Monthly Archives: March 2020

siRiya thirumadal – 24 – ArAdha thanmaiyanAy

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ArAdha thanamaiyanAy AngorunAl AyppAdi

Word by Word Meanings

Angu ArAdha thanmaiyan Ay – being dissatisfied, having to be in paramapadham

(incarnating as kaNNa (SrI krishNa))

oru nAL – on one fine day
Ayppadi – in thiruvAyppAdi (SrI gOkulam)

vyAkyAnam

ArAdha thanmaiyanAy – even though he is protecting all the entities to be protected, he thinks that he has not done anything. “These Athmavasthus (soul entities) which are my possessions are totally dependent on me. I have allowed them to suffer during deluge etc, and then protected them. What is the benefit in this? Since I have protected them after a lengthy delay, am I not responsible for their suffering?” Just as a person robs another who has come to take rest under the care of the former and then suffers due to the guilt, he also suffers [due to the delayed protection]. When the rishis in SrI dhaNdakAraNya forest showed their bodies which had been tormented by demons to SrI rAma, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 6-16 “Ehi paSya SarIrANi” (Oh rAma! See our bodies) and pleaded with him, did you [the rishis] not feel ashamed as you felt “There is someone to protect us” and you were tormented because of that? While you had the power to protect yourselves, like a womb, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 1-21 “garbha bhUthAs thapOdhanA:” (we are to be protected by you like a womb) due to the strength of your penance, you did not do that because of your svarUpam (being totally dependent on the supreme being) and put up with the trouble. But SrI rAma said, as in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10-9 “hrIrEshA hi mamAthulA” (my shame was incomparable) that he could not put up with his shame since had let them down to the extent that the rishis had not only to suffer but that they had to reveal it too, themselves. In the same way, he too could not tolerate the situation here [says the fortune-teller].

From where did he feel that he could not tolerate it?

Angu – from the place where he did not have the need to protect from danger.

oru nAL – Let the activities of annihilation and creation which he carried out from paramapadham  (SrIvaikuNtam) remain. paramapadham is the place where as it is said in mahAbhAratham mOksha parvam 25-9 “na kAla: thathravai prabhu:” (time is not an entity in paramapadham). Hear the activities in the place where things change because of the effect of time.

oru nAL – even that was for just one day.

AyppAdi – In a way, AyppAdi (gOkulam) is similar to paramapadham. Since the nithya mukthas (permanent residents of paramapadham as well as those who reached there after being liberated from samsAram) do not have any birth and are with distinguished demeanour, there is no question of great clan or great demeanour. In the same way, in AyppAdi, since all are born in the lowly cattle-herd clan and follow the cattle to the forest and have food there, they too do not have distinction of great clan or great demeanour. Thus AyppAdi is in line with paramapadham.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.10.4 – umbar andhaN pAzhEyO!

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth pAsuram, AzhwAr says “If you, who are the controller of all, mercifully saw that I control my own situation, would it not mean that you have abandoned me?”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

umbar andhaN pAzhEyO! adhanuL misai nIyEyO!
ambara naRchOdhi! adhanuL piraman aran nI
umbarum yAdhavarum padaiththa munivan avan nI
embaranjAdhikkaluRRu ennaip pOravittittAyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

umbar – being greater (than elements such as mahath etc , due to being the origin)
am – distinguished, due to existing for your sport
thaN – cool (due to the state where the three qualities sathvam, rajas and thamas are in equal proposition)
pAzhEyO – [primordial matter, which is suitable] to cause bhOgam (worldly enjoyment) and mOksham (liberation)
adhanuL misai nIyEyO – (in this manner, being with chith and achith in subtle forms)
ambaram – AkASam (ether, which is the cause for oval shaped universe)
nal – distinguished
sOdhi – creating elements such as fire and having them as your forms
adhan uL – in the oval shaped universe which originated from the elements
piraman aran – created brahmA, rudhra et al and having them as forms
nI – you;
umbarum – dhEvas (celestial beings, who are greater than the creatures on earth)
yAdhavarum – all types of sentient beings such as humans etc
padaiththa munivanavan – the one who meditated upon such acts of creation and created
nI – you;

(as this is the case)
em param – my body (I who am your form)
sAdhikkal uRRu – after accepting the responsibility to control

(visually showing up to the attainment)
ennai – me (who cannot live without you)

(further)
pOra vittittAy – made me remain here.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

You are great and distinguished since you control primordial matter, which is existing for your sport and which is cool. The primordial matter is suitable to cause bhOgam and mOksham [for chEthanas for whom it is the abode]. You subsequently create elements such as ether, distinguished fire etc and have them as your forms; you created the oval shaped universe which originated from the elements, and brahmA, rudhra et al inside the universe and are having them as your forms; you meditated upon the creation of all types of sentient beings such as celestial beings, humans etc, and created them; after accepting the responsibility to control my body, you made me remain here. The sound “O” should be added to all places where “nI” is present, indicating the sorrow of AzhwAr where AzhwAr is feeling “there is every reason for you to protect me yet you abandoned me”.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

This pAsuram is explained in sAmAnAdhikaraNam – bhagavAn being one common AthmA, SarIri, prakAri (substratum) for having everything else (mUIa prakruthi, AthmAs, pancha bhUthams etc) as his SarIra/prakAra (form), and bhagavAn being the singular creator of everything else.

  • umbar am thaN pAzhEyO – Oh one who is the controller of mUla prakruthi (primordial matter) which is superior due to being the cause for effects such as mahath, having the ability to create all the effectual elements from a fraction of itself, one which transforms in to variegated elements, one which is the abode for chEthanas to engage in bhOgam and mOksham!
  • am thaN – Being beautiful and cool.
  • pAzh – Being ready for cultivation/activity. Explaining that the primordial matter is in causal state which will facilitate bhOgam and mOksham for chEthanas, in its effectual state.
  • umbar am thaN pAzhEyO – It is said as “pAzhEyO” (primordial matter alone) [in sAmAnAdhikaraNam] instead of saying separately as in “whiteness of a cloth” [cloth and whiteness are explicitly spoken], since it cannot be separated from bhagavAn who is having it as his prakAram. By saying “umbar andhaN pAzhEyO“, it is said that there is no other controller than bhagavAn even for achith which is devoid of chEthana as said in Sruthi “yasyAthmA SarIram – yasya pruthivI SarIram” (for whom, the AthmAs are bodies, for whom, the earth is a body), instead of primordial matter being the body of AthmAs and AthmAs being bodies of bhagavAn. This word “pAzhEyO” decimates mImAsakas who acknowledge Sudhdha bhEdham (clear distinction between ISvara/brahmam, chith and achith [without accepting SarIra-SarIri bhAvam]) and mAyAvAdhis who acknowledge brahmam to be the same as matter [mAyAvAdhi would generally consider brahmam to be the same AthmA, but not matter. Here, we have to see that even if someone tries to equate brahmam to be same as matter, that is also decimated].
  • adhanuL misai nIyEyO – Oh one who is the controller of the distinguished AthmAs which are bound in that matter! bhagavAn’s causal state is explained since SarIrI (bhagavAn, the substratum) with sUkshma chidhachith (subtle sentient beings and insentient entities) is the cause. With this, it is explained that the opinion of nyAya [naiyAyika] and vaiSEshika who speak about the viSEshaNa prAdhAnyam (AthmA, which is an attribute, having independence) and apAramArthyam for viSEshaNam (chith and achith are not real – there is only one brahmam), are not the opinions of AzhwAr. By saying “nIyEyO” (only you), it is explained that AthmA does not exist without ISvara, just as achith does not exist without chith.
  • ambara nal sOdhi – ambaram – AkASam (Ether). nal sOdhi – distinguished fire. These are samples for the other elements; just as mentioning water in SrIvishNu purANam 2.12 “yath ambu vaishNava: kAya:” (the reason why vishNu’s body became water), implied other elements.
  • ahdanuL piraman aran nI – AzhwAr is saying – even brahmA, rudhra et al who reside in the universe which is created as a result of panchIkaraNam of bhUthams (the process of mixing the five elements to create the universe), are under your control.
  • umbarum yAdhavanum padaiththa munivan avan nI – You are the well-known muni (meditator) who created dhEvas and all others. The sAmAnAdhikaraNyam explained in “piraman aran nI” is based on kArya kAraNa bhAvam (relationship of cause – effect); as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 3-14-1 “sarvam kalvidham brahma thajjalAnithi” (all these are brahmam due to being created, sustained and annihilated in that brahmam). One who meditates upon the previous karmas of all entities to create them as per their karma is the one who is muni; yajur vEdham “thadhasadhEva sanmanO kuruthasyAmithi” (Only that brahma with subtle chith and achith which have no name and form, vowed “let me be with gross chith and achith which have names and forms). With this, bhagavAn being the effect, due to being with gross chith and achith, is explained.
  • em param sAdhikkaluRRu ennaii pOra vittittAyE – After assuming my burdens, neglecting that, leaving me like discarding insentient objects; you, who are controlling everything, considered that I can control my own destiny, neglected me by keeping me away from you.
  • ennai – I who cannot survive without you.
  • pOra vittittAyE – AzhwAr is considering that he has separated from emperumAn. AzhwAr is saying “You pushed me into the place where your qualities cannot be observed”. Your act of granting me full knowledge but not leading me up to the destination resembles naLa’s act of showing the path for dhamayanthi and leaving her.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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siRiya thirumadal – 23 – ArAl kadaindhu

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ArAl kadaindhidappattadhu avan kANmin
UrAnirai mEyththu ulagamellAm uNdumizhndhum                         27

Word by Word Meanings

Azhi nIr – ocean
ArAl kadaindhidappattadhu – was agitated by whosoever
avan kANmin – the distinguished person who carried out all those activities
Ur A nirai mEyththu – grazing all the herds of cattle in that place
ulagu ellAm uNdu umizhndhum – swallowing the worlds (during the time of deluge) and spitting them out (during the time of creation)

vyAkyAnam

AzhinIr ArAl kadaidnhidaip pattadhu – SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19-31 says “apramEyO mahOdhadhi:” (ocean cannot be estimated by anybody). By whom was the ocean, which cannot be estimated by anyone, agitated? By whom was the essence of the ocean, its nectar, removed during the process of agitation, just as mentioned in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 10-9 “kadalE! kadalE! unnaik kadaindhu kalakkuRuththu udaluL pugundhu ninRu uRalaRuththavaRku” (Oh ocean! Despite being his mattress [emperumAn rests on thiruppARkadal, kshIrAbdhi], he churned you after entering you [with a mountain] and took away the nectar, which is your essence)? Was the ocean churned by dhEvas (celestial entities) and asuras (demonic entities) who gave up after starting the process of churning? thirumazhisaippirAn said in thiruchchandha viruththam 21 “aranganE! thanranga nIr kalangavanRu kunRusUzh marangaL thEya mAnilam kulunga mAsuNam sulAy nerunga nI kadaindhapOdhu ninRa sUrar enseydhAr” (due to the curse of sage dhurvAsa, when the celestial entities lost their wealth and took refuge under you, pleading with you to give them back their wealth, you churned the ocean with a mountain in such a way that the trees around the ocean started getting eroded. When you churned the ocean with vAsuki, a snake and the earth trembled, what were the highly capable warriors from both the celestial entities’ side and demons’ side doing?) nammAzhwAr too mercifully said in thiruvAimozhi 7-1-7anRu dhEvAsurar vAnga alai kadal aravamaLAvi Or kunRam vaiththa endhAy” (on that day when the celestial and demonic entities got hurt when they tried to churn the ocean for taking out nectar, you had churned the ocean with [manthara] mountain as shaft and the snake vAsuki as rope). Did he not churn the ocean after the celestial and demonic entities gave up (due to their inability), and after taking several forms to support the mountain on the bottom, sides and top? The implied meaning here is that whether he, who had taken so much of efforts and suffered, for prayajOnAnthaparars (those who expect other benefits) would let this lady [parakAla nAyagi] who is like SrIdhEvi (SrI mahAlakshmi) to suffer. Just as it is mentioned in periya thirumozhi 6-1-2, is he not like the one who had  “viNNavar amudhuNa amudhil varum peNNamudhu uNda emperumAn” (he is my lord who coveted SrI mahAlakshmi who came from the ocean after he had taken out the nectar from it and given it to celestial entities for them to eat)?

avan kANmin – The opinion here is: Will your daughter suffer in separation from this entity or will she suffer in separation from any other deity?

UrAnirai mEyththu – grazing all the herds of cattle in the town. It cannot be said that he was grazing cattle from the entire village since the number of cattle in his house was limited. Just as it has been mentioned in thiruppAvai 21vaLLal perum pasukkaL ARRappadaiththAn maganE aRivuRAy” (Oh the son of one who has plenty of cows! Wake up) and in periya thirumozhi 10-4-3 “ungaL tham AniraiyellAm vandhu pugutharumbOdhu” (when all your cattle enter), wasn’t the wealth of cattle, which they had, such that people would cast evil eyes? Despite that, since the purpose of his being born in the clan of cowherds was only to protect cows, he will graze the cattle present in the entire town. When a capable person engages in the activity of protecting others, even if the number of entities to be protected were high, would he not demand more of such entities! In the same way, he [the person identified by the fortune teller] also would graze cattle from the entire town, apart from grazing his own cattle.

ulagellAm uNdumizhndhum – keeping all the words which were caught in the deluge, inside his divine stomach so that they do not suffer; unable to bear seeing them lying there itself, releasing them appropriately.

ulagellAm uNdumizhndhum – there is not even an atom which can remain without entering his divine stomach.

UrAnirai mEyththu ulagellAm uNdumizhndhum – since he is doing all these effortlessly, grazing the cows in the town as well as swallowing and spitting out the worlds appear similar to her (the fortune teller).

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

siRiya thirumadal – 22 – ArAl ilangai

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ArAl ilangai podipodiyA vIzhndhadhu maRRu
ArAlE kanmAri kAththadhudhAn  Azhi nIr                                        26

Word by Word Meanings

ilangai ArAl podipodi A vIzhndhadhu – by whom was lankA blown to smithereens and destroyed?
ArAlE kal mAri kAththadhu – by whom was the hailstorm prevented

vyAkyAnam

ArAl ilangai podi podiyA vIzhndhadhu – how was lankA, which had abundance of strength of boons and physical strength [attributes of its king, rAvaNa], reduced to dust?

ArAl – Was lankA reduced to powder because of dhEvas such as brahmA et al, who gave boons to rAvaNa without knowing their own strengths, who escaped without getting their necks cut, who lost everything except the dresses which they wore, and who prayed to emperumAn with bowed heads and the dress which they wore? Did not these dhEvas struggle after granting boons to rAvaNa et al, just because they felt overly pleased by the worship of rAvaNa et al, not realising the effects of the boons which they granted?

ArAl ilangai – It is implied through this that he, who suffered greatly to retrieve one lady, as mentioned in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 11-7 “uNNAdhu uRangAdhu oli kadalai UdaRuththu peNNAkkai AppuNdu” (crossing the agitating ocean, without food and sleep, due to his desire for his beloved), would not have allowed her (parakAla nAyagi) to suffer.

maRRArAlE kal mAri kAththadhudhAn – since he was denied the food which was offered to him by the people of gOkulam, indhra showered hailstorm out of anger. Who protected [the people of gOkulam] from that hailstorm? Did the cattle and the cattle-herds protect themselves? This implies that he will remove the difficulties which happen because of him. Thus he would protect her [parakAla nAyaki’s] too, since she suffered because of him.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 10.10.3 – kUvik koLLAy

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, AzhwAr says “You who are the controller for the true nature, existence etc of the very prideful brahmA, ISAna et al, should, alas, accept me who has no other means for deliverance without you”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kUvik koLLLAy vandhandhO! en pollAk karumANikkamE!
Avikku Or paRRuk kombu ninnalAl aRiginRilEn nAn
mEvith thozhum piraman sivan indhiranAdhikkellAm
nAvik kamala mudhaRkizhangE umbarandhadhuvE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

en – being perfectly enjoyable for me
pollA – unpierced
karu mANikkamE – having distinguished form like a precious gem
mEvith thozhum – those who are reaching and surrendering (to sustain their positions)
piraman sivan indhiran – brahmA, rudhra and indhra
Adhikku ellAm – and for others
mudhal – origin
nAvik kamalam – for the divine lotus in the divine navel
kizhangE – the root

(unlike these created ones)
umbar – for nithyasUris
andha adhuvE – oh one who is the controller of their nature, existence etc!
Avikku – for my AthmA
Or – being the noble abode
paRRuk kombu – supporting pole
nin alAl – other than you
nAn aRiginRilEn – I don’t know;

(Now)
vandhu – (yourself) arriving
kUvi – inviting
koLLAy – mercifully accept me
andhO! – Alas! I have to speak out your task! [You should pursue me, but I am pursuing you here]

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Being perfectly enjoyable for me, having distinguished form like an unpierced, precious gem, being the root for divine lotus in the divine navel, which is the origin for those brahmA, rudhra, indhra and others who are reaching and surrendering and oh one who is the controller of the nature, existence etc of nithyasUris! I don’t know of any supporting pole which can be the noble abode for my AthmA other than you; arrive here, invite me and mercifully accept me. Alas! I have to speak out your task!

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kUvik koLLAy – AzhwAr who said “kUvik koLLAy” in previous pAsuram is repeating the same here, just like one who is thirsty would repeatedly say “water, water”. AzhwAr has no other words to say, even though his sorrow keeps increasing. It is not sufficient if emperumAn invites and accepts AzhwAr; he has to come, invite and accept AzhwAr. Even when my sorrow increases greatly, it is not proper for me to come and attain you; that will cause disrepute to you as well; SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 30.30 “Saraisthu sankulAm kruthvA lankAm parabalAthdhana:, mAm nayEdhyadhi kAkuthstha: thath thasya sadhruSam bhavEth” (it will be appropriate for SrI rAma, who is capable of annihilating enemies, to agitate lankA with his arrows and redeem me) – for the one who thinks as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.3.9ezhudhum ennum idhu migai Adhalin” (Since it is superfluous to think “we will set out to worship you”), it is not necessary to explicitly say that our going there is not desirable for him. It is apt for him only to arrive and accept us.
  • andhO! – It is sad that I have to explain that it is not apt for you!
  • en pollAk karumANikkamE – If you are not you [with such beautiful form], we can say “we can go and see you when you invite us”. Were you to think that you will invite us and accept us in proper sequence at a later time, why did you manifest your beauty and make us fully exist for you?
  • en pollAk karumANikkam – Unpierced precious gem. Three explanations – a) precious gem which is not enjoyed so far by anyone; b) since his beauty is not comparable in this world and is totally different from the beauty of any other entity, it is known as pollA (very distinguished); c) that which will ward off evil eyes.

When asked “Even if I am so distinguished, should you not see your own svarUpam (true nature) and remain pacified?” AzhwAr says “For that, first, should I not survive in your absence?”

  • AvikkOr paRRuk kombu ninnalAl aRiginRilEn nAn – A supporting pole is required. Can a creeper stand on its own without the supporting pole? Will it grow after cutting off its roots? I am not seeing any cause to uplift myself other than you; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 53.31 “na cha sIthA thvayA hInA nachAhamapi rAghava” (Oh rAghava! I too will not sustain in separation from you just as sIthA would not).

When asked “So, should you also not put in some effort for your result?” AzhwAr says,

  • mEvi … – Are the brahmA et al putting efforts for their own result! Oh one who is helping even those [brahmA et al] who don’t say “AvikkOr paRRuk kombu“! brahmA et al won’t say “AvikkOr paRRuk kombu“, because they do not know how to say that; nithyasUris won’t say because they don’t have ego, and there is no need for them now.
  • mEvith thozhum – On other times, they [dhEvathAs] will face off with each other; but when they are in trouble, they will gather together and worship emperumAn. Oh one who is the root for the divine lotus on his divine navel which is the origin for all the dhEvathAs such as brahmA et al who worship without pride!
  • umbar andha adhuvE – Oh one who is the attainable goal for nithyasUris who are greater than the dhEvathAs! “adhu” indicates bhagavAn being known in well established pramANam (SAsthram). You who are the controller of nithyasUris and dhEvathAs such as brahmA et al, should come, invite me and accept me.

By this pAsuram, AzhwAr has mercifully explained that the sAmAnAdhikaraNyam (bhagavAn being the substratum for everything) which is explained previously and subsequently, is by the cause-effect relationship; chAndhOgya upanishath 3-14-1 “sarvam kalvidham brahma thajjalAnithi” (all these are brahmam due to being created, sustained and annihilated in that brahmam).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.10.2 – mAyam seyyEl

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, AzhwAr vows on periya pirAttiyAr to emperumAn so that emperumAn cannot avoid fulfilling AzhwAr’s desires.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

mAyanjeyyEl ennai un thiruvArvaththu mAlai nangai
vAsanjey pUnguzhalAL thiruvANai ninnANai kaNdAy
nEsanjeydhu unnOdu ennai uyir vERinRi onRAgavE
kUsanjeyyAdhu koNdAy ennaik kUvik koLLAy vandhandhO

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(As he manifested his qualities and pacified me previously whenever I called with great sorrow and remained away)
ennai – me (who is in the state of perishing even in a moment of separation)
mAyam seyyEl – do not continue to deceive;

(If you are set to manifest your independence saying “I will do as I please”)
un – for you
thiru – due to being your natural wealth, being the identity of your supreme nature over all
mArvaththu – having a contrasting complexion to your divine chest (which is desired by her as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 “agalagillEn“)
mAlai – like a golden garland

(being the identity for your divine form)
nangai – (due to her being complete in all qualities just as you are as said in “dharpaNa iva prachuram svadhanthE“, just as the shadow will appear in a mirror, these qualities) because of whose presence your qualities acquire more shine
vAsam sey – brings great fragrance (even to you who is hailed as “sarvagandha:“)
pU – distinguished
kuzhalAL – having divine hair
thiru – (due to being an enjoyable entity, being the controller of wealth) lakshmi’s
ANai – (honourable) order
nin – your (you who conduct the whole world by your order)
ANai – your order
kaNdAy – see;

(thinking that this forceful ordering is out of my craving)
nEsam seydhu – showing friendship (without any reason)
unnOdu – with you (who are opposite of all defects)
ennai – me (who is full of defects)
uyir vERu inRi – (as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.3.8unnadhu ennadhAviyum ennadhu unnadhAviyum“) to have no difference between AthmAs (jIvAthmA and paramAthmA)
onRu AgavE – (by the inseparable nature) to consider both to be one
kUsam seyyAdhu – without feeling disgusted (seeing my defects)
koNdAy – (from the beginning) mercifully acknowledged me;
ennai – me (who knows your acts in this manner)
vandhu – arriving (in front of me)
kUvik koLLAy – mercifully invite me (with your divine voice saying “AzhwIr! Let us go”).
andhO! – Alas! I have to order for what you are craving already!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Do not continue to deceive me; let the order of lakshmi, due to being your natural wealth, being the identity of your supreme nature over all, having a contrasting complexion to your divine chest like a golden garland, because of whose presence your qualities acquire more shine, who is having distinguished, divine hair which brings great fragrance, become your order; showing friendship, you mercifully acknowledged me without being disgusted with me, and to make it appear that both you and I have no difference between each other; arriving here, mercifully invite me. Alas! I have to order for what you are craving already!

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mAyam seyyEl – What a sorrow AzhwAr has to repeat the same words “mAyam seyyEl” as in the previous pAsuram! Even after AzhwAr forcefully pleaded, emperumAn does not say “Alright! I won’t deceive you any further”; as emperumAn did not say as in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66 “mA Sucha:” (do not grieve), AzhwAr again pleads saying “don’t deceive me”.
  • ennai – Just by delivering me, your leelA vibhUthi (material realm) will not meet its end.
  • mAyam seyyEl ennai – Do not deceive me who believed your vow in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.14mAmEva yE prapadhyanthE mAyAm EthAm tharanthi thE” (Only those who are surrendered to me, can cross over) and surrendered unto you saying as in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 “alarmEl mangai uRai mArbA – un adikkIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE” (Oh one who has SrI mahAlakshmi on your chest! I surrendered unto your divine feet and remained there)!

As emperumAn does not say “mA Sucha:”  even after AzhwAr forcefully pleaded to him, AzhwAr vows on periya pirAttiyAr, which even he cannot refuse.

  • un thiru – As said in SrI vishNu purANam 1.8.17 “vishNOSrI:” (Wealth of vishNu), for the whole world, he is the wealth and for him, she is the wealth. Alternatively, it can also be said as in “vishNO:” (vishNu’s belonging). [Explanation for 1st view] As said in periya thirumozhi 7.7.1 “thiruvukkum thiruvAgiya selvA” (one who is the wealth for pirAtti who is embodiment of wealth), sthOthra rathnam 45Sriya:Sriyam” (one who is the wealth for pirAtti who is embodiment of wealth) and SrIvaikuNta sthavam 29 “thvAmhi Sriya: Sriyam udhAhu: udhAravAcha:” (You are hailed by great devotees who have benevolent speech). [Explanation for second view] As per second view, being AdhAra pradhAnam (being primary for bhagavAn, the AdhAram (substratum)) and AdhEya pradhAnam (being primary among the supported aspects, like fragrance of flower) as said in vEdham “SradhdhayA dhEvO dhEvathvamaSnuthE ” (due to pirAtti, the supreme entity attains radiance) and SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 37.18 “yasyasA janakAthmajA – apramEyam hi thaththEja:” (One cannot measure the greatness of the one who is married to the daughter of SrI janaka); the AdhEya (supported object/aspect) cannot exist without the AdhAra (substratum); the nirUpyam (AdhAra which is identified) cannot sustain its true nature without the nirUpaka (identity, AdhEya); both cannot exist without each other; nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 8.4 “thannAgath thirumangai thangiya sIr mArvaRku” (to emperumAn in whose divine chest, SrI mahAlakshmi has taken residence), SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “najIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I will not survive even for a moment if I don’t see sIthA).
  • mArvaththu mAlai – Not just the wealth but she is also the decorative garland for his divine chest. For the divine chest, she is the decoration and for her, the divine chest is the decoration; jithanthE sthOthram “bhakthAnAm” (everything is for your devotees).
  • nangai – She is not just a decoration for his form, but his svarUpam (true nature), guNa (qualities) and vibhUthi (wealth) are also because of her. She is as good as bhagavAn with respect to gyAnam (knowledge).
  • nangai – Even for the one who is hailed in nArAyaNa sUktham “pathim viSvasya” (lord of universe), her completeness brings in value. This is the main difference between him and others [dhEvathAs like brahmA, rudhra et al]; those [dhEvathAs] who are without SrI cannot be a match for SrImAn [bhagavAn].
  • vAsam sey pUnguzhalAL – The hair which gives fragrance to the entity ‘fragrance’. The hair which adds fragrance to the one who is hailed as “sarvagandha:” (root of all fragrance). He got that fame of being known as “sarvagandha:” due to her only.
  • thiruvANai nin ANai kaNdAy – Since you are sarvAdhika (greater than all), for everyone, your order works for everyone; for you, your beloved one needs to order. Also explained as periya pirAttiyAr’s order will be your order as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 112.27 “mayA cha sIthayAchaiva SapthOsi raghunandhana” (SrI rAma said “Protect your mother without getting angry with her. You are taken this vow thus by me and sIthA).

emperumAn said “Your order is contradictory to your true nature; if you are a SEshabhUtha (servitor), you should remain as per my desire”; AzhwAr proves that it is not contradictory in the rest of this decad. That is, he remedies it by explaining the magnitude of his sorrow. When emperumAn said “If your nature is pArathanthriyam (to be totally subservient to me), you should remain as per the desire of the SEshi (lord, me)”, AzhwAr’s helplessness is explained in the rest of the decad where AzhwAr says “the servitor should exist for that in first place”. AzhwAr asks “If pArathanthriyam is the nature, are existing separately and appearing to be separate applicable?”

  • nEsam seydhu – You showed the affection towards me which was not even shown towards periya pirAttiyAr. Did you do it based on my affection? [No] Isn’t my craving towards you, based on your initial craving towards me? [Unlike in my case] You showed great affection towards her due to her saying in thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 “agalagillEn iRaiyum” (I cannot leave even for a moment).
  • unnOdu ennai – Did you understand about you? Did you understand about me? You are as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.6.7vizhumiya amarar munivar vizhungum kannaRkani” (One who is consumed by the best immortal personalities and sages of SrIvaikuNtam, who is perfectly sweet like a fruit mixed with sugar) and I am exact opposite to that; did you see “he is atomic, controlled; we are great, controller”?
  • uyir vERinRi onRAgavE – Did you not accept me to not have any difference between yourself and myself? As said in thiruvAimozhi 4.3.8unnadhu ennadhAviyum ennadhu unnadhAviyum” (My AthmA’s nature is enjoyable for you and your divine AthmA’s nature is enjoyable for me), you held me in your head so that I cannot be seen separate from you. He enjoyed with me in the manner that even what is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.15 “bhAskarENa prabhAyathA” (as sun is with the rays), cannot be compared here [since sun and rays are still different].
  • kUsam seyyAdhu koNdAy – You who are sarvagya (omniscient), did not differentiate me while uniting with me. You accepted me without seeing my inferiority. At first you blessed me unblemished knowledge and devotion, without seeing my previous acts; in thiruvAimozhi 1.5 “vaLavEzhulagu” when I moved away from saying “I am unqualified”, you did not let me leave and accepted me by showing your sorrow in separation from me.  Had you not done it then, I would not be suffering now.
  • ennaik kUvik koLLAy vandhu – Now, try to come to me quickly. It is not sufficient to announce through SAsthram; it is not sufficient to just manifest your qualities; it is not sufficient to have visualisation; you should ensure that I reach you and enjoy you.
  • andhO – You created this state of being unable to live without you in me, but now you are not showing your physical presence!

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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siRiya thirumadal – 21 – kUrAr vERkaNNIr

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kUrAr vERkaNNIr umakkaRiyak kURugEnO
ArAl ivvaiyam adiyaLappu uNdadhudhAn                                              25

 Word by Word Meanings

kUr Ar vEl kaNNIr – Oh women, who have eyes as sharp as a spear!
umakku aRiya kURugEnO – Shall I inform you (about him)?
i vaiyam ArAl adi aLappu uNdadhu – by whom this earth was measured

vyAkyAnam

kUrAr vERkaNNIr – since she has said that she has found out as to who it is, all the people around her look at her sharply as well as expectantly as to what she is going to say. Looking at their sharp eyes, she says “Oh those with sharp eyes similar to spear!”

umakku aRiya kURugEnO – I will tell you, who are bewildered to such an extent that you are willing to fall at the feet of other deities such as iyanAr, so that you would know as to who is troubling her. Will you listen?

They were eager to listen to her. Hence she continues further . . . . .

ArAl ivvaiyam adiyaLappu uNdadhudhAn – By whom was the entire expanse of this earth brought under his foot? Since she is using the term ArAl [by whom], just as it is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 2-2-2IpAvam seydharuLAl aLippAr yAr” (who will protect due to mercy after saying that all the sins have been removed?) she is readying herself to give the answer as “he”. ALavandhAr (one of our important preceptors) said the same in his sthOthra rathnam SlOkams 12,13 and 14ka: Sr:I SrIya: paramasathvasamASraya: ka: ka: puNdarIka nayana: purushOthama ka: . . . . .” (who is the one providing opulence to SrI mahAlakshmi herself? Who is the one having total goodness in him? Who has lotus like eyes? Who is the best among all AthmAs? . . . . .)

ivvaiyam – Just as it says in thiruvAimozhi 4-4-1maNNaiyirundhu thuzhAvi vAmanan maNNidhuvennum”, the person will wallow in the expanse of the earth, saying that this is the soil from the footprint of vAmana and smell it. When SrI rAma went to sage viSvAmithra’s hermitage in order to protect his yAgam (ritual with agni, the god of fire), he asked the sage as to whose hermitage was the one which they passed. The sage replied that it was vAmana’s when he had incarnated and that he had carried out penance there. Immediately, SrI rAma said that he would remain there itself for that reason and smell that soil. Thus, just like nammAzhwAr and viSvAmithran said that this is vAmana’s soil, the fortune teller also said “this world” to denote that it was the world which carries emperumAn’s footprints.

ArAl ivvaiyam adiyaLappu uNdadhudhAn –  thiruviruththam 69 says “buvaniyellAm nIRERRu aLandha nediya pirAn aruLAvidumE” (will the one with a tall form, who measured all the worlds after accepting water [from mAvali] not shower his mercy on you?) Since he had taken to alms in order to retrieve his worlds, will such a person let go of her [parakAla nAyagi]? Among maNNAsai (desire for land), peNNAsai (desire for lady) and ponnAsai (desire for gold), desire for lady is superior to desire for land. Thus, the meaning implied here is that if he could retrieve his land, would he let his lady suffer?

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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siRiya thirumadal – 20 – thArAr naRumAlai

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thArAr naRumAlai katturaiththAL katturaiyA                     23
nIrEdhum anjEnmin num magaLai nOy seydhAn
ArAnum allan aRindhEn avanai nAn                                  24

Word by Word Meanings

thiru thuzhAy thAr Ar naRumAlai katturaiththAL – she showed through gestures, the fragrant garland made with divine thuLasi flowers
katturaiyA – thus, having shown all these through gestures (she said through spoken words)
nIr Edhum anjElmin – “You do not have to be afraid”
num magaLai nOy seydhAn – the one who had caused (this) disease for your daughter
ArAnum allan – he is not some lowly deity
avanai nAn aRindhEn – I have found out as to who is that person (who had hurt parakAla nAyagi)

vyAkyAnam

thiruththuzhAy thArAr naRumAlai katturaiththAL – to reveal that he is the lord of both  the realms, has he not donned the fragrant thuLasi garland which emits fragrance in both material realm and spiritual realm? She showed that incomparable garland [through gestures]. Just as it has been mentioned in periya thirumozhi 6-5-10 “thAmath thuLaba nINmudi mAyan” (the supreme being who has the garland made of divine thuLasi on his long crown), is it not on this emperumAn, who is often spoken of by her, that she is waging a madal?

All the identifications described until now (starting from vErA vidhirvidhirA), have been shown by the fortune-teller through gestures. Now, she starts speaking . . .

katturaiyA – After speaking within herself, she is now speaking aloud. This should be taken till the 53rd verse which will be mentioned further “nummagaLaith thIrA nOy seydhAn ena uraiththAL”. All the verses in-between have been spoken by the hilly tribal woman.

nIr Edhum anjEnmin – Don’t be afraid that some lowly deity such as karuppan, ,kAttEri, muniyan et al has possessed her. No other deity has possessed her. There is no need for you to be fearful.

num magaLai nOy seydhAn ArAnumallannum magaLai – once she became ill, you have forgotten her; is it possible for a daughter born of you to be troubled by any lowly deity?

ArAnum allan – neither a dog nor a jackal has pounced on her. Just as it has been mentioned in SrImadh bhAgavatham “gOmAyuvan mrugapathEr balim” (just as a jackal seizes the kill of a lion) and in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 1-5 “kAnidaith thirivadhOr nari pugundhu kadappadhum mOppadhum seyvadhoppa” (a jackal which roams in the forest cannot seize or smell the lofty offering made to celestial entities), she has not gone down to the level of being troubled by a lowly deity.

aRindhEn avanai nAn – Unlike trying to ascertain through one’s efforts and failing, just as it is mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli ”yathO vAchO nivarthanthE” (from whom the words return without knowing about that entity), I learnt about him with the knowledge bestowed upon, by him.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.10.1 – muniyE nAnmuganE

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Tenth decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr says “As a result of your manifesting your qualities such as saundharyam (beauty) etc without any reason, I am unable to sustain without you; now you cannot remain away from me, keeping me in this samsAra, which is unbearable for me, by only letting me to enjoy your qualities by manifesting them”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

muniyE nAnmuganE! mukkaNNappA! en pollAk
kanivAyth thAmaraik kaN karu mANikkamE! en kaLvA!
thaniyEn AruyirE! en thalai misaiyAy vandhittu
ini nAn pOgalottEn onRum mAyam seyyEl ennaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

muniyE – (being unqualified to be distinguished by name and form, being in an annihilated state without any difference between chith (sentient beings) and achith (insentient entities), in that singular state of all entities as said in chAndhOgya upanishath “sadhEva” and “EkamEva“, as said in vishNu thathvam “ISvarAya nivEdhithum“, with merciful heart, set out to bestow body and senses to chEthanas, to make them surrender unto him) one who meditates upon the ways of creation
nAnmuganE – (after performing samashti srushti (initial creation up to creating the oval shaped universes) in transforming the primordial matter to mahath etc, to engage in vyashti srushti (variegated creation) inside the universes, as said in “srushtim thatha: karishyAmi thvAmAviSya prajApathE“) having four-headed brahmA as your body
mukkaN appA – (during annihilation, to assist in annihilation of the created universe, highlighting his power) three-eyed (with the assistance of the one who is having sense which helps in great activities) having rudhra who is a benefactor, as your body

(in between those two, in the state of being a protector)
en – for me
kani – (to instill taste towards you, in me) enjoyable like a ripened fruit
vAy – lip
thAmarai – attractive like lotus flower
kaN – one who is having eye also
pollA – unpierced
karu mANikkamE – having form which resembles a black gem
en – me (who stole the AthmA and claimed it as mine since time immemorial)
kaLvA – (without my knowledge, with that beauty) one who deceived and stole
thaniyEn Ar uyirE – (having not attained) for me who am lonely (manifesting his qualities and turned me to a stage where I cannot sustain myself without him), one who became my complete prANa (life)!

(as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.6.5sezhum paRavai thAnERith thirivAna thALiNai en thalai mElE” (my head is decorated with the enjoyable divine feet of the one who climbs and rides periya thiruvadi who has an attractive form))
en thalai – for my head
misai Ay – being on
vandhitttu – arriving and remaining
ini – now, after (manifesting the defects of this samsAra and the goal, and creating the urge and deep interest)
nAn – I (who am with the love granted by you, greatly craving and understanding your urge)
pOgalottEn – will not permit you to leave me as done previously;
ennai – me (who will perish in separation from you)
onRum – even a little bit (as you placed me away by showing worldly pleasures when I was in bondage, and as you pacified me by showing me your qualities, after attaining taste for you)
mAyam seyyEl – you should not deceive me.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who meditates upon the ways of creation! Oh one who is having four-headed brahmA as your body! Oh one who is having three-eyed rudhra who is a benefactor, as your body! Oh one who is having a form which resembles an unpierced black gem, whose lips are enjoyable like a ripened fruit, and eyes are attractive like lotus flower for me! Oh one who deceived and stole me! Oh one who became the complete prANa for me who am lonely! You have arrived and placed your divine feet on my head. Now, after all of these, I will not permit you to leave me as done previously; you should not deceive me even a little bit.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • muniyE – bhagavAn is the one with chith (sentient beings) and achith (insentient entities) [as his prakAra (form/attribute)] as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 3-14-1 “sarvam kalvidham brahma thajjalAnithi” (all these are brahmam due to being created, sustained and ended in that brahmam), SrIvishNu purANam 1.2.67 “srushtau srujathi chAthmAnam vishNu: bAlyancha bAthira: upasamhriyathE chAnthE samharthAcha svayam prabhu:” (vishNu who is united with subtle chith and achith, transforms himself during creation to be with gross chith and achith; he protects himself; during annihilation he destroys himself being the destroyer [reverting to subtle chith and achith]), “sa Eva srujyasya: sa cha sarga karthA sa Eva bAthyaththicha pAlyath Echa brahmAdhi avasthyAbhi: aSEsha mUrththi: vishNu: varishta: varadha varENya:” (he is the one who is created; he is the creator; he is the protector; he is the annihilator; he is the one who is protected; it is vishNu who has all forms such as brahmA, Siva et al as his body, he is superior, and is the bestower of the best boons), SrI bhagavath gIthA 15.7mamaivAmSO jIvalOkE” (having my features. living in this material realm where bound souls live), SArIraka mImAmsA 2.3.42 “amSO nAnA vyapadhESAth” (jIvAthmA is known as a feature of paramAthmA); hence srushti (creation), samhAra (annihilation) are at his disposal only; as said in SubAla upanishath “pruthivyapsu praleeyathE, Apas thEjasileeyanthE, thEjauvAyau leeyathE, vAyurAkASE leeyathE, AkASam indhriyEshu indhriyANi thanmAthrEshu thanmAthrANi bhUthAdhau leeyanthE, bhUthAdhir mahathi leeyathE, mahAn avyakthE leeyathE, avyaktham aksharE leeyathE, aksharam thamasi leeyathE, thama:parEdhEva EkIbhavathi” (Earth dissolves into water, water dissolves into fire, fire dissolves into air, air dissolves into ether, ether dissolves into senses which in turn dissolve into thanmAthrAs (subtle form of senses) and thanmAthrAs dissolve into bhUthAdhi, bhUthAdhi dissolves into mahath, mahAn dissolves into avyaktham and avyaktham dissolves into aksharam, aksharam dissolves into thamas (mUla prakruthi – primordial matter) and thamas finally becomes one with bhagavAn) – emperumAn has made the divine vow as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “bahusyAm” (let me become many) and separated thamas which was attached to him, transformed it to what is known as thamas, transformed that into aksharam, created avyaktham from aksharam, created mahAn from avyaktham, created ahankAram from mahAn, created thanmAthrAs from ahankAram, culminated them into pancha bhUthams (the great elements), engaged in jagath srushti (creation of material realm) up to the creation of aNdam (oval shaped universe); he who is known as bhagavAn, is known as parabrahma, paramAthmA in vEdhAntham, and is directly known as paramapurusha.
  • muniyE – As said in “sa EkAkI na ramEtha” (that supreme lord was unhappy feeling loneliness) – as all the entities were without their names and forms and as brahmam’s name and form only were present, and everything else remained as achith, sarvESvaran also remained like achith in separation from everything [i.e. everything in subtle form and hence not being able to relish with them].
  • muniyE – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 1.1 “thathO  rAvaNa nIthAyA: sIthAyA: SathrukarSaNa:| iyEsha padhamandhEshtum chAraNAcharithE pathi ||” (After that, hanuman, the destroyer of enemies, desired to travel in the sky where celestials like chAraNas tread, to search for sIthA, who was taken away by rAvaNa) – as hanuman desired to search for sIthA who was taken across the ocean, you meditated to create the citizens/children who have lost their forms! Should you who created me unconditionally, when I was non-existing, not help me today when I am present and suffering?
  • muniyE – Like those who would call out “ammE!” (Oh mother!). That is, you created these entities when they were without body and senses; should you not help me who is desiring now [for you]? Will you only help when you desire for it? Should you not help when I desire for it? As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 59.45 “SAkAmrugA: rAvaNa sAya kArthA: jagmuS SaraNyam SaraNam smarAmam” (The monkeys fled the battlefield being tormented by rAvaNa’s arrows and surrendered to SrI rAma who was their refuge) and SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 94.17 “rAkshasair vadhyamAnAnAm vAnarANAm mahachamU: | SaraNyam SaraNam yAthA rAmam dhaSarathAthmajam ||” (The great army of monkey warriors who were tormented by the army of demons, surrendered unto SrI rAma, the son of dhaSaratha), AzhwAr is saying “Won’t you help those who have no refuge other than you?”
  • nAnmuganE – Creating brahmA as said in SvEthASvathara upanishath “yO brahmANam vidhadhAthi pUrvam” (One who created brahmA first), pervading everywhere through jIvAthmAs, just as chEthanas (sentient beings) would act and move around with the help of their respective achEthana (insentient) body, being the antharyAmi for brahmA who is his body, through brahmA and his own sankalpa (vow), emperumAn engaging in variegated creation in the form of dhEva (celestial), thiryak (animals), manushya (humans) and sthAvara (immovable entities such as plants) is explained here. With this – it is explained that when emperumAn desires, he can do anything with the help of any entity. brahmA is like the seat from which emperumAn would engage in creation; for emperumAn there is no difference between engaging in creation using mahath which is achEthana and brahmA who is a chEthana; though chEthana and achEthana are different from each other, both are same with respect to being subservient to bhagavAn. Just as the words which indicate the different types of bodies such as dhEva , thiryak, manushya, sthAvara and brAhmaNa, kshathriya, vaiSya, SUdhra, also indicate the AthmAs inside those bodies, here also, as said in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “yasya AthmA SarIram, yasya pruthivI SarIram” (for the one who has souls as his body, for the one who has earth etc as his body), SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 117.26 “jagath sarvam SarIram thE sthairyam thE vasudhAthalam | agni:kOpa: prasAdhasthE sOmaS SrIvathsa lakshaNa ||” (The entire cosmos is your body. The earth constitutes your firmness. Fire is your anger. The moon constitutes your placidity. You are vishNu who bears the mark Srivathsa – a curl of hair on his chest), SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.86  “yAni mUrthAnyamUrthAni yAnyathrAnyathra vA kvachith | santhi vai vasthujAthAni thAni sarvANi thadhvapu: ||” (Whatever is with form or without form, the collection of all entities which are here, there and everywhere at any time, they are all body of that paramAthmA) and SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.38 “… thath sarvam vai harEsthanu:” (Whatever is created, they are all body of hari) – as per the rule which says that the word which indicates the body would itself also indicate the soul which controls that body, the word chathumukha/nAnmugan which indicates the body of brahmA also indicates emperumAn who is different from such brahmA and is the soul of brahmA; hence “nAnmuganE” is also a calling for emperumAn only.
  • mukkaN appA – As said in katavalli upanishath “yasya brahmacha kshathrancha ubhEbhavatha Odhanam, mruthyur yasya upasEchanam” (For whom, brAhmaNa, kshathriya and all of the creation, become food [during annihilation], and for whom, the annihilator is like pickle [which is used as side dish and finally eaten separately as well]), for sarvESvaran who annihilates everything along with the annihilator, with the name of the three-eyed [rudhra] who is a body of sarvESvara, emperumAn who is different from rudhra and who is the antharAtmA (in-dwelling soul) of rudhra, is invoked.
  • appA – Favour; annihilation is a greater favour than creation. Even if creation happens after a little while, the existence of the AthmAs will remain in tact. But due to the evil deeds performed by the AthmAs, if annihilation does not happen immediately, the existence of AthmAs will be lost. How is this so? Just as one will poke one’s own eye and cause harm, when the purpose of creation is forgotten and it becomes a reason for evil deeds, as the parents would put shackles on the hands and feet of their evil children, when the created universe becomes misused for the evil deeds, eliminating the body and senses as part of annihilation is seen as a favour; as said in jithanthE sthOthram “thadhA – samhAraka:” (You are creator as well as annihilator of this universe). “muniyE nAnmuganE mukkaNNappA” follows the section from mahAnArAyaNa upanishath starting with “EkO ha vai nArAyaNa AsIth – nabrahmA – nESAna: nEmE dhyAvA pruthivI – nanakshathrANi – nApOnAgnirnasOmOnasUrya: || sa EkAkI naramEtha – thasyadhyAnAnantha saththasyaikA – kanyAdhaSEndhriyANi” (Only nArAyaNa existed in the beginning; no brahmA; no rudhra; this sky and earth were not there; no stars; no water; no fire; no moon; no sun; he felt anguished due to loneliness; for him, who is in meditation, there was a mind and ten senses) and “athapunarEva nArAyaNassOnyam kAmam manasAdhyAyItha – thasyadhyAnAn thasthasya lalAdAth svEdhOpathath thA imA Apa: – thadhdhiraNmayam aNdam abhavath – thathra brahmAchathurmukhOjAyatha || atha punarEva nArAyANassOnyam kAmam manasA dhyAyItha thasya dhyAnAnthasthasya lalAdAth svEdhOpathath – svEdhOth budhbudhamabhavath – budhbudhAth thryakshaSSSulabhApANi: purushO jAyatha” (Again that nArAyaNa meditated to vow something else; sweat oozed out of his forehead and fell on the ground; that is the water; that became the golden oval shaped universe; four-headed brahmA came into existence in that universe; again that nArAyaNa meditated to vow something else; sweat oozed out of his forehead and fell on the ground; bubble appeared from that sweat; a three-eyed man appeared from that bubble with the spear in his hand). SrIvishNu purANam 1.2.23 “srushti sthithi anthakaraNIm …” (bhagavAn janArdhana assumes the names and forms of brahmA, vishNu and Siva to perform creation, sustenance and annihilation).
  • en pollAk kanivAyth thAmaraik kaN karumANikkamE – In between creation and annihilation, if there is no protector, the evil ones will torment the individuals just as an eagle will catch its prey; for that, emperumAn incarnates with his natural form as vishNu in between the primordial deities brahmA and rudhra just as emperumAn incarnated as one [SrI rAma] amongst the ikshvAku clan and one [krishNa] amongst yadhu clan; AzhwAr is calling out that name vishNu here. Since creation and annihilation need to be done mercilessly, he would appoint agents for those tasks; since protection need to be done by himself, with mercy, he cannot appoint others; even if appointed, others cannot do this task as said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.22.21 “na hi pAlana sAmarthyamruthE sarvESvaram harim | …” (Oh wise person! Except for hari who is well situated in sustaining others, no one has the ability to give protection) and para samhithA “na sampadhAm samAhArE vipadhAm vinivarthanE | samarthO dhruSyathE kaSchith tham vinA purushOththamam ||” (I have not seen any one other than purushOththama who is capable of bestowing wealth and removing the dangers without a trace).
  • en pollA … – While saying “nAnmuganE, mukkaNNappA“, AzhwAr closed his eyes and focussed on bhagavAn who is the viSEshyam (substratum); here [in the case of vishNu] viSEshaNam (form) itself is desirable, saying “en pollAk kanivAyth thAmaraik kaN karumANikkamE“. AzhwArs cannot move beyond bhagavAn’s divine form; while the divine form is explained as SubhASrayam (auspicious abode), vEdhAntham instructs the AthmAs to focus on the dhivyAthma svarUpam (divine internal nature/qualities) of bhagavAn leaving behind the divine form; the intent of vEdhAntham is not to negate the divine form, but to push the AthmAs up to the understanding of the true nature of bhagavAn; pollA should be joined with karumANikkam. AzhwAr could be warding off the evil eyes by saying “pollA – karumANikkam” (evil precious gem); alternatively, he is saying “pollA” to highlight the beauty of emperumAn which is unseen in any other entity.
  • kani vAy – sarvESvaran who is said in chAndhOgya upanishath 3.14 ‘avAkyanAdhara:’ (does not speak, ignores [in paramapadham]), is giving up his firmness and smiling on seeing the favourable ones [devotees]; as said in SrI paushkaram “sva karmAnala thapthAnAm dhyAyinAm khEdhaSAnthayE” (to remove the suffering of those who were experiencing the heat of the results of their karma).
  • thAmaraik kaN – AzhwAr is talking about the eyes which will further pacify us, if we start enquiring his smile and stutter with hiccups; as said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.20.16 “avalOkana dhAnEna bhUyOmAm pAlaya” (Oh lord! protect me with your glance).
  • karu mANikkamE – His divine body which embraces us to eliminate our fatigue in samsAram; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 1.13 “Esha sarvasva bhUthasthu” (This embrace of mine is equivalent to everything else). His divine form resembles a smiling dark precious gem.
  • en kaLvA – Oh one who stole me without my permission! AthmA who steals the self which is ISvara’s property, without knowing about the ownership; emperumAn steals the AthmA, by showing his own beautiful form. AthmA’s mamakAram (claiming bhagavAn’s wealth to be owned by self) is so deep that, sarvESvaran himself needs to steal the AthmA to reclaim the ownership. Just as emperumAn [as SrI rAma] made janakarAja to hand over his daughter (sIthAp pirAtti) in marriage, he reclaims AthmA to be his own.
  • thaniyEn Ar uyirE – Not only you accepted me without my permission, you also informed your presence to me and manifested your qualities with which I sustain myself being unable to perish in separation from you.
  • thaniyEn – AzhwAr’s presence amidst samsAris (worldly people) is similar to sIthAp pirAtti’s presence amidst rAkshasis (demoniac women) in aSOka vanam, highlighting his inability to mix with samsAris and inability to reach paramapadham.
  • Ar uyirE – For me who is suffering in this samsAram in separation from you, oh one who is the cause for my existence!
  • en thalai misaiyAy vandhittu – Arriving completely as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.6.5sezhum paRavai thAnERith thirivAna thALiNai en thalai mElE” (one who climbs and rides periya thiruvadi who has an attractive form, and arrives to be on my head) and thiruvAimozhi 10.6.6thalai mEla thALiNaigaL” (his divine feet on my head). Also implies that he arrived unconditionally, without any reason.
  • ini – Not just showing yourself, revealing the nature of paramapadham. After this.
  • nAn – I who have come to know the path to paramapadham.
  • pOgalottEn – AzhwAr became qualified to stop him and force him, due to his sorrow in separation and his apt relationship with emperumAn; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 111.14 “SEshyE purasthAth SAlAyA yAvan mEna prasIdhathi” (I shall remain lying down at the entrance of SrI rAma’s hut until he returns to ayOdhyA).
  • pOgalottEn – You can arrive of your own freewill only; but while going, is that under your control? AzhwAr is able to say like this due to a) the urge acquired by him under the supervision of sarvagya (omniscient lord) and b) since bhagavAn will become shy in the delay in fulfilling AzhwAr’s desire immediately as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10.9 “hrIrEshAhi mamAthulA” (I am feeling immensely ashamed).
  • onRum mAyam seyyEl – Before I realised you, you showed me the aspects which are to be given up and made me remain satisfied with them; after realising you, you manifested your qualities and made me say in thiruvAimozhi 10.8.7umbar en kuRai” (What worry is there for me, who enjoyed him eternally, about the enjoyment in going further to a special abode of paramapadham?) and thiruvAimozhi 10.8.8IdhE innam vENdavadhu endhAy” (Oh one who is naturally related to me! This service [by speech] only is desired forever by me!) In this manner, by manifesting your qualities further, don’t make me think that I have attained the goal and deceive me.

When asked “Why are you asking like this?” AzhwAr says,

  • ennaiyE – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 6.16 “Ehi paSya SarIrANi” (Look at our bodies), AzhwAr shows his body which was eaten by viraham (sorrow in separation); there, for the rishis, the rAkshasas ate only their limbs; here AzhwAr is going through destruction of the svarUpam (true nature) itself.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.10 – muniyE

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth decad, previously, sarvESvaran manifested the journey of a mukthAthmA (liberated soul) in archirAdhi mArgam (path leading to paramapadham), reaching paramapadham, entering the thirumAmaNi maNdapam, becoming part of the assembly of nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs, being ultimately blissful; AzhwAr enjoyed with paragyAnam (the state of clear visualisation of bhagavAn) as self’s benefit through visualisation, and since such vision was disrupted, became very sorrowful on seeing the samsAra which he feared as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.9.7kodu ulagam kAttElE” (hide the cruel world from me); having acquired parama bhakthi (state before reaching paramapadham), in the form of unbounded eagerness, being unable to sustain without attaining paramapadham, AzhwAr meditated thinking “emperumAn who brought me up to this stage, himself desiring to conduct me further, climbed on the divine shoulder of periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) and arrived here, placing his divine feet on my head, being very eager to grant the result”.  Due to the purity attained by such meditation, he highlighted the following aspects of such sarvESvaran who manifested directly:

  1. his enjoyable form, which is a favour [to us]
  2. his being dear to lakshmi
  3. his being the cause of everything
  4. his having all entities as his prakAra (form/attribute)
  5. his ultimate enjoyability
  6. his being a great lover
  7. his being the protector for his devotees
  8. his being the in-dwelling soul of everything/everyone
  9. his bestowing everything
  10. his complete granting of all enjoyment

Meditating upon these aspects, in the presence of such sarvESvaran, AzhwAr announced emperumAn’s favour etc to reveal self’s sorrow, great eagerness, vowed on pirAtti so that he does not refuse, and greatly cried out “You who are the protector for me, should grant me complete experience”, and meditated upon emperumAn’s act of enjoying fully with pirAtti, with qualities, forms, wealth to welcome AzhwAr; determining that there is no more hurdle to attain the goal, AzhwAr mercifully speaks and completes how he became avAptha samastha palar (one who has no unfulfilled goals).

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

Entering paramapadham and remaining in that assembly with perfect bliss as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.9.11 “andhamil pErinbaththu adiyarOdu irundhamai” (being with the devotees in endless bliss), was only in the mind and not observed in a physical union; even after this, AzhwAr observed that he is still in this samsAram where he instructs others saying as in thiruvAimozhi 9.1.6illai kaNdIr inbam” (there is no joy here) and in thiruviruththam 100 “piRappAm pollA aruvinai mAya van sERRaLLal poynnilam” (birth in this amazing, strong muddy, slushy world, which is caused by karma), being bound by matter [in a material body]; he felt anguished just as a person who becomes hurt after remaining without any sorrow and with great bliss on the peak of mount mEru (huge mountain which anchors and holds the world) would fall in to the very deep pAthALam (lowest world) which is filled with sorrows, is invincible and has no solid ground to remain firm; further, AzhwAr thought about emperumAn being accessible previously for him [as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.3 “AvikkOr paRRuk kombu ninnalAl aRiginRilEn nAn” (I don’t know any other support for myself other than you)], that there is no other means than bhagavAn himself to attain bhagavAn [as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.3 “mEvith thozhum piraman sivan” (brahmA, Siva who all worship you)] and emperrumAn being the protector of all including those who pursue through their own efforts as means to attain him, having not attained such emperumAn at once, became very anguished thinking “Why is such emperumAn letting us suffer in this manner!” Just as a nursing baby would cry out uttering the name of the mother while anguishing in hunger and thirst even after having the presence of mother and father [AzhwAr cried in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.3 “en pollAk karu mANikkamE” (Oh one who has a pure, distinguished, dark gem like form!)]

AzhwAr, who is having the nature as in thiruvAimozhi 1.5vaLavEzh ulagu” [where he considered himself very inferior], being incapable of thinking about his own true nature, being incapable of sending a messenger, having great sorrow which made him stand in front of emperumAn without any shyness and vow on pirAtti [to deliver him], to melt even the heart of the most cruel persons, to not let emperumAn remain in paramapadham without protecting AzhwAr, cried out in a loud voice as someone who is caught in forest fire and being unable to sustain the self started surrendering unto emperumAn’s divine feet as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 60.45 “SAkA mrgA: rAvaNa sAyakarthA jagmuSSaraNyam SaraNam smarAmam” (The monkeys were fleeing being hurt by rAvaNa’s arrows and surrendered to SrI rAma who is their refuge); since emperumAn is parama dhayALu (greatly merciful), he  thought “we cannot let him suffer in this manner!” and suffered even more than AzhwAr; he climbed on periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) along with pirAtti and appeared fully in front of AzhwAr as AzhwAr desired, severed AzhwAr’s connection in this material world, made him enter in the divine assembly as he desired in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.10adiyAr kuzhAngaLai – udan kUduvadhu enRukolO” (when will I enter the groups of nithyasUris), eliminated AzhwAr’s fatigue as highlighted by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.10 “en avAvaRach chUzhndhAyE” (you surrounded me to satisfy my desire) and thiruvAimozhi 10.10.11 “avAvaRRu vIdu peRRa” (I who got liberated, having my desires satisfied), mercifully united with AzhwAr, to eliminate his (emperumAn’s) own suffering which is greater than AzhwAr’s suffering – says AzhwAr.

The pramEyam (object/goal) for this prabandham is – sarvESvaran; this prabandham is – avAvil andhAdhi (poem of desire, in the type of antha + Adhi, where the ending of one pAsuram is connected to the beginning of the next pAsuram); the poet – one who was mercifully blessed with mayarvaRa madhinalam (unblemished knowledge and devotion). Now, AzhwAr’s avathAram (birth) is the same as the avathAram (incarnation) of sarvESvaran, which occurs by the good deeds of saintly people.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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