Daily Archives: December 29, 2019

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 90 (Names 891 to 900)

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891) naikadha: (नैकदः)

The one who gives just one thing is called ‘Ekadha:’. The opposite of this is ‘naikadha:’ – meaning, the one who gives aplenty.

bhagavAn is the master of divine apsaras (said to be about five hundred in number) who decorate the liberated soul in SrIvaikuNtam with infinite garlands, lampblack for the eyes, robes, etc – generally referred to as ‘brahma-alankAra’. He is therefore called ‘naikadha:’.

The kaushIthaki upanishath says: “That liberated soul (after crossing the viraja river) is surrounded by five hundred apasras. Hundred(s) of them decorate the soul with garlands. Hundred(s) of them come with lampblack in their hands”, etc.

The same is hailed in short elsewhere in kaushIthaki upanishath thus: “That soul is then decorated with ‘brahmAlankAra’”.

Etymology: The master of divine apsaras who decorate the liberated souls with brahmAlankAra is called ‘naikadha:’.

ब्रह्मालङ्कारदायिन्यॊ मुक्तॆभ्यश्च पदॆ पदॆ |
दिव्यास्त्वप्सरसॊ यस्य नैकदः स च कथ्यतॆ ||

892) agraja: (अग्रजः)

bhagavAn finally manifests in front of such a liberated soul (who has undergone the journey in archirAdhi mArga as said so far) along with his divine consort SrI mahAlakshmi – the mistress of all – seated on the serpent throne as detailed in the paryanka vidhyA of upanishaths, in the most desirable form to the soul. He is, therefore, called ‘agraja:’ – the one who manifests in front of the soul.

After all, it is well known that the paryanka vidhyA of upanishaths have hailed this feat beautifully. They start by saying “The soul then approaches the supreme lord seated on the serpent throne with infinite effulgence”, and continue to expound thus: “The supreme lord seated along with his consort SrI mahAlakshmi is approached by that soul. The soul then ascends the lap of bhagavAn by stepping on the serpent throne by his feet! The supreme lord asks the soul ‘who are you?’ and the soul replies ‘I am your manifestation’”, etc. Finally, it concludes by saying “The soul begets the same (fully blossomed) knowledge and (infinite) bliss as that of the supreme brahman and resides with him forever in his service”.

Etymology: He, who manifests out of utter compassion before the liberated souls who have attained the supreme abode, along with his divine consort SrI mahAlakshmi – as detailed in the paryankA vidhya of upanishaths – with the most desirable form, is called ‘agraja:’.

स्वस्याग्रॆ प्राप्तमुक्तानां सर्वॆश्वर्या श्रिया सह |
यथा पर्यङ्कविद्यं च करुणाविष्टचॆतसा |
तद्भॊग्यॊ जायतॆ यश्च सॊsग्रजः परिकीर्तितः ||

893) anirviNNa: (अनिर्विण्णः) (also seen in 436)

In this way, bhagavAn uplifts the fallen souls who have surrendered unto him from the huge pit of samsAra, and makes them attain him. He is thus ridden of his anxiety about that soul (!!!), and rests peacefully looking at the soul for eternity. He is, therefore, called ‘anirviNNa:’ – the one who is devoid of worries.

This emotion of being ridden of anxiety is as seen in SrI rAmAyaNa SlOka, which says “Having coronated vibhIshaNa as the ruler of lankA, rAma felt satisfied that he completed his duty, and rejoiced as if he was ridden of a haunting fever!”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn uplifts the surrendered souls from the huge pit of samsAra and makes them attain him, and thus feels satisfied as if ridden of a fever, and since he keeps looking at those souls for eternity with bliss, he is called ‘anirviNNa:’.

महता प्रणिधानॆन ह्युत्तार्य भवगर्ततः |
प्रापय्य च तमात्मानं कृतकृत्यश्च विज्वरः |
पश्यत्यशॊच्यमॆनं यॊ ह्यनिर्विण्णः स ईरितः ||

894) sadhAmarshI (सदामर्षी)

Thence (since the soul has attained paramapadham), bhagavAn accepts the ‘kainkaryam’ or service of such a liberated soul with great joy, and endures all of their services. Thus, he is called ‘sadhAmarshI’ – the one who accepts the services.

The thaiththirIya upanishath hails thus: “The soul, thereafter, attains all its desires, and resides with the supreme brahman, serving him at all times”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s nature is to endure and joyfully accept the servitude of liberated souls at all times, he is called ‘sadhAmarshI’.

कृतप्रतिकृतं त्वस्य निर्वॊढुं मर्षितुं भवॆत् |
सर्वदा शीलमस्यॆति सदामर्षीति कीर्तितः ||

895) lOkAdhishtAnam (लॊकाधिष्ठानम्)

As hailed in chAndhOgya upanishath, which says “In those extraordinary worlds (in SrIvaikuNtam), which have nothing superior to them…”, bhagavAn is verily the support for all the worlds (which make them supreme) where the liberated souls serve bhagavAn for his enjoyment. Therefore, he is called ‘lOkAdhishtAnam’ – the support for all worlds.

Etymology: The one who is the support for all worlds where the liberated souls serve bhagavAn is called ‘lOkAdhishtAnam’.

लॊकानां मुक्तभॊग्यानां लॊकाधिष्ठानमाश्रयः |

896) adhbhutha: (अद्भुतः)

In the same sense, he is also called ‘adhbhutha:’. The root ‘ath’ (अत्) gets ‘bhu’ (भु) added, with a ‘duthach’ (डुतच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

It means that bhagavAn – although being endlessly experienced by every soul (liberated and ever-liberated) in every way at every instant – is still amazing as though he has never been experienced before!

Etymology: Although being experienced by every (liberated/ever-liberated) soul in every way at every instant, the one who still appears amazing as though he has never been experienced before is called ‘adhbhutha:’.

सर्वदा सर्वथा सर्वैः भुज्यमानॊsप्यपूर्ववत् |
स्मयनीयॊsद्भुतः प्रॊक्तः |

======================================
सनात्सनातनतमः कपिलः कपिरव्ययः ।
स्वस्तिदः स्वस्तिकृत्स्वस्ति स्वस्तिभुग्स्वस्तिदक्षिणः ॥ ९६ ॥
=====================================

897) sanAth (सनात्)

bhagavAn is collectively hailed by the liberated souls who take turns in serving him in various ways. Thus, he is called ‘sanAth’. This word is derived from ‘gaNa’ (group) of ‘sana:’ (सनः).

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sanAth’ since the liberated souls take turns to serve him (and distribute the service amongst them).

तॆषां सम्भजनात् सनात् |

898) sanAthanathama: (सनातनतमः)

Similarly, he is called ‘sanAthanathama:’ as well. The word ‘sanA’ (सना) is used to mean ‘ancient’ (पुराणः); and the word ‘sanAthana’ suggests that bhagavAn’s form is eternal (which has been existing forever). The word ‘purANa:’ means that which appears new although existing for a long time (evergreen). That means, although bhagavAn exists for eternity (and has been present for a long time), he is experienced like a new entity created just then by the liberated souls.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sanAthanathama:’, since he is experienced by the liberated souls newly at every instant (since he provides a new experience to them at every instant).

नित्यनूतनभॊग्यत्वात् सनातनतमः स्मृतः |

899) kapila: (कपिलः)

How is that form of bhagavAn, which was mentioned in the previous divine name (sanAthanathama:)? It shines with a dazzling colour like an encompassing dark cloud with a streak of bright lightening in the middle. Thus, he is called ‘kapila:’.

(NOTE: The dark cloud is bhagavAn, and the streak of bright lightening in the middle is SrI mahAlakshmi on his chest)

Etymology: He who shines like an encompassing dark cloud in the middle of lightening is called ‘kapila:’. This seven lettered manthra is considered to be one of the greatest.

विद्युन्मण्डलमध्यस्थॊ नीलमॆघवदुज्ज्वलः |
कपिलः स समाख्यातः सप्तवर्णॊ महामनुः ||

900) kapiravyaya: (कपिरव्ययः)

bhagavAn also experiences such unbounded bliss (as seen in the previous divine names) himself. Thus, he is called ‘kapiravyaya:’. The word ‘pAthi’ (पाति) is used to mean ‘enjoys’ in this context.

All dhAthus (roots of verb) get the ‘in’ (इन्) adjunct as per grammatical rules; and the dhIrga of ‘pA’ goes off, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn also enjoys the eternal bliss of experiencing himself, and hence called ‘kapiravyaya:’.

नित्यं सुखं स्वानुभवं पात्ययं कपिरव्ययः |

Thus ends the ninth centum (navama Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hArItha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The ninth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 44 – Ura ninaindha

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.4

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of speaking as a nAyaki (heroine, pirAtti, consort of SrIman nArAyaNa) who is suffering in separation due to the lengthy night and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? In this manner, AzhwAr, as said in “confusing the true nature of self and emperumAn, we should attain emperumAn even by illegitimate means” becoming bewildered to have great urge in quickly attaining the result, having his clarity subdued by the darkness of ignorance which leads one to other upAyams which are based on self-effort, goes through struggle. This state of AzhwAr is explained by him through the words of a consort who is suffering in separation, and who sets out to perform madal. But by the divine will of providence, the sun set, and in midnight, as there is no scope for the senses to spread out, the suffering in separation became intense; there was no sign of dawn, and the desire for madal subdued and the desire to die increased. But even that was not possible; mAmunigaL mercifully explains these words in the mood of a pirAtti who is suffering in separation in the lengthy night which are explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.4 “UrEllAm thunji” starting with “Ura ninaindha“.

pAsuram

Ura ninaindha madal Uravum oNNAdhapadi
kUr iruL sEr kanguludan kUdi ninRu pErAmal
thIdhu seyya mARan thiruvuLLaththuch chenRa thuyar
Odhuvadhingu enganEyO

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word-by-word meanings

Ura ninaindha – that which was set out to be performed
madal – madal
Uravum oNNAdhapadi – to be unable to
kUr iruL sEr kangul – very dark night
udan kUdi ninRu – along with its associates
pErAmal – without moving away
thIdhu seyya – causing harm
mARan – AzhwAr’s
thiruvuLLaththuch chenRa thuyar – sorrow which reached his divine heart
ingu Odhuvadhu – to explain here
enganE – how is it possible?
O – alas?

Simple Translation

Alas! How is it possible to explain here the sorrow which reached the divine heart of AzhwAr where the very dark night along with its associates caused harm, without moving away, to not allow him to perform the madal which he set out to perform?

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • Ura ninaindha madal – The madal which he thought of performing as said in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.9kudhiriyAy madal UrdhumE” (be a shameless girl who cannot be controlled by anyone and will engage in madal).
  • Ura oNNAdhapadi – Unable to engage in the madal since the sun set, all of those who speak pleasing words, those who give advice and those who throw accusations, went to sleep, and darkness surrounded.
  • kUr iruL sEr kanguludan kUdi ninRu pErAmal thIdhu seyya – Further, the night with great darkness, along with its army of associates, caused harm, without moving away. That is, as said in sIthAp pirAtti’s actions in fear of rAvaNa’s illusory acts, as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 28.18 “sIthAtha vENyudhgrathanam gruhIthvA” (thereafter, sIthA holding her braid of hair looking like a hanging rope) and SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 28.16 “vishasaya dhAthA nahimE’sthi kaSchich chasathrasya vA vESma ni rAkshasasya” (To me, none is there, who is a giver either of a poison or of a sharp weapon in the house of rAvaNa). The night, along with darkness, is causing great harm as said in:
  • Ur ellAm thunji ulagellAm naLLiruLAy nIr ellAm thERi Or nIL iravAay nINdadhAl (The whole town is asleep; the whole world is filled with abundant darkness; the water bodies are all quiet, without any tides; there is just night with no difference between day and night, where the night is extended and stretched so that there appears no end to it) [1st pAsuram]
  • mAvikAramAy Or val iravAy nINdadhAl (The lengthy night which is having a well developed state and is very dense, extended without an end) [2nd pAsuram]
  • Oyum pozhidhilllai UzhiyAy nINdadhAl (the already extending night is not having the ending time and is appearing to be stretched like a kalpa) [3rd pAsuram]
  • oNsudarOn vArAdhoLiththAn (The radiant sun which is attractive during the time of dawn is not coming and hid himself ) [4th pAsuram]
  • munninRirA Uzhi kaN pudhaiya mUdiRRAl (the night which is like a kalpa, is standing in front of me to conceal my vision by covering my eye) [6th pAsuram]
  • kangiruLin nuN thuLiyAych chEtpAla thUzhiyAych chelginRa kangul vAy (very lengthy passing night which is like a kalpa having abundant darkness and tiny misty droplets) [7th pAsuram]
  • Or iravu Ezh UzhiyAy (One night comes to the forefront and stands, and makes me feel like seven kalpa) [8th pAsuram]
  • vIngiruLinuN thuLiyAy (The current night which is having huge darkness and tiny mist droplets) [9th pAsuram]
  • selginRa kangul vAy (the night which is continuing) [10th pAsuram]

Since, this is the current state,

  • mARan thiruvuLLaththuch chenRa thuyar Odhuvadhu ingu enganEyO – mAmunigaL is saying this. mARan thiruvuLLaththuch chenRa thuyar means the sorrow which was felt in AzhwAr’s divine heart as revealed in:
    • pAr ellAm uNda nam pAmbaNaiyAn vArAnAl Ar ellE valvinaiyEn Avi kAppAr iniyE (emperumAn who kept the whole earth which was in danger due to praLaya, in his stomach and protected it, who is having thiruvanthAzhwAn, his servitor as his bed and protecting him, who is the refuge for us, has not arrived and protected us; alas! now, when the protector has not helped, who is the protector for this AthmA, that is, I who am a sinner, having very strong sins? ) [1st pAsuram]
    • Avi kAppAr iniyAr (who is the protector for my life?) [2nd pAsuram]
    • nIyum pAngallai kAN nenjamE! mAyum vagai aRiyEn val vinaiyEn peN piRandhE (Oh heart! you, the main cause for all actions, are not obedient; the already extending night is not having the ending time and is appearing to be stretched like a kalpa; SrI rAma, chakravarthi thirumangan who is having the cruel SrI SArnga [bow] which roasts the enemies of his devotees and who is born in the family heritage which gives great importance to helping others, has not helped me like he helped sIthA, the divine daughter of king SrI janaka; I who am having great sins, having been born as a woman, don’t know the ways to finish myself.) [3rd pAsuram]
    • eN periya sindhai nOy thIrppArAr ennaiyE? (who will eliminate the great mental anguish of mine which is beyond the conception of thoughts?) [4th pAsuram]
    • pEr ennai mAyAdhAl val vinaiyEn pin ninRE (standing behind me, the very strong sins are not allowing me to die and making me exist only for namesake; this being the case, who will protect me?) [5th pAsuram]
    • inninRa nILAvi kAppAr Ar ivvidaththE (in this situation who is the protector for this eternal AthmA which is not weakened even after experiencing sorrows eternally?) [6th pAsuram]
    • thIppAla val vinaiyEn dheyvangAL en seygEnO? (Oh dhEvathAs! What shall I, who am having very strong sins which are burning like fire, do?) [7th pAsuram]
    • enadhAvi melivikkum (weakens my prANa) [8th pAsuram]
    • nenjidar thIrppAr iniyAr? ninRuruguginREnE (now, who is the destroyer of the suffering in my mind?) [9th pAsuram]
  • Continued – Such sorrow can only be spoken by AzhwAr himself and no one else. His sorrow is beyond speech. Hence mAmunigaL becomes immersed in emotions thinking “how can we speak about that which cannot be spoken about?” enganEyO can also be considered as indicating a colloquial way of wondering how to speak.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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