making me) be subservient to,
AL cheyyum thanmaiyinOr – those whose nature is to be subservient to him
thannai uRRu –  as they surrendered to him such that they do not know of any other matter than him.

Sequencing of phrases in thamizh is to be –  ‘thannai uRRAr anRi , thannai uRRArai . guNam sARRidum . thanmai uRRAr illAi, enRu aRindhu – thannai  uRRu Atcheyyum thanmaiyinOr mannu thAmaraith thAL thannai uRRu Atcheyya, irAmAnusan than thagavAl, inRu ennai uRRAn’.


thannai uRRAr anRi  Because of nAradha bhagavAn saying ‘kalau kaSchith bhavishyathi’ ((AdhiSEshan) is going to be born in kali yugam (as whom? (emperumAnAr))),

and because the mute who is a son of a devotee fully revealed emperumAnAr’s glory and disappeared,

and also since it said that when yAdhavaprakAsan with vengeance towards him was taking to maNikarNikai, as gOvindap perumAL informed him about this while travelling in the big forest, he was being alone, and at that time,  perumAL himself came and helped during the journey and in one night got him to reach kachchi (kAncheepuram) which is ‘oLi mAdangaL sUzhndhu azhagAya [periya thirumozhi – 2.9.4]’ (~kAncheepuram having bright buildings surrounding the town),

and since it is said that through thirukkachchi nambi, pEraruLALar announced all the meanings of thathvam,

and since he went to many places for winning, and in thousand ways/heads debated with scholars of Saivam, mAyAvAdham, jaina, baudhdha, etc., and defeated them,

and since he administered vEnkatAchalam (thirumalai/thiruppathi) and yAdhavAchalam (mElkOte/thirunArAyaNapuram),

all the people of the world saw and heard these glories, and joyfully, as said in ‘avaSA:pradhibEdhirE’ (~automatically fell on his feet), and are staunch in considering him as the means and destiny;

there are only such noble ones, and not –

thannai uRRAr  guNam sARRidum thanmai uRRAr illai enRu aRindhu – (seeing that there are none who are of the nature of praising the qualities of those who are surrendered to him)

 – thannai uRRAr those who have understood clearly about his nature, ways according to that nature, form, qualities, and glories (or, being subservient to him only is their nature, ways according to that nature, form, qualities, etc);


those who have understood clearly as is about how emperumAnAr is having more grace/love towards those who are associated to those who are associated to him;

emperumAnAr wishing amudhanAr to get the grace of those associated to him, is because amudhanAr is apt to understand that nature of emperumAnAr (that he loves more those who are associated to those who are associated to him, and the love flows towards those associated to those associated to amudhanAr).

Nature of emperumAnAr is such that his grace would flow more towards those who are associated to those who are associated to him, than those who are associated to him;

That is why, jeeyar also prayed as ‘thvath dhAsa dhAsa gaNanA charamAva dhau ya: thath dhAsa dhAsaika rasathA avirathA mamAsthu [yathirAja vimSathi – 16](~ wish to be always interested in serving the last of series of hierarchy of servants of your devotees);

(there is no one who would praise the qualities) of those who comprehended this nature of emperumAnAr and surrendered to him;

– guNam sArridum thanmai uRRAr – As said in ‘emmai (ninRu) ALum paramarE [thiruvAimozhi – 3.7.1]’ (~(those devotees are) the ones who rule me),

nammai aLikkum pirAkkaLE [thiruvAimozhi – 3.7.5]’,

tham adiyAr adiyAr thamakku adiyAr adiyAr tham adiyAr adiyOngaLE [thiruvAimozhi – 3.7.10]’,

siRu mA manisarAy ennai ANdAr ingE thiriyavE [thiruvAimozhi – 8.10.3]’ (though small in their divine body, being tall in their intellect, they engaged me in their service),

thoNdar sEvadich chezhum chERu en chennikku aNivanE [perumAL thirumozhi – 2.3]’ (~I would wear in my head the beautiful mud of His devotees),

kadal mallaith thala sayanam Ar eNNu nenju udaiyAr avar emmai AlvArE [periya thirumozhi – 2.6.2]’ (~whoever is having the heart fixed in emperumAnAr of kadal mallaith thala sayanam, would be my rulers),

thaN sERai emperumAn thAL thozhuvAr kANmin en thalai mElArE [periya thirumozhi – 7.4.1]’ (~I would keep on my head (the divine feet of) those who worship the divine feet of beautiful emperumAn at thiruchchErai),

so sang the AzhvArs who were prathama parva nishatar (devoted to emperumAn), about the qualities of devotees – considering this, those who are of the nature of praising such qualities of devotees (of emperumAnAr);

thanmai nature; sARRu – saying it to publicize;

– iLLai enRu aRindhu – As said in ‘thathrApi dhurlabam manyE vaikuNtapriya dharSanam [SrI bhAgavatham 11.2.29]’ ((It is very rare to acquire a human body which in itself is temporary). Even rarer is to be blessed by the vision of one who is dear to SrIvaikuNtanAthan),

‘idhu thAn dhurlabham, vishaya pravaNanukku aththai vittu, bhagavath vishayaththilE varugaikkuLLa arumai pOl anRu, prathama parvaththai vittu charama parvaththilE varugaikkuLLa arumai [SrI vachana bhUshaNam – 417, 418]’ (~ It is hard to find (devotees of devotees); leaving the attachment towards material realm and becoming to be devoted to emperumAn is easier, compared to leaving aside devotion towards emperumAn and becoming devoted to his devotees),  (so it is even harder to elevate someone from love towards AchAryan to love towards AchAryan’s disciples);

understanding that this devotion towards his disciples is ‘mEttu madai’ (water would not flow automatically to a higher plane, so there won’t be water (acceptance) there in a natural manner);  that is, having the thought that there is no one (to praise the qualities of emperumAnAr’s devotees);

You see, amudhanAr is of the opinion that this deeper matter (of being devoted to his devotees) is known only to emperumAnAr.

irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr;

You see, emperumAnAr is propagating the meaning now which he could not do in his previous incarnation (as he was devoted to Him that is chakravarthi thirumagan only, and not to His devotees (unlike Sathrugnan who was devoted to His devotee, that is bharathan));

than thagavAl – As said in ‘savithree mukthAnAm, sakala jagadhEna: praSamaneekaree, yObhistheerthairupachitha rasAyAmuna mukhai: – niruSchEdhA nimna itharamabhi samaplAvayathimAm yadhruchchA vikShEpAth yathipathi dhayA dhivya thatinee [yathirAja sapthathi]( (vEdhAnthAchAryar writes this in his style of one word giving two meanings) river ganges which implies kindness/words of emperumAnAr – (they both) form beautiful pearls (muththu) /mukthas (liberated), sins of all the people would be removed (by both), those like yamuna rivers (yAmuna muni) come join this and increase the flow of water (theertham / also means AchAryas), (flow/kindness) would never dry up, would splash to the higher plane (higher plane means those who do not show interest) and make it wet (make such people amicable);

by his utmost grace that is overflowing like uncontrollable river cauvEry (though the aforementioned SlOkam is about river ganges, here commentator talks about cauvEry due to emperumAnAr and disciples living in SrIrangam and mainly know that only);

this grace (of AdhiSeshan) was immersed inside him due to the beauty of SrI rAma, and so he could not publicise it then.

thannai uRRu AL cheyyum thanmaiyinOr – As said in ‘vAchA yatheendhra manasa vapushA cha yushmath pAdhAravindha yugaLam bhajathAm [yathirAja vimSathi – 3]
(the gurus who meditate upon your divine feet with their words, mind, and body) and,

nithyam yatheendhra thava dhivya vapussmruthaumE saktham manO bhavathu vAk guNa keerthanEsau – kruthyancha dhAsya karaNanthu karadhvayasya vruthyantharEsthu vimukham karaNathrayancha [yathirAja vimSathi – 4]’ (~Oh emperor of saints! May my mind be blessed to meditate upon your beautiful divine body. May my speech be always engaged in talking about your auspicious qualities. May the two hands of mine be always engaged in serving you as your servant. May my three faculties, mind, speech, and body, not be involved in any other matters).


nithyam (Sreeman) yatheendhra thava dhivya padhAbhja sEvA [yathirAja vimSathi – 19] (Oh my lord rAmAnuja! Kindly grace me to worship your divine feet every day),

they surrender to emperumAnAr and do not know any other worldly matters, and are having the nature of wishing to serve him with all three faculties (mind, speech, and body);

thanmaiyinOr – having (such) nature;

mannu thAmaraith thAL thannai uRRu AL cheyya ennai uRRAn inRu – As said in ‘thruNeekrutha virinchAdhi nirankuSa vibhUthaya: | rAmAnuja padhAmbhOja samASrayaNasAlina:’  (~ for those who have gotten to the divine feet of emperumAnAr,  even the sathyalOkam that is the abode of brahma is like a grass/straw (insignificant)),


rAmAnujArya charaNa dhvandhva kainkarya vruththaya: –  sarvAvasthAsu sarvAsu dhArakA: bhOshakASchamE’ (if they get the divine feet of emperumAnAr, then at all times, places, etc., it would be life life supporting, life sustaining, and enjoyment for them),

in this way those (disciples) who are to be praised in all the ways,

as AzhvAr was staunch and said ‘uNNum sORu parugunIr thinnum veRRilai ellAm kaNNan [thiruvAimozhi 6.7.1]’ (kaNNan who is food (which gives nutrition), water (which sustains) and betel leaves (which give enjoyment)),

they are staunch in the view that emperumAnAr is the life saving, sustaining, and enjoyment;

being like beautiful lotus flower, as ‘gambheerAmbas samuthbhUtham’, being very delicate, and equal to each other, and always being completely enjoyable – such divine feet of (the devotees of emperumAnAr);

as said in ‘thath dhAsa dhAsaika rasathA avirathA mamAsthu [yathirAja vimSathi – 16](~ wish to be always interested in serving the last of series of hierarchy of servants of your devotees), having the mind of doing ‘vazhuvilA adimai [thiruvAimozhi – 3.3.1]’ (~service without any break), and having the devotion like Him as He said in ‘mama math bhaktha bhakthEshu preethirabyadhikObhavEth – thasmAth mathbhaktha bhakthAScha pUjaneeyA viSEshatha: (My love is more towards devotees of my devotees. So, my devotees and their devotees are to be worshiped like I am worshiped), (here amudhanAr is having similar love towards the devotees of devotees of emperumAnAr)

they surrendered to emperumAnAr and are ‘maRRoru pERu madhiyAdhu’ (~not giving significance to any other benefit);

emperumAnAr reformed me today/now, and accepted me, such that I do services to his devotees as per the wish;

mannu – fittingly;

This acceptance was not something present earlier – inRu uRRAn – he accepted me today/now.

That is, amudhanAr is saying, as said in ‘adhyamE sapalam janma: suprabAthAchamEnichA’ (akrUrar saying that today only there is a dawn as he is going to see kaNNan), the never-breaking hard hell got removed, and today it started to the path of nal veedu (SrIvaikuNtam).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

For a very long time emperumAnAr had an unfullfilled wish, that – all are surrendering to me only and are not surrendering to those surrendered to me and not praising their qualities for the world to know. He got that wish fullfilled today as he made me be surrendered to the divine feet of those who are surrendered to him – says amudhanAr.

and this was not by force – it is by showing me how enjoyable those divine feet are – he uses the phrase ‘mannu thAmaraith thAL’, to highlight this.

As he is ‘amudhanArwho can author poems, emperumAnAr got him to surrender to the divine feet of kUraththAzhvAn his disciple, to sing praises about him; but since kUraththAzhvAn did not agree to it, amudhanAr as he praised emperumAnAr in this prabandham, had to be satisfied with mentioning about kUraththAzhvAn in some pAsurams here and there; this is similar to how emperumAnAr wrote about his AchAryan’s AchAryan ALavandhAr, in ‘yath padhAmboruhadhyAna’.

Now, if we consider ‘sARRidumE’, as verb-related (finite verb / action based), that is, ‘emperumAnAr would say/celebrate’ then we can make a meaning for first two sentences fully, and for second two sentences fully, without having to move around the phrases. May be maNavALa mAmunigaL did not wish to consider the word ‘thanmai’ to give meaning of emperumAnAr’s nature; but since it is not considered unwanted to think of a different explanation, as said in ‘nirvAhasya nirvAhAntharA dhUshakathvam’ (~one explanation does not condemn a different explanation), I pray that the noble ones to consider this different explanation not as condemning other explanations. So:   For the word ‘thanmai’ in the third line, if we consider the meaning as AthmA‘s true nature of being devoted to devotees;

so, while there are those who are devoted to him, there are not any who are devoted to my devotees – thinking so, emperumAnAr, to make me be subservient to his devotees, he (himself) would praise his disciples – would be the meaning of last two lines.

Is it correct to say emperumAnAr would praise his own disciples? One reason he would do that is to highlight the glroy of his disciples to the new entrants so that they understand his disciples’ glory and surrender to them;

another reason would be, as the new entrants become devoted to the devotees,  he would become very happy and so would celebrate his devotees about that;

Like how when the parrot that she took care of would say apt names of emperumAn (by understanding the state of its owner) parakAla nAyaki to keep her surviving, she would celebrate her parrot saying, ‘vaLarththadhanAl payan peRREn varuga [thirunedunthANdakam – 14]’ (~Oh! I got the benefit of rearing you),  emperumAnAr also seeing that his disciples are teaching other what he taught them, and for getting ‘adiyArkku adiyAr’ (disciples of disciples), emperumAnAr is celebrating those disciples.

So first two lines indicate emperumAnAr making amudhanAr surrender to kUraththAzhvAn, and in the last two lines indicate emperumAnAr celebrating kUraththAzhvAn since he accpeted to be amudhanAr’s AchAryan as per the wish of emperumAnAr.

than thagavAl – applies to both the phrases (by kAkAshi nyAyam (like how a crow with its only one eye looks both ways)); by his nature of grace he made amudhanAr subservient to kUraththAzhvAn; by his nature of grace, he highlights the glories of those associated to him (so that amudhanAr and others would become subservient to those associated to emperumAnAr).

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 96

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

When asked – Your highness said ‘maRai nAlum vaLarththanan’, that what emperumAnAr divined to the sentient is based on vEdhAntham as way for liberation as means in the form of devotion, and,  prapaththi.  Between these, is your dedication focused towards the easy to do prapaththi (surrendering)?

amudhanAr divines that it is not that either, and that he is devoted to the love (of emperumAnAr’s devotees).

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – Compared to the lord of all, who is neutral to punishment and kindness, that is, the sarvESvaran who is a punisher, it is emperumAnAr who removes ignorance, and who came down from SrIvaikuNtam with a vow to protect the sentient, is of causeless mercy, so, for saving the sentient he nurtured vEdha vEdhAnthams

– hearing amudhanAr divining so, some people nearby who heard this, ask – in those vEdhAnthams, are you devoted to the path of SaraNAgathi that is talked about for those wishing mOksham, as said in mumukshurvai SaraNam aham prapadhyE” (I am surrendering unto that brahmam)?

amudhanAr replies – due to the dangerous karmas that are hindrance to performing SaraNAgathi, I am not having complete faith in SaraNAgathi, and for me who is not helpful and who is involved in the experience of happiness and sadness till the end of this body that is of bad smell, flesh, etc., I am having faith that the helpers in my journey and protectors of me are those noble souls who are easier than emperumAnAr, the ultimate means, and are my lords, and who consider only my lord emperumAnAr as all kind of their relationships as said in ‘thandhai nal thAy thAram [Arththi prabandham – 3]’ ((Oh emperumAnAr!) good father, mother, spouse, (children, wealth is all you for me)), and are in the state of  ‘thEvu maRRaRiyEn [kaNNinuN chiruth thAmbu – 2]’ (~ do not know any other god); so my dedication is in the path of love towards such devotees of emperumAnAr.

vaLarum piNi koNda val vinaiyAl mikka nal vinaiyil
kiLarum thuNivu kadaiththu aRiyAdhu mudaiththalaiyUn
thaLarum aLavum thariththum vizhundhum thani thirivERku
uLar em iRaivar irAmAnusan thannai uRRavarE                              –  96


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

vaLarum piNi koNda – Being of boundless sorrow
val vinaiyAl – due to dangerous karmas that cannot be gotten rid of by experiencing its effects or by amends,
kidaiththu aRiyAdhu – not getting directly (in a straight forward manner)
kiLarum thuNivu –  utmost faith
mikka nal vinaiyil – in the highest dharma, that is SaraNAgathi;
mudaiththalai – being of bad smell
Un – and in form of flesh, etc., – such body;
as said in ‘thaLarA udalam [thiruvAimozhi – 5.8.8]’ (~body that becomes weak), till the time of last breath,
thaLarum aLavum – till the time of getting weak
as said in ‘van sERRu aLLal poyn nilam [thiruviruththam – 100]’ (world of falsities, that is a dense sludge), ‘podhumbinil veezhndhu vazhukki [periyAzhvAr thirumozhi – 5.2.7]’ (falling into pit), ‘kUdi azhungik kuzhiyil veezhndhu vazhukkAdhE [periyAzhvAr thirumozhi – 4.6.6]’ (not get slipped and get immersed into the pit (of worldly affairs / pull of senses)), in the place of worldly affairs that is of recovering from using the holding stick that is about what are to be followed and what are to rejected, that is given due to  help of pious ones,  (but later again) falling down, and repeat this,
thariththum – managing to stay afloat
vizhundhum –  and falling into the cruel pit of senses like sound, form, etc.,
thani thirivERku – to me who was flailing without having any one with me as an accompaniment to end my loneliness, and preventing me from falling into pit holding me and guiding me to save me,
em – for us
irAmAnusan thannai – emperumAnAr
those being thEvu maRRaRiyEn [kaNNinuN chiruth thAmbu – 2]’ (~ do not know any other god),
uRRavar uLar – they are there who are dedicated to (emperumAnAr).

Their love towards me only is my life savior, is the thought.

When some recite as ‘em iRaivar irAmAnusan thannai uRRAvar’ – those who are dedicated only to emperumAnAr, who are our lords – shall be the meaning.
piNi – sorrow;
nal vinai – sukrutham – fortune/virtue;
kiLarum thuNivu growing faith/courage;
mudai – bad smell
Some also recite as ‘mikka nal vinaiyin kiLarum thuNivu’ – then, great faith that is required for the very high dharma of SaraNAgathi.

kUraththAzhwAn, a dear disciple of emperumAnAr


vaLarum piNi koNda val vinaiyAl – As said in ‘adhana dhOshENa bhavEth dharidhraha, dharidhra dhOshENa karOthi pApam, pApAth avaSyam narakam prayAthi, punar dharidhra: punarEva pApi (One who never donated become poor, then they would commit sin, sin leads to hell, again they would be born as poor and sinful), and,

dhyAyathO vishayAn pumsa: sangasthEshU pajAyathE – sangAth sanjaAyathE kAma: kAmAth krOdhObhijAyathE – krOdhAdh bhavathi sammOha: sammOhAth amruthi vibhrama: – smruthi bramSAdh bhudhdhi nASa: bhudhdhi nASAth praNaSyathi [SrI bhagavath gIthA – Chapter 2 – SlOkas 62, 63] (Involving on the targets of senses, sentient develops attachment to them; attachment -> desire -> anger -> delusion -> confused memory -> loss of reason -> sentient perishes from that),

the one growing more and more, is the sickness – that is disease – and sadness from it.

koNda val vinaiyAl that which creates such sadness all the time, due to the bad karmas which cannot be rid of by experiencing its effects or by amends;

mikka nal vinaiyil kiLarum thuNivu kidaiththaRiyAdhu As said in ‘thasmAn nyAsamEshAm thapasAmathiriktha mAhu:’ (SaraNAgathi is supreme among the thapas), and

sathkarma nirathASSudhdhA: sAnkyayOgavidhasthadhA – nArhanthi SaraNa: thasyakalAm kOti thameemabhi’ (the pure ones who are interested in good karmas, and who do know sAnkyam yOgam,etc., they understand that those ways do not equal even in a small way to SaraNAgathy),

being the supreme among all the means, unlike other means which are detrimental to true nature (of AthmA), having the goodness of being amicable to true nature, the action in the form of anjali (venerate) (that is, SaraNAgathi), as said in,

mahA viSvAsa pUrvakam’ (~ based on utmost faith), and

thadhEkOpAyathA yAchnA’, and, ‘viSvAsa:prArthanApUrvam Athma rakShAbharam’ (~AthmA is protected as prayer is done with atmost faith),

what is said as great faith that is related to and goes up to the level of para bhakthi, para gyAnam, and, parama bhakthi – no such faith is attained, being absent in such knowledge;

nal vinai fortune/virtue;  that is, prapaththi;

kiLarum thuNivu – ebbing faith/courage;

Some also recite as ‘mikka nal vinaiyin kiLarum thuNivu’ – then, great faith that is required for the very high dharma of SaraNAgathi.

mudaith thalai Un thaLarum aLavum As said in ‘amEdhya pUrNam krimi janthu sangulam’ (fully impure, it contains germs, etc.,), and ‘svabhAva  dhurgandham asoucham adhruvam kaLEbaram mUthra pureesha bajanam’ (smells bad by nature, impure, unstable, this body is the holder of urine, etc.),

being the place of bad smell by nature, the body that is in the form of flesh, etc., urine, muscles, etc.;

till the time such body becomes weak;

mudai – bad smell;  mudai, and Un refers to body that is of flesh;  it is said too as ‘Una udal siRai [gyAna sAram – 1]’ (~prison that is this body made of flesh (etc));

thariththum vizhundhum – In such time, as said in ‘samsAra visha vrukshasya dhvE palE hyamruthOpamE | kadhAchith kESvavE bhakthis thadhbhakthairvA samAgama: (in the poisonous tree of this material realm, there are only two nectarian fruits; devotion towards krishNa which happens rarely, and being together with his devotees only), and,

kUdi azhungik kuzhiyil veezhndhu vazhukkAdhE [periyAzhvAr thirumozhi – 4.6.6]’ (not get slipped and get immersed into the pit (of pull of senses)),

mAya van sERRu aLLal poyn nilam [thiruviruththam – 100]’ (world of falsities, that is a dense sludge)

in the place that is this material world, having ups and downs,

some noble ones who are present here by His grace, as I was immersed in the affinity towards this material world, helped me to be lifted up,

and holding to the pole they gave, that is ability to discern between what should be followed and what should be rejected, and due to that getting temporary peace of removal of sorrows, and recovering from it;

and then due to carelessness/inadvertence, falling (again) into the cruel and hard pit that is interest in worldly matters like sound, taste, etc., (SabdhAdhi),

thani thirivErkku –   As said in ‘jeerNAtharissarith atheeva gabeera neerA bAlAvayam sakala miththam anarththa hEthu:’ (~we are not knowing the direction, gotten lost in the ocean), and,

‘nORRa nOnbilEn nuN aRivilEn [thiruvAmozhi – 5.7.1]’ (~ Did not undertake any penance, not having knowledge gained), and,

‘na dharma nishtOsmi’ (~am not following dharmas properly), and,

‘bhavadhurdhinE padha skalitham’ (~without knowing the direction to go in, Oh emperumAn! I have lost the way),

for me who does not have any accompaniment whether in the form of sentient or non-sentient,

irAmAnusan thannai uRRavar – As they said in ‘rAmAnujasya charaNau SaraNam prapadhyE’ (surrendered to only the divine feet of emperumAnAr), and, ‘rAmAnujArya vaSaka: parivarththisheeya [sundhara bAhu sthavam?] (we want to be under the shadow of divine feet of emperumAnAr?), and, ‘nachEth rAmAnujEth yEshA (Oh! If there was no ‘rAmAnujA’ the most prudent four lettered manthra (what (terrible) state would worms like me would have ended up in!)), etc., those who are having dedication towards emperumAnAr;

em iRaivar uLar being a companion to remove our loneliness, preventing us from falling into the deep pit that is the worldly existence, they themselves hold me and direct me to lift me up – they are my lords;

Saying em iRaivar is referring to kUraththAzhvAn. amudhanAr himself divined earlier too, ‘vanja mukkuRumbAm nam kuzhiyaik kadaththum nam kUraththAzhvAn’.


it is adjective to emperumAnAr when read as ‘em iRavar-irAmAnusan’.

When some recite asem iRaiyavan – irAmAnusan thannai uRRavarE’ – the meaning is to be taken as – those who stay dedicated to emperumAnAr and not know anything else, are my lords;

abhiyukthar (kOil kandhAdai aNNan?) too divined the noble ones are those who are dedicated to charama parvam (AchAryan), as ‘karmEdhikEchith aparE mathi mithya thAnyE bhakthimparE prapadhanam prvadhanthyupAyam, AmnAya sAra rasikAsthvamidhAnu bhAvAs thvAmEvayAnthi SaraNam Satajin muneendhra [parAnguSa pancha vimSathi] (some say karma yOgam, some say no – gyAnam yOgam, but some other may say bhakthi yOgam as the means; but those who truly understood SAsthram, would only consider you as the shelter, Oh SatakOpa! (nammAzhvAr) );

jeeyar too prayed for subservience to devotees, as ‘thvath dhAsa dhAsa gaNanA charamAva dhauya: thath dhAsa dhAsaika rasathA avirathA mamAsthu [yathirAja vimSathi – 16](~ wish to be always interested in serving the last of series of hierarchy of servants of your devotees).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

mikka nal vinai –  vinai : karma yOgam, gyAna yOgam;   nal vinai : bhakthi yOgam;  mikka nal vinai : prapaththi.

kiLarum thuNivu –  Since prapaththi is praying as ‘you please be the means and protect me’, it requires high level of faith; since I don’t have that, how would I get the path of prapaththi , asks amudhanAr.

mudaith thalai Un … thani thirivERku – vENdA nARRam migu udal  [thiruvarangak kalampakam]’ (~do not want body which is of bad smell), said piLLaip perumAL aiyangAr in thiruvarangak kalambakam.

Un thaLarum aLavum ..vizhundhum – By this, he shows that even if the body (of meat, etc.) may become weak,  interest in other matters is not becoming weak, and it pushes us into the pit – thus showing the strength of interest in such matters.

It is the love of those dedicated to emperumAnAr, as ‘thEvu maRRu aRiyEn’, who are my associations, that would prevent us from falling into the pit that is worldly existence and can protect us – is the meaning of this pAsuram.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 95

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram – amudhanAr said that emperumAnAr would create all that is needed for them to get saved, and will save those who surrendered to him;

after thinking about intellect, ability, etc., of emperumAnAr of such ways, unlike the ways of worldly people, his being different and not having any scent of effects of material world, being incarnated in this world for helping others – thinking so amudhanAr divines that in this pAsuram.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

Even though emperumAnAr would divine to those who surrendered to him about the distinguished means that helps in getting saved, and growth from it being the wealth of love towards emperumAn , and liberation from sins that are hindrances to getting the destiny, and the ultimate destiny of it which is paramapadham, I would not like and enjoy any (such) thing other than his divine qualities – divined amudhanAr in the previous pAsuram.

In this pAsuram, amudhanAr divines – since emperumAnAr is being such that even sarvESvaran who as antharyAmi for all the AthmAs provides for good and bad (pravruththi, nivruththi), is not the most loving of the devotees compared to him; and, emperumAnAr, in the matters of intellect, freedom of worldly desires (vairAgyam), etc., is completely different compared to worldly people;  to give the most distinguished destiny to everyone, one who is not associated to even the scent of worldly existence, incarnated from that paramapadham as emperumAnAr, for helping others; and he spread the meanings of vEdhas at all times.

uNNinRu uyirkatku uRRanavE seydhu avarkkuyavE
paNNum paranum parivilanAmpadi palluyirkkum
viNNin thalai ninRu veedaLippAn em irAmAnusan
maNNin thalaththu udhiththu maRai nAlum vaLarththananE       –  95


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

uL ninRu – As said in ‘ya AthmA namantharO yamayathi [bruhadhAraNyakam]’ (He precepts AthmAs, staying inside them), being inside for existence and livelihood (of AthmAs),
uyirgaLukku uRRanavE seydhu – the way in which these AthmAs would live/be saved, cultivating as per those ways,
avarkku – to them
uyavaE paNNum – doing only such reviving (ujjeevanam) for them,
for the three types of sentient- (bhadhdhar (bound souls, here in this realm), mukthar (liberated ones), nithyar (being in SrIvaikuNtam from time eternal)), and for the three types of non-sentient (Sudhdha sathvam, miSra sathvam, saththva sUnyam (Time)), which are under His handling, emperumAn handles the three – true nature (svarUpam), being (sthithi), and action/growth (pravruththi),
paranum – even such emperumAn , most distinguished from everyone, sarvasmAthparan,
parivilan Am padi – is such that He could be said as not that much caring towards the AthmAs (compared to)
em – our lord
irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr,
udhiththu – incarnated
viNNin thalaininRu – from SrIvaikuNtam which is the head of skies
maNNin thalaththu – in to the earth
without any blemish associated to this place
aLippAn – to give
palluyirkkum – for all the AthmAs,
as said in ‘SrI vishNulOka maNi maNdapa mArgadhAyee’ (~one who gives us the divine temple of SrIvaikuNtam)
veedu – mOksham that is the mark of most distinguished destiny
as said in ‘nAgasya prushtE [thaiththirIya upanishath – nArAyaNavalli (seated on Adhi SEsha in SrIvaikuNtam)),
vaLarththanan – and he conducted the growth of
maRai nAlum – rig, etc., the four vEdhas,
SAsthram, for saving of everyone.
Oh! how wonderfully he conducts it! – is the thought.

uRRanavE seydhu ­is – doing apt deeds;
parivu -> snEham – love. Also pakshapAtham – favoritism towards His devotees.

Meaning would match even when some recite as ‘pulluyirukku’ (for the low level AthmAs (compared to Him)).


uL ninRu As said in ‘antha:pravishtaS SAsthA janAnAm sarvAthmA’ (entered all the AthmAs and controls them),

antha:pravishtam karthAramEtham’ (He entered and performs the acts),

antharbahiScha thathsarvam vyApya nArAyANa sthitha:’ (being present everywhere inside (as antharyAmi (to direct everything), and outside (as who supports everything)),

ya AthmA nithishttan – ya AthmA nam antharOyamayathi’ (The one who is inside AthmA and controls it), and,

sarvasya chAham hruthi sannivishta: [SrI bhagavath gIthA] (I am inside everyone’s mind), and,

‘udal misai uyir enak karandhengum parandhuLan [thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.7]’ (Like AthmA is having effect on whole body, He is hidden and spread everywhere inside and outside), and,

parandha thAN paravaiyuL neer thoRum parandhuLan [thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.10]’ (Inside the ocean that is spread everywhere, in every atom of water He is present comfortably (without want of more area) similar to how He is present comfortably everywhere else outside),

being antharyAmi (being inside AthmA ) for existence and livelihood (for goodness) (of AthmAs),

as said in ‘anAdhi mAyayA supthOyathA’ (being covered by ignorance since time immemorial) sentient are in darkness that is ignorance as being bound with non-sentient from time eternal and having nil knowledge on truth, good means, and true destiny; in order to educate the sentient about such matters, if emperumAn comes in front of the sentient for them to see,

due to gyanaika AkAram (due to knowing that they also have gyAnam (intellect) (though subdued)), they would say – I am equal to you (due to having gyAnam (intellect), unlike achith), and will command Him to move aside; fearing so, He went inside (their AthmAs) without their knowledge, and is taking care of their existence, etc., like ‘irA matam UttuvAr’ (like how a mother would secretly send out food for her angry son sitting inside a mutt at the end of street, and stand hiding to see him eating).

uyirkatku uRRanavE seydhu – For each of His different living beings, as said in ‘avar avar vidhi vazhi adaiya ninRanar [thiruvAimozhi – 1.1.5]’ (He is situated as the antharAthmA such that each adhikAri/dhEvathA attain the goal per karmA/fate), based on the each of their karmas, giving them gains and losses (pravruththi nivruththi);

Or, like getting water to a higher plane, He by his kindness lets sentient go through sequence of steps so as to encourage them to follow good paths as per true nature of AthmAs, in each appropriate ways; doing matching/appropriate cultivation to see whether these AthmAs would in some way be saved;

uRRanavE seydhu ­– is – doing apt deeds;

He said too, ‘bhavanthi bhAvAbhUthAnAm maththa Eva pruthakvithA: [SrI bhagavath gIthA] (from different worlds different people with different intellect that I give them, they come and reach me).

avarkku uyavE paNNum paranum (paran -> sarvESvaran (emperumAn); As said in ‘thripArdhUrdhva udhaithpurusha:’ (emperumAn is above SrIvaikuNtam), and, ‘thamasa:parasthAth’ (He is above thamas that is mUla prakruthi (primordial matter)), even sarvESvaran who elevates AthmAs to give them the most distinguished destiny,

as said in ‘pathim viSvasya’ (the lord of the entire creation), ‘yasmAth param nAparamasthi kinchith’, ‘athaya thatha:para:’ (One who does not have any one superior to Him), for the three types of sentient- (bhakthar, mukthar, nithyar), and for the three types of non-sentient (sudhdhasathvam, michraththavam, thaththva sUnyam (Time)), emperumAn handles the three – true nature (svarUpam), being (sthithi), and action/growth (pravruththi),

even such sarvESvaran

parivu ilanAmpadi – In the ways of saving the sentient, it could be said that He is not having that much love compared to emperumAnArparivu – love; positive bias;  ilan – He not having it.

As said in ‘dhurlabham ya upAsathE’ (looking for hard to reach emperumAn to meditate upon), ‘kshipAmi [SrI bhagavath gIthA – 16.19]’ ((I will) push them (into asura births)), ‘na kShamAmi [varAha purANam] (would not tolerate (those who insult my devotees)), and,

sidhdhirbhavathivA nEthi samSaya: achyutha sEvinAm’ (those surrendered to achyuthan’s (emperumAn’s) divine feet would always have uncertainty whether they would get liberated),

sarvESvaran is hard to reach, being common for both grace and punishment, and is having to be doubted whether we would get the benefit or not;


As said in ‘sulabham svagurum’ (the easily accessible AchAryan of own), and, ‘na samSayasthu thadhbhaktha paricharyArathAthmanAm’ (He who is involved in kainkaryam to guru would not have any doubts (about getting the true goal)),

emperumAnAr (AchAryan) is easy to reach, full of grace, and can give the benefit/destiny without any doubt,

and so, when looking at the two, it appears clearly that he is better than Him in having love towards the sentient.

viNNin thalai ninRu – As said in ‘nAgasya prushtE [thaiththirIya upanishath – nArAyaNavalli (seated on Adhi SEshan in SrIvaikuNtam), from SrIvaikuNtam which is supreme than heaven, etc., and which is said by the word parama AkASam (spiritual sky),

palluyirkkum veedu aLippAn – As said in ‘SrI vishNulOka maNimaNdapa mArggadhAyi rAmAnujO vijayathE yathirAja rAja:’ (~emperumAnAr the kind of yathis gifted us the path to SrIvaikuNtam), for giving all the AthmAs the most distinguished destiny that is mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam), which is ‘anthamil pEr inbam [thiruvAimozhi – 10.9.11]’ (~of endless most superior level of enjoyment);

When some recite aspulluyirkku’ – it is – insignificant/lowly.

em irAmAnusan emperumAnAr who is our lord;

maNNin thalaththu udhiththu As said in ‘prakruthim svAmadhishtAya sambhavAmi (I incarnate taking a body matching my glory), even though his incarnation is on the earth, you see, he incarnated without affected by any of its blemishes, and as ajahath svasvabhAvar (without reducing any of his glory);

maNNin thalaththu udhiththu – incarnated in this world that is ‘iruL tharumA gyAlam [thiruvAimozhi – 10.6.1]’ (world that instigates ignorance), without getting affected by any of its blemishes;

maRai nAlum vaLarththananE emperumAnAr spread the vEdhas which are said as ‘richOyaju(g)mshi sAmAni thathaiva atharvaNAnicha’ (rig, yajur, sAma and atharvaNa), that is, vEdhas that are of four categories such as rig, etc., and conducted its growth;

While conducting lecture for the grantham of SrIbAshyam with divine sentences like ‘chiranthana sarasvathee cheekura bandhu sairandhrikA [yathirAja sapthathi] (emperumAnAr’s divine words is the one which sets right the hair of mother vEdham that is scattered about by words of other philosophies), he conducted the growth/spread of vEdhas also in parallel without any hindrance;

SrI bhAshyam  – showing paramapdham to those who surrendered to

By this, it says he is ‘SrI vEdha mArgga prathishtApanAchArya ubhaya vEdhAnthAchAryar’  (one who established true path of vEdhas, and AchAryan of both samskrutha and thamizh vEdhas).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

uL ninRu … – He has entered into AthmA to make AthmA be referred to as something of significance; this is what we call as antharyAmithvam.

parivilanAmpadi – even though emperumAn stays inside the AthmA inside the body that is disgusting to approach, He still does that out of love, and struggles in so many ways to slowly get each AthmA to go in correct ways and reach Him;

even such great love of emperumAn pales in comparison to that of emperumAnAr, says amudhanAr.

He explains such emperumAnAr’s love, starting with palluyirkkum’.

palluyirkkum … vaLarththanan – Whereas emperumAn hides as antharyAmi and tries to do good for AthmAs, emperumAnAr came directly from SrIvaikuNtam ignoring its comforts, for helping the AthmAs here.  Since emperumAn is present everywhere he cannot  ‘come’ to a place;  but emperumAnAr came here just for us to save us; this shows the greatness of love of emperumAnAr.

Whereas He is afraid that people would command Him to step aside if He comes directly in front of them, and so He has hidden himself as antharyAmi; whereas emperumAnAr is not scared of the independent-minded sentient, and comes directly in front of them to save them. When love is strong, there would not be fear, isn’t it?

paran’ also means anniyan (alien). Since emperumAnAr is not alien, but has come as similar to us, he comes and stands in front of us without any fear.  Enjoy this thought by looking at the words from the pAsuram that show this comparison as ‘paran’ versus  ‘emirAmAnusan  (‘alien’ emperumAn versus ‘our’ emperumAnAr).

See the difference between the saving by Him who is antharyAmi (hidden inside), and the saving by emperumAnAr who came from SrIvaikuNtam and directly stood in front of us!

uy maRai nAlum vaLarththanan – it is not possible for antharyAmi to spread vEdhas at all; but emperumAnAr came and spread vEdhas to everyone because of which people could learn and become amicable to be saved;

Now, even though emperumAn cannot spread vEdhas as antharyAmi, can He not do that by His incarnations? Even that did not happen – He incarnated as swan and gave vEdhas, but did not spread it;

Okay, did He not grow vEdhas by incarnating as kaNNAn and giving SrI bhagavath gIthA? Even here, it is a No. Like how the meanings of the four vEdhas is not easy for everyone to understand, the meanings of gIthA is also not easy to understand; even though He thought He should give gIthA as the essence of upanishaths, that did not materialize; His wish to do this may be there, but to implement it requires some talent isn’t it? That talent is there with emperumAnAr only.  That is why emperumAnAr had to incarnate and make gIthA be understood, by giving us ‘gIthA bhAshyam’ to spread its meanings;  vEdhAntha dhEsikan talks about gIthA bAshyam of emperumAnAr as ‘paramaNithi parishkAra vruththAsyamEtham [sankalpa sUryOdhayam – 2.22]’ ((gIthA bhAshyam) includes the act of beautifying/making clear the words of paran (kaNNan), that is bhagavath gIthA).

In this way, he incarnated in much better way than the almighty emperumAn and spread the knowledge of vEdhAntham and saved the AthmAs. Oh how great this is!   – is the thought here.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 94

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram – he thought about how emperumAnAr accepted him voluntarily and the way in which he removed his karmas; in this pAsuram – even though emperumAnAr would give starting from firm devotion leading towards prapaththi all the way up to parampadham to those who surrendered to him, I would not be eager to consume anything other than his auspicious qualities, says amudhanAr.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram – amudhanAr celebrated about emperumAnAr being a great benefactor who accepted him voluntarily and removed with the sword that is his mercy, the eternal sins, for them to never return, and due to that being the head of prapannas he removed the mis- interpreters of vEdhas who propagated wrong meanings of vEdhas as true and bewildered people;

in this pAsuram – even though that emperumAnAr, for those who surrendered to him, would give completely the devotion to prapaththi that would uplift everyone, and the wealth of doing services which are done after surrendering, remove the association due to having the body and give mOkham which is the ultimate destiny, amudhanAr divines his staunch following saying – I would not wish for consuming anything other than the auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr.

thavam tharum selvam thagavum tharum saliyAp piRavip
pavam tharum thee vinai pARRith tharum paranthAmam ennum
thivam tharum theedhil irAmAnusan thannaich chArndhavarkatku
uvandhu arundhEn avan seer anRi yAn onRum uL magizhndhE        –  94


Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

theedhil – not having the blemish of one leaving to suffer due to not removing the unwanted or not giving what is wished for;
irAmAnusan – such emperumAnAr
sArndhavarkatku – to those who surrendered
thannai – him
tharum he would give; what is said in prior sentence (of dhvaya mahA manthram),
thavam – that is, firm devotion to surrender (SaraNAgathi nishta)
and then,
tharum he would give
what is said in latter sentence, as required for taste of doing service
selvam that is, wealth of devotion
thagavu (thagundha) appropriate as per the nature of what is to be attained;
Then, as is said in ‘sArndha iru val vinaigaLum sariththu [thiruvAimozhi – 1.5.10]’ (pushed over (completely without any remainder) the two types (virtues and vices) of karmas that are irremovable which are being together (with me)),
tharum – will make
thee vinai – the cruel karmas
pARRi  – become insignificant dust
(the cruel karmas which)
tharum – would create more and more of
pavam – samsAram (worldly existence)
sariyA – one which would not leave us unless an all powerful would let it leave us
piRavi – which is due to births
as said in ‘paNdai val vinay pARRi aruLinAn [kaNNinuN chiruthth thAmbu – 7]’ (mercifully drove away as dust, the strong sins which were following me eternally),
As said in ‘parandhAma akShara parama vyOmAdhi SabdhithE [gadhya thrayam]’ (~the word indicates SrIvaikuNtam),
tharum – he would give;
paranthAmam ennum – which is said as parandhAmam
thivam – that is parmAkASam – that is, SrIvaikuNtam;
even though he would give all these in these ways,
yAn – I
arundhEn – would not consume
onRum – anything else
avan seer anRi – other than his qualities
uL magizhndhu – with happy mind
uvandhu – and liking.
When some recite as ‘saliyAp piRavip pavam tharum’sali – is – removable from its place; saliyA – cruel karmas that are difficult to uproot, which is the cause of worldly existence;

pavam –> samsAram – worldly existence;
pARRi (break it into) pieces;
magizhndhu implies liking, so uvandhu – is with liking, and supporting / taking it up. (I would not do that, says amudhanAr about other things).

emperumAn is AzhvAr’s divine body


emperumAnAr who does Not have the blemish of not accepting those who came to surrender by only considering the propriety of conduct as per SAsthram which says ‘praSAntha chiththAya SamAnvithAya’ (~ mind calm, control of inner and outer senses – teach only to such disciple), etc., and so thinking by looking at them that the sins that prevent them from surrendering are not removed, and the faculties of body have not flourished for doing services to Him.

Would it not be against the noble words ‘pareekShya vividha upAyai:’ (When disciple comes to AchAryan, AchAryan should test him in different ways first)? – since it is said in SrIvachana bhUshaNam ‘iraNdum kulaiya vENumenRirukkil iraNdukkum iraNdum uNdAyththadhAm [SrIvachana bhUshaNam – 16] (if the two – thAyAr and perumAn – wait till the devotee’s two – presence of bad and loss of good, are addressed by the devotee before accepting the devotee’s surrender, then the two, that is, thAyAr and perumAn would get the two blemishes of presence of bad and loss of good),

and so, analyzing the good and bad aspects would end up being a blemish for the one being surrendered to.

It is said too as, ‘thyajyathE yadhi dhOshENa guNEna parigruhyathE – Ethath sAdhAraNA:panthA: Achrithasya kutha:palam’ (~if will drop looking at blemishes, or accept only looking at qualities of one coming to surrender, then there is no greatness in the ordinary one being surrendered to).

theedhu is – having the blemish of leaving to suffer from not removing the unwanted and not giving what is wished for;  he is not having such blemish is the meaning here.

thannaich chArndhavarkatku – for those who consider him as means and destiny, and surrender to him who is having such glory,


thavam tharum – as said in ‘nyAsa mEshAm thapasAmathiriktha mAhu:’ (SaraNAgathi is supreme among the thapas). he would give the most distinguished among the means, and which is according to true nature of self, and what is shown in the first sentence of dhvayam, that is the firm devotion towards SaraNAgathi;

selvam thagavum tharum – and then, he would give that which is shown by the second sentence of dhvayam, that is, doing services (kainkaryam); and, like one needs hunger before eating, he would give the wealth of taste that is devotion that is suitable for the destiny;

thagavu – suitability;

selvum – tharum – As said in ‘sathu nAgavaraSSrImAn’, (SrImAn that is gajEndhrAzhvAn), and ‘lakShmaNO lakShmi sampanna: [SrI rAmAyaNam]’ (Having wealth that is kainkaryam, that is iLaiyAzhvAr (when leaving for forest)), he would give such wealth that is service (kainkaryam).


thagavum tharum – would also give the longing (thagavu) for the destiny.

Or furthermore, selvam thagavum tharum – the kainkaryam said in latter sentence (of dhvaya mahA manthram) applies up to charama parvam (the ultimate state, that is kainkaryam to AchAryan), and since it is the utmost dharmam, he would give the wealth of kainkaryam that extends to such charama parvam. For this meaning, thagavu – is – dharmam.

sariyAp piRavip pavam tharum theevinai pARRith tharum next, as said in ‘sArndha iru val vinaigaLum sariththu [thiruvAimozhi – 1.5.10]’ (pushed over (completely without any remainder) the two types (virtues and vices) of karmas that are irremovable which are being together (with me)), unless the most powerful (emperumAn) can destroy it, it cannot be removed even by experience of its effects or by penance, and which would make one go through more and more of worldly existence through many types of births – such cruel karmas.

As said in ‘paNdai val vinai pARRi aruLinAn [kaNNinuN chiruthth thAmbu – 7]’ (mercifully drove away as dust, the strong sins which were following me eternally), he would make such karmas break into insignificant pieces (powder); like how powder would fly off as wind blows,  he would let those karmas fly away.

pavam – samsAram – worldly existence;

pARRi(break it into) pieces;

gIthAchAryan too said ‘sarva pApEbhyO mOkShayishyAmi [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’ (~I will liberate (you) from all the sins).

paranthAmam ennum thivam tharum – next, as divined in gadhya thrayam, ‘parandhAma akShara parama vyOmAdhi SabdhithE [gadhya thrayam]’ (~the word parandhAmam indicates SrIvaikuNtam), thivam – paramAkASam, what is said as ‘parandhAmAm’, that is, SrIvaikuNtam.

He would give that.

Even though in this way he would give starting from following of prapaththi all the way up to paramapadham,

avan seer anRi yAn –  matters other than the auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr who is the benefactor as listed in the aforementioned,

uL magizhndhu – uvandhu arundhEnI would not accept it with happy mind and enjoy (such other matters).. arundhu – consume (enjoy).

You see, even paramapadham which is said as ‘suzhi pattu Odum sudharch chOdhi vELLam [thiruvAimozhi – 8.10.5]’ (~in paramapadham that looks like flood of light flowing whirling), is ignored by amudhanAr like ignoring aiSvaryam (comforts), and kaivalyam (enjoying own AthmA only), because of enjoyability of auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr that are as said in ´pAlE pOl seer [periya thiruvanthAdhi – 58]’ (~ enjoyable like milk);

By this, with love I would like and consume only his divine auspicious qualities, says amudhanAr.

magizhndhu – implies liking, so uvandhu – is with liking, and supporting / taking it up. (I would not do that, says amudhanAr about other things).

When some recite as ‘saliyAp piRavip pavam tharum’sali – is – removable from its place; saliyA – cruel karmas that are difficult to uproot, which is the cause of worldly existence;

jeeyar too wished for it in ‘nithyam yatheendhra [yathirAma vimSathi 4] etc., slOkams.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

thavam tharum – Realize that being in the state of SaraNAgathi itself is a great fortune, as said in ‘kEchidh bhAgyAdhikA: puna:’. So it talks about that benefit being given.

Firm devotion towards SaraNAgathi  is – living as said in the first sentence of dhvaya mahA manthram. Having the firm determination that the divine feet is the only shelter. Mind not going towards other means, and having full faith that the ultimate destiny would not be lost to us.

selvam thagavum tharum – Note that the word thagavum (matching) is used only with selvam thagavum; he would give matching wealth that is suitable for doing service mentioned in the second sentence of dhvaya mahA manthram; that matching wealth is the devotion in the form of love.

He would give the devotion that is suitable for service that extends up to doing that service to emperumAnAr himself (charama parva nishtai).

==> Those dedicated to emperumAnAr only, would consider the meaning of dhvayam as being applied to emperumAnAr himself.  This is explained:

They consider nammAzhvAr as representing the diving body of SrIman nArAyaNan whose kindness is instigated by pirAtti. Since divine body would highlight the qualities of emperumAn, and since nammAzhvAr highlights the divine qualities of emperumAn, we consider nammAzhvAr as the divine body of SrIman nArAyaNan. Now, we consider emperumAnAr as the divine feet of that nammAzhvAr.

So in the first sentence of dhvayam they surrender to that divine feet, that is , to emperumAnAr;  if we consider nammAzhvAr who is divine body of SrIman nArAyaNAn and consider nammAzhvAr’s divine feet (emperumAnAr) as the means, and it being the destiny too, we do kainkaryam to that divine feet (emperumAnAr) himself, and that is what they consider the meaning as for the second line of dhvaya mahA manthram.

thee vinai pARRith tharum – pARRi -> removing the karmas, like turning them into pieces.  nammAzhvAr who surrendered to emperumAn (prathama parva nishtai) said, ‘kamala malarp pAdham kANdalumE viNdE ozhindha [thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.9]’ (~as I saw the lotus feet the karmas were broken (into pieces)), whereas, madhurakavi AzhvAr  being in charama parva nishtai  (devoted to devotees/AchAryan), says, ‘paNdai val vinai pARRi aruLinAn  [kaNNinuN chiruthth thAmbu – 7]’ (mercifully drove away as dust, the strong sins which were following me eternally); it may possible for just broken one to get back into form; but if it is turned into pieces, then it would fly away and not come back to form. That is the greatness of love of AchAryan (love towards AchAryan);  following such state, amudhanAr also says, pARRith tharum.

paranthAmam – param dhAmam – best place.

See the beauty of sequence of words – first it is about following of SaraNAgathi as per first sentence of dhvayam ,  then the suitable devotion that matches the service mentioned in second sentence of dhvayam, then after that it is about removal of the unwanted (theevinai pARRi) which is the meaning of word nama:,  then it talks about thivam which is the achievement of the wanted that is suitable for kainkaryam which is the meaning of chathurththi  (Aya).

yAn avan seer anRi onRum arundhEn emperumAnAr’s divine auspicious qualities are so sweet for amudhanAr.

– – – – –

Translation: raghurAm SrInivAsa dasan

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