Monthly Archives: November 2019

உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 46

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

<< பாசுரம் 45

பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளை பின்புள்ளவைக்கும் 

தெரிய வியாக்கியைகள் செய்வால் அரிய

அருளிச் செயல் பொருளை ஆரியர்கட்கு இப்போது

அருளிச் செயலாய்த்தறிந்து

நாற்பத்தாறாம் பாசுரம். வேதத்துக்கு உள்ளது போல் திருவாய்மொழிக்கும் அங்கங்கள் மற்றும் உபாங்கங்களாக மற்றைய ப்ரபந்தங்கள் உள்ளதால், அவற்றுக்கு வ்யாக்யானங்கள் அருளிய மஹநீயர்களைக் கொண்டாடத் திருவுள்ளம் கொண்டு, முதலிலே பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளை செய்தருளிய பேருபகாரத்தைக் கொண்டாடுகிறார்.

நம்பிள்ளையின் ப்ரிய சிஷ்யரான வ்யாக்யானச் சக்ரவர்த்தி என்று கொண்டாடப்படும் பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளை மற்ற மூவாயிரம் பாசுரங்களுக்கும் அனைவரும் அர்த்தங்களை நன்றாகத் தெரிந்து கொள்ளும்படி வ்யாக்யானங்களை அருளிச்செய்ததினாலே, ஆழ்ந்த அர்த்தங்களைக்  கொண்ட அருளிச்செயல்களை, இவருக்குப் பிற்பட்ட ஆசார்யர்கள் இவைதான் ஆழ்வார்கள் அருளிச்செயல்கள் என்று நன்றாகத் தெரிந்து கொள்ளும்படி அமைந்தன. இவரே அருளிச்செயல்களின் அர்த்தங்களைப் பூர்த்தியாகத் தன் ஆசார்யனிடத்திலே கேட்டபடி, அவற்றைத் தான் ஆழ்ந்து அனுபவித்த க்ரமத்திலும், மற்றவர்களுக்கு உபதேசமாகவும் ஆக்கி வைத்த தனிப் பெருமையைக் கொண்டவர்.

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 58 (Names 571 to 580)

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571) gathisaththama: (गतिसत्तमः)

The same bhagavAn nArAyaNa also preaches the most revered path of dharma to all his devotees. Hence, he is called ‘gathisaththama:’. Thus this divine name gives the meaning of “the trustworthy one who can show the right way”.

SrI mahAbhAratha also says thus in the SAnthi parva: “Behold! The supreme path of dharma was shown by bhagavAn to all dhEvas!”

Etymology: He who is most trustworthy in showing the rightful path of dharma (as an AchArya) is called ‘gathisaththama:’.

धम्रॆ प्रत्ययिततमॊ गतिसत्तम उच्यतॆ |

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सुधन्वा खण्डपरशुर्दारुणॊ द्रविणप्रदः ।
दिविस्पृक् सर्वदृग्व्यासॊ वाचस्पतिरयॊनिजः ॥ ६१ ॥
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572) sudhanvA (सुधन्वा)

When the dhEvas and asuras fought against each other for the sake of nectar, bhagavAn held his divine bow to end the fight. Thus, he is called ‘sudhanvA’ – the one with a beautiful bow.

The ‘anang’ (अनङ्) adjunct is used with the word ‘dhanu:’ धनुः (bow), resulting in the word ‘dhanvA’ (धन्वा).

The scriptures say thus in this regard:

  • “…Having seen the divine bow in the hands of nara”
  • “…Then, nara – bedecked with superior ornaments – controlled the movement of air completely with his great bow”, etc.

Etymology: He who holds a very beautiful bow is hailed as ‘sudhanvA’.

सुशॊभनं धनुर्यस्य सुधन्वा परिकीर्तितः |

573) khaNdaparaSu: (खण्डपरशुः)

Since bhagavAn annihilated his war with rudhra with an axe, he is called ‘khaNdaparaSu:’.

In the same SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, bhagavAn declares thus: “Then, nara took a blade of grass in order to destroy rudhra. He empowered it with manthras due to which it turned into a great axe. He threw the axe at rudhra with all his might. The axe broke at that instant. Thus, I am called ‘khandaparaSu:’ because I broke my axe”

Etymology: With extreme anger, since bhagavAn ended his war with rudhra using an axe (which broke in the pursuit), he is called ‘khaNdaparaSu:’. This nine lettered manthra is capable of destroying all sorrows of the chanter.

तीव्रकॊपात् परशुना रौद्रसङ्ग्रामखण्डनात् |
प्रॊक्तः स खण्डपरशुः नवार्णः शॊकनाशनः ||

574) dhAruNa: (दारुणः)

As seen thus in the previous divine names, since bhagavAn tears apart the enemies – both internal as well as external to us, he is called ‘dhAruNa:’.

The ‘dhru’ दृ (to cut) gets the ‘unan’ (उनन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhAruNa:’ since he tears apart all our enemies – both internal as well as external to us.

बाह्याभ्यन्तरशत्रूणां दारणादपि दारुणः |

575) dhraviNapradha: (द्रविणप्रदः)

Thence the vyAsa avathara of bhagavAn is hailed.

bhagavAn vyAsa gives away the highest wealth in the form of most esoteric meanings of all Sasthras, and hence called ‘dhraviNapradha:’ – the bestower of wealth.

The dhyAna SlOka of vyAsa bhagavAn hails thus: “Holding all SAsthras in his left hand as a comprehensive collection, he who gives the true purports of such SAsthric injunctions with his right hand with careful selection…” (In this SlOka, vyAsa bhagavAn is hailed as holding the SAsthras in his left hand in the form of palm leaves, and the chinmudhra / upadhESa mudhra in his right hand – as if to show that he selectively chooses the right purports from a huge heap of SAsthric injunctions and gives them to us).

Etymology: That SrI hari, who – in the form of vyAsa bhagavAn – bestows the wealth of SAsthras and their true meanings to all seekers, is called ‘dhraviNapradha:’.

शास्त्रं तदर्थं द्रविणं प्रददाति जनाय़ यः |
व्यासॊ भूत्वा हरिः साक्षात् द्रविणप्रद उच्यतॆ ||

576) dhivispruk (दिविस्पृक्)

With his highest knowledge, since vyAsa bhagavAn touches (knows) his well hidden original form in the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘dhivispruk’ – the one who touches the supreme sky.

The root ‘spruS’ स्पृश् (to touch) gets the ‘kvin’ (क्विन्) adjunct, which changes to ‘aluk’ (अलुक्) as per the grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

The manthra varNa hailing vyAsa bhagavAn says thus: “…the one who possesses the highest knowledge”.

Etymology: He who touches (knows) his original form in the supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam with his highest form of knowledge (in this world) is called ‘dhivispruk’.

परया विद्यया यः स्वं स्पृशतीति परॆ पदॆ |

दिविस्पृक् प्रॊच्यतॆ नित्यम् |

577) sarvadhruk (सर्वदृक्) (also repeated in 201)

At the same time, he also sees all other grandeurs (in this world). Thus, he is called ‘sarvadhruk’.

The root ‘dhruS’ दृश् (to see) gets the ‘kvin’ (क्विन्) adjunct as in the previous divine name, which results in the letter ‘ku’ (कु) as per grammatical rules. This transformation results in this divine name.

The same manthra varNa hailing bhagavAn vyAsa also says: “unto him who is omniscient”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn vyAsa sees everything (and hence knows everything), he is called ‘sarvadhruk’.

सर्वदृक् सर्वदर्शनात् |

578) vyAsa: (व्यासः)

In order for the people to understand vEdhas in their true purport in every yuga, bhagavAn vyAsa divided the single text of vEdhas into four parts. Thus, he is called ‘vyAsa:’ – the one who divided.

The scriptures hail this feat thus: “Having divided the single vEdha into four, that vyAsa – the knower of all three times (past, present and future)….”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn divided the vEdhas into four parts, he is called ‘vyAsa:’ by the learned men.

त्रय्याश्चतुर्धाकरणात् व्यास इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

579) vAchaspathi: (वाचस्पतिः) (also repeated in 218)

The master of words in SrI mahAbhAratha, which is hailed as the fifth vEdha, is called ‘vAchaspathi:’.

Etymology: The master of words in the fifth vEdha (SrI mahAbhAratha) is remembered as ‘vAchaspathi:’.

वाचः पञ्चमवॆदस्य स्वामी वाचस्पतिः स्मृतः |

580) ayOnija: (अयॊनिजः)

When bhagavAn vyAsa was born as sArasvatha: (सारस्वतः), he was born from the words of bhagavAn. Thus, since he did not originate from a mother’s womb, he is called ‘ayOnija:’.

The SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha hails thus: “Then, after having created the worlds, bhagavAn uttered the word ‘bhO’ भॊ (in addressing a person). That sound resonated, and with that utterance of bhagavAn, sArasvatha appeared there”

Etymology: In his incarnation as sArasvatha, since he appeared from bhagavAn’s own words (and hence not from a mother’s womb), he is called ‘ayOnija:’. This eight syllable manthra destroys all karma of the chanter.

सारस्वतावतारॆ हि भगवद्वाक्भवत्त्वतः |
स्मृतॊ ह्ययॊनिज इति वस्वर्णः कर्मनाशकः ||

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त्रिसामा सामगः साम निर्वाणं भॆषजं भिषक् ।
सन्यासकृच्छमः शान्तॊ निष्ठा शान्तिः परायणम् ॥ ६२ ॥
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adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 100 – ennilaimai ellAm

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thanippAdal (additional pAsuram)

ennilaimai ellAm aRiviththAl emperumAn
thannaruLum Agamum thArAnEl – pinnaippOy
oNduRainIr vElai ulagaRiya Urvan nAn
vaNdaRai pUm peNNai  madal

Word by word meaning

en nilaimai ellAm – all my various states
aRiviththAl – after informing
emperumAn – the lord of all, my swAmy
than aruLum – his mercy
Agamum – his divine chest
thArAn El – if he does not grant
pinnai pOy – after that, going to
oNduRai nIr vElai ulagu aRiya – making it known to the people of the world, surrounded by ocean which has effulgent places for taking a dip and which is full of water
nAn – I
vaNdu aRai pUm peNNai madal Urvan – I will engage with a beautiful madal which is resounding with the humming of beetles. 

avathArikai

This pAsuram is similar to the one at the end of siRiya thirumadal. This pAsuram, composed by the thamizh poet kambar as if it were recited by parakAla nAyaki herself, is recited at the end of periya thirumadal. These pAsurams [this and the one which appears at the end of siRiya thirumadal], show the devotion that kambar had towards thirumangai AzhwAr.

vyAkyAnam

en nilaimai . . . . . . thArAnEl – these two lines are taken from part nos 90 and 91 in periya thirumadal. vyAkyAnam for these two lines can be seen there. We can see that in kamba rAmAyaNam too, there are many pAsurams where the words and meanings are common with thirumangai AzhwAr’s pAsurams.

pinnaip pOy – If he does not carry out what he is expected to do, I will do what I am not supposed to do. While he should come to the place where I am present, I will go to the place where he is residing.

oNduRai nIr vElai ulagaRiya – to make it known to the people who are in the world surrounded by ocean with splendorous steps for taking bath and which is full of water.

oNduRai – since pearls and corals are strewn across the ocean, it has effulgence.

ulagu – people who are living in the world.It woud also mean “great people”

Urvan nAn . . . .madal – I will engage with madal which is resounding with the humming of beetles.

This brings us to the end of translation for periya thirumadal.

periya pirAtti samEdha periya perumAL thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
thirumangai AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
azhagiya maNavALapperumAL nAyanAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 57 (Names 561 to 570)

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561) pushkarAksha: (पुष्कराक्षः) (also repeated in 40)

Since bhagavAn nurtures all of his dear devotees (who have taken refuge under the tree of supreme brahman, as stated in the previous divine name) by showering grace upon them through his glance, he is called ‘pushkarAksha:’ – the one with a nurturing glance.

The root ‘push’ (पुष्) means to nurture. It gets the ‘karan’ (करन्) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who possesses eyes that nurture his devotees by showering his grace (with his glance) is called ‘pushkarAksha:’. The chanting of this eight syllable manthra enhances love towards other beings.

सतां प्रसादवर्षॆण पॊषकॆ यस्य चाक्षिणी |
पुष्कराक्षः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ प्रीतिवर्धकः ||

562) mahAmanA: (महामनाः)

Since bhagavAn shows an extremely compassionate and broad mind towards his devotees, he is called ‘mahAmanA:’.

Etymology: He who possesses an unquantifiable, generous and an open mind (towards his devotees) is called ‘mahAmanA:’.

अगाधॊदारविस्तारं मनॊ यस्य महामनाः |

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भगवान् भगहा नन्दी वनमाली हलायुधः ।
आदित्यॊ ज्यॊतिरादित्यः सहिष्णुर्गतिसत्तमः ॥ ६० ॥
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563) bhagavAn (भगवान्)

As seen till now, since bhagavAn is devoid of all blemishes and possesses abundance of all auspicious qualities, and since he is thus the most revered one, he is called ‘bhagavAn’.

Etymology: He who is most revered due to his being devoid of all blemishes and possessing all auspicious qualities is called ‘bhagavAn’.

सर्वहॆयप्रत्यनीक-कल्याणगुणवत्तया |
पूज्यात्पूज्यतमॊ यॊsसौ भगवानिति कथ्यतॆ ||

564) bhagahA (भगहा)

bhagavAn is also called ‘bhagahA’ for the same reason that he possesses auspicious qualities.

The word ‘bhaga’ (भगः) refers to six auspicious qualities namely mastership, power, capability to succeed, wealth, knowledge and detachment. bhagavAn possesses all these qualities. The word ‘hanthi’ (हन्ति) in this divine name is used in the context of ‘movement’ (गमनकर्मा).

Alternately, the six qualities denoting the word ‘bhaga’ can also be known from the sixth amSa of vishNu purANa, where the word ‘bhagavAn’ is defined in great detail.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘bhagahA’ since he possesses all the auspicious qualities that are denoted by the word ‘bhaga’. This six lettered manthra confers happiness upon the chanter.

भगशब्द्यान् स कल्याणगुणान् हन्ति तु गच्छति |
इत्यसौ भगहा प्रॊक्तः षडर्णः सुखदायकः ||

565) nandhI (नन्दी)

Having taken the form of sankarshaNa in among the vyUha forms, bhagavAn accepted nandhagOpa as his father in his incarnation as balarAma. Thus, he is called ‘nandhI’ – the son of nandha.

He is also called nandhI since he found happiness in enjoying nectar and the cowherd womenfolk.

Etymology: The one (balarAma) who had nandhagOpa as his father is called ‘nandhI’. Alternately, the one who was always full of joy is called ‘nandhI’.

नन्दगॊपॆन पितृमान् नन्द्यान्दीति वा तथा |

566) vanamAlee (वनमाली)

Furthermore, bhagavAn always wears the fragrant vaijayanthi garland (वैजयन्तीमाला) – also called ‘vanamAlA’ (वनमाला), which is the ‘abhimanini dhEvathA’ of the five subtle elements that he creates. Thus, he is called ‘vanamAlee’ – the one who adorns the vanamAlA.

Etymology: bhagavAn is always associated with the vaijayanthi garland or vanamAlA, which is the essence of the five subtle elements created by him; hence he is called ‘vanamAlee’. This eight syllable manthra confers ornaments upon the chanter.

स्वसृज्यभूतसूक्ष्माणां मालया नित्ययॊगतः |
वनमाली समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ भूषणप्रदः ||

567) halAyudha: (हलायुधः)

bhagavAn is also the farmer who holds a plough in order to grow the sentient and insentient entities in abundance. Hence, he is called ‘halAyudha:’.

The vishNu dharma also hails bhagavAn’s holding of plough thus: “In order to reap abundant harvests, one must meditate upon balarAma at the time of plowing the fields”.

Etymology: He who holds a plough at all times, in order to reap abundant harvests (of sentient and insentient entities), is called ‘halAyudha:’.

हलं च सततं सीरं धत्तॆ यॊsसौ हलायुधः |
सीरकार्यसमृद्ध्यर्थॆ वस्वर्णॊ मन्त्रनायकः ||

568) Adhithya: (आदित्यः) (also repeated in 39)

The syllable ‘A’ (आ) represents bhagavAn. Since he is attained (itya: इत्यः) through the syllable ‘A’ (Atha: आतः), he is called ‘Adhithya:’ (आतः इत्यः प्राप्यः इत्यादियः). This divine name is born out of the ‘kyap’ (क्यप्) adjunct.

It is a well known fact that the syllable ‘A’ (आ) is the bIja manthra of bhagavAn sankarshaNa.

Alternately, bhagavAn was born to dhEvaki, who was in turn born as ‘adhithi’ in her previous birth. Thus also he is called ‘Adhithya:’ – the son of adhithi.

This is supported in the vaishNava dharma, where bhagavAn himself declares thus: “Oh dhEvaki, you were indeed the daughter of dhaksha prajApathi in your earlier birth. You were then born as adhithi in this world. You have always been a support to this world. Thus, I have come to grace you”

Etymology: He who is attained by the syllable ‘A’ is hailed as ‘Adhithya:’. Alternately, the one who is born as the son of dhEvaki, who in turn was ‘adhithi’ in her previous birth, is called ‘Adhithya:’.

आवर्णादॆव यः प्राप्यः स आदित्यः प्रकीर्तितः |
अदितिर्दॆवकी तस्याः वाsदित्यॊsपत्यभावतः ||

569) jyOthirAdhithya: (ज्यॊतिरादित्यः)

Then on, the speaker elaborates on ‘nArAyaNa’ in the forthcoming names. bhagavAn nArAyaNa is characterized by unsurpassed divine and astounding effulgence, and hence he is called ‘jyOthirAdhithya:’. The effulgent sun ‘Adhithya:’ (आदित्यः) that we see with our eyes is popularly known. But nArAyaNa nullifies this sun’s effulgence with his own effulgence, as much as to say that “the sun is just a ball of darkness”!

In the nArAyaNIyam (SrI mahAbhAratha), this is hailed thus: “While nara and nArAyaNa fought with Siva, all those who possessed effulgence lost their effulgence. Even brahmA fell from his position”

Etymology: He who shines forth with astounding effulgence that dulls all other entities is indeed called ‘jyOthirAdhithya:’. This nine lettered manthra confers knowledge upon the contemplators.

समस्ततॆजॊहरणज्यॊतिषा दीप्यतॆ च यः |
स वै स्याज्ज्यॊतिरादित्यॊ नवार्णॊ ज्ञानदायकः ||

570) sahishNu: (सहिष्णुः) (also repeated in 146)

In the fight between Siva and nArAyaNa (illustrated in the previous divine name from nArAyaNIyam), since bhagavAn patiently tolerated Siva’s faults, he is called ‘sahishNu:’.

In the same context, it is said further in nArAyaNIyam thus: “At the end, Siva pleased nArAyaNa – the supreme godhead and the master of all, the sole refuge for all souls, the one who removes sins and grants the wishes of his devotees – by singing his praise. Immediately, the granter of boons – nArAyaNa – controlled his anger and became pleased with rudhra, and joined him”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sahishNu:’ since he tolerated the faults of brahmA and other dhEvas.

ब्रह्मादिमन्तुसहनात् सहिष्णुरिति कथ्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 45

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அன்போடு அழகிய மணவாளச் சீயர்

பின்போரும் கற்றறிந்து பேசுகைக்கா தம் பெரிய

போதமுடன் மாறன் மறையின் பொருள் உரைத்தது

ஏதமில் பன்னீராயிரம் 

நாற்பத்தைந்தாம் பாசுரம். வாதி கேஸரி அழகிய மணவாள ஜீயர் திருவாய்மொழிக்கு அருளிச்செய்த பன்னீராயிரப்படி வ்யாக்யானத்தின் வைபவத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நம்மாழ்வாரிடமும் திருவாய்மொழியிலும் பெரும் பக்தியுடனும் சேதனர்களிடத்திலே மிகவும் அன்புடனும் பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளையின் க்ருபைக்கு இலக்கான வாதி கேஸரி அழகிய மணவாள ஜீயர், தன் காலத்துக்குப் பிற்பட்டவர்களும் பாசுரங்களின் அர்த்தங்களை நன்றாகக் கற்றுத் தேறி, மற்றவர்களுக்கு உபதேசிப்பதற்கு உதவியாகத் தம்முடைய ஆசார்யன் க்ருபையாலே கிடைத்த பெரிய ஞானத்தைக் கொண்டு, நம்மாழ்வாராம் மாறன் அருளிய தமிழ் வேதமான திருவாய்மொழிக்கு அருளிய வ்யாக்யானம் பன்னீராயிரப்படி வ்யாக்யானம். இது பதவுரையாக அமைந்துள்ளது – அதாவது பாசுரங்களில் வார்த்தைகளுக்குத் தனித் தனியாக அர்த்தம் அருளியுள்ளார் இவர்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.10 – avaththangaL viLaiyum

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “I am too worried for you who are roaming around even without nambi mUththa pirAn (balarAma) in the forest where demons sent by kamsa are also roaming around”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

avaththangaL viLaiyum en soRkaL andhO! asurargaL vankaiyar kanjan Eva
thavaththavar maRuga ninRu uzhitharuvar thanimaiyum peridhu unakku irAmanaiyum
uvarththalai udan thirigilaiyum enRenRu UduRa ennudai Avi vEmAl
thivaththilum pasu nirai mEppu uvaththi senganivAy engaLAyar dhEvE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sem – reddish
kani – like fruit
vAy – having beautiful lips
engaL – in our clan
Ayar – for the herdspeople
dhEvE – Oh enjoyable lord!
vankaiyar – very strong
asurargaL – demons
kanjan Eva – sent by kamsa
thavaththavar – rishis who are engaged in thapas (penances)
maRuga ninRu – to be worried (thinking “what will happen to you!”)
uzhitharuvar – will roam around;
unakku – for you
thanimaiyum – loneliness
peridhu – will give joy;
irAmanaiyum – very strong nambi mUththa pirAn (balarAma)
uvarththalai – disagreement for your free roaming around
udan thirigilaiyum – not having with you;

(at this stage)
avaththangaL – disasters
viLaiyum – will occur
enRu enRu – thinking repeatedly
ennudai Avi – my heart
UduRa – inside
vEm – burning;
andhO – alas!
en sol – my word
koL – you should hear;
thivaththilum – even more than remaining in paramapadham
pasu nirai mEyppu – tending the cows
uvaththi – cannot be jofyul.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh enjoyable lord of the herdspeople in our clan, who are having beautiful lips which resemble a reddish fruit! Very strong demons sent by kamsa will roam around there [in the forest] to make the rishis who are engaged in penance, worry; loneliness will give you joy; you are not even having balarAma with you due to his disagreement for your free roaming around; my heart is burning inside thinking repeatedly that disasters will occur; alas! You should hear my word; it cannot be more joyful tending the cows than remaining in paramapadham. As said in thiruviruththam 21 “mAyaiyinAl” , you can enjoy here while being there itself.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • avaththangaL … – Don’t think that you need to put every word of mine into practice; it is sufficient if you listen to my word.
  • andhO – Alas! You are ignoring it because the word is uttered by me, instead of seeing the difficulty in putting it into practice.
  • asurargaL … – They are inferior by birth, many in numbers and are very strong; further, the evil kamsa can also come.
  • thavaththavar maRuga ninRu uzhi tharuvar – You can only abandon me; they will roam around to create fear in the rishis (sages) who are engaged in penance; those who are as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 1.20 “garbhabhUthA: thapOdhanA:” (they are cared by you like pregnant ladies care for the child in the womb, and are having penance as their wealth) and SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 6.16 “Ehi paSya SarIrANi” (Look at our bodies); those who look up to you for their protection to worry thinking “what will happen to emperumAn by these demons”. Alternatively, she is talking about the likes of SrI nAradha bhagavAn, SrI sugrIva mahArAjar, periyAzhwAr, piLLai uRangA villi dhAsar et al [those who have thapas of prapaththi].

When asked “But should I not go and eliminate the enemies of my devotees?” she says,

  • thanimaiyum peridhu unakku – As you walk along, you have become totally alone! This time of roaming around alone without balarAma is great for you as said in SrIvishNu purANam 5.7.1 “EkathA thu vinA rAmAm krishNO brindhAvanam yayau” (Once, krishNa went to the forest in vrindhAvanam without balarAma).
  • irAmanaiyum uvarththalai – You don’t agree with balarAma at times since it is impossible to perform mischievous acts in his presence.
  • uvarththalai – having displeasure/disagreement.
  • udan thirigilaiyum – Due to the disagreement, you are not roaming around with him to create fear in the enemies who see from a distance and think “They are together [we cannot fight with them easily]”.
  • enRu … – The fear and burning in my heart is not due to your going but your going alone without balarAma.
  • UduRa – Inside. My heart is burning.

When asked “Did I leave to make you force me like this?” she says,

  • thivaththilum pasu nirai mEyppuvaththi – Yes. You are known to change your presences in different places. You have come here to tend the cows giving up your presence in paramapadham. You have given up your presence there. She is thinking that his leaving paramapadham is bad. [She thinks] If he were there I need not be perturbed. It does not matter whether we get his presence or not; at least there will be no danger for him [since he need not face the demons]. Should you, who abandoned the residents of paramapadham and desired the cows, need any reason to abandon us? He cannot say that he has not left paramapadham.

He smiled thinking “What an overwhelming love she has towards me!”.

  • sem kani vAy engaL Ayar dhEvE – They become immersed in that smile. He smiles saying “Yes, I gave up my presence in there, but how can I leave you?” They become immersed in his smile/lips.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 56 (Names 551 to 560)

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551) vEdhA: (वॆधाः)

As shown thus in the previous divine names, bhagavAn manifests with a variety of unlimited auspicious qualities at all times. Thus, he is called ‘vEdhA:’.

As shown before, the SrImath rAmAyaNa hails bhagavAn as “the one who has transcended the darkness of ignorance”.

Etymology: He who shows great variety of supreme auspicious qualities at all times to his devotees is called ‘vEdhA:’. This six syllable manthra is capable of conferring all auspiciousness to the chanter.

महाविभवकल्याणं सततं विदधाति यः |
भक्तॆभ्यः परमं वॆधाः षडर्णॊ मङ्गलप्रदः ||

552) svAnga: (स्वाङ्गः)

bhagavAn shows his absolute supremacy by means of all of his characteristic paraphernalia such as chathram छत्रम् (the white umbrella), chAmaram चामरम् (a fanning gear made from the bushy tail of a yak) and other such similar royal insignia, which indicate his superiority over others. Since he possesses all of these at all times, he is called ‘svAnga:’.

Etymology: He who possesses all royal insignia such as the white umbrella and others as his characteristic paraphernalia at all times is called ‘svAnga:’. This six lettered manthra confers retinue upon the chanters.

स्वासाधारणमङ्गं हि छत्रादि परिबर्हणम् |
यस्यास्ति नित्यं स स्वाङ्गः षडर्णः परिवारदः ||

553) ajitha: (अजितः)

Furthermore, the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam is not affected by natural effects such as birth and death as seen in this world. Not just that, it also houses entities that are made of five upanishadhic elements which are purely saththvik in nature. Since that abode is not won over by lowly nature, it is called ‘ajithA’ अजिता (the unconquered).

Since bhagavAn owns such a supreme abode, he is called ‘ajitha:’.

The vEdhas quote thus: “brahmA entered that aparAjithA (bhagavAn’s abode), which is fully made of gold”

Etymology: He who owns the town of ‘ajithA’ (SrIvaikuNtam) – which is not affected by lowly nature in this world – is called ‘ajitha:’. This seven syllable manthra is capable of conferring mOksha to the chanter.

प्राकृतैर्न जिता या सा यस्यास्तीत्यजिता पुरी |
अजितस्तॆन विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ मुक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

554) krishNa: (कृष्णः) (also repeated in 58)

Further, bhagavAn possesses a beautiful deep dark hue like the water-bearing dark clouds. Thus, he is called ‘krishNa:’ – the dark one.

The learned men have also concluded based on various scriptural statements that the same beautiful dark hued form could be seen in all of his incarnations such as varAha, et al.

This divine attribute of bhagavAn showing his supernatural beautiful form is supported by the scriptures thus:

“arjuna, I plow this earth by being a massive plough. Also, I am extremely dark in color. For all these reasons, I am called ‘krishNa’”

“Five elements together make up the divine body of bhagavAn. Although he is omnipotent, he does not give up his divine form due to his supreme nature of showing utmost compassion. The five elements making up his divine body are said to be ‘paramEshtI’ (परमॆष्ठी), ‘pumAn’ (पुमान्), ‘viSva:’ (विश्वः), ‘nivruththa:’ (निवृत्तः) and ‘sarva:’ (सर्वः).”

Furthermore, sage parASara says “Oh maithrEya! Know the divine body of bhagavAn in his various incarnations as the great fish, the great tortoise, the great wild boar, et al to be made of the same five supernatural elements (unlike our natural bodies), because our knowledge would be opposed to the scriptures otherwise”

Etymology: The one who possesses a supernatural form with an extremely pleasing dark-cloud like hue is called ‘krishNa:’.

अप्राकृतातिरुचिरमॆचकः कृष्ण ईरितः |

555) dhruda: (दृढः)

Even in the vyUha form, bhagavAn shines forth with the same beauty and splendor in order to grace his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘dhruda:’ – the manifest one.

This divine name comes from the root ‘dhruh’ (दृह्), which is used in this context to mean ‘manifest’. The grammarians have defined the meaning of ‘dhruda:’ to be ‘manifest’ or ‘strong’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s beautiful forms are manifest and powerful (even in the vyUha forms), he is called ‘dhruda:’.

स्थूलत्वात् बलवत्वाच्च दृढ इत्यभिदीयतॆ |

556) sankarshaNa: (सङ्कर्षणः)

Who is the one who is both manifest as well as powerful as shown in the previous divine name? he is ‘sankarshaNa’.

bhagavAn is called sankarshaNa: because he pulls all the sentient and insentient entities in this samsAra into himself at the time of destruction.

The mauLa samhitha justifies this name by showing that this act of drawing all entities into himself at the time of destruction is even (equal among all entities).

Etymology: He who draws all sentient and insentient entities equally into himself at deluge is called ‘samkarshaNa:’.

सङ्कर्षणः संसृतौ यः समं चिदचितौ कृषॆत् |

557) achyutha: (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 101, 320)

Even in his vyUha form, the scriptures hail the divine attribute of bhagavAn thus: “Oh bhagavAn! You do not falter from your high position like the lower dhEvas such as brahmA, indhra, varuNa et al – who are subject to the cycle of birth and death, and thus falter from their positions. Thus, you are called ‘achyutha’”.

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘achyutha:’ – the one who does not move from his position (or, the unshakeable one).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t falter from his position like brahmA and other dhEvas, he is called ‘achyutha:’.

ब्रह्मादिवन्न च्यवतॆ स्थानादित्यच्युतः स्मृतः |

558) varuNa: (वरुणः)

The vEdhas say “He, by whom all of the space, swarga lOka and the earth are pervaded…”

Thus, since everything is pervasively covered by bhagavAn, he is called ‘varuNa:’.

The root ‘vrunj’ (वृञ्) means to cover. It gets the ‘unan’ (उनन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who stands covering all the worlds is called ‘varuNa:’.

यः स्थितः सर्वमावृत्य वरुणः स तु कथ्यतॆ |

559) vAruNa: (वारुणः)

The word ‘varuNa’ also means the one who chooses bhagavAn as his master. Since bhagavAn resides in the minds of such people (varuNa), he is called ‘vAruNa:’.

In the bhagavath gIthA, bhagavAn himself declares thus: “I am equal to all entities, and there is no one whom I hate or love (without any rhyme or reason). They who sing my praise with all devotion shall reside in me, and I also shall reside in their minds firmly”

Etymology: The one who resides in the minds of people who accept him as their master is called ‘vAruNa:’.

स्वामित्वॆन वृणानॆषु स्थितॊ वारुण ईरितः |

560) vruksha: (वृक्षः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn stands as a big tree providing shelter to all of his dear devotees in all ways, thus giving them life. He provides shelter to all such devotees bearing all their thousands of misdeeds. Thus, he is called ‘vruksha:’ – the protector.

This divine name is also derived from the root ‘vrunj’ वृञ् (to cover) similar to ‘varuNa:’.

The scriptures support this attribute thus:

  • “For all the sages contemplating upon bhagavAn, that rAma is indeed their resting place. He is the tree that gives shelter to them in all their times of distress. He is their ultimate refuge.”
  • “He stands still like a tree – alone – in the supreme sky”
  • “Those who take shelter under the tree called ‘brahman’ – the supreme lord – shall surely beget unlimited ripe fruits”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘vruksha:’ since he is the refuge of all his dear devotees, and since he tolerates all of them and supports their lives.

साधूनामाश्रयत्वाच्च सर्वैनःसहनादपि |
सर्वॊपजीव्यः सर्वस्वॊ वृक्ष इत्यभिदीयतॆ ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 99 – thennulagam ERRuviththa

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thennulagam ERRuviththa thiNdiRalum maRRivaidhAn                                 147
unni ulavA ulagaRiya Urvan nAn
munni muLaiththezhundhu Ongi oLi parandha                                                  148
manniya pUm peNNai madal

Word by word meaning

then ulagam ERRuviththa – so as to reach yamalOkam (hell)
thin thiRalum – what  great strength
maRRu ivai thAn – various other activities which are similar to these
unni ulavA – they cannot be thought of completely.
ulagu aRiya – announcing such activities so that people of the world would know
nAn – I, parakAla nAyaki
munni – standing up front
muLaiththu ezhundhu Ongi oLi parandha manniya pU peNNai madal Urvan – I will engage with madal from beautiful, firm and splendorous palm leaf which has been taken from a well sprouted, high grown pam tree.

vyAkyAnam

thennulagam ERRuviththa – he let sUrppaNaka to live in this world; in the case of thAtakA, he sent her to the world of yama [hell] itself. How cruel!

thiN thiRalum – how to praise his valour that he shows towards helpless women?

maRRivaidhAn unni ulavA – it is not possible to complete the incidents that I have gathered of this emperumAn, just like one gathers wealth which will help during times of distress. It will suffer the same way that vEdham suffered when it tried to estimate the bliss of emperumAn and returned empty handed. Since he is likely to come scurrying and fall at my feet after I start revealing these, I consider them as my wealth during distress.

ulagu aRiya Urvan nAn – I will engage with madal such that all chEthanas (sentient beings) will come to know of them.

munni – Standing right up-front, saying “I am going to engage with madal”. The meaning implied is that it is not possible to wait for him [thirumangai AzhwAr] any more.

What sort of madal is this?

muLaiththu ezhundhu Ongi oLiparandha manniya pUm peNNai madal – I will engage with madal which has sprouted from earth, grown tall, remained resplendently, remained firm.

Urvan nAn madal – I have a great brahmASthra (very potent weapon) in my hand. What shortfall do I have now? This implies that there is no hurdle for my goal being reached. She is praising this [madal] because she feels that it will help her in uniting with emperumAn, just like viSwAmithra bhagavAn united sIthAppirAtti with perumAL [SrI rAma].

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 44

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தெள்ளியதா நம்பிள்ளை செப்பு நெறி தன்னை

வள்ளல் வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை – இந்த

நாடறிய மாறன் மறைப் பொருளை நன்குரைத்தது

ஈடு முப்பத்தாறாயிரம் 

நாற்பத்து நான்காம் பாசுரம். திருவாய்மொழிக்கு நம்பிள்ளை அருளிய உபந்யாஸங்களை வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை ஈடு முப்பத்தாறாயிரப்படி வ்யாக்யானமாக ஏடுபடுத்திய வைபவத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நஞ்ஜீயரின் சிஷ்யரான, தெளிந்த ஞானத்தை உடைய நம்பிள்ளை, நம்மாழ்வாராம் மாறன் தொடக்கமாக நம் பூர்வாசார்யர்கள் காட்டிய வேத/வேதாந்த மார்க்கத்தை விளக்க, அதை “இந்த உயர்ந்த அர்த்தங்கள் எல்லோருக்கும் சென்று அடைய வேண்டும்” என்ற வள்ளல் தன்மை கொண்ட வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை இந்த நாடே அறிந்து உஜ்ஜீவனம் அடையும்படி அருளிச்செய்த வ்யாக்யானம் ஈடு முப்பாத்தாறாயிரப்படி வ்யாக்யானம். ஈடு என்றால் பொருள் (விளக்கம்), கவசம், ஒப்புயர்வற்ற என்று பல அர்த்தங்கள். இது ஸ்ரீபாஷ்யத்துக்கு ஏற்பட்ட உரையான ச்ருத ப்ரகாசிகையின் அளவிலே இருக்கும். ச்ருத ப்ரகாசிகையின் காலம் இதற்கு பிற்பட்டதாய் இருந்தாலும், ஒப்புமை சொல்லலாம்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.9 – ugakku nallavarodum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, emperumAn mercifully asks “Would it be palatable to you if I interact with some others, in your presence?” parAnguSa nAyaki says “It is more pleasing for us if you unite with others and have your sorrows eliminated than uniting with us; hence, you should avoid going to tend the cows in the dangerous place”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

ugakku nallavarodum uzhi thandhu undhan thiruvuLLam idar kedundhORum nAngaL
viyakka inbuRudhum em peNmai ARROm emperumAn! pasu mEykkap pOgEl
migap pala asurargaL vENduruvam koNdu ninRu uzhi tharuvar kanjanEva
agappadil avarodum ninnodu AngE avaththangaL viLaiyum en soRkoL andhO!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ugakkum – to make you joyful
nallavarodum – with those who have goodness
uzhi thandhu – roaming around (in our presence)

(not having them)
undhan thiruvuLLam – in your divine heart
idar – sorrows
kedum thORum – to be eliminated and when you become pleased

(more than you and them)
nAngaL – we too
viyakka – very
inbuRudhum – will become joyful;

(the reason for that – when you get separated)
em peNmai – our femininity
ARROm – cannot tolerate;

(for that)
emperumAn – Oh our lord!
pasu mEykka – to tend the cows
pOgEl – don’t go;

(further)
kanjan Eva – sent by kamsa
pala asurargaL – many demoniac persons

(due to being able to assume forms which they desire)
vENdu – matching your desire
uruvam – forms
koNdu – assuming
miga – very much
ninRu uzhitharuvar – will roam around;
agappadil – when caught (by hand)
avarodu – between them
ninnodu – and you
AngE – there itself
avaththangaL – cruel battles
viLaiyum – will happen;

(instead of ignoring out your pride)
en sol – my word
koL – should accept
andhO – alas! How sad that he is not bothered to accept the words of those who are separating from him!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

When you roam around with those who have goodness and who bring joy in you, and when the sorrows in your divine heart are eliminated and you become pleased, we become very joyful. We cannot tolerate our femininity in your separation. Oh our lord! Don’t go to tend the cows. Many demons will assume different forms matching your desire and will very much roam around; cruel battles will happen there itself between them and you, when you meet them; you should accept my word. Alas! How sad that he is not bothered to accept the words of those who are separating from him!

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • ugakkum … – Roaming around in front of us, with those who are unlike us, having goodness which is dear to you.
  • undhan … – The sorrows which occur in your divine heart due to thinking “We have not united with them today itself”.
  • nAngaL … – viyappu indicates both amazement and abundance. We became abundantly joyful since we only seek your enjoyment unlike others. When asked “more than which joy?” [She says] even more than the joy of uniting with us; alternatively – when you unite with them, we derive more joy than the joy acquired by you.

When asked “Is your statement of becoming very joyful when I do this, apt?” she says,

  • em peNmai ARROm – We don’t need the femininity which is devoid of your joy. We are not of the type to desire you but disregard those who are dear to you; was it not mUkkaRaichchi (sUrppaNakA) who desired for you exclusively [disregarding pirAtti]?
  • emperumAn … – We are getting it in writing from you; can you not avoid going to tend the cows?

When asked “Am I going? And what if I went to tend the cows as part of my duty?” she says,

  • miga … – Very many demons assume many different forms as desired, and roam around actively. In SrI vrindhAvanam, even the plants are possessed with demons.
  • vENdu uruvam koNdu – The forms which you desire; alternatively, assuming forms which are apt to destroy you.
  • kanjan Eva – Since they come on kamsa’s instigation, they would fiercely attack “even if we lose to krishNa and escape from here, we will not be spared by kamsa”.

When asked “How does it matter on who sends or who comes? We will always remain victorious in the battles we enter”, she says,

  • agappadil – What if the unexpected happens? Is it not said that victory or loss is indeterminable in a battle?

When asked “What will happen?” she says,

  • avar … – Where they and you are present, there will be evil battles.

Even after saying this, he remained indifferent as if playing chess. She says,

  • en sol koL – Don’t be indifferent. Think about my words.
  • andhO – Even if you don’t understand us, should you not understand yourself?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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