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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 29

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

<< பாசுரம் 28

எந்தை எதிராசர் இவ்வுலகில் எந்தமக்கா

வந்துதித்த நாள் என்னும் வாசியினால் இந்தத்

திருவாதிரை தன்னின் சீர்மை தனை நெஞ்சே

ஒருவாமல் எப்பொழுதும் ஓர் 

இருபத்தொன்பதாம் பாசுரம். இந்த நன்னாளான சித்திரையில் திருவாதிரையின் வைபவத்தை எப்பொழுதும் நினைத்திரு என்று தன் நெஞ்சைக் குறித்து அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நெஞ்சே! எமக்கு ஸ்வாமியான யதிராஜர் இந்த உலகத்திலே வந்துதித்த பெருமை பெற்ற நாளான சித்திரையில் திருவாதிரையின் சிறப்பைத் தவறாமல் எக்காலத்திலும் ஆராய்ந்து அனுபவிக்கவும்.

முந்தைய பாசுரங்களில் உலகத்தவர்களுக்கு உபதேசித்தார். இப்பாசுரத்திலே தானே இந்த நன்னாளின் வைபவத்தில் ஈடுபட்டு அனுபவிக்கிறார். எம்பெருமானார் தாமே “அகில ஜகத் ஸ்வாமின்! அஸ்மத் ஸ்வாமின்” (எல்லா உலகுக்கும் நாதனே! எனக்கு நாதனே!) என்று எம்பெருமான் விஷயமாக ஸ்ரீகத்யத்தில் அனுபவித்ததைப் போலே, இவரும் கீழ்ப் பாசுரங்களில் எம்பெருமானார் உலகுக்குச் செய்த நன்மையை அனுபவித்து, இப்பாசுரத்தில் தனக்குச் செய்த நன்மையை அனுபவிக்கிறார்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.2 – thagavilai

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, as parAnguSa nAyaki speaks in this manner, to sustain her, emperumAn embraces her repeatedly. Seeing that, she says “while I get ultimate bliss in your union, when I think that you will leave, all that bliss becomes illusion like waking up from a dream in the sleep, and hence I am suffering”. This can also be considered as speaking about previously occurred union.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

thagavilai thagavilaiyE nI kaNNA! thada mulai puNardhoRum puNarchchikkArAch
chuka veLLam visumbiRandhu aRivai mUzhkkach chUzhndhu adhu kanavena nIngi AngE
aga uyir agam agandhORum uL pukku Aviyin param alla vEtkai andhO!
miga miga ini unnaip pirivaiyAmAl vIva nin pasu nirai mEykkap pOkkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kaNNA – Oh krishNa (who is known to be obedient towards girls)!
nI – you
thagvilai thgavilaiyE – are not having mercy in any manner (matching such obedience);

(even when you are present and united with me)
thada – expansive (to be praised by you)
mulai – bosoms
puNardhoRum – every moment you embrace
puNarchchikku – for that embrace
ArA – uncontrollable, great
suka veLLam – ocean of bliss
visumbu iRandhu – going beyond (endless) sky
aRivai – intellect too
mUzhkka – to be subdued
sUzhndhu – surrounded

(immediately)
adhu kanavena – as a dream
nIngi – faded away
AngE – in that situation
aga uyir – where the prANa (vital air) which is inside
agam agam thORum – in every spot
uL pukku – entering inside
Aviyin – for the AthmA (which is the abode)
param alla – intolerable
vEtkai – desire (increased);
andhO! – alas! (I am unfortunate to inform this to you who are with me now!)
ini – now

(at this point, you have to do this)
miga miga – further
unnai – you
pirivaiyAm Al – to handle the separation
nin – your
pasu nirai mEykkap pOkku – going to tend the cows for their grazing
vIva – should avoid.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh krishNa! You are not having mercy in any manner; every moment you embrace my expansive bosoms, I am surrounded with uncontrollable, great ocean of bliss which goes beyond the sky, and my intellect is subdued too; but that experience faded away as a dream, and my desire increased in the AthmA to become intolerable as it entered inside every spot  where the prANa is present; alas! Now, to handle separation from you, you should avoid any further intent on going to tend the cows for their grazing.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • thagavilai … – (You krishNa, have no mercy) krishNa is popularly known to be the property of girls. But you, who are the property of girls, remain merciless. 

krishNa says “You are telling me that I am merciless! I did not think about leaving you and neither have I left you” and tightly embraced her to sustain her.

  • thada mulai … – Even if he embraced her million times, she will think “he is embracing me to separate from me” and her body will become pale when his hands relaxed from the tight embrace; he will see that and embrace her to pacify her and this will keep repeating. Though this could mean the union in the past, it is more apt to speak about the union in present only.
  • thada mulai – emperumAn is going through the same emotions which those who try to know him, go through [her bosoms are so expansive to be able to easily comprehend]; one cannot enjoy them fully; the ultimate enjoyability which cannot be fully enjoyed even by emperumAn himself who is the ultimate enjoyer.
  • puNarchchikku ArAch chuka veLLam – The ocean of bliss which cannot be controlled even after the union. The bliss matches the nature of the couple uniting. Just as his svarUpam cannot be determined to be in a particular manner, his excellent enjoyability cannot be determined; her desire is as explained in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.10 “adhanil periya avA” (my desire which is greater than everything).
  • puNardhoRum puNarchchikku ArAch chuka veLLam – Alternative explanation – That is, union happens rarely, but the bliss remains eternally. It is said in kuRundhogai 3 “nilaththinum peridhE vAninum uyarndhanRu, nIrinum AraLavinRE sAral, karungOl kuRinjip pUk koNdu perundhEn izhaikkum nAdanodu natpE” (The heroine says – my love for nAdan (her beloved) is longer than earth, taller than sky and deeper than ocean. Just as honey extracted from the kuRinji flower will be taken to bee-hive, I will be taken home by him). Just as honey is extracted from kuRinji flower to be enjoyed.

When asked “How big is this bliss?” She says,

  • visumbu … – AkAsam (ether) is the one which gives space for all entities; even making that look very small, and further, the bliss makes the knowledge which was acquired by the divine blessing of emperumAn also look very small. Alternative explanation – visumbu indicates paramapadham – mOksham (ultimate bliss) is explained in thirukkuRaL 1103 as “thAmaraik kaNNan ulagu” (the abode of lotus eyed lord). Hence – going beyond thripAdh vibhUthi [paramapadham which is three times the size of samsAram], it subdued ubhaya vibhUthi (both spiritual and material realms) and my intelligence.
  • adhu kanavena nIngi – It faded away just as a dream will disappear. On seeing its vastness, I thought there is no end to it; on seeing it disappear, it felt like a flood drained and the ground underneath became hot. One who united in such manner, separated. The endless union is explained as dream and magic; this union too remains endless.
  • AngE – In that situation.
  • aga uyir – The heart which is the abode of prANa.
  • agam agandhORum – Every spot in the heart. [Will the mind be expansive to have many spots?] Due to previous, special unions, the heart remains expansive. The union and separation will cause space in the heart; sorrow will fill in all of those spots.
  • Aviyin param alla vEtkai – The eagerness is not limited to the atomic nature of the AthmA; bhUthaththAzhwAr too said in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 100enRan aLavanRAl yAnudaiya anbu” (my love is not limited to my size); the desire is beyond the abode [AthmA] on which it exists. There are three states in an AthmA – sukham (in the state of joy), dhu:kham (in the state of sorrow) and svarUpENAvasthi (neutral state); did I get to remain in the neutral state!
  • andhO! – It is sad that you have to learn this from me! While both of us enjoy in union, in separation, I have to explain the sorrow to you! While the union is equal for both, the sorrow is just for me!

When asked “So, what needs to be done?” she says,

  • nin pasu nirai mEykkap pOkku – vIva – You should not go to tend your cows.

When asked “Why should I not go?” she says,

  • miga miga ini unnaip pirivaiyAmAl – Since it will lead to further separation from you.
  • pirivai – This is poetic way of saying pirivu. Avoid going to tend the cows, which will lead to separation. pOkku is singular. Just as it is said “pasu vandhana” (cow[s] came, where pasu is singular indicating the group, vandhana is in plural), pOkkugaL (travels, plural) is mentioned as pOkku (travel, singular).
  • ini vIva – Though you have gone previously, at least going forward, you should avoid going.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 85 – then thillai

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then thillaich chiththira kUdaththu en selvanai
minni mazhai thavazhum vEngadaththem viththaganai                                   124
mannai mAlirunjOlai maNALanai
konnavilum Azhip padiyAnaik kOttiyUr                                                                 125

Word by word meaning

then thillaich chiththirakUdaththu en selvanai – the wealthy entity (who has taken residence) at thillai chiththira kUtam, which is in the southern direction
mazhai – clouds
minni – shining brightly
thavazhum – coming to, gently
thiruvEngadam – at thiruvEngadamalai (one who has taken residence)
em viththaganai – one who has amazing qualities and activities, for us
mannanai – as the supreme lord
mAlirunjOlai maNALanai – as the bridegroom who has taken residence at thirumAlirunjOlai
kol navilum Azhi padaiyAnai – one who has as his weapon, the divine disc which is capable of annihilating enemies
kOttiyUr – at thirukkOttiyUr

 vyAkyAnam

then thillai chiththirakUdaththu en selvanai – one who is reclining at the beautiful thillai thiruchiththirakUdam as a very wealthy entity. Alternatively, one who has the wealth of beauty.

minni mazhai thavazhum vEngadaththu em viththaganai – the cloud, which is an achEthana (one without knowledge), crawls through the key hole at thirumalai after the temple has been closed, to carry out thiruvArAdhanam (worshipping emperumAn as per the procedure laid down in SAsthras), carrying lightning with it to provide light. He is such an amazing entity that the cloud does all these. Alternatively, just as it is mentioned in various pAsurams (from the collection of 4000 dhivya prabandham), such as nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 8-4 “vEngadaththuth thannAgath thirumangai thangiya sIr mArvaRku” (to emperumAn in whose divine chest, SrI mahAlakshmi has taken residence); thiruvAimozhi 6-10-10alarmElmangai uRai mArvA – thiruvEngadaththAnE” (Oh one who is dwelling at thiruvEngadam and in whose divine chest pirAtti is dwelling); periya thirumozhi 6-10-6 “minnoththa nuNmarungul melliyalaith thirumArvil mannaththAn vaiththugandhAn” (emperumAn who is very joyous after fittingly carrying SrI mahAlakshmi who has a waist similar to lightning and who has a very soft nature, on his divine chest), it could be considered that AzhwAr is referring to emperumAn’s dark, divine form in which he is carrying the golden hued pirAtti as minni mazhai thavazhum. Did not the ancient vEdhas refer to him as in nArAyaNa sUktham “neelathOyatha madhyasthA vidhyullEka . . ” (emperumAn has a dark form across which mahAlakshmi resides as a ray of lightning) and in thamizh vEdham (thiruvAimozhi) as “neelamuNda minnanna mEni ” (divine form of emperumAn with a streak of lightning)!

mannanai mAlirunjOlai maNALanai – the person who held my hand [as in marriage] is the king for the whole land! The implied meaning here is that he has given up on me just because he is the king of the land.

konnavalum AzhippadaiyAnai – one who has the deadly weapon of divine disc which is feared much because of its restiveness in killing enemies such as namuchi (son of mahAbali) et al.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 45 (Names 441 to 450)

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441) nakshathranEmi: (नक्षत्रनॆमिः)

Since bhagavAn guides the constellations, he is called ‘nakshathranEmi:’. The root ‘nee’ नी (to guide) gets the ‘mi’ (मिः) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘nEmi:’.

The vishNu purANa says thus:

“Since bhagavAn sets the constellations – which are like fire globules – into motion by cycles of wind and thus effects those constellations, he is called ‘pravaha’. Thus, he spins all the celestial bodies such as moon, sun, and other planets. All the celestial bodies including the constellations – which are thus set into motion by bhagavAn – finally revolve around him in a cycle”.

Etymology: He who guides the glorious stellar constellations by spinning them (setting them into motion), and whom the constellations come around in such motion is called ‘nakshatranEmi:’.

यॊ नक्षत्रात्मकं चक्रं ज्यॊतीरूपमनामयम् |
नयति भ्रामयति यं भ्रमन्तमनुयाति तत् |
नक्षत्रनॆमिः स ज्ञॆयॊ नवार्णॊ भ्रमनायकः ||

442) nakshathrI (नक्षत्री)

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “The stellar form of bhagavAn that is called as ‘SimSumAra’ in the skies is supported by nArAyaNa himself who resides in the heart of that constellation.”

Thus, since bhagavAn supports SimSumAra chakra, he is called ‘nakshathrI’.

Etymology: He whose divine form is the glorious SimSumAra constellation in the sky (or in other words, he who supports the SimSumAra chakra) is called ‘nakshathrI’.

शिंशुमाराकृतिः प्रॊक्तं यद्रूपं ज्यॊतिषां दिवि |
तद्यस्यास्ति स नक्षत्री सप्तार्णॊ लॊकपावनः ||

443) kshama: (क्षमः)

As detailed till now, since bhagavAn bears the weight of all worlds with utmost ease, he is called ‘kshama:’.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “Since bhagavAn bears all the constellations, he is called ‘pravaha’”.

Etymology: He who bears the weight of all worlds with ease is called ‘kshama:’.

अनायासॆन निखिलं भारं च भुवनस्य यः |
सहतॆ स क्षमः प्रॊक्तः षडर्णः क्षान्तिदायकः ||

444) kshAma: (क्षामः) (also repeated in 858)

During the intermediate deluge (called ‘naimiththika praLayam’), when all other stars are gone, this constellation remains in a subdued state. Hence bhagavAn in the form of SimSumAra is called ‘kshAma:’. The root ‘kshai’ क्षै (reduction) gets the ‘ma:’ (मः) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

The vishNu purANa hails thus:

“The four great stars in the SimSumAra do not die at deluge”

“Oh maithrEya, at the time of intermediate deluge, only the regions upto the dhruva maNdala get destroyed and would be submerged under water”

Etymology: Since the SimSumAra consisting of four stars near dhruva maNdala stays on in a subdued state even during the intermediate deluge when all other stars are destroyed, bhagavAn is called ‘kshAma:’.

अवान्तरलयॆ कैश्चित् क्षीणस्तारागणैः सह |

क्षामॊ ध्रुवसमीपस्थः चतुर्नक्षत्रसंयुतः ||

445) samIhana: (समीहनः)

Thereafter, since bhagavAn always engages all the creatures in this creation in their respective designations, he is called ‘samIhana:’.

The thaiththirIya AraNyaka says “All entities keep going around you (for their respective positions)”

The udhyoga parva of mahAbhAratha hails thus:

“That purushOththama – the best among all entities – sets in motion all of the earth, sky, heaven, and all other entities in this creation, as if this a mere sport for him”

Etymology: The one who re-engages every entity in their respective designations at the beginning of creation is called ‘samIhana:’. He is the one who sets every entity in action.

स्वस्याधिकारॆ सर्वान् यः समीहयति सृष्टिषु |
समीहनः स विज्ञॆयस्त्वष्टार्णः कार्यदायकः ||

================================
यज्ञ इज्यॊ महॆज्यश्च क्रतुः सत्रं सतांगतिः ।
सर्वदर्शी निवृत्तात्मा सर्वज्ञॊ ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ॥ ४८ ॥
===============================

446) yagya: (यज्ञः) (also repeated in 971)

Having begun to hail bhagavAn’s glories by saying “…that glorious abode – the third world – where dhruva is situated, is called by the divine name ‘vishNu padham’” etc, the vishNu purANa continues to expound the divine forms of bhagavAn in the dhruva maNdala, clouds, rain, etc in a hierarchy, and finally comes down to ‘yagya’, its limbs and its fruits by saying “This is the divine land of enjoyment of the fruits of yagya. yagya is well established in this place”, “The consumer of havis (agni) is nurtured by feeding him with ghee oblations”, etc. Thus, bhagavAn’s divine form of yagyna is being hailed, and hence he is called as ‘yagya:’ (yagya:).

The root ‘yaj’ यज् (to worship) gets the nang (नङ्) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

The vEdhas openly declare “vishNu himself is yagyna”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is worshipped with yagyas, he is himself called ‘yagya:’.

यज्ञाराध्यतया यज्ञः |

447) ijya: (इज्यः)

bhagavAn accepts worship from lower mortals who desire for mundane benefits (such as wealth, etc) in the form of lower demigods such as indhra and others. Thus, he is called ‘ijya:’ – the one who accepts worship through rituals in the form of demigods.

It is said thus in the SAnthi parva of SrI mahAbhAratha: “Whoever worships the manes, demigods, brAhmaNas, and agni shall indeed be worshipping verily that vishNu who is the indweller of every soul”.

bhagavAn also says thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna, whoever worships the other gods (demigods) would also be worshipping only me (as I am their indweller), but against injunctions (which say that everyone should worship bhagavAn only)”

The vishNu purANa says “That supreme soul vishNu is indeed worshipped by an entity only by following the varna-ASrama principles; there is nothing that pleases bhagavAn other than this”.

All these statements and more show that he is worshipped even for lower material desires through indhra and other demigods.

Etymology: He who is worshipped with various rituals is called ‘ijya:’.

इज्यः कर्मभिरर्चितः |

448) mahEjya: (महॆज्यः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn directly accepts the pure worship of his dear devotees who have no other desire than uniting with him. Hence, he is called ‘mahEjya:’ – the one who is worshipped directly by his dear devotees.

bhagavAn himself describes the mindset of such pure hearted devotees in the bhagavath gIthA thus:

“Those pure souls who submit the fruits of all actions unto me, whose minds are firmly rooted in me alone, and who worship me and meditate upon me….”

He also instructs arjuna in the battlefield thus:

“arjuna, give up the fruits of all actions (submit them unto me), and with a pure heart with no mundane desires or sense of ‘mine’ (mamakAra), go and fight the war”.

Etymology: He who is worshipped greatly is called ‘mahEjya:’. In other words, he who is directly and fondly worshipped by devotees desiring only his union is called ‘mahEjya:’.

इज्या हि महती यस्य स महॆज्य उदाहृतः |

449) krathu: (क्रतुः)

The five mahayagyas (to please five entities such as the god, manes, sages, fellow human beings and animals and the like), aupAsana (औपासन) and other yagyas making up the seven pAka yagyas (involving sacrifices with cooked materials), agnihOthra (अग्निहॊत्र) and other forms of the seven haviryagyas (involving oblations in the fire), the seven types of oblations (सप्तसंस्थाः) such as agnishrtOma (अग्निष्टॊम) etc which are generally termed as ‘yagyn’s, etc are collectively called ‘krathu’s. Since bhagavAn is worshipped through such krathus, he is himself called ‘krathu:’.

The word krathu comes from the fact that such yagyas involve performance of some prescribed actions.

Etymology: agnishtOma and other sacrifices consisting of the ‘saptha-samsthA’ and other such sacrifices are collectively called ‘krathu’s. Since bhagavAn is worshipped through such sacrifices, he is called ‘krathu:’.

अग्निष्टॊमादयः सप्तसंस्थाः क्रतव ईरिताः |
आराध्यः क्रियतॆ तैरित्यसौ क्रतुरुदीरितः ||

450) sathram (सत्रम्)

The type of sacrifice conducted for a long duration involving many yajamAnas (performers of rituals) is called ‘sathram’. Since bhagavAn is worshipped through ‘sathram’s at all times and therefore attained by all such worshippers, he is called ‘sathram’.

The word ‘sath’ (सत्) gets the ‘thra’ (त्र) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: The sacrifices that are conducted for long durations such as for several months by several yajamAnas are called ‘sathra’s. Since bhagavAn is worshipped through such sathras and therefore becomes their final goal, he is called ‘sathram’.

अनॆक यजमानॆ च दीर्घॆ मासादि चॊदितॆ |
सत्रॆ तैराराध्यतया सत्रं स्यात् सीदतीति सः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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