Monthly Archives: November 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 10.5 – kaNNan kazhaliNai

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum

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Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth decad, AzhwAr explained the nature of bhakthi [yOgam] which is a tool for enjoyment, and to explain further about the qualities of such bhakthi, highlights the following aspects about the worshippable sarvESvaran:

  1. his distinguished name, which is the identity for the [distinguished ashtAkshara] manthram
  2. his having qualities which are revealed in the meanings of the name
  3. his activities such as creation
  4. his reclining on the ocean as a refuge for others
  5. he being the grantor of liberation
  6. his easy approachability for the sake of protecting others
  7. he being the means and goal,
  8. he being enjoyable for great personalities
  9. he being easily approachable for those who fully seek nothing but him
  10. his greatness in protecting his devotees

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr says “If one enjoys such sarvESvara, meditating upon the principles highlighted in the aforementioned manthra, worshipping him with materials such as flowers, with all the three faculties (mind, body and speech), all the hurdles will go away on their own; ultimate goal will also be attained” and briefly concludes the process of bhakthi yOgam which leads to the goal, to be understood clearly.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decad, AzhwAr explained how bhakthi [yOgam] led to its goal; AzhwAr sees that emperumAn is not patient to let the process work and is eager to take AzhwAr to paramapadham; that is – what is said in thiruvAimozhi 9.10.5 “maraNamAnAl” (on death) is considered to be too long by emperumAn, and does not wait till that time and desires to take AzhwAr to paramapadham – thinking about this, AzhwAr thinks further “as it is inevitable for me to leave, as the residents of this world should know the mood and activities of bhakthimAns (devotees practicing bhakthi yOgam), let us advice them”. AzhwAr is as merciful as emperumAnAr [Though emperumAnAr is after AzhwAr, since AchAryas have closer proximity with emperumAnAr, they can relate to AzhwAr by comparing him with emperumAnAr]. AzhwAr thinks “Why should they be missing out on this?” and started giving advice on the nature of such bhakthi; since emperumAn is eagerly waiting to take AzhwAr to paramapadham, and since those who listen to this should become faithful, AzhwAr made the pAsurams brief and started instructing the following aspects:

  • the divine name to hold on for such bhakthi
  • the manthra which is to be meditated/uttered for those who engage in this
  • the means for mOksham is meditation upon the meaning of the manthram
  • perform bhakthi in the aforementioned manner
  • surrender unto him with all the three faculties (mind, speech and body)
  • he is easily approachable for those who surrender unto him in this manner
  • he is easily worshippable since he is Sriya:pathi
  • the one (SrI mahAlakshmi) who facilitates such surrender and presents AthmA’s efforts in grand manner to emperumAn is with him
  • while surrendering one need not have any specific qualification, one who has ruchi (taste) is qualified to surrender unto him
  • serve him with materials such as flowers etc
  • as you surrender unto him, all your hurdles will be gone

Explaining in this manner, AzhwAr advises saying “we (I) will not remain here even a few more days, and as my leaving this world is inevitable, everyone listen to this and accept the same” and with this, concludes with advice to others, which was started by him [in the beginning].

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 68 (Names 671 to 680)

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<< Part 67

671) brahmavith (ब्रह्मवित्)

The vEdhas, which expound such ‘dharma’s is also called ‘brahma’. This is shown by the vEdhas themselves when they say “brahma is ought to be studied”, etc.

Such vEdhas are infinite. The scriptures have shown this fact as “vEdhas are indeed infinite”. Yet, bhagavAn confines them into a limit and knows them completely. Thus, he is called ‘brahmavith’ – the knower of brahma (vEdhas).

The scriptures confirm this by saying thus: “The eternal vEdhas called ‘brahma’ are not known by either the dhEvas or rishis. They are known only by that bhagavAn nArAyaNa himself, who is the creator of all”.

Etymology: He who knows the infinite vEdhas in their entirety is called ‘brahmavith’.

यॊ वॆदानन्ततॊ वॆत्ति स ब्रह्मविदुदीरितः |

672) brAhmaNa: (ब्राह्मणः)

In order to establish the vEdhas in their true purport and publicise them, bhagavAn himself incarnates as a brAhmaNa in various forms such as dhaththAthrEya et al in various clans such as in athri’s clan, etc. Thus, he is called ‘brAhmaNa:’.

The meaning of this word ‘brAhmaNa:’ is shown by the etymologists as “the one who attains the supreme brahman himself, as well as leads other souls to that supreme brahman”.

Etymology: He who incarnates as a brAhmaNa in various places such as dhaththAthrEya, et al is called ‘brAhmaNa:’. Alternately, since he reads the vEdhas, he is called ‘brAhmaNa:’.

दत्तात्रॆयादि रूपॆण ह्युदीर्णॊ ब्राह्मणः स्मृतः |
पठनाद्वाsथ वॆदस्य ब्राह्मणः परिकीर्तितः ||

673) brahmI (ब्रह्मी)

In this way (as shown in some of the previous divine names), bhagavAn himself is the owner of the pramANa (means of knowledge – vEdhas) and pramEya (the object of such knowledge – the entities). Thus, he is called ‘brahmI’ – the owner of brahma.

The scriptures say “That hari possesses everything which is called ‘brahma’ ”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself possesses the form of the means as well as the object of knowledge, he is called ‘brahmI’.

मानमॆयस्वरूपत्वात् स्वयं ब्रह्मीति शब्द्यतॆ |

674) brahmagya: (ब्रह्मज्ञः)

Not just stopping at knowing all the infinite vEdhas (as shown in one of the previous divine names – ‘brahmavith’), bhagavAn also understands them in their true purport. Thus, he is called ‘brahmagya:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “I am only the knower of vEdhas in their true purport”.

Etymology: He who knows the infinite vEdhas in their true purport is called ‘brahmagya:’.

यॊ वॆदान् अर्थतॊ वॆत्ति सॊsयं ब्रह्मज्ञ ईरितः |

675) brAhmaNapriya: (ब्राह्मणप्रियः)

The individual souls who have also mastered the vEdhas are called ‘brAhmaNa’s. Such people are dear to bhagavAn. Hence, he is called ‘brAhmaNapriya:’.

The scriptures have shown thus:

  • “Just as I treat him – who kills, who curses, who speaks harsh words, and who doesn’t respect the brAhmaNas…” (this statement shows how bhagavAn considers disrespecting brAhmaNas on par with other offences), etc.
  • “The sincere devotees who follow these nectarine teachings of mine in their true spirit are extremely dear to me”
  • “…that which emanated from the mouth of a brAhmaNa…”
  • “I shall win over all asuras with the help of the blessings of a vipra”
  • “…what more is to be said about a holy brAhmaNa?…”, etc

In this way, the brAhmaNas are hailed in many places infinitely.

To further illustrate, the scriptures have said thus:

  • “…he who is greater than the great souls…”
  • “…he who is superior to all great souls, and who is bigger than the big entities…”
  • “…that great soul, who is omniscient…”
  • “…he who is superior and bigger than all big entities…”, etc.

Etymology: The masters of vEdhas are called ‘vipra’s. Such souls are dear to bhagavAn at all times. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘brAhmaNapriya:’. This nine lettered manthra confers righteousness upon the chanter.

वॆदाधिकारिणॊ विप्राः प्रिया अस्यॆति वै सदा |
ब्राह्मणप्रिय इत्युक्तॊ नवार्णॊ धर्मदॊ मनुः ||

==============================
महाक्रमॊ महाकर्मा महातॆजा महॊरगः ।
महाक्रतुर्महायज्वा महायज्ञॊ महाहविः ॥ ७२ ॥
==============================

676) mahAkrama: (महाक्रमः)

He showers his infinite affection upon those who are enthusiastic about attaining bhagavAn thus. bhagavAn is in an extremely high position, and the souls born in this material creation are at the bottom of an abyss. Yet, he enables such fallen souls to attain his highest self by means of a great flight of stairs connoting a sequence of knowledge and devotion leading up to bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘mahAkrama:’ – the one who lays a great path for his devotees to traverse.

This is akin to a mother suckling her child at the beginning, subsequently moving on to the cow’s milk, and then mild food, and finally feeding it with all delicacies. Similarly, bhagavAn also has a sequence of occurrences for uniting a fallen soul with himself, starting with identifying a good deed for that soul, removing aversion towards himself, generating trust in vEdhas, creating interest towards himself, making them follow his words, and thereby generating knowledge, finally maturing such knowledge into devotion – which subsequently brings that soul close to himself. bhagavAn does all these in order to uplift a fallen soul as well as to enable such an uplifted soul to serve him.

Otherwise, the scriptures show the adverse consequences thus:

“If a soul doesn’t traverse the path laid down by bhagavAn, such a soul deserves to be ever bound in this samsAra, covered with ignorance at all times”

That is why it is said thus: “When the individual souls have reduced their sins greatly by practicing thapas and with undivided contemplation of bhagavAn in thousands of births, only then the true devotion unto bhagavAn krishNa is born in them”

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “The knowledgeable soul surrenders unto me only at the end of many of births”, “Oh arjuna, wish to attain me by constant practice”, etc.

Etymology: He is called ‘mahAkrama:’, who has laid down a sequential path of knowledge, devotion, etc as verily the flight of stairs to uplift a fallen soul from the depth of samsAra to unite such a soul with himself – who is the greatest of all souls.

परमॊन्नतिमात्मानं निम्नात् भवरसातलात् |
जीवान् समारॊहयतॊ ज्ञानभक्त्यादि रूपिणी |
पूर्वानुपूर्वी यस्यास्ति स महाक्रम ईरितः ||

677) mahAkarmA (महाकर्मा) (also repeated in 793)

bhagavAn makes even the souls born in the lowest of births such as bacteria et al – which are microscopic in size and live on the indigestible remnants left over by others – to progress slowly across many births and finally attain him. Since he possesses such an astonishing deed, he is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

Etymology: He – who possesses amazing deeds that make even the lowliest of organisms to eventually progress and finally attain and enjoy his union – is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

अत्यन्तहीनान् जन्तूंश्च यॊग्यान् स्वानुभवस्य हि |
करॊति महदाश्चर्यं कर्म तद्यस्य सर्वदा |
महाकर्मा स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

678) mahAthEjA: (महातॆजाः)

bhagavAn’s divine effulgence is such that it takes away the darkness of ignorance from all such thAmasic souls (born in lowly births due to their karma). Thus, he is called ‘mahAthEjA:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘mahAthEjA:’ because he possesses divine effulgence that takes away the darkness of ignorance which has no beginning (from the individual souls born in lowly births due to their karma). This eight syllable manthra grants effulgence upon the chanters.

अनाद्यविद्याख्या तमॊहारि तॆजॊ महद्यतः |
महातॆजाह्यतः ख्यातः तॆजॊदॊ वसुवर्णकः ||

679) mahOraga: (महॊरगः)

How does such a great supreme soul bhagavAn come near infinitesimally small creatures? He comes near such small creatures (enters their hearts) by entering their senses in the form of material objects at first, and in turn entering their minds through their senses. Thus, he is called ‘mahOraga:’ – the one who enters the mind.

The word ‘ura:’ shows the hearts of such fallen souls. Since bhagavAn enters such hearts of fallen souls (like a snake entering an anthill), he is called ‘mahOraga:’.

The syllable ‘sa’ (स्) in the word ‘uras’ उरस् (chest) is lost, and the root ‘gam’ गम् (to go) with the ‘da:’ (डः) adjunct is suffixed as per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘uraga:’ (उरगः).

Etymology: bhagavAn is popularly called ‘mahOraga:’, since he enters the hearts of fallen souls through their mind (and senses).

महॊरग इति ख्यातश्चित्तद्वारा प्रवॆशनात् |

680) mahAkrathu: (महाक्रतुः)

The vishNu dharma says thus about bhagavAn’s simplicity: “After all, who wouldn’t please bhagavAn – who is pleased not by all riches and wealth, or by clothes or ornaments, but is pleased by the purity at heart alone?”

As shown in this scriptural statement, bhagavAn is very easily pleased by very simple ways of worship. Thus, he is called ‘mahAkrathu:’ – the one who is very easily worshipped.

bhagavAn is easily worshipped by all simple deeds mentioned in the Agama SASthras (such as lighting a lamp, making simple offerings like arghya, pAdhya, etc, offering him daily food, singing his glories from any of the many authentic sources, etc) done with utmost devotion with a feeling of complete submission.

bhagavAn himself confirms this in the bhagavath gIthA, thus: “Oh arjuna, offer unto me all that you do as a part of your living, all that you eat for your living, and all that you do as a part of your daily and occasional worship such as oblations, meditation, etc.”

Etymology: He who is worshipped by everyone in a very simple way is called ‘mahAkrathu:’.

सर्वैश्च सुकरा पूजा यस्य स्यात् स महाक्रतुः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 60

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

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தன் குருவின் தாளிணைகள் தன்னில் அன்பு ஒன்றில்லாதார்

அன்பு தன் பால் செய்தாலும் அம்புயைகோன் இன்ப மிகு

விண்ணாடு தான் அளிக்க வேண்டியிரான் ஆதலால்

நண்ணார் அவர்கள் திருநாடு  

அறுபதாம் பாசுரம். இப்பாசுரம் தொடக்கமாக ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தில் காட்டப்பட்டுள்ள உயர்ந்த அர்த்தமான ஆசார்ய பக்தியை விரிவாக அருளிச்செய்கிறார். இப்பாசுரத்தில் ஆசார்ய பக்தி இல்லாதவர்களை எம்பெருமான் தானே ஆதரிக்க மாட்டான் என்பதை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

தன்னுடைய ஆசார்யனின் திருவடிகளில் ஒருவனுக்கு பக்தி இல்லை என்றால், இவன் திருமகள் கேள்வனான எம்பெருமானிடத்திலே எவ்வளவு பக்தி கொண்டிருந்தாலும், எம்பெருமான் இவனுக்கு இன்பத்துக்கு எல்லை இல்லாத இடமான பரமபதத்திலே இடமளிப்பதற்கு ஆசை கொண்டிருக்கமாட்டான். ஆகையால் இப்படிப்பட்ட ஆசார்ய பக்தி இல்லாதவன் திருநாடான பரமபதத்தைச் சென்றுசேர மாட்டான். எம்பெருமானை அம்புயைகோன் என்று பிராட்டி ஸம்பந்தத்துடன் கூறியிருப்பதால், சேதனர்களின் குற்றங்களை எம்பெருமான் காணாதபடிக்குப் புருஷகாரம் செய்யும் பிராட்டியே அருகில் இருந்தாலும், அவன் ஆசார்ய பக்தி இல்லாதவர்களை ஏற்றுக்கொள்ள மாட்டான் என்று காட்டுவதாகத் தோற்றுகிறது.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.11 – paRRenRu paRRi

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “For those who learn this decad, krishNa’s divine feet are easily attainable”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

paRRenRu paRRip parama param paranai
mal thiN thOL mAlai vazhudhi vaLa nAdan
sol thodai andhAdhi Or AyiraththuL ippathuthum
kaRRArkku Or paRRAgum kaNNan kazhal iNaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

parama param paranai – the lord of all who has none greater than him
mal – in wrestling battle
thiN – strong
thOL – having shoulder
mAlai – sarvESvaran who is the prApya (goal) and prApaka (means), since he is infatuated towards his devotees
paRRu enRu – determined as the good refuge for us
paRRi – surrendered
vazhudhi vaLa nAdan – nammAzhwAr, who is the controller of thiruvazhudhi nAdu (AzhwArthirunagari region)
sol – mercifully spoke
thodai – in the form of a garland of words
andhAdhi Or AyiraththuL – among the distinguished thousand pAsurams which are in the style of anthAdhi (ending word of one pAsuram relating to the beginning of next pAsuram)
ippaththum – this decad also
kaRRArkku – for those who learnt and practiced
kaNNAn – krishNa who is dhAmOdhara
kazhal – divine feet
iNai – pair
Or – distinguished
paRRAgum – result.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sarvESvaran is the prApya (goal) and prApaka (means), since he is infatuated towards his devotees, who is the lord of all who has none greater than him,  who is having strong shoulder in the wrestling battle; nammAzhwAr, who is the controller of thiruvazhudhi nAdu, determined that such emperumAn is the good refuge for us, and mercifully spoke about him in distinguished thousand pAsurams which are in the form of a garland of words and are in the style of anthAdhi; for those who learnt and practiced this decad among those thousand pAsurams, the distinguished pair of divine feet of krishNa who is dhAmOdhara are the distinguished result.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • paRRu enRu paRRip parama param paranai – Surrendering unto sarvESvaran considering him to be the goal and means.
  • mal thiN thOL mAlai – AthmA just needs to surrender unto him and have faith; there is no shortcoming in emperumAn for protection. AzhwAr is saying that emperumAn has the strength and love to eliminate the hurdles of such surrendered persons.
  • vazhudhi … – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 4.8 “pAtyE gEyE cha madhuram pramANais thribhiranvitham” (both words and music are sweet, in harmony with all three pramANams), those who learnt this decad among the thousand pAsurams which are strung in the form of a garland with beautiful words.
  • kaNNan kazhal iNai – Or paRRu Agum – As said in “dhAmOdharan thALgaL – thava neRikku – oru sArvE” (the divine feet of dhAmOdhara, are the result for bhakthi yOgam), divine feet of krishNa themselves will be the result, so that one need not seek anything else to hold on to.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 67 (Names 661 to 670)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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<< Part 66

661) kruthAgama: (कृतागमः) (also repeated in 795)

Thence, the ‘SakthISa’ incarnation of bhagavAn is hailed with the next set of divine names.

bhagavAn clearly shows himself – who is hidden in the various vEdha manthras and Agama – unto his pure hearted devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’.

Etymology: Thence, the SakthISa avathAram is hailed. Since he is deeply hidden within the mantras, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’. he is mainly called ‘kruthAgama:’ since he shows himself (unto the pure hearted souls) from such manthras.

अथ शक्त्यवतारॊsत्र मन्त्रात्मा स्यात् कृतागमः |
मन्त्रविद्या व्यञ्जकत्वात् कृतागम इतीरितः ||

662) anirdhESyavapu: (अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः) (also repeated in 179)

bhagavAn’s divine forms can never be comprehended by anyone in their entirety. He takes on a variety of divine forms following the nature of each yuga. Thus, he is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ – the one with incomprehensible forms.

The scriptures hail thus: “bhagavAn possesses divine effulgent forms abiding to the nature of every yuga”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ since he possesses divine forms following the nature of every yuga.

युगानुसारिरूपत्वात् अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः स्मृतः |

663) vishNu: (विष्णुः) (also repeated in 2, 259)

Thus, bhagavAn pervades the entire world with his powers of pervasiveness and controlling every entity. Thus, he is called ‘vishNu:’.

The manthra varnas hail bhagavAn as “the one who is omnipotent”

It is said thus in Adhithya purANa “Since all of these worlds are pervaded by the power of bhagavAn, he is called ‘vishNu:’. The root ‘vish’ means to enter”

In the udhyOga parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, it is said thus: “The lord of all worlds is called ‘vishNu:’ since he pervaded all worlds with his feet”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn pervades all worlds with his power (to control every entity), he is called ‘vishNu:’.

स्वशक्त्या सर्वजगतॊ व्याप्तॆः विष्णुरिति स्मृतः |

664) vIra: (वीरः) (also repeated in 402)

bhagavAn slays the offenders of his dear devotees without any delay, using his mace and discus (gadhA and chakram) – which are ever awaiting their master’s order to eradicate such offenders. Thus, he is called ‘vIra:’ – the valiant one.

Etymology: He is called ‘vIra:’, who slays those who offend his dear devotees without any delay.

वीरः स्यात् साधुसन्तापकारिणॊsजति हन्ति यत् |

665) anantha: (अनन्तः)

There is no boundary for bhagavAn in terms of either space or time or objects (which he pervades). Thus, he is called ‘anantha:’ – the endless.

The manthra varNa hails bhagavAn as ‘the one who possesses an endless form’.

The various scriptures hail thus in this regard:

  • “Oh arjuna, there is no end to my dimensions”
  • “That is the supreme brahman, which has no end”
  • “The supreme brahaman is eternal, omniscient and not limited by anything”

This means that bhagavAn is ever present at all places and in all possible ways.

Further, the lack of such differentiating capacity (to say bhagavAn is present in one object and absent in another) doesn’t imply that bhagavAn is not different from such objects (meaning, it doesn’t prove oneness of all objects with bhagavAn). Rather, it only means that he is totally independent of such objects, but isn’t limited by such references and is all pervasive (he is referenced with every entity present in this creation). Similarly, the same is applicable even in case of space and time. Such an exposition (trying to impose ‘oneness’ using this divine name) is not pleasing.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t have any bounds in terms of space, time, qualities or objects, he is called ‘anantha:’.

दॆशतः कालतॊ वाsपि गुण्तॊ वस्तुतॊsपि वा |
अवधिस्त्वस्य नास्तीति सॊsनन्तः समुदाहृतः ||

666) dhananjaya: (धनञ्जयः)

Not stopping at being unbounded himself, bhagavAn also bestows unbounded wealth upon his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘dhananjaya:’ – the victor of wealth.

Which is that unbounded wealth that he bestows upon his devotees? It is none other than himself! bhagavAn puts down material wealth such as gold, gems, etc by showing the intense need for the desire to earn that wealth, the path treaded in the pursuit of such wealth, greed in retaining the wealth, efforts to hide such wealth from robbers, making a living with such wealth, etc. as the primary eligibility (NOTE: bhattar intends to show that there is so much of ‘eligibility’ needed to earn material wealth; whereas bhagavAn is naturally related to each one of us, and hence doesn’t expect such high ‘eligibilities’).

Since bhagavAn wins over such lowly wealth, he is called ‘dhananjaya:’.

The root ‘ji’ जि (to win over) gets the ‘khach’ (खच्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘jaya:’ (जयः).

Etymology: By increasing the eligibilities to earn material wealth – such as intense desire, the deed of earning, greed in growing the wealth etc, bhagavAn wins over the lowly material wealth comprising of gems, pearls, precious stones, gold, etc (and makes himself available to his devotees as the highest unbounded wealth with no need for such ‘eligibilities’). Thus he is called ‘dhananjaya:’.

प्रॆप्सॊपार्जनलॊभादि यॊग्यत्वादिक्यतस्ततः |
मणिमौक्तिकरत्नादि हॆमरूप्यादिकं धनम् |
जयत्यधः करॊतीति धनञ्जय इतीरितः ||

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ब्रह्मण्यॊ ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविवर्धनः ।
ब्रह्मविद्ब्राह्मणॊ ब्रह्मी ब्रह्मज्ञॊ ब्राह्मणप्रियः ॥ ७१ ॥
==============================

667) brahmaNya: (ब्रह्मण्यः)

In this context, the word ‘brahma’ is used to mean something of a great magnitude. Since every individual soul or sentient entity (chith – चित्) is great due to its ability to enjoy the unbounded bliss in the mOksha bhUmi – which is attained by them according to their realization and actions, such individual soul itself is referred to as ‘brahma’. This is as shown in the various scriptures thus:

  • “That individual soul – who is verily of the form of knowledge – is called by the name ‘brahma’”
  • “Such an individual soul – who is called by the name ‘brahma’ – is blemishless”, etc.

Even the insentient entity called ‘achith’ (अचित्), which is the object of enjoyment in this world for every individual soul, and which is inexplicable, is great due to its ability to transform into infinite forms of enjoyment to various souls. Thus, such insentient material is also called ‘brahma’. This is also shown in the scriptures thus: “My creation is this great prakruthi, called ‘brahma’”, etc.

bhagavAn safeguards such sentient and insentient entities by looking after their existence, enjoyments, and all such states of those entities. Thus, he is called ‘brahmaNya:’.

Etymology: The sentient jIvathma and insentient prakruthi are both referenced by the name ‘brahma’. He who is responsible for their existence, enjoyments etc in all of their states is called ‘brahmaNya:’. This seven lettered manthra confers wealth upon the chanters.

जीवात्मा प्रकृतिश्चापि ब्रह्मॆति व्यपदिश्यतॆ |
ताभ्यां यः स्थितिभॊगादॆः सर्वावस्थासु कारणम् |
ब्रह्मण्यः स च विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ भॊगदायकः ||

668) brahmakrudh-brahmA (ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा)

Not just stopping at nature or prakruthi, even the derivatives of that prakruthi – such as mahAn, ahankAra, etc – are also called ‘brahma’ due to their vast expanse in this creation. The vEdhas have clearly shown this by saying “thus, this ‘brahma’ gets various names and forms, and transforms into pleasure objects”, etc.

The ordinary creator of all such objects is the four faced brahmA. Such a four faced brahmA is also controlled by bhagavAn. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘brahmakrudhbrahmA’.

Etymology: The derivatives of prakruthi – namely mahAn, ahankAra, etc – are also called by the name ‘brahma’. The common creator of such objects in this creation (creator of individual objects – called vyashti srushti) is the four faced brahmA. He – by whom that four faced brahmA is controlled at all times – is called ‘brahmakrudhbrahmA’. This nine syllable manthra is capable of bestowing all powers upon the chanter.

महदादि तमःकार्यं ब्रह्मॆति ह्यभिदीयतॆ |
तस्य कर्ता स्वयं ब्रह्मा नियाम्यॊ यस्य सर्वदा |
स तु स्यात् ब्रह्मकृद्ब्रह्मा नवार्णः सर्वशक्तिदः ||

669) brahma (ब्रह्म)

In this way, bhagavAn makes the manifest and subtle individual souls (with and without names and forms respectively) seen during the common and specific creations bigger with his infinite auspicious divine qualities. Also, he shows himself as a big entity with his unbounded nature and divine qualities. Since he shows his absolute supremacy over all other entities thus, and since he is hailed by the vEdhAnthas as the greatest entity without any prejudice, he is called ‘brahma’.

The etymologists have shown the meaning of this divine name as “the one who is himself great and also makes the other entities (depending on him) great”.

Etymology: bhagavAn always makes the individual souls in both the manifest and subtle forms during the common and specific creations great by showing them his divine forms, nature, auspicious qualities and the infinite wealth. Hence he is called ‘brahma’. This six syllable manthra confers progeny upon the chanters.

व्यक्ताव्यक्त-समष्ट्यादि पुरुषांचैव नित्यशः |
रूपैः स्वरूपॆण गुणैः विभवैश्च स्वयं सदा |
बृंहतीति च तद्ब्रह्म षडर्णः सन्ततिप्रदः ||

670) brahmavivardhana: (ब्रह्मविवर्धनः)

The characteristic of all such individual souls namely ‘dharma’ or righteousness, which is characterized by thapas or contemplation, is also called ‘brahma’.

This is shown in the vEdhic statement that says “thapas is called brahma”.

bhagavAn increases such ‘thapas’ and thereby the resulting ‘dharma’ amongst his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘brahmavivardhana:’ – the increaser of ‘brahma’ (thapas).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn always increases thapas amongst his devotees, he is called ‘brahmavivardhana:’.

तपॊविवर्धनान्नित्यं स्मृतॊ ब्रह्मविवर्धनः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 59

ஸ்ரீ:  ஸ்ரீமதே சடகோபாய நம:  ஸ்ரீமதே ராமாநுஜாய நம:  ஸ்ரீமத் வரவரமுநயே நம:

உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

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சீர் வசன பூடணத்தின் செம்பொருளைச் சிந்தை தன்னால்

தேரிலுமாம் வாய் கொண்டு செப்பிலுமாம் ஆரியர்காள்

என்தனக்கு நாளும் இனிதாக நின்றதையோ

உன்தமக்கு எவ்வின்பம் உளதாம் 

ஐம்பத்தொன்பதாம் பாசுரம். ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தில் தனக்கு உள்ள ஆதரத்தை தன்னுடன் ஒத்த புகழுடைய ஆசார்யர்களுடன் பகிர்ந்து மகிழ்கிறார்.

ஆசார்யர்களே! ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தின் உயர்ந்த அர்த்தங்களை நெஞ்சாலே அனுபவித்தாலும் வாக்காலே பேசினாலும், எனக்கு இது எல்லையில்லாத ஆனந்தத்தை அளிக்கிறது. உங்களுக்கு எப்படிப்பட்ட ஆனந்தம் ஏற்படுகிறது? ஆழ்வார்கள் எம்பெருமானை ஆராவமுதமாக அனுபவித்தார்கள். ஆசார்யர்கள் ஆழ்வார்களையும் அருளிச்செயல்களையும் ஆராவமுதமாக அனுபவித்தார்கள். மாமுனிகளோ ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தையே ஆராவமுதமாக அனுபவிக்கிறார்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.10 – vagaiyAl manam onRi

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, AzhwAr concludes with bhakthi yOgam which is spoken about here, saying “The divine feet of sarvESvaran, who is the refuge for prayOjanAntharaparas (those who see other benefits) also and who fulfills their desires, are the good refuge for bhakthimAns (followers of bhakthi yOgam) and prapannas (those who performed prapaththi) as well”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

vagaiyAl manam onRi mAdhavanai nALum
pugaiyAl viLakkAl pudhu malarAl neerAl
thisaidhORu amarargaL senRirainja ninRa
thagaiyAn saraNam thamargatku Or paRRE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vagaiyAl – by ways explained in SAsthram
manam – heart
onRi – being focussed
mAdhavanai – emperumAn, who is Sriya:pathi (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi) for the fulfilment of their goal
nALum – everyday
pudhu – distinguished
pugaiyAl viLakkAl malarAl neerAl – smoke (incense), lamp, flower and water
dhisaidhORu – in every direction
amarargaL – dhEvas starting with brahmA
senRu – go
iRainja – to pray and surrender
ninRa – stood
thagaiyAn – one who is having the nature
saraNam – divine feet
thamargatku – for the distinguished devotees who are ananyaprayOjanas (those who don’t seek any other benefit)
Or – being distinguished goal
paRRu – will be the good refuge.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

dhEvas starting with brahmA, being focussed in their hearts by ways explained in SAsthram on emperumAn, who is Sriya:pathi for the fulfillment of their goal, everyday, go in every direction with distinguished smoke (incense), lamp, flower and water; the divine feet of such emperumAn who is standing to be prayed and surrendered by brahmA et al, are the distinguished goal and good refuge for the distinguished devotees who are ananyaprayOjanas.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vagaiyAl manam onRi – Being focussed in the heart by the ways explained in SAsthram.
  • mAdhavanai – One need not fear for violating the rules and carelessness; whatever activities one performed to avoid the censure by people, one will not reap the results. The one (SrI mahAlakshmi) who would say “Should you abandon him for not following the rules properly and not being careful?” is with emperumAn. With this, the relationship with lakshmi is explained in that [gIthA charama] SlOkam [This pAsuram is further explaining charama SlOkam]. The attributes which are part of one’s nature can either be explicitly mentioned or skipped; this is why in dhvayam it is explicitly highlighted and in thirumanthram it is implicitly understood. It is said in dhramida bhAshyam “anthargatha guNANAm Eva dhEvathAm bhajathE” (only worshipping the lord who has qualities which are hidden in his svarUpam (true nature)); as it is said that in such svarUpam of bhagavAn itself, his qualities such as apahathapApmathva (being untouched by sins) etc are present.
  • nALum … – Without any time restriction. Not having any restriction in the materials used for the worship also, carrying the materials which they have, brahmA et al come and surrender just as devotees will arrive for periya thirunAL (brahmOthsavam, adhyayana uthsavam etc in SrIrangam) from all directions; such emperumAn’s divine feet; for those who surrendered to his divine feet, there is no need for seeking any other refuge. For ananyaprayOjana bhakthi yOga nishtas (who perform bhakthi without any expectation), he will be the grantor of results and means; for prapannas (who surrendered to him only), he will be the direct means.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 58

ஸ்ரீ:  ஸ்ரீமதே சடகோபாய நம:  ஸ்ரீமதே ராமாநுஜாய நம:  ஸ்ரீமத் வரவரமுநயே நம:

உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

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சச்சம்பிரதாயம் தாம் உடையோர் கேட்டக்கால்

மெச்சும் வியாக்கியைகள் உண்டாகில் நச்சி

அதிகரியும் நீர் வசன பூடணத்துக்கற்ற

மதியுடையீர் மத்தியத்தராய் 

ஐம்பத்தெட்டாம் பாசுரம். ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தின் உயர்ந்த அர்த்தங்களை எவ்வாறு கற்றுக் கொள்வது என்று கேட்பவர்களுக்குத் தகுந்த பதிலை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்துக்கு அர்ப்பணிக்கப்பட்ட மதியைப் பெற்றவர்களே! இதற்கு எல்லோராலும் புகழப்படும்படியான வ்யாக்யானங்களை எவரேலும் அருளியிருந்தால், அவற்றை ஸத் ஸம்ப்ரதாயத்திலே நிஷ்டையுடன் இருப்பவர்கள் கேட்டு மகிழ்ந்தால், நடு நிலைமை உடையவராக இருந்து நீங்களும் இதைக் கற்றுக்கொள்ளுங்கள். 

இதற்கு மாமுனிகள் மிகச்சிறந்ததான ஒரு வ்யாக்யானம் அருளிச்செய்வதற்கு முன்பே திருநாராயணபுரத்து ஆயி ஜநந்யாசார்யர் முதலானோர் வ்யாக்யானம் அருளியுள்ளனர்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.9 – kaNdEn

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, AzhwAr speaks about the benefit he got saying “emperumAn who is attained by bhakthi yOgam which is a culmination of thapas (penance), gyAna (knowledge) etc which are done over a thousand births, is seen by me by his grace only”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaNdEn kamala malarp pAdham kANdalumE
viNdE ozhindha vinaiyAyina ellAm
thoNdE seydhu enRum thozhudhu vazhiyozhugap
paNdE paraman paNiththa paNi vagaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thoNdE seydhu – performing ultimate devotion towards him
enRum – always
thozhudhu – having activities matching the servitude
vazhi ozhuga – to engage in that path as per his desire
paNdE – in previous times
paraman – sarvESvara who is greater than all
paNiththa paNi vagaiyE – by the manthra rahasya prakAram (ways of confidential manthras) mercifully explained
kamala malar – ultimately enjoyable like lotus flower
pAdham – divine feet
kaNdEn – saw [internally], matching my servitude;
kANdalumE – as I acquired this knowledge
vinaiyAyina ellAm – all sorrows such as ahankAram, mamakAram etc which are hurdles for enjoyment
viNdE ozhindha – went away, along with the traces.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Previously, sarvESvaran who is greater than all, mercifully explained the manthra rahasya prakAram (ways of confidential manthras) to have me performing ultimate devotion towards him always, to have activities matching the servitude and to engage in that path as per his desire; I saw the ultimately enjoyable lotus flower like divine feet of such emperumAn, matching my servitude; as I acquired this knowledge, all sorrows such as ahankAram, mamakAram etc which are hurdles for enjoyment, went away, along with the traces.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaNdEn – I saw the emperumAn who is always heard about only [from SAsthram]. AzhwAr is saying that he saw emperumAn implying that his surrender led to its goal. With this, he is talking about gyAna sAkshAthkAram (seeing with internal eyes) which is at par with prathyaksha sAkshAthkAram (seeing with external eyes).
  • kamala malarp pAdham – The enjoyability [of the divine feet] is such that one is satisfied with the seeing through internal eyes, even without the actual attainment.
  • kANdalumE – Upon seeing.
  • viNdE ozhindha vinaiyAyina ellAm – We are acquiring this [elimination of sins] from him as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi” (I will liberate you from all of your sins). All the sorrows thought “He is not alone, he is depending upon bhagavAn’s lotus feet” and left.
  • thoNdE … – AzhwAr is saying that even this [what is explained in this pAsuram] is also the meaning for that SlOkam. What is incidental will naturally go; upAyam will also lead to the result. The principle “Now, as the true nature of the self is established, the activities matching that nature will also remain eternally”, which is implied in that SlOkam, is explicitly explained here.
  • thoNdE seydhu enRum thozhudhu vazhi ozhuga – After the true nature is understood to be eternal, to also have the activities matching that nature, eternally.
  • paNdE paraman paNiththa paNi vagaiyE – kaNdEn kamala malarp pAdham – As he said in [the same SlOkam] “mAm Ekam SaraNam vraja” (Surrender unto me as the only refuge), I got to see his divine feet.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 66 (Names 651 to 660)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 65

651) SUrajanESvara: (शूरजनॆश्वरः)

He is only further hailed as SUrajanESvara: – the leader of all SUras.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘SUrajanESvara:’ since he is the master of all valorous men.

पराक्रमिजनॆशत्वात् स्मृतः शूरजनॆश्वरः |

652) thrilOkAthmA (त्रिलॊकात्मा)

Various purANas hail thus: “Oh brahman! bhagavAn janArdhana – the lord of all lords, and the master of all worlds – resides in magadha maNdala, taking shelter in a place called mahAbOdha (gayA kshEthram)”

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘thrilOkAthmA’.

The divine name means that bhagavAn constantly goes around the three worlds in order to protect all his devotees and bless them at all times.

The root ‘atha’ (अत) means to constantly keep going around in this context. This root gets the ‘manin’ (मनिन्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘Athman’ (आत्मन्). Since he keeps going around the three worlds constantly, he is called ‘thrilOkAthmA’.

Etymology: He who constantly keeps going around the three worlds in order to protect his devotees and bless them is called ‘thrilOkAthmA’. This eight syllable manthra confers wealth upon the chanters.

यः सातत्यॆन लॊकान् त्रीन् भक्तानुग्रहकाम्यया |
गच्छत्यसौ त्रिलॊकात्मा वस्वर्णॊ भूतिदायकः ||

653) thrilOkESa: (त्रिलॊकॆशः)

bhagavAn also resides in a holy place called ‘prAgjyOthishapuram’ (प्राग्ज्यॊतिषपुरः) with the divine name ‘viSvESvara’ (विश्वॆश्वरः). Thus, he is called ‘thrilOkESa:’ – the master of all three worlds.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the sole master of all three worlds, he is called ‘thrilOkESa:’.

त्रिलॊकानामीशतया त्रिलॊकॆशः प्रकीर्तितः |

654) kESava: (कॆशवः) (also repeated in 23)

bhagavAn is called ‘kESava:’ since he stands in two places in this world – namely ‘mathurA’ (मथुरा) and ‘vArANasI’ (वाराणसी) (also called ‘kASI’ काशी), removing all the sorrows of his devotees.

Alternately, the words of Siva go thus: “The word ‘ka’ (क) represents the four faced brahmA. I am popularly called ‘Isa:’ (ईशः) by all. We two are born out of your divine body. Thus, oh bhagavAn! You are called ‘kESava’”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kESava:’ since the four faced brahmA and the destroyer rudhra are born out of his divine body.

ब्रह्मॆशयॊः स्वाङ्गजत्वात् कॆशवः परिकीर्तितः |

655) kESihA (कॆशिहा)

The scriptures hail bhagavAn KeSava as the slayer of demon named ‘kESi’. (NOTE: bhagavAn gets the name ‘kESava:’ – also because he slew the demon named ‘kESi’, who appeared in the form of a horse).

Thus, the same bhagavAn who is hailed as ‘kESava:’ in the previous divine name is further expounded in this divine name, showing another reason why he is called ‘kESava:’.

Etymology: He – who slew the demon named ‘kESi’ – is called ‘kESihA’.

असुरं कॆशिनामानं हतवान् कॆशिहा स्मृतः |

656) hari: (हरिः) (also repeated in 361)

The lord of all – bhagavAn – resides in the sacred gOvardhana hills with the name ‘hari:’, accepting worship from all of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘hari:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in SrI mahAbhAratha: “I accept all the offerings in various oblations. Thus, I am popularly called ‘hari:’. Also, my body colour itself is green, which is also a reason why I am called ‘hari:’”.

Etymology: He who resides in the sacred gOvardhana hills, or the one who is green in colour, or the one who accepts all offerings in oblations – is called ‘hari:’.

गॊवर्धनस्थॊ हरितः क्रतुभागहरॊ हरिः |

===============================
कामदॆवः कामपालः कामी कान्तः कृतागमः ।
अनिर्दॆश्यवपुर्विष्णुर्वीरॊsनन्तॊ धनञ्जयः ॥ ७० ॥
===============================

657) kAmadhEva: (कामदॆवः)

bhagavAn resides in the abode of Sankara (himAchalam or himAlaya) with the name ‘kAmadhEva’, being worshipped by apsaras or damsels and granting all the desires of all of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kAmadhEva:’.

The root ‘dhiv’ (दिव्) gets the meaning of ‘donation’ in this context, thus meaning that bhagavAn bestows all desires of his devotees in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn – residing in the himAlayas and bestowing the desires of his devotees – is called ‘kAmadhEva:’.

शङ्करालयगः कामदॆवः सर्वॆष्टदः स्मृतः |

658) kAmapAla: (कामपालः)

bhagavAn does not merely stop at bestowing all the desired fruits upon the seekers, as seen in the previous divine name (kAmadhEva: – the one who bestows the desired fruits). But he also takes care of such bestowments subsequently. Hence, he is called ‘kAmapAla:’ – the protector of such bestowments subsequently.

Etymology: He who subsequently safeguards his bestowments upon his devotees is called ‘kAmapAla:’.

दत्तानुपालकश्चैव कामपालः प्रकीर्तितः |

659) kAmI (कामी)

Also, bhagavAn gives in abundance unto his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘kAmI’ – the abundant giver.

Alternately, everyone desires him the most. Thus also, he is called ‘kAmI’ – the most desired one (in this case, he gives away himself unto such devotees who seek him, thus becoming an ‘abundant giver’ again).

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kAmI’ since he gives in abundance.

प्रदॆयातिशयात् कामी |

660) kAntha: (कान्तः) (also repeated in 297)

Verily that bhagavAn is himself very attractive to look at. Thus, he is called ‘kAntha:’ – the attractive one. With such a beautiful form (archA) only, bhagavAn gets worshipped by apsaras or damsels.

As shown till now, bhagavAn’s association with various holy places must be deduced at the appropriate places in the forthcoming divine names as well (NOTE: bhattar has mentioned various holy places where bhagavAn resides as archA forms with popular names in all these previous divine names. Similar association with the various unsaid holy places must also be deduced with the forthcoming divine names).

Etymology: He who is attractive to look at is called ‘kAntha:’. Even in the forthcoming divine names, bhagavAn residing in various holy places in his archA forms must be contemplated.

कान्तश्च कमनीयकः ।
तत्तत् क्षॆत्रॆशॊक्तिरॆवम् उपर्यपि यथॊचितम् ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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