SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 8 (Names 71 to 80)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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71. hiraNyagarbha:  (हिरण्यगर्भः) (also repeated in 412)

He is called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’,   since he  is characterized by his  supreme abode befitting of his  divine experience.

The faultless, excellent, eternal, supreme abode comprising completely of sAthvika materials is comparable to pure gold. Alternately, ‘hiraNya’ (हिरण्य) also refers to ‘beneficial’ (hitham  हितम्) and ‘beautiful’ (ramaNIyam रमणीयम्). Thus, ‘hiraNyam’ refers to the supreme  abode of vishNu, which is SrIvaikuNtam. The word ‘garbha’ refers to bhagavAn’s  residence within that supreme abode.

The vEdhas  say thus in this relation:

  • “The knower of self indeed knows that supreme brahman,  who is pristine, pure and highly effulgent, who resides in that supreme abode which is full of glitter like the gold and free from all blemishes”
  • “The sun doesn’t light up there…”
  • “The abode of dhEvas/nithyasUris is called ‘ayOdhyA’ (SrIvaikuNtam), which has a golden trove. In that golden abode – also called ‘aparAjithA’,  the liberated souls enter” etc

Etymology: Since the supreme  abode SrIvaikuNtam is comparable to pure gold in its luster, it is called ‘hiraNya’. He is called ‘hiraNyagarbha’, who resides in that abode always.

हिरण्यं परमं धाम हिरण्यस्य समानतः |
हिरण्यगर्भः सः प्रॊक्तः तस्मिन् वसति यः सदा ||

72. bhUgarbha:  (भूगर्भः)

Thereafter, his  lordship over his  divine consorts is shown with two names, the first divine name being bhUgarbha: – the bearer of bhUmA dhEvi.

The word ‘bhU:’  (भूः) refers to bhUmA dhEvi.  She has different names such as ‘bhagavathi’  (भगवती), ‘hrI’ (ह्री), kshamA  (क्षमा), et al. Since she is carefully borne by bhagavAn  at all times with unflinching enjoyment – just as a foetus in the womb, bhagavAn  is called ‘bhUgarbha:’   This is also shown in some places in the vEdhas  thus:

  • “That consort of vishNu  the bhUmA dhEvi, who is ever youthful…”
  • “You were uplifted by varAha…..”  etc
  • The vishNu smrithi  – extensively talks about the relation between bhagavAn and bhUdhEvi.

Etymology: He is called ‘bhUgarbha:’   who bears bhUmAdhEvi  and enjoys her divine experience.

यस्य भूः भरणीयाभूत् भूगर्भॊsनुभवॆन सः |

73. mAdhava:  (माधवः) (also repeated in 169 and 741)

‘mAdhava:’ refers to the divine consort of SrI mahAlakshmi,  who is also known as ‘mA’. The scriptures quote thus about bhagavAn:  “The ruler of all these worlds is that divine consort of vishNu ”, “SrI mahAlakshmi  and bhUmA dhEvi are your divine consorts” etc.

The scriptures professing the highest philosophy have expounded the ever auspicious and faultless divine form of SrI mahAlakshmi  – just as much as her divine nature itself, along with her natural ownership of supreme wealth, her nature of being the mother of all worlds,  and hence her ever-lasting relationship with bhagavAn that can never be severed, et al. in numerous ways. A lot of illustrations can be shown in the vedhas  as well, which have professed the greatness of SrI mahAlakshmi, such as SrI sUktham, SradhdhA sUktham, mEdhA sUktham, uththara nArAyaNam, kaushIthaki brAhmaNam etc.

The vishNu purANa  says thus: “This mother of all worlds – SrI:  (श्रीः) by name – is ever inseparable from SrI vishNu  Just as he is omnipresent and all-pervading, so also SrI mahAlakshmi  is omnipresent and all-pervading”.

Having begun thus to speak about the greatness of SrI mahAlakshmi,  the vishNu purANa further elaborates on her greatness by quoting the incidents of amrutha-manthanam  (अमृतमन्थनम्), the prayer of lord indhra  to mahAlakshmi, et al.

The brahma purANa  says thus: “Her powers are invincible and magnanimous, and she is called by the name ‘vishNu Sakthi’  (विष्णुशक्तिः). She resides in the lotus of heart of all beings, and also manifests herself  in various forms. She is also called ‘prANA’ (प्राणा), the originator of all sacred hymns (manthras), and she  is the eternal divine mother of all worlds”. It further states: “She is dark hued like the lamp-black (अञ्जनम्), devoid of all faulty qualities, and is verily the ‘vyOma’ or the vast sky.

Further, some other scriptures say thus: “She is the sole supreme power of vishNu, , and she is also in refuge of vishNu’s  compassion. She possesses the six qualities (knowledge, powers, et al), and is said to be verily the superior nature of bhagavAn.

She is the only supreme power, who hails as second to vishNu himself. She is the eternal one, who manifests in both superior and inferior forms (superior – in SrIvaikuNtam,  inferior – in our lower worlds). Her divine names are endless, and she is the mistress of the ‘Sakthi chakra’ (शक्तिचक्रः). She pervades all of these sentient and insentient entities in this world, and conducts all activities along with bhagavAn.  With her divine body full of the six divine qualities, she is ever inseparable from bhagavAn vAsudhEva – who is himself the master of all wealth. She stands apart with all her  greatness, although being one with vishNu, just like the cool rays of the moon. She is omnipotent, and is all-pervading. She possesses all the wealth in this world, and always accepts bhagavAn’s dharma as her own. She is verily the life force and is superior to all other souls in this world. She is the origin of all powers, and she is the supreme effulgent goddess” etc. All of these statements and more – in the kakshmi sahasram  – show the greatness of SrI mahAlakshmi.

Further, the same scriptures state thus: “The creative powers are born as a manifestation of lakshmi herself,  and are present all around the world. They indeed stand as the cause of all procreation in this world by the divine order of SrI mahAlakshmi.  Thus, when the divine mother SrI mahAlakshmi – the consort of achyutha – is pleased with someone, these powers confer their fruits upon them all by themselves”.

The greatness of SrI mahAlakshmi  is thus spoken at great length in various scriptures such as all vaishnava smruthis   and dharma SAsthrAs.

Even the SrImath rAmAyana  states the greatness of SrI mahAlakshmi  fully, when it says: “The epic poem rAmAyana is completely the divine story of sIthA”.

The kathOpanishath  says: “bhagavAn vishNu  gains his supremacy only because of his  being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi”.

With all these scriptural declarations and more, the greatness of SrI mahAlakshmi  is clearly depicted. The consort of that SrI mahAlakshmi is only called as ‘mAdhava:’.

Etymology: The consort of SrI mahAlakshmi  – who is alternately called by the divine names ‘ SrI:’ (श्रीः), ‘SradhdhA’  (श्रद्धा), et al – is called as ‘mAdhava:’.

श्रियः श्रद्धादि नाम्न्याश्च पतिः माधव इष्यतॆ |

74. madhusUdhana:  (मधुसूदनः)

Since he  is the controller of all – thus, and since he  is the slayer of asuras and other opponents, and also since he  provides immense wealth, he is called ‘madhusUdhana:’   – the slayer of demon madhu,  or the controller of senses.

The ‘lyu:’  (ल्युः) adjunct is used as per the aphorism ‘नन्द्यादित्वात् ल्युः’, as seen earlier. The same adjunct is used in other names such as ‘nandhana:’  नन्दनः (530), vardhana:  वर्धनः (262), sankarshana: सङ्कर्षणः (556), janArdhana:  जनार्दनः (528), et al.

The sages of yore have given the meaning of this name thus: “He is called ‘madhusUdhana’  since he leads all entities towards him, as well as since he is the slayer of demon named ‘madhu’”.  Residing within the individual soul as the eternal indweller, he attracts all the senses of the liberated and ever liberated souls towards him  alone. This is also why he is called ‘madhusUdhana:’.   The word ‘madhu:’  (मधुः) refers to the internal and external senses. Since he  directs all the senses towards himself, he is called ‘madhusUdhana:’.

Etymology: The one who killed the asura named ‘madhu’  or the one who attracts the senses of all sUris towards himself  is called ‘madhusUdhana:’.

मध्वाख्यम् असुरं हन्ति सूरीणां करणं च वा |
उपसंहरति स्वस्मिन् मधुसूदन इष्यतॆ ||

ईश्वरॊ विक्रमी धन्वी मॆधावी विक्रमः क्रमः ।
अनुत्तमॊ दुराधर्षः कृतज्ञः कृतिरात्मवान् ॥ ९ ॥

75. ISvara:  (ईश्वरः) (also repeated in 36)

The one who sports an undeterred free will, even while being in the boundless supreme land of enjoyment is called ‘ISvara:‘  – the undaunted ruler. This is shown in the scriptural statements thus:

  • “His desires are unfaltering and ever fulfilled”
  • “He freely moves to places where he  so desires” etc

Etymology: Since he  is the unfettered ruler, and the one who enjoys such ruling, he  is called ‘ISvara: ‘.

ईशनात् रमणाच्चापि ईश्वरः परिकीर्तितः |

76. vikramI (विक्रमी) (also repeated in 909)

His capability of impeding his  adversaries is shown by this divine name ‘vikramI’ – the valorous. The adjunct ‘ini:’  (इनिः) is suffixed to the root word ‘vikrama:’  (विक्रमः) – meaning valor – as per the aphorism ‘भूम-प्रशंसा-नित्ययॊगाद्यर्थॆ इनिः’. This shows that his  valor is magnificent, praise-worthy and eternal. The scriptures say: “For the one who creates all these worlds and also destroys them by mere thought, is it really a herculean task to destroy his  enemies?” et al.

Etymology: Valour is termed as ‘paurusham’  (पौरुषम्). The learned call him  ‘vikramI’ since he is the most valorous.

विक्रमः पौरुषं प्रॊक्तः तद्वत्त्वात् विक्रमी बुधैः |

77. dhanvI (धन्वी)

Thereafter, his  eternal possession of the divine bow ‘Sarnga:’ (शार्ङ्गः) – befitting of such a valour (as explained in the previous divine name) – is shown in this divine name ‘dhanvI’ – the wielder of bow named ‘SArnga’ (read as  ‘SArnga’ ).

The same ‘ini:’  (इनिः) adjunct that was shown in the previous divine name is used here as well.

This divine name is indicative of his  wielding of all of his divine weapons – the conch, discus, mace, sword and the bow.

This is shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “He is verily the wielder of the ‘SArnga  dhanus’ or the bow, the controller of senses, the supreme  entity and the one who is superior to all other sentient entities, the invincible wielder of sword called ‘nAndhaka’  He is verily vishNu . He is krishNa. He is only the mightiest of all”
  • “All the arrows of different kinds and his  bow itself manifest with divine bodies and follow SrI rAmA”
  • “Thus, oh king! That bhagavAn , who wields the fiery bow called SArnga,  that nArAyaNA himself is the cause of all these creations and destructions”
  • “The two types of ahankArAs  – ‘bhUthAdhi’ and ‘indhriyAdhi’  – rest in the divine hands of bhagavAn  in the form of conch and bow respectively” etc

Etymology: The one who wields the SArnga  bow – befitting of his valor – is called ‘dhanvI’.

पौरुषानुगुणं शार्ङ्गं यस्य धन्वी स कथ्यतॆ |

78. mEdhAvI (मॆधावी)

The one who is omniscient – with no bounds to his  knowledge – befitting his own boundless, eternal and magnanimous nature is called ‘mEdhAvI’ – the omniscient one.

The adjunct ‘vini:’  (विनिः) is suffixed to the root ‘mEdhA’ – meaning knowledge, as per the grammatical aphorism ‘अस्-माया-मॆधा-स्रजॊ विनिः’.

Etymology: He who possesses abundant knowledge called ‘mEdhA’, which is marked by boundlessness and eternity befitting His boundless and opulent nature, is called ‘mEdhAvI’ by the seers.

निस्सीम-भूमानुगुण नित्य सर्वज्ञलक्षणा |
मॆधा यस्यास्ति स प्रॊक्तः मॆधावीति विचक्षणैः ||

79. vikrama:  (विक्रमः)

Sinc he  is the one who moves about to the places of his  interest out of his own free will on the shoulders of the king of birds – the embodiment of vEdhas, garuda – as his divine vehicle, he is called ‘vikrama:‘   – the one who rides the king of birds. ‘vi’ (वि) in this divine name represents garuda, , and ‘kramaNam’ (क्रमणम्) represents movement.

The scriptures quote thus:

  • “Let us meditate upon that garuda,  the eternal servant of SrIman nArAyaNa,  and the one who sports golden wings. Let him lead us on the right path”.
  • In this verse (तत्पुरुषाय विद्महॆ सुवर्णपक्षाय धीमहि । तन्नॊ गरुडः प्रचॊदयात् ॥), the word ‘purusha’  (पुरुषः) in the very beginning shows the eternal subservience of garuda  to the supreme godhead SrIman nArAyaNa. This is very clearly depicted in various scriptures, such as the sauparNa sUktham (सौपर्णसूक्तम्).

Etymology: He, whose vehicle is garuda,  is called ‘vikrama:‘.

गमनं पक्षिराजॆन यस्य विक्रम उच्यतॆ |

80. krama:  (क्रमः)

The one who is prosperous with such eternal and bountiful wealth is called ‘krama:‘  – the flourishing one.

Since the word ‘krama:’   (क्रमिः) is used in the ‘AthmanEpadi’  form (direct voice), this gets the meaning of ‘thAyanam’ in this context. The word ‘tAyanam’ means prosperity.

Etymology: He is called ‘krama:’  ’ since he  is the one who is himself  prosperous, as well as the one who makes everyone flourish.

क्रमणात् क्रमहॆतुत्वात् क्रम ऎष उदाहृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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