Daily Archives: November 29, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.11 – paRRenRu paRRi

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “For those who learn this decad, krishNa’s divine feet are easily attainable”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


paRRenRu paRRip parama param paranai
mal thiN thOL mAlai vazhudhi vaLa nAdan
sol thodai andhAdhi Or AyiraththuL ippathuthum
kaRRArkku Or paRRAgum kaNNan kazhal iNaiyE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

parama param paranai – the lord of all who has none greater than him
mal – in wrestling battle
thiN – strong
thOL – having shoulder
mAlai – sarvESvaran who is the prApya (goal) and prApaka (means), since he is infatuated towards his devotees
paRRu enRu – determined as the good refuge for us
paRRi – surrendered
vazhudhi vaLa nAdan – nammAzhwAr, who is the controller of thiruvazhudhi nAdu (AzhwArthirunagari region)
sol – mercifully spoke
thodai – in the form of a garland of words
andhAdhi Or AyiraththuL – among the distinguished thousand pAsurams which are in the style of anthAdhi (ending word of one pAsuram relating to the beginning of next pAsuram)
ippaththum – this decad also
kaRRArkku – for those who learnt and practiced
kaNNAn – krishNa who is dhAmOdhara
kazhal – divine feet
iNai – pair
Or – distinguished
paRRAgum – result.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sarvESvaran is the prApya (goal) and prApaka (means), since he is infatuated towards his devotees, who is the lord of all who has none greater than him,  who is having strong shoulder in the wrestling battle; nammAzhwAr, who is the controller of thiruvazhudhi nAdu, determined that such emperumAn is the good refuge for us, and mercifully spoke about him in distinguished thousand pAsurams which are in the form of a garland of words and are in the style of anthAdhi; for those who learnt and practiced this decad among those thousand pAsurams, the distinguished pair of divine feet of krishNa who is dhAmOdhara are the distinguished result.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • paRRu enRu paRRip parama param paranai – Surrendering unto sarvESvaran considering him to be the goal and means.
  • mal thiN thOL mAlai – AthmA just needs to surrender unto him and have faith; there is no shortcoming in emperumAn for protection. AzhwAr is saying that emperumAn has the strength and love to eliminate the hurdles of such surrendered persons.
  • vazhudhi … – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 4.8 “pAtyE gEyE cha madhuram pramANais thribhiranvitham” (both words and music are sweet, in harmony with all three pramANams), those who learnt this decad among the thousand pAsurams which are strung in the form of a garland with beautiful words.
  • kaNNan kazhal iNai – Or paRRu Agum – As said in “dhAmOdharan thALgaL – thava neRikku – oru sArvE” (the divine feet of dhAmOdhara, are the result for bhakthi yOgam), divine feet of krishNa themselves will be the result, so that one need not seek anything else to hold on to.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 67 (Names 661 to 670)

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661) kruthAgama: (कृतागमः) (also repeated in 795)

Thence, the ‘SakthISa’ incarnation of bhagavAn is hailed with the next set of divine names.

bhagavAn clearly shows himself – who is hidden in the various vEdha manthras and Agama – unto his pure hearted devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’.

Etymology: Thence, the SakthISa avathAram is hailed. Since he is deeply hidden within the mantras, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’. he is mainly called ‘kruthAgama:’ since he shows himself (unto the pure hearted souls) from such manthras.

अथ शक्त्यवतारॊsत्र मन्त्रात्मा स्यात् कृतागमः |
मन्त्रविद्या व्यञ्जकत्वात् कृतागम इतीरितः ||

662) anirdhESyavapu: (अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः) (also repeated in 179)

bhagavAn’s divine forms can never be comprehended by anyone in their entirety. He takes on a variety of divine forms following the nature of each yuga. Thus, he is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ – the one with incomprehensible forms.

The scriptures hail thus: “bhagavAn possesses divine effulgent forms abiding to the nature of every yuga”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ since he possesses divine forms following the nature of every yuga.

युगानुसारिरूपत्वात् अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः स्मृतः |

663) vishNu: (विष्णुः) (also repeated in 2, 259)

Thus, bhagavAn pervades the entire world with his powers of pervasiveness and controlling every entity. Thus, he is called ‘vishNu:’.

The manthra varnas hail bhagavAn as “the one who is omnipotent”

It is said thus in Adhithya purANa “Since all of these worlds are pervaded by the power of bhagavAn, he is called ‘vishNu:’. The root ‘vish’ means to enter”

In the udhyOga parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, it is said thus: “The lord of all worlds is called ‘vishNu:’ since he pervaded all worlds with his feet”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn pervades all worlds with his power (to control every entity), he is called ‘vishNu:’.

स्वशक्त्या सर्वजगतॊ व्याप्तॆः विष्णुरिति स्मृतः |

664) vIra: (वीरः) (also repeated in 402)

bhagavAn slays the offenders of his dear devotees without any delay, using his mace and discus (gadhA and chakram) – which are ever awaiting their master’s order to eradicate such offenders. Thus, he is called ‘vIra:’ – the valiant one.

Etymology: He is called ‘vIra:’, who slays those who offend his dear devotees without any delay.

वीरः स्यात् साधुसन्तापकारिणॊsजति हन्ति यत् |

665) anantha: (अनन्तः)

There is no boundary for bhagavAn in terms of either space or time or objects (which he pervades). Thus, he is called ‘anantha:’ – the endless.

The manthra varNa hails bhagavAn as ‘the one who possesses an endless form’.

The various scriptures hail thus in this regard:

  • “Oh arjuna, there is no end to my dimensions”
  • “That is the supreme brahman, which has no end”
  • “The supreme brahaman is eternal, omniscient and not limited by anything”

This means that bhagavAn is ever present at all places and in all possible ways.

Further, the lack of such differentiating capacity (to say bhagavAn is present in one object and absent in another) doesn’t imply that bhagavAn is not different from such objects (meaning, it doesn’t prove oneness of all objects with bhagavAn). Rather, it only means that he is totally independent of such objects, but isn’t limited by such references and is all pervasive (he is referenced with every entity present in this creation). Similarly, the same is applicable even in case of space and time. Such an exposition (trying to impose ‘oneness’ using this divine name) is not pleasing.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t have any bounds in terms of space, time, qualities or objects, he is called ‘anantha:’.

दॆशतः कालतॊ वाsपि गुण्तॊ वस्तुतॊsपि वा |
अवधिस्त्वस्य नास्तीति सॊsनन्तः समुदाहृतः ||

666) dhananjaya: (धनञ्जयः)

Not stopping at being unbounded himself, bhagavAn also bestows unbounded wealth upon his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘dhananjaya:’ – the victor of wealth.

Which is that unbounded wealth that he bestows upon his devotees? It is none other than himself! bhagavAn puts down material wealth such as gold, gems, etc by showing the intense need for the desire to earn that wealth, the path treaded in the pursuit of such wealth, greed in retaining the wealth, efforts to hide such wealth from robbers, making a living with such wealth, etc. as the primary eligibility (NOTE: bhattar intends to show that there is so much of ‘eligibility’ needed to earn material wealth; whereas bhagavAn is naturally related to each one of us, and hence doesn’t expect such high ‘eligibilities’).

Since bhagavAn wins over such lowly wealth, he is called ‘dhananjaya:’.

The root ‘ji’ जि (to win over) gets the ‘khach’ (खच्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘jaya:’ (जयः).

Etymology: By increasing the eligibilities to earn material wealth – such as intense desire, the deed of earning, greed in growing the wealth etc, bhagavAn wins over the lowly material wealth comprising of gems, pearls, precious stones, gold, etc (and makes himself available to his devotees as the highest unbounded wealth with no need for such ‘eligibilities’). Thus he is called ‘dhananjaya:’.

प्रॆप्सॊपार्जनलॊभादि यॊग्यत्वादिक्यतस्ततः |
मणिमौक्तिकरत्नादि हॆमरूप्यादिकं धनम् |
जयत्यधः करॊतीति धनञ्जय इतीरितः ||

ब्रह्मण्यॊ ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविवर्धनः ।
ब्रह्मविद्ब्राह्मणॊ ब्रह्मी ब्रह्मज्ञॊ ब्राह्मणप्रियः ॥ ७१ ॥

667) brahmaNya: (ब्रह्मण्यः)

In this context, the word ‘brahma’ is used to mean something of a great magnitude. Since every individual soul or sentient entity (chith – चित्) is great due to its ability to enjoy the unbounded bliss in the mOksha bhUmi – which is attained by them according to their realization and actions, such individual soul itself is referred to as ‘brahma’. This is as shown in the various scriptures thus:

  • “That individual soul – who is verily of the form of knowledge – is called by the name ‘brahma’”
  • “Such an individual soul – who is called by the name ‘brahma’ – is blemishless”, etc.

Even the insentient entity called ‘achith’ (अचित्), which is the object of enjoyment in this world for every individual soul, and which is inexplicable, is great due to its ability to transform into infinite forms of enjoyment to various souls. Thus, such insentient material is also called ‘brahma’. This is also shown in the scriptures thus: “My creation is this great prakruthi, called ‘brahma’”, etc.

bhagavAn safeguards such sentient and insentient entities by looking after their existence, enjoyments, and all such states of those entities. Thus, he is called ‘brahmaNya:’.

Etymology: The sentient jIvathma and insentient prakruthi are both referenced by the name ‘brahma’. He who is responsible for their existence, enjoyments etc in all of their states is called ‘brahmaNya:’. This seven lettered manthra confers wealth upon the chanters.

जीवात्मा प्रकृतिश्चापि ब्रह्मॆति व्यपदिश्यतॆ |
ताभ्यां यः स्थितिभॊगादॆः सर्वावस्थासु कारणम् |
ब्रह्मण्यः स च विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ भॊगदायकः ||

668) brahmakrudh-brahmA (ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा)

Not just stopping at nature or prakruthi, even the derivatives of that prakruthi – such as mahAn, ahankAra, etc – are also called ‘brahma’ due to their vast expanse in this creation. The vEdhas have clearly shown this by saying “thus, this ‘brahma’ gets various names and forms, and transforms into pleasure objects”, etc.

The ordinary creator of all such objects is the four faced brahmA. Such a four faced brahmA is also controlled by bhagavAn. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘brahmakrudhbrahmA’.

Etymology: The derivatives of prakruthi – namely mahAn, ahankAra, etc – are also called by the name ‘brahma’. The common creator of such objects in this creation (creator of individual objects – called vyashti srushti) is the four faced brahmA. He – by whom that four faced brahmA is controlled at all times – is called ‘brahmakrudhbrahmA’. This nine syllable manthra is capable of bestowing all powers upon the chanter.

महदादि तमःकार्यं ब्रह्मॆति ह्यभिदीयतॆ |
तस्य कर्ता स्वयं ब्रह्मा नियाम्यॊ यस्य सर्वदा |
स तु स्यात् ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा नवार्णः सर्वशक्तिदः ||

669) brahma (ब्रह्म)

In this way, bhagavAn makes the manifest and subtle individual souls (with and without names and forms respectively) seen during the common and specific creations bigger with his infinite auspicious divine qualities. Also, he shows himself as a big entity with his unbounded nature and divine qualities. Since he shows his absolute supremacy over all other entities thus, and since he is hailed by the vEdhAnthas as the greatest entity without any prejudice, he is called ‘brahma’.

The etymologists have shown the meaning of this divine name as “the one who is himself great and also makes the other entities (depending on him) great”.

Etymology: bhagavAn always makes the individual souls in both the manifest and subtle forms during the common and specific creations great by showing them his divine forms, nature, auspicious qualities and the infinite wealth. Hence he is called ‘brahma’. This six syllable manthra confers progeny upon the chanters.

व्यक्ताव्यक्त-समष्ट्यादि पुरुषांचैव नित्यशः |
रूपैः स्वरूपॆण गुणैः विभवैश्च स्वयं सदा |
बृंहतीति च तद्ब्रह्म षडर्णः सन्ततिप्रदः ||

670) brahmavivardhana: (ब्रह्मविवर्धनः)

The characteristic of all such individual souls namely ‘dharma’ or righteousness, which is characterized by thapas or contemplation, is also called ‘brahma’.

This is shown in the vEdhic statement that says “thapas is called brahma”.

bhagavAn increases such ‘thapas’ and thereby the resulting ‘dharma’ amongst his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘brahmavivardhana:’ – the increaser of ‘brahma’ (thapas).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn always increases thapas amongst his devotees, he is called ‘brahmavivardhana:’.

तपॊविवर्धनान्नित्यं स्मृतॊ ब्रह्मविवर्धनः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 59

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உன்தமக்கு எவ்வின்பம் உளதாம் 

ஐம்பத்தொன்பதாம் பாசுரம். ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தில் தனக்கு உள்ள ஆதரத்தை தன்னுடன் ஒத்த புகழுடைய ஆசார்யர்களுடன் பகிர்ந்து மகிழ்கிறார்.

ஆசார்யர்களே! ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தின் உயர்ந்த அர்த்தங்களை நெஞ்சாலே அனுபவித்தாலும் வாக்காலே பேசினாலும், எனக்கு இது எல்லையில்லாத ஆனந்தத்தை அளிக்கிறது. உங்களுக்கு எப்படிப்பட்ட ஆனந்தம் ஏற்படுகிறது? ஆழ்வார்கள் எம்பெருமானை ஆராவமுதமாக அனுபவித்தார்கள். ஆசார்யர்கள் ஆழ்வார்களையும் அருளிச்செயல்களையும் ஆராவமுதமாக அனுபவித்தார்கள். மாமுனிகளோ ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தையே ஆராவமுதமாக அனுபவிக்கிறார்.

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