Daily Archives: October 26, 2021

thirunedunthANdakam – 23

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When One who made efforts to come and see you, was leaving you, could you not even say ‘do not go’? I told even that, but it became useless, she says. “One who is under your control would not listen to your words?”, periya thiruvadi (garudAzhvAn) took Him after asking “Is it appropriate to stay in a place that is not suitable for us?”, and He went, she says. Since this is the act of the protector, union is also for protection, and going away is also for protection. If our enjoyment is so high that it is unbearable, then to make us enjoy by calming down, He would separate from us and give enjoyment in small portions. She does not care about her own protection by herself, so she is longing so much to be with Him (even if it affects her due to excess happiness).

uLLUrum sindhai nOy enakke thandhu
en OLi vaLaiyum mAniRamum koNdAr ingE
theLLUrum iLam thengin thERal mAndhich
chElugaLum thiruvarangam nammUr enna
kaLLUrum painthuzhAy mAlaiyAnaik
kanavidaththil yAn kANban kaNdapOdhu
puLLUrum kaLvA nee pOgEl enban
enRAlum idhu namakkOr pulavi thAnE    23

Word by word meaning

enakkE thandhu – Creating only for me

sindhai nOy – the disease of the mind

uL Urum – that spreads inside,

ingE – in this thirumaNankollai,

koNDAr – He went away stealing

en OLi vaLaiyum – my sparkling bangles and

mAniRamum – rich colour of my body;

when He was going in that manner (He said -),

sEl -fish

ugaLum – enjoying, becoming fat, and living happily

theLLUrum iLam thengin thERal mAndhi – by drinking the clear juice that is overflowing from young coconut tree

thiru arangam – such SrIrangam

nammUr enna – is my place – saying so He went away.

kanavu idaththil yAn – In the place that is similar to dream which is not stable,

kANban kaLLUrum painthuzhAy mAlaiyAnai – I saw emperumAn who wears thiruthuzhAy garland that is rich green with honey flowing;

kaNdapOdhu – When I saw Him so,

enban – I told,

puLLUrum kaLvA – “Oh the thief riding on garudAzhvAn,

nee pOgEl – You should not go away from me hereafter”.

enRAlum – Even though I said so,

idhu – union with emperumAn

Or pulavi thAnE namakku – would (then) create for us such longing only.


If He who owns both the worlds (nithya viBhUthi, leelA viBhUthi), and also is generous, and if you are dear and was in union with Him, what prize did He give before leaving?

uLLurum sindhai nOy enakkE thandhu – This is what He gave, she says.

uLLil nOy – What He gave is not what we could see by our eyes and treat. Only if the disease is outside could one treat it by looking with our eyes.

uLLUrum nOy – It is moving inside like a snake. Even if not visible to the eyes, if it stays in only place then it would be possible to do surgery into that and cure it. It is a disease that would not let us do that because, like insects such as cockroach, it moves around everywhere. Since it is a disease of love, it is being uncertain as to whether it would be cured by crying, or by relatives, or it would be in any specific ways.

sindhai nOy – Incurable disease; If a disease comes to people in a village, then it could be cured by a doctor; if the doctor himself gets the disease then it could not be cured by anyone. As said in “aBhiBhUyamAnA vyasanai: [SrI bhAgavatham 10-20-15]” (even if one gets caught in sorrows, those whose minds are fixed in emperumAn would live without much worry – in the same way the mountains did not move even with the battering rains), if mind is clear then one could sustain if some disease comes; but if the mind itself is having the disease (of love), then it cannot be cured.

nOy – Is it appropriate to call love towards emperumAn, which one would get only if they had done good deeds in several previous births, as a disease? – It is based on one’s state; this devotion would be a benefit requested by praying for it; when enjoying emperumAn, then the devotion would be an instrument for that enjoyment; but if one gets separated, then that devotion itself would become a disease. For those who gained the knowledge about their true nature, then this devotion would be helpful to them; for the ones separated, it would be a disease.

enakkE thandhu – Gave me the disease as my whole share (and kept happiness as His share). When the experience of togetherness is common to both, then shouldn’t the disease that is of separation also be equal?

Why say thandhu – Unlike me who is having subservience, He is having independence which does not require anyone to permit Him – so He left me giving the disease to only me.

(But) as said in “naivadhamSAn na maSakAn [SrI rAmAyaNam – sundhara KhANdam – 36-42]” (SrI rAma is not aware of the insects etc., crawling on His divine body as His thoughts were fully with seethA pirAtti), she does not know how much He too suffered.

As said in “UrDhvam mAsAn na jeevishyE [SrI rAmAyaNam – sundhara KhANdam – 38-65]” (seethA pirAtti conveying through hanUman that she would not live beyond a month if He does not come and save Her), but SrI rAmA said “na jeevEyam kShaNam api [SrI rAmAyaNam – sundhara KhANdam – 68-10]” (I would not live even for a second, separated from Her). Now His sorrow has become mine here, says parakAla nAyaki – it is due to His efforts to grow devotion in her towards Him, that she is in this state now.

enakkE thandhu – Isn’t He a noble One? Can He keep anything for Himself? He is of the nature of being “bhAkthAnAm [jithanthE 1-5]” ((All of His are) for the devotees). So He gave me (the disease)) – this sarcasm could also be the meaning of this phrase.

en oLi vaLaiyum mAniRamum koNdArNot only did He create disease, He also took with Him ones that would help me calm down.

en oLi vaLaiyum mAniRamum – She having the knowledge of inner meaning of true nature of self as said in “madheeyancha niKhilam thavaiva” (all my belonging are yours who is my lord), is talking about bangles and colour of the body – like those who think that the body itself is self; is it appropriate? When He was with Her, He had wondered “Oh how nice this bangle is! Oh what a brightness it got due to our being together! Oh what a great colour your form is having!”, so that is how He had enjoyed these – that is why she is talking about these. Since whatever is liked by Him would also become liked by her, she is saying bangle and colour of body as ‘mine’.

mA niRamBest colour.

ingEThis place, thirumaNankollai, where I stayed hidden to rob Him; but this is the place I got robbed, she says. In the previous pAsuram she said “iruvarAi vandhAr, to mean that this is the place I got the hidden treasure that is emperumAn. In this pAsuram, by “koNdAr ingEshe is saying this is the place where I lost mine to Him.

If so, when He was leaving, why let Him go without asking what His place was? I did not have to ask – to help me sustain myself, He Himself told me the name of His place, she says.

theLLUrum etc. – Drinking the honey flooding from the young coconuts, the sEl type of fish would swim around happily – such is my place, called thiruvarangam – saying so, He left.

iLam thengu – Like how the nithyars and mukthars in thiru-nAdu (SrI vaikuNtam) always stay young of age twenty-five, the plants also stay young in this place.

theLLUrum etc. – The brewing honey flowing from the coconuts would flow in the divine roads. If it did not flow then it would not be apt to say that the fish drank it. This reminds about the honey (emperumAn) that is said in “thEttarum thiRal thEninai then aranganai [perumAL thirumozhi – 2.1]”.

sEl ugaLum– Like how the mukthas live happily, the fish and other creatures are also living happily in this place (SrIrangam).

thERal mAndhich chEl ugaLum thiruvarangam – Leaving the river which is the place of their birth, those fish entered into the place of enjoyment, enjoyed honey, and stayed happy. It is only when a muktha thinks about the material world, would these fish think about the river that is their birthplace.

iLam thengu etc. – Like how nithyas give their happiness to mukthas who got rid of repeated births in material world (and entered SrIvaikuNtam), for the fish that were born in the river and entered the divine roads, the coconuts that are well set in place as plants in the divine town give their honey, and the fish drink and stay happy – such a place (SrIrangam), is our place. As He said this;

If He says ‘my place’, then it would contradict bhAkthAnAm [jithanthE 1-5]” (His are all for the devotees). If He said ‘your place’ then since it would not be apt for her subservience, she would have replied ‘How can there be a place other than You for me”. So since saying either of these would not be apt for their true nature, He said “our place”. It is this place that creates sustenance in both of us. It is this place that makes me the lover-boy, and you the lover-girl; it is a place common to both of us, like thirumanthram (which talks about Him and the jeevAthmas). Since both of us are after each other, it is that place common to both of us.

kaLLUrum etc. Oh friend, you did not get to see the way He came here along with the greatest garland of thiruthuzhAi, she says. Like how a lover-boy would apply punugu (civet perfume) etc., for fragrance, He decorated himself to my liking.

kaLLUrum pynthuzhAy mAlaiyAnai – Like how His place gets flooded with honey, His divine body also would undergo the same, she says. Him who is decorated by the garland of thiruththuzhAy that is having honey flowing out from its opened glands;

kaLLUrum – Compared to the place where it grew, the garland is glowing with honey after touching His divine chest.

painthuzhAy – How do you know that the garland was cool? Since He hugged me I came to know, she says.

kanavidaththil – in the place that is transient, like dreams. Transient matters are referred as ‘indhira jAlam’ (magic of a high level) and ‘dream’. In this transient place, she is present, and He who is enjoyed is also present. But since this place and body are transient, the experience they undergo is also transient. (That is why one is having to go to paramapadham that is stable).

kanavidaththil – Or, by dream it can mean – the transient nature of their togetherness here. When it has been a long time something was experienced, one would say, it seems like only a dream.

yAn kANban – I experienced (in/like a dream). I who cannot sustain by any means other than Him – experienced. There is no shortfall in my love towards Him, and experience of Him.

If there is no shortfall of experience, then He would be under your control only. So you could have just told one word to Him – Don’t go – and you would have stopped Him – says her friend. I did that too, she says.

kaNda pOdhuAt the time of enjoying with Him –

puLLUrum kaLvAOh deceiver who is having garuda as His ride! Hiding garudan nearby without my knowledge, and coming here and getting me, He at the time of leaving me, climbed on that garudan and left. Oh the deceiver, who thought that the speed of garudan was not enough and so drove him faster, like driving a non-sentient chariot. If when He came, He used only the bow as His companion, what is it about periya thiruvadi (garudan) coming, and about taking Him away? If kings came in secret to meet their lovers, it is customary for their ministers to locate Him and take Him back. In the same way, garudan came and took Him away.

puLLUrum kaLvAperiya thiruvadi asked – If what you came here for is fulfilled, then shall you not come with me – and He climbed on him and went away, she says.

puLLUrumlike saying – He drove a chariot. That is, treating periya thiruvadi like a non-sentient chariot is how His impulse to leave was. (About His going away when periya thiruvadi asked Him to) – To the nithyasUris, He is like a prince who is under the control of elder ministers; He is a thathvam that is nourished under the wings of periya thiruvadi, in the lap of thiruvananthAzhvAn, controlled by the ruling stick of sEnai mudhaliyAr, and under the sight of periya pirAtti – so He cannot do whatever He wished. He is vAn iLavarasu [periyAzhvAr thirumozhi 3.6.3]”

nee pOgEl enban – Have you not seen yourself (your beauty) in the mirror? If I leave then she would not be able to tolerate that separation – do you not have to be in this state?

nee pOgEl – Either taking me with you, or staying here with me – other than these options, would you decide to leave by yourself?

enban – I said words of no use. I did not says words that match His true nature of being in utmost love toward me, nor did I say words that match my true nature of being patient for Him to come to me like seethA pirAtti who said ‘thath thasya madRuSam BhavEth [SrI rAmAyaNam – sundhara KhANdam – 30-30 (if He would win them and take me back, that would be suitable for Him), nor did I say words that would give the desired result (since He would not listen even if I tried to stop Him from going).

enRAlum – even though I uttered words that do not suit the true nature of either of us,

idhu namakkOr pulavi thAnE – pulavi – sadness. The union with emperumAn became the reason for suffering due to separation. I did not address His true nature, did not address my true nature, did not get what I wanted. By this – only sadness remained, she says.

namakku – He left happily after getting what He liked; only sadness resulted for me.

thAnE – The reason for happiness of those who worship Him, became the reason for my sadness, she says.

Or pulavi – unparalleled sorrow. Since it occurred due to not considering the true nature of either of us, and also because of sadness due to separation, this sorrow is doubled and so is unparalleled – she says.


Translation by raghurAm SrInivAsa dhAsan.

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periya thirumozhi – 2.6 – naNNAdha

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periya thirumozhi >> Second Centum

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bhUthaththAzhwAr (thirukkadalmallai)

First pravESam (Introduction):

In pAncharAthra SAsthram, SaraNAgathi is defined as in ahirbudhnya samhithA 36-38 “aham asmi aparAdhAnAm AlayaO’kinchanO’gathi: | thvamEva upAyabhUthO mE bhavEthi prArthanAmathi: || SaraNAgathirithyukthA sA dhEvEsmin prayujyathAm ||” (The intellect which prays saying “I am an abode of all faults; have no other means; no other refuge too; you be my means” is SaraNAgathi. Let that be done towards this lord). This principle of SaraNAgathi was observed by this AzhwAr (thirumangai AzhwAr) in periya thirumozhi 1.6vANilA muRuval” and in periya thirumozhi 1.9thAyE thandhai“. He repeated the same in periya thirumozhi 2.5.7kANAdhu thiri tharuvEn kaNdu koNdEn” (I got to see such sarvESvaran, who was not seen and whom I searched) and periya thirumozhi 2.5.9thoNdanEn kaNdu koNdEn” (I, the servitor, have seen).

ahirbudhnya samhithA 37 – 27, 28 “shOdA hi vEdha vidhushO vadhanthyEnam mahAmunE | AnukUlyasya sankalpa: prAthikUlyasya varjanam || rakshishyathIthi viSvAsO gOpthruthva varaNam thathA | Athma nikshEpa kArpaNyE shadvidhA SaraNAgathi: ||” (Oh great sage! Those who know vEdham identify this SaraNAgathi in six ways. They are – vowing to remain favourable towards bhagavAn and bhAgavathas, refraining from unfavourable aspects, having faith that bhagavAn, the owner, will protect his belongings, praying to bhagavAn to protect the self, placing the self under his protection, being empty-handed) – this explains the natural outcome of surrendering to bhagavAn. AzhwAr is explaining in this decad that he has acquired these aspects.

Both of these cannot be said as SaraNAgathi’s lakshaNam (identity) since they are contradictory to each other as the former one says “thvamEva” highlighting upAya nairapEkshyam (non-expectation of anything from the person who surrenders) and the latter one explains SaraNAgathi to have limbs (expectation). Hence, the former one must be said as SaraNAgathi’s identity and the latter one to be said as natural outcome of SaraNAgathi.

It is said in bhArathvAja smruthi “paSur manushya: pakshIvA Echa vaishNava samSrayA: | thEnaiva thE prayAsyanthi thath vishNO: paramampadham ||” (Whoever it may be – four limbed animals, humans and birds, when surrendered to vaishNavas, due to that connection, one will attain vishNu’s highest abode of paramapadham, that connection with bhAgavathas is a means to reach bhagavAn irrespective of knowledge and conduct matching the knowledge. Even birds and animals are considered here [as those which can be delivered]. Are surrendering to bhagavAn [as seen in periya thirumozhi 1.6 and in periya thirumozhi 1.9] and surrendering to bhAgavathas [as seen here] different? Is surrendering to bhAgavathas not the ultimate stage of surrendering to bhagavAn? One can surrender to bhagavAn directly or through bhAgavathas. Here it is talking about this difference. [Still] Without surrendering to bhAgavathas, there is no way to engage in bhagavAn.

nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 18mARAya dhAnavanai vaLLugirAl mArviraNdu kURAgak kIRiya kOLariyai vERAga EththiyiruppArai vellumE maRRavaraich chAththiyiruppar thavam” (The strong narasimha mUrthi split the chest of the demon hiraNya kashyap who is standing as an opponent, with sharp finger nails, into two; the good deed of the ultimate devotees of worshipping such emperumAn as distinguished entity, will be defeated by those who attain such devotees who worship him.

Who are vERAga Eththiyiruppar (the worshippers of the distinguished emperumAn)? Who are maRRu avaraich chAththiyiruppar (those who depend on such worshippers)? Do we have any example? Yes. vERAga Eththiyiruppar – Those who are like periyAzhwAr who do not care for self but show concern towards the well-being of sarvESvaran on seeing him; maRRu avaraich chAththiyiruppar – those who are like ANdAL who said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 10.10 “villi pudhuvai vittu siththar thangaL dhEvarai vallaparisu varuvipparEl adhu kANdumE” (if vittuchiththan (periyAzhwAr) calls out to emperumAn, then we will see and worship emperumAn).

Now, AzhwAr considers those who are engaged in the qualities such as simplicity of emperumAn in dhivyadhESams (where emperumAn resides joyfully) as bhAgavathas (devotees) and those who are indifferent towards such dhivyadhESams as abhAgavathas (non-devotees).

In this, AnukUlyasya sankalpa: – Vowing to engage in favourable aspects, does not end with doing a particular act. It continues forever, even after reaching paramapadham. But prAthikUlyasya varjanam – refraining from unfavourable aspects stops once one reaches paramapadham. Engaging in favourable aspects follows refraining from unfavourable aspects since refraining from unfavourable aspects must occur first. AzhwAr is highlighting how such refraining from unfavourable aspects occurred to him, in the first pAsuram. As one gives up unfavourable aspects, favourable aspects will naturally follow since the relationship with bhagavAn is eternal. One should only avoid what [unfavourable aspects] one imposed upon oneself.

Second pravESam (Introduction):

Note: This is seen in the commentary for second pAsuram.

In the matter of these chEthanas (sentient beings) who have been drowned in this samsAram (material world) forever, sarvESvaran, in his divine heart, made a kind gesture as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 5.21 “suhrudham sarvabhUthAnAm” (one who is friendly towards all beings). If a jIvAthmA’s good deed leads to good result, it is obvious that bhagavAn’s mercy will also lead to a good result; hence, it will fructify some day in some situation. Due to that, the chEthana becomes favourable towards ISvara and based on that ISvara will specially shower his merciful glance at the chEthana. Subsequently, the chEthana develops taste and faith towards ISvara, and considers ISvara to be prApaka (means) and prApya (goal). AzhwAr explains how he became like that and how such a person remains in this world.

[Explanation about being together with bhAgavathas]

Now, in upAyam (means) – after pursuing sarvESvaran who is omniscient, omnipotent, the lord of both paramapadham and samsAram, who has no unfulfilled desires, as the upAyam, as he will assume all the burdens of the chEthana and manage that, and as the chEthana need not do anything in response to his [bhagavAn’s] act, he does not have anything to do for his well-being.

Since the upEyam (goal) is kainkaryam (service) to be done in the special abode of paramapadham, after shedding one’s body and traversing through the special path of archirAdhi gathi, this [being together with bhAgavathas] cannot be directly said as goal too.

When one does not have anything to do in prApakam (means) and being together with bhAgavathas does not get considered under prApyam (goal), will this be considered as worldly enjoyment? No, that is also not applicable, since the goal is already determined [as eternal kainkaryam to SrI mahAlakshmi and SrIman nArAyaNan] and the means is pursued for that specific goal. That is, detachment in fake goals will be a prerequisite for faith in the real goal. Hence, worldly enjoyment is to be totally kept away.

In SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66 “sarva dharmAn parithyajya“, bhagavAn ordered to abandon all dharmams – both ordained acts and the acts which are done as atonement for sins. If that is the case, when we don’t atone for the sins, will they not keep accruing? No. They will not accrue, based on the true nature of bhagavAn who is the upAyam [who cannot tolerate his devotee suffering] and the true nature of the person who surrendered [who will not engage in sinful acts]. Also, since one is sure to attain the goal after shedding the body, the sins will not bother the person who surrendered. Now, since bhagavAn who is filled with all auspicious qualities is pursued as the means and there is nothing for the individual to perform acts which are bound by rules in SAsthram, with the consideration of such acts being the means, the acts which are performed by him after acquiring true knowledge, will not be contrary to the means pursued and the goal to be accomplished. [Hence the individual will abide by SAsthram and act accordingly, without considering any of his acts to be upAyam] That is because, he should remain different from the ignorant ones who act as they desire, without  any respect to the rules of SAsthram.

Just as a forthcoming flood in a river will be revealed ahead by some symptoms, as the enjoying bhagavAn along with bhAgavathas is shown as the goal, and since this is the last body for the surrendered person, it should be seen occurring here. What are those aspects to occur here? Being unable to mingle with abhAgavathas and being unable to sustain without bhAgavathas. AzhwAr is mercifully explaining [in this decad] how these aspects occurred to him. As a wife becomes more knowledgeable about her husband, she will develop attachment towards him; only when she desires for another man, she will be disliked by him; while explaining the identity of prapannas, it was said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 68thiruvadi than nAmam maRandhum puRam thozhA mAndhar” (even if they forgot emperumAn, they won’t worship any one other than emperumAn); as one develops knowledge that sarvESvaran is the desirable one, one may develop attachment towards bhAgavathas. As part of this knowledge, one should give up the relationship with abhAgavathas.

Now bhAgavathas are those who inform us in the beginning that bhagavAn is the upAyam, and hence remain purushakAra bhUthas (those who recommend and unite AthmAs with bhagavAn). This prapanna, being a chEthana, having taken their help, should remain grateful to them. In the ultimate stage, since they are the ultimate stage of goal, they are as desirable as bhagavAn. In the meantime [until one reaches paramapadham], since they will remain as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10-9bOdhayantha: parasparam” (discussing with each other), they are desirable at all stages for the prapannas.

It is explained in ahirbudhnya samhithA 37 – 27, 28 “shOdA hi vEdha vidhushO vadhanthyEnam mahAmunE | AnukUlyasya sankalpa: prAthikUlyasya varjanam || rakshishyathIthi viSvAsO gOpthruthva varaNam thathA | Athma nikshEpa kArpaNyE shadvidhA SaraNAgathi: ||” that SaraNAgathi is in six ways. It is also explained in ahirbudhnya samhithA 36-38 “aham asmi aparAdhAnAm AlayaO’kinchanO’gathi: | thvamEva upAyabhUthO mE bhavEthi prArthanAmathi: || SaraNAgathirithyukthA sA dhEvEsmin prayujyathAm ||” (The intellect which prays saying “I am an abode of all faults; have no other means; no other refuge too; you be my means” is SaraNAgathi. Let that be done towards this lord) that the prayer “You have to be my upAyam” highlights his Akinchanyam (having no other means). If we accept one of these and reject the other one, the rejected one will be aprAmANyam (not authentic). How can both of these be reconciled without missing any of the principles? Since, in “thvamEva” (You only), as the non-expectation of any other upAyam is visible, the definition of SaraNAgathi is given in the latter SlOkam; in the former SlOkam, the natural aspects which follow SaraNAgathi are highlighted. If we observe the true nature of SaraNAgathi, it will not tolerate any help from anyone else; if we observe bhagavAn who accepts the surrender of the jIvAthmA, it is obvious that the jIvAthmA should have these aspects.

While the SlOkam highlights these six aspects as limbs in “shadvidhA SaraNAgathi:“, why are these explained as natural outcome for the jIvAthmA? In “prArthanAmathi: SaraNAgathi:“, as the intellect doing the prayer is in the chEthana, the grantor of the goal is exclusively bhagavAn only. In the “AnukUlyasya sankalpa:” SlOkam, when these aspects are followed as per the rules and are considered as limbs, if the chEthana does not desire the goal, he can abandon these limbs. But because these aspects are according to the true nature of the chEthana, they can never be abandoned and if abandoned, it will damage the true nature of the self. [For example] When one does not desire to reach heaven, one can avoid performing jyOthishtOma, but one can never abandon the nithyAnushtAnams (daily rituals) which have no specific result based on the performer of those rituals [Similarly, for a chEthana, as per his nature, he has to be surrendered to bhagavAn and subsequently “AnukUlyasya sankalpa:” etc will occur as natural outcome].

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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