SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
451) sathAmgathi: (सतांगतिः) (also repeated in 186)
Till the previous divine name, bhagavAn was shown to be the destination of all people who are engaged in action (pravruththi dharma). Thence, bhagavAn being the destination of all people who take to inaction (nivruththi dharma) is expounded.
Since bhagavAn is verily the goal of attainment for those who take to the path of inaction (absolute surrender, etc), he is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.
The vishNu purANa says thus: “Oh learned man! For all the detached souls who have controlled their senses and are free from blemishes, that divine abode of vishNu (SrIvaikuNtam) is itself the destination where they reach after having lost all their puNya and pApa karmas”.
Etymology: He who is the destination of all people who take to the path of inaction (nivruththi dharma) is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.
निवृत्तिधर्मनिष्ठानां गतिर्यः स सतांगतिः |
452) sarvadharSI (सर्वदर्शी)
As explained till now, since bhagavAn displays the greatness of overseeing the practice of both of these dharmas – pravruththi (action) and nivruththi (inaction) – equally, he is called ‘sarvadharshI’.
The root ‘dhruS’ दृश् (to see) gets the ‘Nini’ (णिनि) adjunct per grammatical rule, resulting in the word ‘darSI’ (दर्शी). This shows that the said trait is natural to bhagavAn.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn possesses the great nature of overseeing the practice of both dharma (actions done with detachment) and adharma (actions done with attachment) (in other words, the paths of nivruththi or inaction and pravruththi or action respectively) with the same regard, he is called ‘sarvadharSI’.
धर्माधर्मौ च तौ सर्वावध्यक्षयितुमादरात् |
सर्वदा शीलमस्यॆति सर्वदर्शी ततः स्मृतः ||
453) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also repeated in 231, 604, and 780)
Of the two paths (pravruththi and nivruththi), bhagavAn incarnated as nara, nArAyaNa and in other forms to preach the nivruththi dharma. Only in order to preach complete renunciation from material desires and to completely pull back the minds of people from such mundane desires did bhagavAn incarnate in such forms.
The dhyAna SlOka of bhagavAn as nara-nArAyaNa says thus: “…the one who has turned his focus completely inward”
The manthras hail thus: “…to that AchArya who is ever contemplating on the inner self”, “…he whose mind is completely rested in the lotus of the heart”, etc.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn incarnated as nara and nArAyaNa to preach the nivruththi dharma, and is hence completely renounced from mundane desires, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.
निवृत्तिधर्माचार्यत्वात् विषयॆभ्यॊ निवृत्तिमत् |
मनॊ यस्य निवृत्तात्मा नरनारायणात्मकः ||
454) sarvagya: (सर्वज्ञः) (also repeated in 821)
Also, since bhagavAn knows about his own absolute supremacy in entirety, he is called ‘sarvagya:’.
This is as shown in the scriptural statement thus: “…him, who is ever absorbed in his own self in the indestructible supreme abode”
Etymology: He who knows in entirety about his own self is called ‘sarvagya:’.
सर्वात्मना स्वमात्मानं यश्च जानाति कॆवलम् |
सर्वज्ञः स तु विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ ज्ञानदॊ मनुः ||
455) gynAnamuththamam (ज्ञानमुत्तमम्)
Every individual soul begets the highest knowledge of vaishNava dharma from bhagavAn through the pAncharAthra Agama. Thus, bhagavAn is himself called ‘gynAnamuththamam’ – the source of highest knowledge.
The scriptures say thus: “…unto him, who keeps reading the scripture of pAncharAthra…”
Etymology: Since the highest knowledge of vaishNava dharma – which is the source of prosperity for every individual being – is obtained from bhagavAn, he (being the very object and source of such knowledge) is called gynAnamuththamam’.
परश्च वैष्णवॊ धर्मः सर्वॊsस्मिन् ज्ञायतॆ यतः |
सर्वॆषां श्रॆयसां मूलं तत् ज्ञॆयं ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ||
सुव्रतः सुमुखः सूक्ष्मः सुघॊषः सुखदः सुहृत् ।
मनॊहरॊ जितक्रॊधॊ वीरबाहुर्विदारणः ॥ ४९ ॥
456) suvratha: (सुव्रतः) (also repeated in 824)
As bhagavAn himself has declared in bhagavath gIthA, he does not have the obligation to do any work for his own benefit. Instead, whatever he does is purely for the benefit of others. Thus, bhagavAn possesses a very auspicious ordinance for himself – of helping other entities by all means. Hence, he is called ‘suvratha:’.
Etymology: The one who has taken up the most auspicious ordinance of acting for the sake of devotees is called ‘suvratha:’.
भक्तार्थं व्रतवान् यॊsसौ सुव्रतः स प्रकीर्तितः |
457) sumukha: (सुमुखः)
The next seven names are explained in two contexts – one generic, expounding the divine nature of bhagavAn, and one specific to the context of churning of milky ocean.
The first in the series is this divine name – sumukha:.
In one sense, since bhagavAn holds a pleasing face untouched by undulations towards the devotees who meditate upon him, he is called ‘sumukha:’ – the one with a beautiful face.
The scriptures say thus: “…meditating upon the beautiful form of pranava, visualizing the object of the manthra in the mind…”
The manthra varNa describing bhagavAn says thus: “…unto krishNa, who possesses pristine lotus-like eyes…”
In another sense, bhagavAn showed a beautiful face glowing like the moon, filled with nectar of bliss, and held a nectar pot in his hands during the churning of milky ocean (in the form of ‘mOhini’). Hence, he is called ‘sumukha:’.
Etymology: He, whose divine face is most charming (without any undulations) for all those who meditate upon him, is called ‘sumukha:’.
Alternately, he – whose face is filled with the nectar of bliss and glowing like the moon, and who holds a nectar pot in his hands – is called ‘sumukha:’.
ध्यातॄणां सुप्रसन्नं यन्मुखं स सुमुखः स्मृतः |
कलशाकृतिरूपॆण करस्थॆन विराजितम् || इति सुमुखः |
458) sUkshma: (सूक्ष्मः)
bhagavAn possesses a very subtle form that can be envisioned only in deep state of meditation (called samAdhi), when there are absolutely no hindrances. Hence, he is called ‘sUkshma:’.
The root ‘sUch’ सूच् (to penetrate) gets the ‘sman’ (स्मन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.
Alternately, bhagavAn’s intentions could not be deciphered by the asuras during the churning of milky ocean. Hence also he is called ‘sUkshma:’.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sUkshma:’ owing to his subtle form which can be envisioned only by deep meditation and not otherwise. Alternately, he is called ‘sUkshma:’, whose intentions were not known to the asuras (at the time of churning the milky ocean).
सूक्ष्मॊ दुस्साध्य यॊगैकलक्ष्य-सूक्ष्मस्वरूपतः |
असुरॆष्वथवा गूढाभिप्रायः सूक्ष्म उच्यतॆ ||
459) sughOsha: (सुघॊषः)
bhagavAn is highly praised by the divine words of upanishaths. Hence, he is called ‘sughOsha:’.
Alternately, since bhagavAn was hailed greatly by dhEvas and asuras alike while churning the milky ocean, he is called ‘sughOsha:’.
Etymology: The one who is hailed by the words of upanishaths is called ‘sughOsha:’. Alternately, since bhagavAn was hailed by the dhEvas and asuras while churning the milky ocean, he is called ‘sughOsha:’.
स्वाध्यायघॊषॊ यस्यास्ति सुघॊषः स तु कीर्तितः |
सुरासुरादि-घुष्यमाण-मथनाद्भुतत्वात् सुघॊषः |
460) sukhadha: (सुखदः) (also repeated in 890)
As explained till now, bhagavAn makes the individual souls follow the noble path and meditate upon him, and then bestows ultimate happiness upon such devotees. Thus, he is called ‘sukhadha:’.
Alternately, bhagavAn bestowed happiness upon dhEvas by distributing nectar to them. Thus also he is called ‘sukhadha:’.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn preaches the practice of samAdhi (deep meditation upon himself), and bestows unlimited happiness upon the souls who stick to such practices, bhagavAn is called ‘sukhadha:’.
Alternately, since he bestows happiness unto dhEvas by fetching them their desired nectar, he is called ‘sukhadha:’.
समाध्यनुष्ठापनॆन तदनुष्ठानशालिनाम् |
सुखं बहु ददातीति सुखदः परिकीर्तितः ||
अमृतादानादिना सुरॆभ्यः सुखं ददातीति सुखदः |
adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan
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