Daily Archives: April 4, 2021

thiruviruththam – 96 – vaNangum thuRaigaL

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr had submitted the AthmA which belongs to sarvESvaran back to him since he could not match the benefit that sarvESvaran had carried out for him. The benefit that sarvESvaran had done for AzhwAr was that he had stopped the interest in worldly pursuits and created interest in matters related to him, when AzhwAr was unable to seclude himself without speaking about it or could not remain without speaking either (about these two – refraining from worldly pursuits and engaging with matters relating to bhagavAn). In this pAsuram, he says that all the ingredients to attain sarvESvaran are not available here. Since you [refers to sarvESvaran] have given up, does it mean that I too [refers to AzhwAr], who am capable of carrying out your tasks, should give them up? When all the chEthanas [sentient entities] were lying like achEthana entities during the time of deluge, you had granted the qualities which are exclusive to chEthanas and the knowledge to choose between what is to be acquired and what is to be discarded. The reason for granting them this was for them to decide as to what is the end goal for them and how to attain that. However, since that knowledge is common with engaging with worldly pursuits and being firmly rooted in them, due to their association with karmas (deeds, both good and bad) since time immemorial, with that knowledge these chEthanas have been engaging with worldly pursuits. Thus, since you made them engage with worldly pursuits, your situation has become similar to a mother who was unable to prevent her child from falling into the well and was accused of having pushed that child into the well.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vaNangum thuRai palapalavAkki madhivigaRpAl
piNangum samayangaL palapalavAkki avai avaidhORu
ANangum palapalavAkki nin mUrththi parappi vaiththAy
iNangu ninnOrai illAy ninkaN vEtkai ezhuvippanE

Word-by-Word Meanings

vaNangum – to attain (other deities)
pala pala – many
thuRaigaL – various deities who instruct
Akki – created
madhi vigaRpAl – due to difference in intellect
piNangum – disagreeing
palapala – of many types
samayam – philosophies
Akki – created
avaiyavaidhORu – among all those philosophies
ninmUrththi – as your forms
palapala – of many types
aNangum – deities
Akki – created as being apt to be attained
parappi vaiththAy – you created expansively
iNangu – (with those deities) appearing to be a match
ninnOrai – those who are an equal to you
illAy – Oh, one who doesn’t have!
ninkaN – towards you
vEtkai – desire
ezhuvippanE –  I will create

Simple Translation

You have created many different paths for people to attain their goals; you created many different philosophies due to differences in the levels of intellect and deities, who are all part of your form, for those philosophies. Even though those deities are a part of you, you have none who is equal to you. I will create desire in the minds of samsAris, towards you.

vyAkyAnam

sarvESvaran asked AzhwAr “You are saying that I had pushed these chEthanas in samsAram. What can I do for it?” AzhwAr responds . .

vaNangum thuRai . . . – samsAris have the qualities of rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) in them.  When they get an involvement based on these qualities, they would be told to attain the deity which is predominant for those qualities, by instructors who were created by you. The word thuRai refers to sacred water and through that, it refers to celestial entities.

madhi . . . – due to bewilderment in their knowledge as well as differences with one another, when one person enunciates his philosophy, another person takes it as something which opposes his philosophy. You created many such philosophies to cater to such feelings of mistrust and misunderstanding.

avai avai . . . – you created many deities who are spoken of highly in those philosophies.

nin mUrthy parappi vaiththAy – just as you had mentioned in bhagavath gIthA 7-21 “yOyO yAmyAm thanumbhakthyA” (for whatever reasons someone worships whichever deities …), you created many deities who realise their powers from you. Just as the saying goes “paisal kaisunOy mukkaisu” (even the small sufferings of a child are serious diseases), you had created lack of knowledge in these chEthanas, you created those who tell such chEthanas that attaining only lowly deities are apt for them and you also created pAsurams (hymns) in those SAsthras (sacred texts) extolling those deities and you created the deities too.

iNangu ninnOrai illAy – if you create a maze of such philosophies and deities for those philosophies, there is none through whom these could be  avoided. There is none who could stand equalling you, none who is like you. On hearing this, sarvESvaran asked AzhwAr “That may be. What are you going to do now?”

nin kaN vEtkai ezhuvippanE – I will stop these activities of yours which you are carrying out due to your unlimited independence; I will stop them [samsAris] from experiencing the results of their activities which they are indulging in due to the faults in their knowledge; I will make them run towards you with desire, just like me. This has arisen out of AzhwAr getting faultless knowledge even while he was in samsAram.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 95 – yAdhAnum Or Akkaiyil

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

Instead of leaving sarvESvaran showing his inadequacy in either his devotional trance or inaptness in meditating on him, he bowed down to the divine feet of sarvESvaran since he created engagement in AzhwAr to be fully devoted to matters relating to him and distaste in worldly matters. vyAkyAthA narrates an event regarding nanjIyar with reference to this pAsuram. When parASara bhattar was in thirukkOttiyUr, one SrIvaishNava, rAmAnujadhAsar, approached him and asked him to mercifully explain thiruviruththam to him. bhattar told him “Due to my separation from perumAL (periya perumAL, SrI ranganAthan, at SrIrangam) I am in a state of distress and I am not in a frame of mind to say anything”. Turning to nanjIyar, bhattar told him “You please explain to him”. nanjIyar also started explaining thiruviruththam to him. Another person, vaLavan pallavatharaiyan, joined them in this. He was a follower of thirukkOttiyUr nambi (one of the AchAryars of SrI rAmAnujar).  When this pAsuram was about to be explained, vaLavan pallavatharaiyar was in tears. Looking at this, nanjIyar asked him “I have not started explaining this pAsuram. Why are you in this state already?” pallavatharaiyar replied “When thirukkOttiyUr nambi was instructing me about thiruviruththam, he had mercifully told me to recite this pAsuram in front of sarvESvaran everyday. I was reminiscing that”.  Hearing this, nanjIyar asked him “Could you recollect a few words which thirukkOttiyUr nambi had mercifully told you about this pAsuram?” pallavatharaiyar said “I do not remember that. All that I remember is reciting this pAsuram” nanjIyar felt very happy that thirukkOttiyUr nambi liked this pAsuram so much and spoke in praise of that for a few hours.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

yAdhAnum Or Akkaiyil pukku angAppuNdum Appavizhndhum
mUdhAviyil thadumARum uyir munnamE adhanAl
yAdhAnum paRRi nIngum viradhaththai nal vIdu seyyum
mAthAvinaip pithuvai thirumAlai vaNanguvanE

Word-by-Word Meanings

uyir – jIvAthmA (soul)
munnamE – from time immemorial
yAdhAnum Or – in something or other
Akkaiyil – physical form
pukku – entering
angu – in that form
Appu uNdum – getting tied down to it (due to prArabdha karma (past deed which has started yielding result))
Appu avizhndhum – getting liberated from it (due to destruction of prArabdha karma)
mUdhu – being ancient
Aviyil – in the subtle form
(staying in svargam and naragam (heaven and hell))
thadumARum – will keep fluctuating
adhanAl – due to that repeated act
yAdhAnum – some matter (related to prAkrutham, the causative matter)
paRRi – holding on to
nIngum – moving away (from matter related to sarvESvaran)
viradhaththai – (my) vow
nal vIdu seyyum – one who liberated me
mAthAvinai – being affectionate like mother
pithuvai – being well-intentioned like father
thirumAlai – the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi
vaNanguvan – I will attain

Simple Translation

jIvAthmA (soul) has been, from time immemorial, entering some physical form, getting tied down to it, and at one point of time, getting liberated from it. It would then enter a subtle form and keep going to svargam and naragam. With that bondage (to that form) as the reason, it has been holding on to some matter or the other related to worldly pursuits and leaving matters related to sarvEScvaran. However, sarvESvaran made me give up my firm vow (to keep vacillating among these sates, mentioned here); he has been like a mother to me, being affectionate, and he has been like a father to me, being well-intentioned about me. I will attain such sarvESvaran.

vyAkyAnam

yAdhAnum Or Akkaiyil pukku – entering some SarIram (physical form), and praising it as mamAyam dhEha: (this is an amazing form), even if it is a lowly form. Having taken such a form, due to firm bondage with it, an inability to leave that form and getting involved with it fully. Since it is referred to as Akkai, as per the root of the word dhEham which is dhiha upachayE, dhEham attains upachayam or growth. Thus, it keeps growing.

pukku – for chEthana (sentient entity), attachment to an insentient entity is not his own nature but comes out of karma (previous deeds). Thus, AthmA, a chEthana entity, enters a physical form which is achEtha entity.

angAppuNdum – due to his [chEthana’s] association with previous deeds and being habituated to it, he will get bonded to the physical forms. Despite knowing through the words of an AchAryan (teacher) or through SAsthras (religious texts) and through direct experience, that these [the physical forms) are lowly, wondering as to what he will do if he were to give up his forms, he will be unable to give them up.

Appavizhndhum – not knowing that his bondage with the physical form is due to his karma, he will be unable to get rid of it; once karma gets destroyed, the physical form will get annihilated.

mUdhAviyil – through this, he is reminiscing early times. The term Avi refers to prANan – vital  air. Since prANan is distinct from achith, the subtle form is now referred to as Avi. This is considered as an activity of prakruthi (primordial matter) and also as a part of prakruthi. This will keep following until liberation. It will help the chEthana in his movements and non-movements.

thadumARum – as described in panchAgni vidhyai (the journey of AthmA through five stages in its repeated cyle of births), the jIvAthmA will enter clouds [after svargam/naragam], enter earth through rains, enter foodfrains,  enter a chEthana’s form through intake of food and enter the womb of a lady during their union. In all these states, he keeps stumbling without being able to stay firmly in any place. During his journey, there will be places which are known as well as unknown to him.

uyir – the AthmA, which is full of knowledge and full of joy, and is permanent, suffers like this.

From when has this stumbling and existing been like this?

munnamE – this has been there from time immemorial.

adhanAl – since the association (with achEthana) has been there for a very long time, he thinks that the achEthana entity is his guide.

yAdhAnum paRRi – thinking that only matters other than those related to sarvESvaran should be attained; accepting all such matters without analysing their virtues and faults.

nIngum – only matters relating to bhagavAN are to be given up.

viradhaththai – even if some people instruct “Whatever you are holding on to are faulty. Only matters related to bhagavAn are apt to be held on to” and even if what they say are correct, I have taken a vow that I will give them up [matters relating to bhagavAn]. Just as sarvESvaran has taken a vow, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-33 “Ethath vratham mama” (even if the person who comes to me is my enemy, I will not give him up; this is my vow), the jIvAthmA has taken a vow that he will give up sarvESvaran; just as rAvaNa had said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 36-11 “na namEyam” (even if I am split into two, I will not bow to someone; my body will only fall backward).

nal vIdu seyyum – removing the present situation and making me pray, as in thiruviruththam 1 inninRa nIrmai inyAm uRAmai – holding his divine feet and asking him to relieve me from this samsAram. Before developing an involvement with him, severing my interest in matters related to wordly pursuits.

mAthAvinaip pithuvai – the mother and father, who are not really our mother and father, are responsible for this physical form and for our being involved with samsAram. However, sarvESvaran is the one who relieves us from this. What is the need to mention both?

thirumAlai – since he is the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi,  as said in mahAbhAratham pithA mAthA cha mAdhava: – both father and mother are mAdhavan, the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, he is mentioning both.

vaNanguvanE – it is not possible for us to carry out a beneficial act to sarvESvaran matching  his beneficial act towards us in creating a distaste in us for worldly matters and affection towards him. The only action that we can do is to submit the entity which was his, always (AthmA).

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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