SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr invites SrIvaishNavas saying “All the hurdles in reaching thiruvananthapuram which is the destination, will be gone. Please come! Let us recite this divine name ‘kESava’ which is pleasing to us and go there”.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
kedum idarAya ellAm kEsava enna nALum
kodu vinai seyyum kURRin thamargaLum kuRugagillAr
vida mudai aravil paLLi virumbinAn surumbalaRRum
thadamudai vayal ananthapura nagar pugudhum inRE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
As said in “vaikuNta nAma SravaNam aSEshAga vinASanam“, krishNa who has excellent hair, his
kEsavA enna – as we just recite the name kESava
(as one drinks the sweet milk, one’s bile disease will be eliminated)
idar Aya ellAm – all sorrows
kedum – will be eliminated and driven out (to unseen place);
nALum – eternally
(as per pApa)
kodu vinai – cruel tortures
seyyum – doing
kURRin thamargaLum – servitors of yama (by the recital of the name of lotus-eyed lord as said in “ithIrayanthi“, as said in “thyaja pata dhUratharENa“, as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi “kOlAdi kuRugappeRA[dhE]” (he cannot come close to where I rule) and in periya thirumozhi 8.10 .8 “kaLLar pOl“)
kuRugagillAr – will run away;
(this being said) (to have the enemies not come closer)
vidam udai – having abundant poison
aravil – on the divine mattress
paLLi virumbinAn – one who mercifully rests, manifesting his desire to be united with his devotees
(just as the mukthAthmAs who are blissful due to enjoying his qualities will sing sAmagAnam)
surumbu – beetles which have drunk honey
alaRRum – making sounds in a disorderly manner
thadam – flower filled ponds
udai – having
vayal – having fields
ananthapuranagar – thiruvananthapuram
inRE – (without any further delay) today itself
pugudhum – reach.
Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
As said in “vaikuNta nAma SravaNam aSEshAga vinASanam“, as we recite the divine name of krishNa who has excellent hair, all our sorrows will be eliminated and driven away; servitors of yama, who are eternally doing cruel tortures, will run away; emperumAn is mercifully resting on the divine serpent mattress which is having abundant poison, in thiruvananthapuram which is having fields with flower filled ponds which has beetles which have drunk honey and are making sounds in a disorderly manner; let us reach there today itself.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
- kedum idarAya ellAm – Anything which is known as sorrow will be eliminated. If one performs a yagya for twelve years as atonement for brahma hathyA (killing of a brAhmaNa), the same person needs to perform another atonement for another sin; here [while reciting the divine name, kESava] that is not required as said in vishNu dharmam “pApEnthanAgni:” (He is like fire for the firewood of sins).
When asked “Would the atonement also be many?”, AzhwAr says,
- kEsavA enna – As we speak about how he eliminated a particular enemy, anything known as enemies will be eliminated just as the whole clan of rAkshasas got destroyed due to rAvaNa’s unfavourable acts.
- ellAm – All future and past sins will be destroyed as said in thiruppAvai 5 “pOya pizhaiyum pugu tharuvAn ninRanavum” (past sins and future sins).
- enna – Just the recital is required since it will lead to the result fully; alternative explanation – – if we speak about his having excellent hair, our sorrows will be eliminated as said in mahAbhAratham “kESava: klESa nASana:“. Another explanation – he is the controller of brahmA and rudhra; still the first explanation is most important.
- nALum … – Even those confidential servitors of yama who are engaged in cruel activities on a daily basis, will not come close. Even if they are yama’s servitors, can they come close to sarvESvaran’s devotees? SrIvishNu purANam 8.7.13 “svapurusham … ” [SlOkam is explained subsequently]; SrIvishNu dharmam “thasya yagya varAhasya …” (yama says “I repeatedly worship those who worship the greatly capable yagya varAha) – in this, did yama not say “praNAmam yEpi kurvanthi” (I repeatedly worship)? nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 68 “iRainjiyum sAdhuvarAyp pOdhumingaL” (yama said “praying to them, leave their presence softly”) – [yama says] When you see them, don’t just think that we have no control over them, instead, approach them, offer your prayers and service, and then leave! svapurusham – yama observes his servitor going with rope, spear and dog and thinks “bhAgavathas and others will all be present; what if he goes in front of bhAgavathas like this?” and speaks with anxiety. svapurusham – as he is speaking to his confidential servitor, he is speaking about his own inferior nature instead of speaking about his own greatness, as it is unavoidable now. abhivIkshya – he has only some control over the situation [as given by bhagavAn]; before starting to instruct his servitor, he lovingly glances at him. madhusUdhana prapannAn – When the servitor asks “what is the problem for bhagavAn, if we torment this bhAgavatha?”; [yama says] these bhAgavathas have placed their responsibilities upon him; if something happens to them, he will come forward, beating his chest. The servitor asks “For us, who are your servitors, if we need to fear for someone else, who are you to command us?” [yama says] prabhur aham anya nruNAm – Will there not be shortcoming in me, only if I don’t have a say under those who are under my control? Should we analyse the aspect in which we have no control? [yama is saying that he has control over everyone other than bhAgavathas] The same incident is explained by thirumazhisaip pirAn as well in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 68 “thiRambEnmin …”. mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 55 “avan thamar evvinaiyar…” (Even the most sinful persons, if they are devotees of bhagavAn, will not be checked by the servitors of yama). These are the messages which they [yama and his servitors] discuss among themselves. thiruchchandha viruththam 116 “mARu seydha …” (If SrI rAma who destroyed lankA for the sake of sIthAp pirAtti does not abandon me, can yama check my historical sins and punish me?) Does he have the ability to check the servitors of SrI rAma, the son of emperor dhaSaratha. [An incident from the life of parASara bhattar is explained] During an uthsavam, bhattar was with a great assembly of SrIvaishNavas. Some SrIvaishNavas come and inform him “It is time for sandhyAvandhanam”. bhattar responded “We are immersed in the divine beauty of perumAL; if we delay our duty a little bit, can yama consider this as a mistake and question us? When a king is listening to the accounts and balances of various people, and if the name of a close confidante of the king is read out, the king would say ‘Alright! Skip that name and read further’ and thereafter that close confidante’s name will never be read out”; in this context, thirumangai AzhwAr mercifully said in periya thirumozhi 6.3.9 “unakkAgith thoNdu patta nallEnai vinaigaL naliyAmai nambu nambI” (Oh perfect lord! Ensure that I who am fully existing for you and serving you, am not bothered by my sins). periya thirumozhi 8.10 .8 “vaLLalE un thamarkku enRum naman thamar kaLLar pOl” (Oh generous lord! For your devotees, the servitors of yama are like lowly beings) – both of them [i.e., your devotees and yama’s servitors] cannot travel in the same route. periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.4.4 ‘kodumai seyyum …‘ (yama who gives out cruel punishments cannot enter where I rule) – when asked “What if yama’s servitors happen to cross the path of your devotees?” – as said in same pAsuram “thadavaraith thOL chakkara pANI sArngavil sEvaganE” (Oh one who has vast mountain like shoulders, divine chakra in the hand and the valorous one with SArnga bow), he will send his divine chakra and remove the shoulder, shoot an arrow to knock down the head and so on. They will go through the same fate as bANAsura and rAvaNa. periya thirumozhi 10.6.5 “vENdAmai naman thamarai en thamar vinavap peRuvAr alar enRu ulagEzhANdAn” (He protected the worlds, to highlight that yama’s servitors cannot question his devotees, since it was his own wish) – yama’s servitors cannot question my devotees. What is the reason for that? vENdAmai – he himself wished that it does not happen. Can a general clerk enter the private quarters of the king and assess the situation there? emperumAn who says as in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.9.2 “seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr” (even if they commit mistakes, it was done for good purpose), will not lead his devotees to yama’s servitors. thirumAlai 1 “nin nAmam kaRRa Avalippudaimai – naman thamar thalaigaL mIdhE – nAvalittuzhitharuginROm” (with victorious war-cry, we walk on the heads of yama and his servitors, due to the pride of learning your divine names). As said in SrIvishNu purANam 8.7.14 “prabavathi samyamanE” (he can punish me too) – he who is controlling me, is unlike me who can control [just] you; I can only assess someone when they are present in front of me; but he is present everywhere.
- nALum kodu vinai seyyum kURRin thamargaLum kuRugagillAr – Can they approach me due to being used to torment me previously, even after I have taken my first step towards bhagavAn?
- kuRugagillAr – mahAbhAratham “nirdhOsham vidhdhi tham” (he should be thought as defectless) – even if we took birth and died, having accomplished nothing, and even if he has committed unpardonable sins; still he should be thought as defectless only. When there are defects, why should we consider in this manner? prabhAvAth – Should we see him? [No] Should we not see whom he has surrendered unto? [Yes] If we analyse him, that means, we are limiting bhagavAn’s mercy.
- killAr – Is there anyone who goes near burning fire? It is not that they wont approach him based on the orders of bhagavAn, the controller; but would one not want to save oneself?
- vidam udai … – Now prApyam (attainable goal) is explained further.
- vidam udai – Like a thorn fence for tender coconut, no one can get close to him; as said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 66 “vAyndha madhu kaidabarum vayiRurugi mANdAr” ( those demons madhu and kaitabha who came there got killed by having their bowels rotting), the enemies will be finished.
- aravu – It would have softness, coolness, fragrance etc matching the serpent species.
- paLLi virumbinAn – He is mercifully resting there as explained in paryanka vidhyA [Explained in detail in thiruvAimozhi 2.8 “aNaivadhu aravaNai mEl” decad]. As said in “thamEmvamvith pAdhEnAdhyArOhathi” (knowing him thus, he sets foot on AdhiSEsha and climbs there) – one can climb on the serpent bed, by stepping on it.
- surumbu alaRRum – The beetles will do what is done by mukthas as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “Ethath sAma gAyannAsthE” (The liberated soul is singing sAma gAnam).
- thadam udai vayal – The ponds will resemble virajA river and other divine water bodies.
- ananthapura nagar – This abode resembles kalangAp peru nagaram (the unshakable great abode – paramapadham).
- pugudhum inRE – It is not possible to remain peaceful thinking “let us reach there in due course”; let us go and reach there today itself, when we have acquired the desire.
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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