Daily Archives: October 27, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 10.3 – vEymaruthOL

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Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the third decad, AzhwAr eagerly desired to perform kainkaryam in thiruvananthapuram, but did not get the chance to do it, without delay; though he (emperumAn) is residing in the heart to impress upon our intellect with his enjoyability, he being the apt goal, his eagerness in accepting service, since he is having the great fortune of being desired to serve due to our urge, AzhwAr highlights the following aspects about emperumAn:

  1. he being lotus-eyed
  2. he being humble towards devotees
  3. he having beautiful form
  4. he being the protector of devotees
  5. he being united with devotees which is requested by them
  6. his deep/profound nature
  7. his beautiful easy approachability
  8. he having attractive limbs
  9. his distinguished lordship
  10. he being enjoyable for devotees

Meditating upon these, unable to bear the delay, unnecessarily doubting about separation, desiring “You, such emperumAn, should not leave me”, he presented his situation in front of emperumAn; AzhwAr is mercifully explaining this in the mood of a gOpikA (cowherd girl) who united with krishNa and feared for his separation doubting about it during the dawn, telling “the harmful aspects will torment with their presence; you should remain here to pacify me; also, when you go out, I am fearing for your safety if demoniac elements come there” on behalf of all cowherd girls in thiruvAyppAdi (SrI gOkulam) to stop the exit of krishNa who is present for all the girls there.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

As AzhwAr could not perform service immediately in thiruvananthapuram, he ended up having to doubt unnecessarily.

AzhwAr was eager to serve along with SrIvaishNavas; but he did not get to go and serve in that abode as he desired. AzhwAr is highlighting his state of his mind through the words of a pirAtti (consort of emperumAn). due to

  • not being able to reach there
  • not being able to serve, matching his eagerness,
  • the impressions from lengthy separation from him and the fear acquired in thinking about the connection with achith (matter/body) since time immemorial,
  • the fear acquired in thinking about ISvara’s svAthanthriyam (freewill) – that is, his freewill of giving himself to SiSupAla but refusing to do so for SrI bharathAzhwAn, and
  • thinking that he does not have the bhakthi to have ISvara come and accept him,

The reasons (all of these listed here) for the removal of his fear previously, has now become the cause for his fear.

  • AzhwAr need not worry about not reaching there immediately. Since AzhwAr is of the nature as said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 34pAlAzhi nI kidakkum paNbai yAm kEttEyum kAlAzhum nenjazhiyum kaN suzhalum” (When I hear about the beauty with which you are reclining in the milk ocean, my legs become weak, my heart melts and my eyes spin around) when he meditates upon emperumAn, as he cannot even take one more step due to overwhelming devotion.
  • AzhwAr need not fear for not getting to serve emperumAn immediately since as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.4pugazhu nal oruvan“, as emperumAn is of the nature of considering anything said [by his devotees] as service rendered. He is of the nature that whatever we think or say, will consider them as service rendered unto him.
  • Now, prahlAdha who was treated inimically by his own father, was saved by bhagavAn who remained closer to him than his father, only to become inimical towards bhagavAn [and eventually realised his mistake and surrendered to bhagavAn again]. Thus, AzhwAr feared for prakruthi sambandham as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.9.10thEREl ennai” (not having faith in me), as in the case of knowledge acquired by one with body which is similar to clarity acquired by a bewildered person; but he need not fear like that since he is having his senses attached to bhagavAn as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.8mudiyAnE“.
  • AzhwAr need not fear for emperumAn‘s svAthanthriyam since he remains the means to get rid of the hurdles as well, as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi” (I will liberate you from all of your sins).
  • AzhwAr need not fear for not having bhakthi since he held prapaththi (surrender) [in turn bhagavAn himself] as the means.

Now, AzhwAr is in this state due to not having the physical vision which will make him forget this samsAra as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran idham SarIram” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm). AzhwAr’s lengthy separation from emperumAn makes him remain confused, to be separated even while being together [In previous decad, AzhwAr enjoyed thiruvananthapuram as if being in paramapadham], where emperumAn’s physical presence is of no use [This can also be seen as AzhwAr speaking in the mood of a gOpikA who is with emperumAn, but still fearing separation]. As the material body is present where there is scope for separation from emperumAn, AzhwAr is still tormented. This confusion in AzhwAr’s is due to being blessed by bhagavAn himself with unblemished knowledge and devotion, due to the mercy of bhagavAn himself, in the form of parabhakthi and which is a result of taste towards him. Now, AzhwAr’s confusion will be eliminated only if ISvara is placed with him in a place where he cannot move away.

A pirAtti (consort, a gOpikA) who united with krishNa and subsequently separated for a long time, reunited with him again; while he was with her, during the dawn time when he previously separated from her, she observed many signs matching that time (period) of the day such as blowing of high winds, cuckoos singing, peacocks dancing, as the cows and calves start going towards the forest for grazing and thought “he won’t stop leaving now; as he needs to protect the cows, he will not remain here with us; hence, he must have left” and determined that he has left while he was with her there; in his presence, she started feeling the pain which she previously endured in his absence in thiruvAimozhi 9.5innuyirch chEval” and thiruvAimozhi 9.9malligai kamazh thenRal” etc. This danger cannot be eliminated even by sarvaSakthi (omnipotent lord). That is – it is not that he is away and he can come and eliminate the danger; also it is not that he is planning to go and he drops that plan. Suffering in this manner, she says “You will certainly not avoid going to herd the cows; your separation is not to my liking; hence, I feel that I should stop you from leaving; my mouth is dry now; to remedy this situation, you should place your hand on my head; you should not go to herd the cows; I am fearing for you thinking ‘if you go to tend the cows in the dangerous forest, what will happen to you due to the asuras and rAkshasas (demoniac persons)?’ ” [Will a gOpikA have such motherly affection?] Now, as said in subhAla upanishath “mAthA pithA brAthA nivAsa: SaraNam suhrudh gathir nArAyaNa:” (nArAyaNa is mother, father, brother, residence, refuge, well-wisher, goal), since he remains as all types of relatives, when the AthmA acquires sambandha gyAnam (knowledge about the relationships with emperumAn), the AthmA will experience various types of separations as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 18.68 “yadhA yadhA hi” (kausalyA assumed various moods such as servitor, friend, wife etc with dhaSaratha at appropriate times). Thus, as she suffers saying “I will not survive if you leave me”, he contemplates all of these and says “Alright. I won’t go” and makes her understand that and sustains her and completes this decad.

With this, the ultimate stage of thAdharthyam (existing fully for bhagavAn) is explained. He determined the same in thiruvAimozhi 2.9emmA vIdu” saying in thiruvAimozhi 2.9.4thanakkEyAga enaikkoLLum IdhE” (to be fully dependent on him); this is even firmer than that. There, AzhwAr said “you should accept me [for your pleasure, not mine]”; but here AzhwAr is saying “you can be with me or you can be with others; all I need is your satisfaction”. There, when he said “enakku” (for me), it was said to make sure that it becomes purushArtham (which is desired by the individual). That is only to distinguish the self from achith (matter), emperumAn will not be the goal, if one does not desire for him and he too will not engage desirously with such person.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 42 (Names 411 to 420)

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411) pruthu: (पृथुः)

bhagavAn is magnanimous even in terms of fame, and hence called ‘pruthu:’ – the famous one.

The root ‘pratha’ (प्रथ) comes in the context of fame and gets the ‘ku’ (कु) adjunct per grammatical rules, thus resulting in this divine name.

SrImath rAmAyana hails bhagavAn thus:

  • “He is the one with wealth of fame; He is the son of the ruler (dhaSaratha)”
  • “He is famous among the people by the name ‘rAma’”
  • “rAma is the most famous in this world”
  • “He is the sole entity eligible of popularity”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s fame is exceedingly high, he is called ‘pruthu:’ by the learned.

यशॊविस्तारवत्त्वाच्च पृथुरित्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

412) hiraNyagarbha: (हिरण्यगर्भः) (also repeated in 71)

Even to the souls who are being born in this world after his lifetime on this earth, since rAma is easily accessible by other means such as meditation etc, he is called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’ – the one with a golden hue in the minds of people.

bhagavAn considers the minds of his devotees as the most beneficial and most desirable place for him to reside, and thus he resides there as the most auspicious object for their meditation. Alternately, he is well hidden from the view of common people, and is comparable to glittering gold due to his shining hue. Thus, he is aptly called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’.

The same purport is also shown in the manthra varNas thus: “That indweller of all souls is indeed to be meditated”

Etymology: bhagavAn rAma resides in the hearts of his devotees considering them to be the most beneficial and likeable place for him, and is indeed the most auspicious object for their meditation. Thus, he is called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’. Alternately, he is called thus since he can be likened to glittering gold due to his shining hue.

हितस्य रमणीयस्य ध्यातॄणां हृदयस्य हि |
हिरण्यगर्भस्वन्तस्थः स शुभाश्रयणः स्मृतः |
यद्वा हिरण्यगर्भॊsसौ हिरण्यनिधिसाम्यतः ||

413) Sathrughna: (शत्रुघ्नः)

bhagavAn prevents all such devotees who meditate upon him from falling into the coop of materialistic pursuits by controlling their senses that act like rAvana with his powerful bows called ‘intellect’. Thus, he is called ‘Sathrughna:’ – the slayer of enemies.

The root ‘han’ (हन्) means to kill, and it gets the ‘tak’ (टक्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘ghna:’.

The sAthvatha samhithA says the same thing while meditating upon bhagavAn: “He is the one who controls and pacifies the rAkshasa with ten heads (rAvana) namely the ten sense organs with his bows of intellect”

Etymology: He who slays the enemies called ‘senses’ (of those who meditate upon him) is called ‘Sathrughna:’.

शत्रून् इन्द्रियवर्गान् यॊ हन्ति शत्रुघ्न उच्यतॆ |

414) vyAptha: (व्याप्तः)

bhagavAn displays his affection towards the innocent, aged, masters, servants, enemies, friends and everyone else alike. Hence, he is called ‘vyAptha:’ – the loving one.

This is as shown in the SrImath rAmAyana thus:

  • “rAma enquires about the well being of the residents of ayOdhyA, just as he would enquire his own kinsmen”
  • “rAma enquires the brAhmaNas about their children, their duties (agnikAryam, etc), their families, their disciples, et al, just as a loving father would enquire from his son”
  • “rAma is affectionate even about his enemies”, etc.

Etymology: The one who is highly revered by everyone alike (with no difference of high class, low class, et al) due to his unbiased affection towards them is called ‘vyAptha:’.

सर्वपूज्यॊsविशॆषॆण व्यापनाद्व्याप्त उच्यतॆ |

415) vAyu: (वायुः)

Further, bhagavAn is called ‘vAyu:’, since he only goes to every place in order to meet every individual soul.

The root ‘vA’ (वा) gets the ‘uN’ (उण्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

SrImath rAmAyana hails thus:

  • “That slayer of enemies and the one with extreme effulgence went to Sabari’s ASrama”
  • “…having reached the ASrama of bharadhvAja…”
  • “…having reached guha’s residence…”, et al.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘vAyu:’ since he only goes to every place to meet all of his dear devotees such as bharadvAja, guha, Sabari, et al.

तत्र तत्र स्थितान् सर्वान् भरद्वाजगुहादिकान् |
गच्छति स्वयमॆवैतान् स वायुरिति शब्द्यतॆ ||

416) adhOkshaja: (अधॊक्षजः)

Although bhagavAn is being experienced by every individual soul continuously, yet he is like the ocean of nectar that never diminishes. Hence, he is called ‘adhOkshaja:’.

The same trait is shown in SrImath rAmAyana thus:

  • “I know you to be superior to dhEvas, the slayer of demon named ‘madhu’, and the one whose greatness never diminishes”
  • “rAma, your fame never diminishes”, etc.

Etymology: Although being experienced by everyone continuously, yet bhagavAn’s greatness never diminishes – just like the nectarine ocean, because of which he is called ‘adhOkshaja:’.

सदॊपभुज्यमानॊsपि सर्वैरमृतसिन्धुवत् |
अधॊ न क्षीयतॆ जातु यस्मात् तस्मादधॊक्षजः ||

================================
ऋतुः सुदर्शनः कालः परमॆष्ठी परिग्रहः ।
उग्रः संवत्सरॊ दक्षॊ विश्रामॊ विश्वदक्षिणः ॥ ४५ ॥
===============================

417) ruthu: (ऋतुः)

bhagavAn always moves his devotees with his ever growing delighting auspicious divine qualities. Hence, he is called ‘ruthu:’ – the one who moves.

The root ‘ru’ ऋ (to move) gets the ‘thu’ (तु) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. For the same reason, even the seasons like vasantha, shishira, etc get their name as ‘ruthu’.

SrImath rAmAyana glorifies this attribute of bhagavAn thus:

“The denizens of ayOdhya delighted in the presence of rAma just as much as the people suffering from the scorching heat of summer would cherish the rains”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘Ruthu:’ since he moves his devotees with his ever delightful qualities.

ऋच्छतीति ऋतुः प्रॊक्तः सर्वॊल्लासकरैर्गुणैः |

418) sudharSana: (सुदर्शनः)

Even the ignorant souls who are not aware of the greatness of rAma’s divine qualities are attracted by the sheer beauty of rAma. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘sudharSana:’ – the beautiful one.

SrImath rAmAyana hails bhagavAn beauty in all possible ways thus:

  • “He is as beautiful as the moon”
  • “He is the only one in this world who always appears very pleasing to the eyes”, etc

Etymology: He whose form is itself auspicious (and attractive) for the ignorant ones is called “sudharSana:”.

मन्दानां च शुभं यस्य दर्शनं स सुदर्शनः |

419) kAla: (कालः)

With such divine beauty and auspicious qualities, since bhagavAn attracts every single soul towards himself, he is called ‘kAla:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kAla:’ since he draws every single soul towards himself by displaying his divine qualities and form.

चराचराणां कलनात् कालः स्वस्मिन् गुणैरसौ |

420) paramEshtI (परमॆष्ठी)

Thus, after having hunted down the demons for the sake of protecting the world, since bhagavAn gets back to his supreme abode, he is called ‘paramEshtI’.

The word ‘parama:’ (परमः) refers to the supreme abode SrI vaikuNtam. The root ‘sthA’ स्था (to stand) is adjoined with ‘parama’, and gets the ‘ini’ (इनि) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. By grammatical rules, the ‘sthA’ (स्था) gets converted to ‘shta’ (ष्ठ).

SrImath rAmAyana says thus: “rAma, along with his divine body and followers, ascended to his supreme effulgence of SrI vaikuNtam”

The same feat is also hailed in mahAbhAratha thus: “Thus, oh king, the scion of the ikshvAku clan SrI rAma ascended to the supreme abode after having slain rAvana and all of his followers” (sabha parva)

Etymology: Since bhagavAn resides in paramapadham (after the end of incarnation as SrI  rAma), he is called ‘paramEshtI’.

परॆ पदॆ स्थितत्वाच्च परमॆष्ठी प्रकीर्तितः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 82 – pinnaimaNALanai

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pinnai maNALanaip pEril piRappiliyai                                                      118
thonnIrk kadal kidandha thOLA maNichchudarai
en manaththu mAlai idavendhai Isanai                                                 119

Word by word meaning

pinnai maNALanai – being the consort of nappinnai pirAtti (nILA dhEvi)
pEril piRappu iliyai – dwelling at thiruppErnagar, being ready forever [to protect his followers]
thol nIr kadal kidandha – one who reclined on the ocean during the time of great deluge
thOLA maNi sudarai – being the radiance of gem which has not been pierced
en manaththu mAlai – one who has deep love for me and who never leaves my mind
idavendhai Isanai  – supreme being who has taken residence at thiruvidavendhai 

vyAkyAnam

vallavAzh pinnai maNALanai – one who is standing [taking residence] at thiruvallavAzh, manifesting the beauty after marrying nappinnaip pirAtti.

pEril piRappiliyai – one who is dwelling at thiruppEr nagar, with the desire to take thousands of incarnations, even though he has taken many incarnations earlier for the sake of his followers, considering them as not being  purposeful.

piRappili – this shows that the supreme being considers in his divine mind that in the incarnations that he had undertaken earlier, he has not done anything.

thol nIr kidandha thOLA maNichchudarai – even though he is constantly with nithyasUris in paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam), the supreme being thinks that he is alone and feels sorrowful, as mentioned in the sayin g “sa EkAkI na ramEtha” (that supreme being does not enjoy being alone); thus, he creates chEthanas (those with knowledge) and in order to uplift them, takes the first incarnation in thiruppARkadal (milky ocean), shining effulgently, like the radiance of a gemstone which had not been pierced.

thol nIr – this is the seedling for the crops of vibhava and archAvathAras (incarnations in thiruppARkadal and various divine abodes).

thOLA manichchudarai en manaththu mAlai – this would also mean one who has deep affection for me and took residence in my heart, as a result of which he became splendorous. For sarvESvara (the supreme entity), places such as thiruppARkadal are meant for carrying out certain tasks [for the sake of his followers] and are like bAlAlaya [temporary place where emperumAn is located when the sanctum sanctorum is under maintenance/repair] whereas the hearts of followers are the desired places to attain. thaiththirIya upanishath nArAyaNavalli says “viSvasyAyathanam mahath” (for sarvESwaran, heart is the huge temple); nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 3-8-2nenjamE nINagarAga irundha en thanjanE” (Oh my companion, who considers my heart as a huge city!); there are also others who had prayed as in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 54iLam kOyil kaividEl” (just because you have taken residence in my heart, please do not give up your residence in places such as thiruppARkadal).

AzhwAr cites an example for the last mentioned . . . .

idavendhai Isanai – one who is shining at thiruvidavendhai since he is with his beloved, bhUmippirAtti (bhUdhEvi). Since he is the consort of bhUmippirAtti, he is dwelling there manifesting that he is the supreme being.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 26

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சீர்த்த மதுரகவி செய் கலையை ஆர்த்த புகழ்

ஆரியர்கள் தாங்கள் அருளிச்செயல் நடுவே 

சேர்வித்தார் தாற்பரியம் தேர்ந்து 

இருபத்தாறாம் பாசுரம். ஆழ்வார்களின் அருளிச்செயல்களுக்கு அர்த்தங்களை நிர்ணயமாகக் காட்டிக் கொடுத்த ஆசார்யர்கள் இவருடைய திவ்ய ப்ரபந்தத்தின் பெருமையை ஆராய்ந்து அருளிச்செயலின் மத்தியிலே இதைச் சேர்த்தார்கள் என்பதை ஒரு உதாரணத்துடன் விளக்குகிறார்.

சொற்களின் பூர்த்தியும் பொருளின் பூர்த்தியும் நிரம்பப் பெற்றதான பெரிய திருமந்த்ரம் என்று சொல்லப்படும் அஷ்டாக்ஷரத்தின் நடுவிலே காணப்படும் “நம:” பதத்துக்கு எவ்வளவு சிறப்போ, அதைப் போலவே சிறப்புடைத்தான, உயர்ந்தவரான மதுரகவி ஆழ்வாரின் அற்புதப் படைப்பான கண்ணிநுண் சிறுத்தாம்பை பெரு மதிப்பை உடையவர்களான ஆசார்யர்கள் இதன் தாத்பர்யத்தை உணர்ந்து ஆழ்வார்களின் அருளிச்செயல் நடுவே எப்பொழுதும் சேர்த்து அநுஸந்திக்கும்படி அமைத்தார்கள்.

நம:” பதம் பாகவத சேஷத்வத்தை, அதாவது அடியார்களுக்கு அடியாராக இருக்கும் நிலையைக் காட்டும். மதுரகவி ஆழ்வார் தாமே “தேவு மற்றறியேன்” என்று நம்மாழ்வாரையே தெய்வமாகக் கொண்டு இருந்தார். இந்த உயர்ந்த நிஷ்டையையே தன்னுடைய ப்ரபந்தத்தில் அருளிச்செய்தார். இந்தத் தாத்பர்யத்தை உணர்ந்த ஆசார்யர்கள் இதற்கு ஏற்ற கௌரவத்தைச் செய்தனர்.

அடியேன் ஸாரதி ராமானுஜ தாஸன்

வலைத்தளம் – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/

ப்ரமேயம் (குறிக்கோள்) – http://koyil.org
ப்ரமாணம் (க்ரந்தங்கள்) – http://granthams.koyil.org
ப்ரமாதா (ஆசார்யர்கள்) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
ஸ்ரீவைஷ்ணவக் கல்வி வலைத்தளம் – http://pillai.koyil.org