Daily Archives: November 2, 2019

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 46 (Names 451 to 460)

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451) sathAmgathi: (सतांगतिः) (also repeated in 186)

Till the previous divine name, bhagavAn was shown to be the destination of all people who are engaged in action (pravruththi dharma). Thence, bhagavAn being the destination of all people who take to inaction (nivruththi dharma) is expounded.

Since bhagavAn is verily the goal of attainment for those who take to the path of inaction (absolute surrender, etc), he is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.

The vishNu purANa says thus: “Oh learned man! For all the detached souls who have controlled their senses and are free from blemishes, that divine abode of vishNu (SrIvaikuNtam) is itself the destination where they reach after having lost all their puNya and pApa karmas”.

Etymology: He who is the destination of all people who take to the path of inaction (nivruththi dharma) is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.

निवृत्तिधर्मनिष्ठानां गतिर्यः स सतांगतिः |

452) sarvadharSI (सर्वदर्शी)

As explained till now, since bhagavAn displays the greatness of overseeing the practice of both of these dharmas – pravruththi (action) and nivruththi (inaction) – equally, he is called ‘sarvadharshI’.

The root ‘dhruS’ दृश् (to see) gets the ‘Nini’ (णिनि) adjunct per grammatical rule, resulting in the word ‘darSI’ (दर्शी). This shows that the said trait is natural to bhagavAn.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn possesses the great nature of overseeing the practice of both dharma (actions done with detachment) and adharma (actions done with attachment) (in other words, the paths of nivruththi or inaction and pravruththi or action respectively) with the same regard, he is called ‘sarvadharSI’.

धर्माधर्मौ च तौ सर्वावध्यक्षयितुमादरात् |
सर्वदा शीलमस्यॆति सर्वदर्शी ततः स्मृतः ||

453) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also repeated in 231, 604, and 780)

Of the two paths (pravruththi and nivruththi), bhagavAn incarnated as nara, nArAyaNa and in other forms to preach the nivruththi dharma. Only in order to preach complete renunciation from material desires and to completely pull back the minds of people from such mundane desires did bhagavAn incarnate in such forms.

The dhyAna SlOka of bhagavAn as nara-nArAyaNa says thus: “…the one who has turned his focus completely inward”

The manthras hail thus: “…to that AchArya who is ever contemplating on the inner self”, “…he whose mind is completely rested in the lotus of the heart”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn incarnated as nara and nArAyaNa to preach the nivruththi dharma, and is hence completely renounced from mundane desires, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

निवृत्तिधर्माचार्यत्वात् विषयॆभ्यॊ निवृत्तिमत् |
मनॊ यस्य निवृत्तात्मा नरनारायणात्मकः ||

454) sarvagya: (सर्वज्ञः) (also repeated in 821)

Also, since bhagavAn knows about his own absolute supremacy in entirety, he is called ‘sarvagya:’.

This is as shown in the scriptural statement thus: “…him, who is ever absorbed in his own self in the indestructible supreme abode”

Etymology: He who knows in entirety about his own self is called ‘sarvagya:’.

सर्वात्मना स्वमात्मानं यश्च जानाति कॆवलम् |
सर्वज्ञः स तु विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ ज्ञानदॊ मनुः ||

455) gynAnamuththamam (ज्ञानमुत्तमम्)

Every individual soul begets the highest knowledge of vaishNava dharma from bhagavAn through the pAncharAthra Agama. Thus, bhagavAn is himself called ‘gynAnamuththamam’ – the source of highest knowledge.

The scriptures say thus: “…unto him, who keeps reading the scripture of pAncharAthra…”

Etymology: Since the highest knowledge of vaishNava dharma – which is the source of prosperity for every individual being – is obtained from bhagavAn, he (being the very object and source of such knowledge) is called gynAnamuththamam’.

परश्च वैष्णवॊ धर्मः सर्वॊsस्मिन् ज्ञायतॆ यतः |
सर्वॆषां श्रॆयसां मूलं तत् ज्ञॆयं ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ||

===============================
सुव्रतः सुमुखः सूक्ष्मः सुघॊषः सुखदः सुहृत् ।
मनॊहरॊ जितक्रॊधॊ वीरबाहुर्विदारणः ॥ ४९ ॥
===============================

456) suvratha: (सुव्रतः) (also repeated in 824)

As bhagavAn himself has declared in bhagavath gIthA, he does not have the obligation to do any work for his own benefit. Instead, whatever he does is purely for the benefit of others. Thus, bhagavAn possesses a very auspicious ordinance for himself – of helping other entities by all means. Hence, he is called ‘suvratha:’.

Etymology: The one who has taken up the most auspicious ordinance of acting for the sake of devotees is called ‘suvratha:’.

भक्तार्थं व्रतवान् यॊsसौ सुव्रतः स प्रकीर्तितः |

457) sumukha: (सुमुखः)

The next seven names are explained in two contexts – one generic, expounding the divine nature of bhagavAn, and one specific to the context of churning of milky ocean.

The first in the series is this divine name – sumukha:.

In one sense, since bhagavAn holds a pleasing face untouched by undulations towards the devotees who meditate upon him, he is called ‘sumukha:’ – the one with a beautiful face.

The scriptures say thus: “…meditating upon the beautiful form of pranava, visualizing the object of the manthra in the mind…”

The manthra varNa describing bhagavAn says thus: “…unto krishNa, who possesses pristine lotus-like eyes…”

In another sense, bhagavAn showed a beautiful face glowing like the moon, filled with nectar of bliss, and held a nectar pot in his hands during the churning of milky ocean (in the form of ‘mOhini’). Hence, he is called ‘sumukha:’.

Etymology: He, whose divine face is most charming (without any undulations) for all those who meditate upon him, is called ‘sumukha:’.

Alternately, he – whose face is filled with the nectar of bliss and glowing like the moon, and who holds a nectar pot in his hands – is called ‘sumukha:’.

ध्यातॄणां सुप्रसन्नं यन्मुखं स सुमुखः स्मृतः |

(अथवा)

आनन्दामृतसम्पूर्ण-वदनॆनॆन्दुकान्तिना |
कलशाकृतिरूपॆण करस्थॆन विराजितम् || इति सुमुखः |

458) sUkshma: (सूक्ष्मः)

bhagavAn possesses a very subtle form that can be envisioned only in deep state of meditation (called samAdhi), when there are absolutely no hindrances. Hence, he is called ‘sUkshma:’.

The root ‘sUch’ सूच् (to penetrate) gets the ‘sman’ (स्मन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Alternately, bhagavAn’s intentions could not be deciphered by the asuras during the churning of milky ocean. Hence also he is called ‘sUkshma:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sUkshma:’ owing to his subtle form which can be envisioned only by deep meditation and not otherwise. Alternately, he is called ‘sUkshma:’, whose intentions were not known to the asuras (at the time of churning the milky ocean).

सूक्ष्मॊ दुस्साध्य यॊगैकलक्ष्य-सूक्ष्मस्वरूपतः |
असुरॆष्वथवा गूढाभिप्रायः सूक्ष्म उच्यतॆ ||

459) sughOsha: (सुघॊषः)

bhagavAn is highly praised by the divine words of upanishaths. Hence, he is called ‘sughOsha:’.

Alternately, since bhagavAn was hailed greatly by dhEvas and asuras alike while churning the milky ocean, he is called ‘sughOsha:’.

Etymology: The one who is hailed by the words of upanishaths is called ‘sughOsha:’. Alternately, since bhagavAn was hailed by the dhEvas and asuras while churning the milky ocean, he is called ‘sughOsha:’.

स्वाध्यायघॊषॊ यस्यास्ति सुघॊषः स तु कीर्तितः |

(अथवा)

सुरासुरादि-घुष्यमाण-मथनाद्भुतत्वात् सुघॊषः |

460) sukhadha: (सुखदः) (also repeated in 890)

As explained till now, bhagavAn makes the individual souls follow the noble path and meditate upon him, and then bestows ultimate happiness upon such devotees. Thus, he is called ‘sukhadha:’.

Alternately, bhagavAn bestowed happiness upon dhEvas by distributing nectar to them. Thus also he is called ‘sukhadha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn preaches the practice of samAdhi (deep meditation upon himself), and bestows unlimited happiness upon the souls who stick to such practices, bhagavAn is called ‘sukhadha:’.

Alternately, since he bestows happiness unto dhEvas by fetching them their desired nectar, he is called ‘sukhadha:’.

समाध्यनुष्ठापनॆन तदनुष्ठानशालिनाम् |
सुखं बहु ददातीति सुखदः परिकीर्तितः ||

(अथवा)

अमृतादानादिना सुरॆभ्यः सुखं ददातीति सुखदः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 88 – annavanai AdhanUr

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annavanai AdhanaUr ANdaLakkum aiyanai
nennalai inRinai nALaiyai nIrmalai mEl                                                                   130
mannum maRai nAngum AnAnaip pullANith
thennan thamizhai vadamozhiyai nAngUril                                                            131

Word by word meaning

annavanai – one who cannot be defined that he is like this
AdhanUr – at thiruvAdhanUr
ANdu aLakkum aiyanai – one who controls passing of time
nennalai inRinai nALaiyai – one who is the controller of yesterday, today and tomorrow
nIrmalai mEl mannum – one who has taken residence at thirunIrmalai
maRai nAngum AnAnai – having the form of four vEdhas
pullANi – one who has taken residence at thiruppullANi
thennan thamizhai vadamozhiyai – one who is described by both thamizh and samaskrutha languages
nAngUr – at thirunAngUr

vyAkyAnam

annavanai AdhanUr ANdaLakkum aiyanai – one whose beauty cannot be described in words and who is the lord for determining kAlam (time) which is measured in terms of years.

ANdu aLakkum – time will bring to order all the entities which are prAkrutham (natural; perishable) while emperumAn brings to order such time itself. SrI vishNu purANam 5-20-54 says “kAlam sa pachathE” (he cooks time; he controls time).

AzhwAr states next as to how he controls time.

nennalai inRinai nALaiyai – he controls time by dividing into parts, viz.  yesterday, today and tomorrow.nammAzhwAr says in his thiruvAimozhi 3-1-5varungAlam nigazhgAlam kazhigAlamAy ulagai orungAga aLippAy” (Oh one who protects the world in a focussed way by controlling future, present and past times!) and in thiruvAimozhi 3-8-9senRu sellAdhana munnilAm kAlamE” (Oh one who is the controller of past, future and present times!).

nIrmalai mEl mannum maRai nAngum AnAnai – one who has taken residence atop thirunIrmalai, and who is spoken of by the everlasting, faultless vEdhas. kaNNan (krishNa) says in bhagavath gIthA 15-15vEdhaiScha sarvairahamEva vEdhya:” (I am the only one who is known through all the vEdhas).

pullANith thennan thamizhai – one who is sung about by thamizh vEdham in thiruppullANi, which is in the kingdom of pANdiyas, as in periya thirumozhi 9-4-1 “kAvAr madalpeNNai” (palm trees with their palm leaves seen densely inside the orchards) and as in periya thirumozhi 9-3-1 “thannai naivikkilEn” (I am unable to put an end to myself).

thennan thamizhai – alternative meaning: one who is sung through agaththiyar’s thamizh [agaththiyar (agasthya) is the patron sage for thamizh language].

vadamozhiyai – one who is spoken of by the SAsthras in languages of the north [of vindhiya mountains] such as SrI rAmAyaNa etc. Isn’t SrI rAma residing at thiruppullANi!

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 32

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மன்னு திருமழிசை மாடத் திருகுருகூர்

மின்னு புகழ் வில்லிபுத்தூர் மேதினியில் நன்னெறியோர்

ஏய்ந்த பத்திசாரர் எழில் மாறன் பட்டர் பிரான்

வாய்ந்துதித்த ஊர்கள் வகை 

முப்பத்திரண்டாம் பாசுரம். திருமழிசை ஆழ்வார் நம்மாழ்வார் மற்றும் பெரியாழ்வாரின் அவதார ஸ்தலங்களை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

இந்த உலகத்தில் ஆசார்யனின் கருணையையே நோக்கி இருப்பது என்கிற நல்ல நெறியில் இருப்பவர்கள் தொழும் ஸ்ரீபக்திஸாரர் எனப்படும் திருமழிசை ஆழ்வார், அழகு பொருந்திய மாறன் எனப்படும் நம்மாழ்வார், பட்டர்பிரான் எனப்படும் பெரியாழ்வார் ஆகியோர் அவதரித்த ஸ்தலங்கள் முறையே ஸ்ரீ ஜகந்நாதன் எம்பெருமான் பொருந்தி இருக்கும் மஹீஸார க்ஷேத்ரம் எனப்படும் திருமழிசை, மாட மாளிகைகள் சூழ்ந்த ஆழ்வார்திருநகரி எனப்படும் திருக்குருகூர் மற்றும் ப்ரகாசமான புகழை உடைய ஸ்ரீவில்லிபுத்தூர் ஆகியவை.

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 31

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தொண்டரடிப்பொடியார் தோன்றிய ஊர் தொல் புகழ் சேர்

மண்டங்குடி என்பர் மண்ணுலகில் எண்டிசையும்

ஏத்தும் குலசேகரன் ஊர் என உரைப்பர்

வாய்த்த திருவஞ்சிக்களம் 

முப்பத்தொன்றாம் பாசுரம். தொண்டரடிப்பொடி ஆழ்வார் மற்றும் குலசேகராழ்வாரின் அவதார ஸ்தலங்களை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

இந்த பூமியிலே, தொண்டரடிப்பொடி ஆழ்வாரின் அவதார ஸ்தலம் திருப்புள்ளம் பூதங்குடி என்னும் திவ்ய தேசத்துக்கு அருகில் உள்ள தொன்மையான புகழைப் பெற்ற திருமண்டங்குடி என்னும் ஸ்தலம் என்று பெரியோர்கள் சொல்லுவர். எட்டுத் திக்குகளிலும் இருப்பவர்கள் கொண்டாடும் முடிவேந்தர் சிகாமணியான குலசேகராழ்வாரின் அவதார ஸ்தலம் அவர் பெருமைக்கு ஏற்ற திருவஞ்சிக்களம் என்னும் ஸ்தலம் என்று பெரியோர்கள் சொல்லுவர்.

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periya thirumadal – 87 – unniya yOgaththu

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unniya yOgaththuRakkaththai UragaththuL
annavanai attabuyagaraththu emmAnERRai                                     128
ennai manam kavarndha Isanai vAnavar tham
munnavanai mUzhikkaLaththu viLakkinai                                          129

Word by word meaning

unniya yOgaththu uRakkaththai – one who is sleeping in yOga [body and mind joined together] while being fully aware
UragaththuL annavanai – being very distinguished in thiruvUragam [a divine abode in kAnchIpuram]
atta buya karaththu emmAn ERRai – being our lord at [the divine abode] attabuyakaram
ennai manam kavarndha Isanai – the entity complete [in all aspects] who stole my heart
vAnavar tham munnavanai – being the leader of celestial entities
mUzhikkaLaththu viLakkinai – one who is shining at thirumUzhikkaLam [a divine abode in kEraLa]

vyAkyAnam

vehkAvil unniya yOgaththuRakkaththai – one who is asleep and awake at thiruvehkA – in other words when thirumazhisaippirAn told him “painnAgappAy suruttikkoL ”(roll your mattress of AdhiSEshan), he rolled up his mattress and when the same AzhwAr later told him “painnAgappAy viriththukkoL” (spread out your mattress of AdhiSEshan) he spread out his mattress. The implied meaning is that he behaves as desired by his devotees.

unniya yOgaththu uRakkaththai – Alternative interpretation is that he is one who is reclining  [being awake and asleep], thinking about the protection of his devotees.

UragaththuL annavanai – taking the form of one who is measuring the worlds, he has taken residence at thiruvUragam with a huge form which even AzhwAr, with his ability to envision events which would take place later, could not see (him) fully. He could not be seen completely and hence AzhwAr could only say “like him”.

attabuyakaraththu emmAn ERRai – one who came when his follower gajEndhra AzhwAn called out to him in distress, to protect him, transforming himself with his dress in disarray and hair dishevelled, manifesting the form with which he showered mercy on gajEndhran, and standing with his esteem in full display.

ennai manam kavarndha Isanai – one who stole every belonging of mine and who thinks that he has attained completeness because of that.

vAnavar tham munnavanai – one who cannot be enjoyed fully even by nithyasUris who do not have any shortcoming in their knowledge. When vEdham (sacred text) started expounding his qualilties at every stage, just as it is mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli “SrOthriyasya chAkA mahathasya” while describing his quality of bliss, it compared gradually with the bliss of nithyas and mukthas, taking it all the way to the bliss of supreme entity and roared very clearly “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE” (from which supreme being, the words return), saying that it cannot describe the bliss of supreme being. purusha sUktham too said “pUrvO yO dhEvEbhya:” (one who is earlier than nithyasUris).

mUzhikkaLaththu viLakkinai – one who is more resplendent than ever earlier, after incarnating at thirumUzhikkaLam. vEdham said “SrEyAn bhavathi jAyamAna:” (one who attains greatness after incarnating). thiruvAimozhi, the thamizh vEdham, said in 1-3-2palapiRappAy oLivarum muzhu nalam” (as he keeps taking incarnation after incarnation his radiance keeps increasing as do his auspicious qualities). If the text were mUzhikkaLaththu vaLaththinai, the meaning would be that he is the opulence of thirumUzhikkaLam.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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