Monthly Archives: September 2019

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 15 (Names 141 to 150)

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 14

141) chathurdhamshtra: (चतुर्दंष्ट्रः)

Since bhagavAn shows his supremacy even in his vyUha forms, he is called ‘chathurdhamshtra:’ – the four teethed one. The possession of four fangs is said to be the characteristic of great men, as shown in this statement of SrI rAmAyaNam “rAma is a great man possessing fourteen equally proportioned organs, four fangs and four kinds of walking styles”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn possesses four fangs, he is called ‘chathurdhamshtra:’.

दंष्ट्राचतुष्कयुक्तत्वात् चतुर्दंष्ट्र इति स्मृतः |

142) chathurbhuja: (चतुर्भुजः)

Similarly, he is also ‘chathurbhuja:’ – the one with four shoulders. Even this characteristic of possessing four shoulders is said to be of great men, as shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “…him, who possesses four divine and mighty shoulders sporting various weapons such as the conch, discus, etc”
  • “He transcends thamas – the darkness; and he is the wielder of the divine conch, discus, and the mace”
  • “…with all four shoulders…” etc

Etymology: As a characteristic connoting of his greatness, he possesses four shoulders, and hence called ‘chathurbhuja:’.

महापुरुषरूपत्वात् उच्यतॆ हि चतुर्भुजः |

==============================
भ्राजिष्णुर्भॊजनं भॊक्ता सहिष्णुर्जगदादिजः ।
अनघॊ विजयॊ जॆता विश्वयॊनिः पुनर्वसुः ॥ १६ ॥
===============================

143) bhrAjishNu: (भ्राजिष्णुः)

bhagavAn is called ‘bhrAjishNu:’ since he is effulgent to his devotees who worship him with all the aforesaid qualities. The root ‘bhrAj’ (भ्राज्) is suffixed with ‘ishNu:’ (इष्णुः) as per the grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name. This name indicates that bhagavAn is the one who shows himself through his effulgence among his worshippers.

Etymology: BhagavAn is called ‘bhrAjishNu:’ due to his nature of showing himself through his effulgence to his worshippers.

उपासितृभ्यॊ भ्राजिष्णुः स्वप्रकाशनशीलतः |

144) bhOjanam (भॊजनम्)

He is enjoyed by his devotees who see him with all his effulgence. He is called ‘bhOjanam’ since he is enjoyed as verily the food with all happiness by his devotees.

Etymology: He who is enjoyed by his devotees with all happiness is called ‘bhOjanam’.

सुखॆन भॊजनं प्राहुः यॊ भुक्तैरनुभूयतॆ |

145) bhOkthA (भॊक्ता) (also repeated in 502)

The one who himself enjoys the various offerings of his devotees that are offered with love, as much as nectar itself, is called ‘bhOkthA’ – the enjoyer. This is as per bhagavAn’s words in the bhagavath gIthA:

  • “I wholeheartedly consume such offerings of my devotees given with pure love…”
  • “My devotee attains utmost peace by knowing me to be the enjoyer of all his offerings in yajnas and thapas…”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘bhOkthA’ since he is the consumer of all offerings of his devotees offered with pure love. He is called so, since he is the consumer of nectar (food offered by his devotees with pure love).

भॊक्तार्पितस्य भॊक्तृत्वात् भॊक्ता स्यादमृतस्य वा |

146) sahishNu: (सहिष्णुः) (also repeated in 570)

In order to attract his devotees closer to him, bhagavAn endures the various misdeeds of his devotees that they may have committed in the past or that they may commit in future – whether knowingly or unknowingly – with all their faculties (organs, mind et al), such as: disrespecting scriptural injunctions as in ‘refraining from scriptural prescriptions’, ‘doing something that the scriptures have avoided’, etc, which may be categorized either as ordinary faults or extraordinary faults such as criticizing bhagavAn himself, and also the endless list of faults that the devotees themselves cannot bear. Due to this infinite endurance, he is called ‘sahishNu:’ – the patient one.

Again, as seen previously, the root ‘sah’ (सह्) (to endure) is suffixed with ‘ishNu:’ (इष्णुः) due to such patience being the inherent nature of bhagavAn.

How does bhagavAn possess such extreme endurance towards his devotees’ misdeeds? It is purely due to his inherent patience. Just as the nature of moon, water, et al is to be cool always, so also such supreme endurance of bhagavAn is purely out of his own nature and not assumed anytime.

Thus ends the elaboration of names connoting the ‘vyUha’ forms of bhagavAn.

Etymology: bhagavAn endures all kinds of misdeeds of his devotees done in the past or future with their minds and other faculties, such as violations of scriptural injunctions, and some other types of misdeeds which are even unbearable to the devotees themselves! Since he shows such supreme endurance towards the misdeeds of all his devotees, as a natural trait, he is called ‘sahishNu:’.

Till now, the vyUha form of bhagavAn was elucidated. Henceforth, the ‘vibhava’ form (incarnations) is being said.

प्रागूर्ध्वं सञ्चितानां च बुद्ध्या च करणैः सदा |
कृतानां सर्वथा तॆषां निषॆधविधिसाधनम् ||

अतीत्य क्रियमाणानामसत्सॆवानुबन्धिनाम् |
सर्वं सहॆन स्वॆनापि दुस्सहानां विशॆषतः ||

स्वभक्तविषयाणां च निर्मर्यादकृतैनसाम् |
सहनैकस्वशीलत्वात् सहिष्णुरिति विश्रुतः ||

वर्णितॊsभूत् व्यूहभॆदॊ विभवस्तु प्रतन्यतॆ ||

147) jagadhAdhija: (जगदादिजः)

Henceforth, the glories of bhagavAn’s incarnations in his ‘vibhava’ forms are elucidated. This divine name ‘jagadhAdhija:’ – the primordial creator – refers to bhagavAn’s incarnation as ‘vishNu’, the second of the trinity (brahma, vishNu and Siva).

This divine name indicates that bhagavAn manifested amongst the very first entities in this creation – the trinity namely brahmA, vishNu and Siva. The root ‘jan’ (जन्) (to be born) is suffixed with ‘da:’ (डः) as per the grammatical aphorism ‘सप्तम्यां जनॆर्डः’. The same rule is applied in other divine names as well, such as ‘mEdhaja:’ (मॆधजः) (759), ‘gadhAgraja:’ (गदाग्रजः) (770), et al.

This can be seen in the prayers of brahmA and other dhEvas as well, as shown below:

  • “That bhagavAn achyutha, by whose divine grace I am the creator of entities and by whose anger rudhra is the destroyer, is born between us as vishNu – in order to protect and sustain the entire creation.”
  • “You are the sole refuge to all of us – the dhEvas. You are the primordial entity (entity present even before anything else was created), and you are the lord of all worlds. You have taken the form of ‘vishNu’ (among the trinity) in order to protect all the creatures in this creation.”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is born among the primordial entities of creation – the trinity namely brahma, vishNu and Siva – in the form of ‘vishNu’, he is called ‘jagadhAdhija:’.

जगतामादिभूतासु मूर्तिष्वन्यतमत्वतः |
जातत्वात् विष्णुरूपॆण प्रॊच्यतॆ जगदादिजः ||

148) anagha: (अनघः) (also repeated in 835)

Although born in this samsAra as one among the individual souls, since he is untouched by the effects of karma, he is called ‘anagha:’ – the one who is untouched by sins.

Etymology: The one who rivals sins is called ‘anagha:’.

पापप्रतिस्पर्धी अनघः |

149) vijaya: (विजयः)

Even for the other two entities in the trinity – brahmA and Siva, since bhagavAn is the one who assigns the tasks of creation and destruction and also makes them successful in their respective tasks, he is called ‘vijaya:’ – the victorious one. This is as said in the scriptures: “The creator and destroyer (four faced brahmA and rudhra) walk in the path laid down by bhagavAn”.

Etymology: ‘vijaya:’ (bhagavAn) is the victor of all worlds.

विजयॊ जगतां जयी |

150) jEthA (जॆता)

Also, bhagavAn ordains the other two entities (brahmA and rudhra) to act as per his wishes. Hence he is called ‘jEthA’ – the ordainer.

Etymology: The one who ordains brahma and Sankara to act as per his wishes is called ‘jEthA’.

स्वाभिप्रायॆ स्थापयिता जॆता स्यात् विधिशङ्करौ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.5 – yAmudai nenjamum

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “My friends who are supposed to be my companions even when my heart fails me, are suffering ahead of me on seeing my suffering in separation from emperumAn; it has become difficult to get his mercy; I don’t find any means to sustain myself!”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

yAmudai nenjamum thuNai anRAlO Apugu mAlaiyum AginRAlO!
yAmudai Ayan than manam kallAlO avaudaith thInguzhal eerumAlO!
yAmudaith thuNa ennum thOzhimArum emmin mun avanukku mAyvarAlO!
yAmudai Aruyir kAkkum AREn avanudai aruL peRum pOdharidhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(just as the one who is obedient towards us, is not a companion)
yAmudai nenjamum – our heart
thuNai anRu – is not being a companion (to share our grief);

(not only that)
A pugum – cows coming through the entrance
mAlaiyum – evening time
AginRu – has arrived;

(since he is not entering along with them)
yAmudai Ayan than – krishNa who is obedient to be our servitor, his
manam – tender heart
kal – has become hard like a rock;

(to not determine like that)
avanudai – his humble playing of
thIm kuzhal – sweet flute
eerum – is piercing me (reminding me of his tender heart);

(while being engaged in this manner)
yAmudai – those who are fully subservient to us
thuNai ennum – to be said as companions
thOzhimArum – friends too
emmil mun – ahead of us (who are immersed in him)

(thinking “he is not going to help her”)
avanukku – for him
mAyvar – will be engaged in him;

(at this stage)
avanudai aruL – his mercy, which is the protection
peRum – to get
pOdhu – state
aridhu – is difficult to attain;

(hence)
yAmudai – our
Ar uyir – our [here, our refers to AzhwAr alone] AthmA (which is controlled exclusively by your mercy)
kAkkum ARu – means to protect
en – which?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Our heart is not being a companion; the evening time when the cows come through the entrance has arrived; the tender heart of krishNa who is obedient to be our servitor, has become hard like a rock; his humble playing of his sweet flute is piercing me; our friends who are fully subservient to us, to be said as companions, will be engaged in him; it is difficult to attain the state of being in his mercy, which is our protection; which is the means to protect our AthmA (self)?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yAm … – As I considered my heart to be mine, it ceased to be my companion. The evening time has arrived for the cows to return; if the heart is also not being a companion, should the evening not delay its arrival a little bit?
  • yAmudai … – He is not feeling in his heart that my heart is not my companion anymore and that the evening has come; just as all the nature of all the entities have changed [heart not being my companion, his flute’s sweet sound is piercing me], he who is soft-hearted has also become hard-hearted. Should he who is closer to me than my heart, not have his heart melting for me? If the one who turned a stone to a woman [ahalyA was relieved from curse by SrI rAma] has become hard-hearted, who can soften his heart!
  • avan … – His flute’s sweet sound, does not let me withdraw thinking that he is hard-hearted now. He plays his flute as if saying “I was away from you throughout the day; I have delayed my arrival now; I cannot bear it; being subservient [to my parents etc to perform my duty], I have lost”. It was saying “don’t withdraw yourself thinking that his heart is like stone; it is really like water”; with these words, his flute’s sweet music is piercing me.
  • yAmudai … – As the heart is not being a companion, and he is also not helping, the friends who are my companions saw my suffering and they started suffering before me saying “she needs him”.
  • thuNai ennum – Your being friends to me is like an insect named mAmbazhauNNi (mango-eater) [which is unrelated to mango]. As they remain as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kaNdam 5.17 “Ekam dhu:kham sukanchanau” (we share joy and sorrow), they are suffering since they cannot bear her suffering. Their relationship with him is through her only.
  • yAmudai Ar uyir kAkkum ARu en – In this loneliness [without anyone else], what is the means to sustain my self? If it is someone else’s [emperumAn‘s] life, we can save it.
  • avanudai aruL peRum pOdhu aridhE – It is difficult to get his mercy. If we get that, we can protect our own life as well.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumadal – 38 – pinnum thirai vayiRRu

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Previous

pinnum thiraivayiRRup pEyE thirindhulavAk                                        49
konnavilum vengAnaththu Udu vengadhirOn
thunnu veyil vaRuththa vembaralmEl panjadiyAl                                50
mannan irAman pin vaidhEvi enRu uraikkum

Word by word meaning

pinnum – moreover
thirai vayiRu pEyE thirindhu – having only ghosts, which are with empty stomachs (due to lack of food), which keep roaming
ulavA kol navilum – having only the sound of killing continuously being emitted
vem kAnaththUdu – inside the cruel forest
kodu kadhirOn thunnu veyil vaRuththa vembaral mEl – on top of the pebbles which have been roasted by the rays of the hot sun
vaidhEvi enRu uraikkum – one who is referred to as vaidhEhi

vyAkyAnam

pinnum – more than what had been said before

thirai vayiRRup pEyE thirindhu – only ghosts were roaming there, with empty stomachs. They have not had any food and hence are famished. Since the verse says pEyE it implies that there is no other creature in that place.

ulavAk kol navilum – the only talk there seems to be “this person entered the forest and died; that person who entered the forest is struggling for his life”. It could also be considered as ulavA vengAnam – the cruel forest which keeps extending continuously, just as it is said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1-30 “thE vanEna vanam gathvA” (they entered one forest after another)

vem kAnaththUdu – amidst the most cruel forest

kodum kadhirOn – one who is on the side of kaikEyi; one who created  hot rays just to torment SrI rAma.

thunnu veyil – full sunshine

veyil vaRuththa vem paral – the sunshine is roasting pebbles; as they are getting roasted, the pebbles become cruel themselves and become capable of roasting the sunshine; in the end, they attain sufficient heat even to burn the sun.

vem paral mEl – on top of such pebbles

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 14 (Names 131 to 140)

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 13

131) avyanga: (अव्यङ्गः)

The one who is ever abound with the six limbs of vEdhas – namely SikshA (शिक्षा), vyAkaraNa (व्याकरण), chandhas (छंदः), jyOthisha (ज्यॊतिष), niruktha (निरुक्त) and kalpa (कल्प), is called ‘avyanga:’.

Etymology: The one who has no shortcomings due to the praises by the six limbs of vEdhas such as SikshA, vyAkaraNa et al. is called ‘avyanga:’.

शिक्षाव्याकरणाद्यङ्गैः न हीनॊsव्यङ्ग उच्यतॆ |

132) vEdhAnga: (वॆदाङ्गः)

vEdhas consist of innumerable branches. They are verily the divine body/limbs of bhagavAn. Since bhagavAn’s intimate divine nature and qualities are exposed by the vEdhas, bhagavAn is called ‘vEdhAnga:’ – the one who is possesses vEdhas as his limbs.

The scriptures support thus:

  • “He who doesn’t comprehend the vEdhas doesn’t know bhagavAn either”
  • “…when he shook his divine body made of vEdhas…”
  • “The vEdhas and smruthis are verily my commandments”
  • “The godhead and ancestors must be served. This is the commandment of bhagavAn”, etc.

Since vEdhas are verily his commandments, he is called ‘vEdhAnga:’.

Etymology: He, unto whom the vEdhas – with its innumerable branches – are verily the divine body, is called ‘vEdhAnga:’.

यस्य वॆदॊsनन्तशाखोsप्यङ्गं वॆदाङ्ग ऎव सः |

133) vEdhavith (वॆदवित्)

bhagavAn is verily the subject of vEdhas. The purport of vEdhas is called ‘dharma’. Since the individual souls attain bhagavAn in the form of pradhyumna by following the dharmas laid down by the vEdhas, he is called ‘vEdhavith’. Thus, the duties of pradhyumna are highlighted as ‘the enlightener’, and ‘the preacher’ of vEdhas.

Etymology: The subject of vEdhas is called ‘vEdha:’. The purport of such vEdha is called ‘dharma’. Since he always makes the individual souls observe such ‘dharma’, pradhyumna is called ‘vEdhavith’.

वॆदैः वॆद्यतया वॆदः तदर्थॊ धर्म उच्यतॆ |
तदनुष्ठापनात् नित्यं प्रद्युम्नॊ वॆदवित् स्मृतः ||

134) kavi: (कविः)

Since bhagavAn possesses expansive foresight, he is called ‘kavi:’ – the one with an expansive vision. The root ku (कु) is used to mean ‘sight’ in this context. It is suffixed with ‘in’ (इन्), resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is only called ‘kavi:’ by the knowledgeable men for his vast foresight.

स ऎव क्रान्तदर्शित्वात् कवि इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

===========================
लॊकाध्यक्षः सुराध्यक्षॊ धर्माध्यक्षः कृताकृतः ।
चतुरात्मा चतुर्व्यूहश्चतुर्दंष्ट्रश्चतुर्भुजः ॥ १५ ॥
============================

135, 136, 137) lOkAdhyaksha:, surAdhyaksha:, dharmAdhyaksha:

This expansive foresight of bhagavAn is further elaborated with the next three divine names namely ‘lOkAdhyaksha:’, ‘surAdhyaksha:’ and ‘dharmAdhyaksha:’.

The word ‘lOkA:’ (लॊकाः) refers to the practitioners of righteousness / dharma. ‘surA:’ (सुराः) refers to the various demigods worshipped by such virtuous men. The word ‘dharma’ (धर्मः) refers to the various means by which such demigods are worshipped by those virtuous men. The lord of all these three entities is bhagavAn. This is shown by these three divine names.

bhagavAn, in his ‘anirudhdha’ vyUha, is bound to remove the malignity of “conferring of undeserving fruits (fruits for no action)” and “lack of conferring of fruits of action”, thereby conferring the righteous fruits of action to every individual soul – according to its deeds.

Therefore, bhagavAn anirudhdha is known to be the knower of the destination, paths of attaining the destination, the lord of souls treading such paths, righteous (honest) and the grantor of knowledge.

Etymology: ‘lOkA:’ are those souls who practice certain virtues. The demigods worshipped by such souls are called ‘surA:’. The means of such attainment are collectively termed as ‘dharma:’. The lord of all these entities is that bhagavAn who is connoted by the three divine names ‘lOkAdhyaksha:’, ‘surAdhyaksha:’, and ‘dharmAdhyaksha:’ in that order. BhagavAn ‘anirudhdha’ is said to be one who manifests with all these names.

धर्माधिकारिणॊ लोकाः तदाराध्याः सुरास्तथा |
धर्मस्तत्साधनं तॆषामध्यक्षः स्यात् त्रिनामवान् ||

लॊकाध्यक्षः सुराध्यक्षः धर्माध्यक्ष इति क्रमात् |
अनिरुद्धः स विज्ञॆयॊ लॊकाध्यक्षादि नामवान् ||

138) kruthAkrutha: (कृताकृतः)

bhagavAn is said to be the embodiment of two types of ‘dharmas’ – of promoting samsAra and removing samsAra. As a promoter of samsAra, he is the one who bestows temporary and lowly fruits in this samsAra to such souls who are not interested in mOksha. Thus, he is customarily called ‘krutha:’ (कृतः) – the promoter of samsAra. Further, he is the one who also releases us from the shackles of samsAra and bestows the permanent and supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam / mOksham. Thus he is also called ‘akrutha:’ (अकृतः) – the remover of samsAra.

Etymology: The one whose nature is to bestow the fruits of action to those who practice both kind of deeds that result in either promotion of samsAra or release from samsAra is called ‘kruthAkrutha:’.

अनित्यनित्यफलदौ प्रवर्तकनिवर्तकौ |
ददौ यस्य स्वरूपं यः कृताकृत इतीरितः ||

139) chathurAthmA (चतुरात्मा) (also repeated in 775)

Since bhagavAn manifests thus (as explained from the divine name 123 till now) as four forms namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha, he is called ‘chathurAthmA’ – the one with four forms.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘chathurAthmA’ due to his manifestation in four forms namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha.

वासुदॆवादि रूपत्वात् चतुरात्मॆति कथ्यतॆ |

140) chathurvyUha: (चतुर्व्यूहः) (also repeated in 773)

How can the same entity manifest in four forms at a time? This is explained in this divine name ‘chathurvyUha:’. In order to show the entity to be contemplated upon and worshipped for attaining the fruits as detailed till now, bhagavAn assumes four different forms characterized by the four states of mind namely ‘awakened’ (jAgruth जागृत्) (as anirudhdha), ‘dreaming’ (svapna स्वप्न) (as pradhyumna), ‘deep slumber’ (sushupthi सुषुप्ति) (as sankarshaNa) and ‘completely enlightened’ (thurIya तुरीय) (as vAsudhEva). In each of these forms, he sports different forms befitting his role, with various body-hues, ornaments, weapons, vehicles, flags and other equipments. Thus, he manifests in four forms at a time.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is verily the embodied with four forms indicative of the various states of mind such as awakened, dreaming, deep slumber and completely enlightened, he is called ‘chathurvyUha:’.

जागृत्स्वप्नसुषुप्त्यादौ व्यूहावस्था चतुष्टयॆ |
एतैर्विशिष्टमूर्तित्वात् चतुर्व्यूह इतीरितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumadal – 37 – minnuruvil veN thEr

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Previous

minnuruvil ve(vi)N thEr thirindhu veLippattu                               48
kanniraiththu thIyndhu kazhai udaindhu kAl suzhanRu

Word by word meaning

mAdhirangaL min uruvil veN thEr thirindhu – with the mirage which is like lightning, spread in all directions
veLippattu – everything appears to be arid land, with not even a blade of grass seen anywhere.
kal niRaindhu thIyndhu kazhai udaindhu kAl suzhanRu – being full of stones, grass having been burnt, bamboo cracking up, with tornado continuously striking

vyAkyAnam

From now onwards, until the verse vengAnam, these are all attributes to forest.

mAdhirangaL – in all the directions

minnuruvil veN thEr – mirage which is like lightning. The words veN thEr and pEyththEr refer to mirage.

veLippattu – there is not a blade of grass seen anywhere in sight. Everything is like absolutely dry land.

kal niRaindhu – everywhere it is tightly packed with stones, without any vacant space.

kazhai udaindhu – even green bamboo sticks, due to excessive heat, have all cracked up.

kAl suzhanRu – tornado striking

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.4 – pAviyEn manaththE

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Instead of tormenting me by reminding him, they are individually tormenting me like fire”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pAviyEn manaththE ninReerumAlO vAdai thaN vAdai vevvAdaiyAlO!
mEvu thaN madhiyam vemmadhiyamAlO menmalarp paLLi vem paLLiyAlO!
thUviyam puLLudaith theyva vaNdu thudhaindha em peNmaiyam pUvidhAlO!
Aviyin paramalla vagaigaLAlO yAmudai nenjamum thuNai anRAlO!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pAviyEn manaththE – I am having sin (to have the all-favourable aspects to be unfavourable), in my heart
ninRu – staying firmly (instead of being superficial)
vAdai – northerly wind
eerum – piercing;
thaN vAdai – the cool, favourable northerly wind (being cool and favourable for everyone including me, during his union with me)
vevvAdai – being hot northerly wind (as said in “panippiyalvellAm thavirndheri vIsum“)
mEvu – that which is dense to pacify everyone
thaN – cool
madhiyam – moon
vem madhiyam – pouring fire;
men malarp paLLi – the mattress which is made of tender flowers
vem paLLi – unlike previously, it feels like a mattress made of fire;
am – attractive
thUvi – having wings
puL – periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr)
udai – having as vehicle
dheyvam – supreme lord
vaNdu – beetle
thudhaindha – having become devoid of essence due to being enjoyed by
em peNmai – my femininity
idhu – this
am pU – remained like a tender flower (which cannot handle any suffering);
Aviyin param alla – unable to handle by this AthmA
vagaigaL – his acts of union and separation and the different harmful entities

(to remain peaceful)
yAmudai – our faculty
nenjamum – heart
thuNai anRu – not remaining as a companion.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Northerly wind is staying firmly and piercing my heart , me who is having sin; the cool, favourable northerly wind is now being hot northerly wind; the cool moon which is dense to pacify everyone, is pouring fire; the mattress which is made of tender flowers, unlike previously, feels like a mattress made of fire; the beetle, that is, the supreme lord who is having periya thiruvadi who is having attractive wings, as vehicle, enjoyed me to be make me devoid of any essence, and my femininity remains like a tender flower; his acts of union and separation and the different harmful entities which are unable to be handled by this AthmA and the heart, our faculty is not remaining as a companion. thudhaigai – stomping.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pAviyEn manaththE ninRu eerumAlO – The townspeople will place this beautiful form of emperumAn in their hearts and eliminate their sins! It is this form which is meditated upon as SubASrayam (auspiscious abode) and whatever has been desired is attained. [The same form is tormenting me in separation – this is my sin]
  • vAdai … – Did I just have internal enemies and get to enjoy externally? The way the cool northerly breeze feels like hot northerly wind, is similar to be identified by one’s own son as said in “SukathAtham” (vyAsa, the father of Suka). (Isn’t agni the son of vAyu?) The northerly breeze which is normally cool, feels like fire and is tormenting. She says “thaNvAdai” (cool northerly breeze) based on the words of her mother; she says “vevvAdai” (hot northerly wind) based on her own experience.
  • mEvu thaN madhiyam vem madhiyamAlO – As the townspeople would seek moon fearing heat, she also tried to do the same; the moon felt like embodiment of fire; since moon knew emperumAn’s heart, he also behaved differently; purusha sUktham “chandhramA manasO jAtha:” (moon takes birth from bhagavAn’s mind). As moon knew that krishNa’s heart is hard as a stone, it became hot.
  • men malarp paLLi – As everything outside became harmful, she became frightened and went to her mattress; that was a mattress made for a couple. The mattress made of tender flowers is now tormenting her. She thought that the northerly breeze and the moon are better. The mattress which was used by couple, can be hurtful when used by a single person.
  • thUvi … – The flower, which is my femininity, which was extracted of all the essence by emperumAn, the beetle, which has periya thiruvadi as vehicle, was tormented in this manner. As the mattress became hurtful, she went outside; her femininity which is natural for her, became broken. He destroyed her femininity by arriving atop the beautiful periya thiruvadi who is having attractive wings. One who rides garuda is the supreme lord. She is saying “idhu” (this) – since the manner in which she lost her femininity is beyond words.
  • Aviyin param alla vagaigaLAlO – Saying that when he united, his interactions were beyond her capability to handle; or saying that the eagerness of the harmful entities is beyond the ability of the AthmA to handle.
  • yAm udai nenjamum thuNai anRAlO – When the external factors become harmful, one can sustain if the heart is present, by sharing the grief with the heart; even my heart is not being a companion now.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 13 (Names 121 to 130)

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 12

121) SASvathasthANu: (शाश्वतस्थाणुः)

Just a small portion of such divine power is hailed even to this day as ‘nectar’ born out of the milky ocean. Rather, bhagavAn is more specially hailed as ‘SASvathasthANu:’– the permanent one, in comparison with the lower ‘nectar’.

He is hailed thus because bhagavAn himself is eternal, and he cannot be robbed off from the enjoyer. Also, he is enjoyed eternally by the liberated souls, never to re-enter the cycles of samsAra again. On the other hand, the lower ‘nectar’ is momentary, and can be partaken just once.

Etymology: He who is eternally enjoyable to his devotees, and who is also eternal himself, is called ‘SASvathasthANu:’.

भॊग्यॊ हयपुनरावृत्त्या भॊक्तृभ्यॊ रॊचतॆ यतः |
स्वयं नित्यः सदा यॊsसौ शाश्वतस्थाणुरुच्यतॆ ||

122) varArOha: (वरारॊहः)

Thereafter, he is also called ‘varArOha:’ – the supreme goal that can be attained. ‘varam’ (वरं) means ‘supreme’ and ‘ArOhaNam’ (आरॊहणम्) represents the ‘achievable goal’. Since bhagavAn himself is the supreme achievable goal, he is addressed by this divine name.

It means that all other achievable goals are lower in nature. This is as said in the scriptures thus: “All of these worlds (such as brahmalOkam, swargam, etc) are much lower in comparison to bhagavAn’s divine abode SrIvaikuNtam”.

The bhAgavatham says that bhagavAn manifests himself in three forms namely ‘para’ (पर), vyUha (व्यूह) and vibhava (विभव).

Of these, the ‘para’ form of bhagavAn is characterized by his nature of not having a cause for himself, yet being eternally inseparable from the entities called ‘chith’ (sentient) and ‘achith’ (insentient) for whose creation he is the only cause; it is characterized by bhagavAn’s completeness with the six qualities namely knowledge, support, wealth, gallantry, power and charm, which show themselves up like the huge waves in a vast ocean; it is characterized by bhagavAn’s eternal enjoyable wealth of having the sole lordship over all the worlds with no boundaries ever; it is characterized by the liberated souls who approach bhagavAn for offering their eternal servitude; it is characterized by its naturalism, without the need for any external adjunct; the ‘para’ form of bhagavAn represents such of his disposition.

The ‘vyUha’ form of bhagavAn is represented by his four forms (namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha); with slightly different forms, qualities and deeds from the ‘para’ form; in order to create, sustain and destroy worlds for the benefit of mumukshus (the souls who are desiring mOksham) and providing them with the various scriptures such as vEdhas, their purport (in the form of supplements such as ithihAsas and purAnas), their fruits, and the ways of contemplation and worship for their benefit of attaining mOksham – all as a mere playful act in this leelA-vibhUthi (the material creation, which is a mere sport for bhagavAn).

The ‘vibhava’ form of bhagavAn represents a class of his divine incarnations as various species such as dhEva (demigod), manushya (human), thiryak (other animals/creatures), etc out of his own free will, very much like the shadow of the vyUha form.

The sAthvatha samhitha says thus: “That supreme form of bhagavAn – replete with six qualities – who shines like the fire is called the ‘para’ form. He is verily the sole refuge of all souls, and is all pervading. That form itself further gave rise to three other forms (namely sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha; note that ‘vAsudhEva’ is not mentioned here, but still that is the original source of all these three vyUha forms) with a division in the six qualities. These forms are collectively called the ‘vyUha’ form of bhagavAn, which bestows the supreme fruit of liberation to the souls. Further to that, the set of various forms that bhagavAn takes up thence, with different deeds in each form, and which are replete with the six qualities, is called the ‘vibhava’ form of bhagavAn. This vibhava form of bhagavAn bestows both material enjoyments as well as liberation to the seeking souls.

Of these various vibhava forms, bhagavAn has himself incarnated in several forms such as mathsya (मत्स्यः), kUrma (कूर्मः, et al. In some cases, he has born as the son of various great seers and sages; for example, in incarnations such as paraSurAma (परशुरामः / भार्गवरामः), vyAsa (व्यासः / कृष्णद्वैपायनः), et al. At times, bhagavAn has incarnated – not in his complete form, but only by placing his powers with another mortal such as ‘puranjaya’ (पुरञ्जयः) (read as ‘puranjaya’). In other cases, he has lent himself in the hands of many of his devotees in the form of ‘archA’ (अर्चावतारः) (which is the deity form of worship seen in various temples, mutts and households). Thus, his ‘vibhava’ form is of four types.

Further, there is an argument that says the various demigods such as brahma, Siva, et al are the incarnations of bhagavAn, since the scriptures say all are one. But this is just a rambling talk of the ignorant, because – then, even we the humans and all creatures such as the animals and insentient objects such as grass et al can also be considered as verily the incarnations of bhagavAn! No doubt, the scriptures do speak of the oneness of all these entities in statements like “after all, all of these is verily bhagavAn”, etc. But the demigods are not considered as the incarnations of bhagavAn since they are also created just like any human or any other creature at the time of creation. Also, the difference of their manifestations from bhagavAn’s incarnations is conveyed by the word ‘prAdhurbhAvAnthara’ (प्रादुर्भावान्तर) (as against the word ‘prAdhurbhAva’ प्रादुर्भाव used in the scriptures for bhagavAn’s incarnations). It shows that the demigods (and all other creatures) are all born out of just a fraction of bhagavAn’s divine weath, and they are all subservient to the various incarnations of bhagavAn by word and deed. This is shown in many scriptures that speak the glory of bhagavAn.

For example, the paushkara samhitha says: “The advisor of knowledge – kapilAksha (कपिलाक्षः) – is verily the form of bhagavAn. The lord of knowledge – the four faced brahma, who is revered by the whole world, and who is characterized by the further creation in this world – is just a part of his.”

In here, the statement clearly says ‘the four faced brahma is just a part of kapila – an incarnation of bhagavAn’. This shows that the four faced brahma is subservient to bhagavAn (even in his incarnations), and is merely a part of him. This is also shown by mentioning that brahma is characterized by further creation in this world. With this statement, the nature of bhagavAn to enhance the requisite knowledge for lower mortals like brahma in order to carry on his creation further is clearly shown. When the scriptures say that the individual souls are merely a part (‘amSa’ अंशः) of bhagavAn, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the individual soul and bhagavAn are one and the same. Rather, it only shows that both the Supreme soul – bhagavAn, and the individual soul – who is just a part of him (amSa) – are located in the same place inseparably (in other words, bhagavAn is the soul of all such individual souls). This is clarified further in SrI vEdha vyAsa’s  brahmasUthras thus: “bhagavAn and his ‘amSa’s – the individual souls – are indeed different, since the scriptures have clearly said thus”.

Similarly, the manifestation of Siva is shown thus: “The one who carries out the job of destruction at the end of every creation cycle – that mahArudhra, who is also called ‘Sankara’ – is indeed the manifestation with bhagavAn as his indweller”. The original text reads “शंकराख्यॊ महारुद्रः प्रादुर्भावान्तरं हि तत्”. The word ‘anthara’ suffixed to ‘prAdhurbhAva’ clearly shows the differentiation of the lower mortal called Siva from bhagavAn. This differentiation is akin to that of ‘sweetness’ from ‘sugarcane’, ‘milk’, and ‘jaggery’.

Thus, the difference between divine incarnations of bhagavAn and the ordinary manifestations of demigods and other lower mortals is clearly shown. When bhagavAn himself descends to the various worlds in order to carry out his task, it is called ‘incarnation’. When lower mortals are born in these worlds as an amSam of bhagavAn in order to carry out his commands, it is merely called ‘manifestation’. Here, when it says ‘in order to carry out his own task’, it shows the uniqueness of such incarnations of bhagavAn. When it says ‘amSam of bhagavAn’, it shows that such souls are completely dependent on bhagavAn for carrying out such tasks.

In other words, when bhagavAn descends to these worlds in various forms without giving up his divine nature (as declared in bhagavath gIthA 4:5 to 4:8), it is called an ‘incarnation’ (prAdhurbhAva). On the other hand, if such a birth is taken by an individual soul who is just an ‘amSam’ of bhagavAn, it is merely a ‘manifestation’ (prAdhurbhAvAnthara).

Similarly, there is also a differentiation in bhagavAn’s main (मुख्य) and complimentary (औपचारिक) incarnations. The seekers of salvation – mumukshus – should always take refuge of incarnations only, and not the lower manifestations. The scriptures have said thus: “Those who are formally initiated into salvation (दीक्षा) and thus granted the right to worship achyutha should always be engaged in worshipping achyutha alone. They should never worship the lower demigods. They can take refuge in any of bhagavAn’s forms – be it vyUha or vibhava or any form. However, they are strictly prohibited from worshipping the lower demigods like skandha, rudhra, indhra et al. Such devotees should not pollute their pure devotion thus, even after knowing the truth.”

The sAthvatha samhitha clearly indicates that the divine consorts of bhagavAn – namely SrIdhEvi, bhUdhEvi and neeLAdhEvi, his divine ornaments, his eternal servants such as the nithyasUris and liberated souls, et al are all his objects of enjoyment; thus, they are all ever present along with bhagavAn within his divine idol forms. Also, the use of yama, four faced brahma, Siva, et al as mere tools in his divine sport of creation-sustenance-destruction is made very clear. Thus, all such demigods – along with their supplements, manthras, and their respective groups – are well merged within the divine form of bhagavAn.

The sAthvatha samhitha further says: “I shall now list the various demigods who become the tools in the hands of bhagavAn in carrying out his divine sport of creation, sustenance and destruction of these worlds. Such demigods and other tools are ever servile to the various ‘vibhava’ forms of bhagavAn. Firstly, ‘kAla’ or the deity of time is ever in control of bhagavAn. Then, the SAsthras or scriptures along with their various supplements (angas अङ्ग) are in his control. Further, the lords of knowledge, and the vast ocean are servile to him. The lord of all demigods – indhra, along with his group – is also in his control. The seven great sages, the lords of different planets, the stars, the lord of clouds, all the nAgas (the snake gods), the apsaras or damsels, all the medicinal herbs, animals, and all the yajnas – along with their limbs, all the sources of knowledge showing bhagavAn as well as the other lower goals, the fire, wind, moon, sun, water and earth are all at his command. All of these twentyfour entities are the main tools that bhagavAn uses in his creations. This material world is nothing but the vastly pervaded ‘pradhAna’ (प्रधानः) or the primordial nature. It is highly insentient in nature. However, with the association of manthras and the lord of manthras – bhagavAn, even such insentient entities gain divinity!”

This is exactly the context in which the demigods are mentioned at the time of creation, sustenance and destruction of all worlds.  Similar disposition can be observed in the paushkara samhitha about the manifestation of demigods and other creatures as a mere property of bhagavAn – to act at his behest.

Thus, the similarity in the trinity of brahmA, vishNu and mahESwara – as declared by some of the so-called knowledgeable souls – is nothing more than a confusing statement. It is never true. This will be proved at the appropriate places, further, while explaining the other divine names.

Etymology: The one whose attainment is hailed as the supreme goal for the seekers is called ‘varArOha:’. This manthra is capable of conferring the highest position (of SrIvaikuNtam) to the seekers.

वर-उत्कृष्ट-आरॊहः यस्य स्वप्राप्तिलक्षणः |
वर्ततॆ स वरारॊहः प्रकृष्टस्थानदॊ मनुः ||

Till this divine name ‘varArOha:’, bhIshma mostly established the absolute supremacy of bhagavAn. The 122 divine names till now have mostly answered the two questions of yudhishtra relating to the achievable goal that said – “Which is the supreme godhead shown by the scriptures? And who is the one whom we should attain?”

The response to these questions mostly ends here. Further, the questions related to the means of attainment of such a goal (“Praising whom, and worshipping whom, will a soul be released from the bondage of birth and material creation?”) shall be answered. The response to those questions begins by indicating the ‘vyUha’ form of bhagavAn. Of the four vyUha forms of bhagavAn (namely vAsudhEva, sankarshana, pradhyumna and anirudhdha), vAsudhEva-vyUha was explained in a very concise manner till now, with the absolute supremacy (परत्त्वम्). Thence, it continues with the detailing of ‘sankarshaNa-vyUha’ (संकर्षणव्यूहः).

123) mahAthapA: (महातपाः)

bhagavAn is called ‘mahAthapA:’ since he possesses abundant divine knowledge. The word ‘mahath’ (महत्) means ‘divine’ or ‘befitting of worship’, and ‘thapas’ (तपस्) refers to knowledge. Starting with this divine name, the six main qualities of bhagavAn are being elucidated.

Of the six qualities, the ‘sankarshaNa’ form of bhagavAn houses the couplet namely ‘knowledge’ and ‘strength’ (ज्ञान-बल).

In this divine name, the quality of ‘knowledge’ is explained as the attribute with which bhagavAn can decide upon destroying all the material worlds – in order to pacify the sorrows of individual souls stuck in the cycle of births and deaths since time immemorial.

Etymology: The word ‘mahath’ refers to the venerable nature, and ‘thapas’ refers to the knowledge. The one who possesses such venerable knowledge is called ‘mahAthapA:’.

महत् पूज्यं तपॊ ज्ञानं यस्यॆति स महातपाः |

===============================
सर्वगः सर्वविद्भानुर्विष्वक्सॆनॊ जनार्दनः ।
वॆदॊ वॆदविदव्यङ्गॊ वॆदाङ्गॊ वॆदवित्कविः ॥ १४ ॥
===============================

124) sarvaga: (सर्वगः)

bhagavAn bears all the destroyed (separated from material bodies) individual souls just like a soul bearing a body. All such destroyed souls go and attain him. He is called ‘sarvaga:’ for this reason of possessing the capacity to bear all the souls with his divine strength.

For the same reason, he is also called ‘sankarshaNa:’ संकर्षणः (556) – since he pulls all the destroyed souls towards himself.

Etymology: Since he bears all entities like a soul bearing the body, and since he draws all such entities unto himself at the time of destruction, he is called ‘sarvaga:’.

धारयन् संहृतान् सर्वान् गच्छतीति स सर्वगः |

125) sarvavith (सर्ववित्)

Thereafter, since he then wishes to create the various worlds again for the benefit of individual souls, and achieves the same in the form of pradhyumna (प्रद्युम्नः), he is called ‘sarvavith’ – the one who possesses all wealth. In here, the quality of wealth is being depicted, with which he is happy by creating all the worlds again.

Etymology: The one who creates all the worlds again and displays his divine wealth thus in the form of ‘pradhyumna’ is called ‘sarvavith’.

प्रद्युम्नत्वॆ तु कार्याणि लभतॆ यः स सर्ववित् |

126) bhAnu: (भानुः) (also repeated in 285)

Although bhagavAn only creates all worlds and entities, since he glows with utmost effulgence without displaying any kind of transformations, he is called ‘bhAnu:’ – the glowing one.

The root ‘bhA’ (भा) meaning ‘to glow’ is suffixed with ‘nu:’ as per the grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name. This name indicates that he is the effulgent one who has no transformations. The scriptures reinforce this quality by declaring thus: “He glowed with his own effulgence…”

This divine name shows the divine splendor of bhagavAn, with no transformations at all.

Etymology: bhAnu: is the one who shines within everyone – having created them all – without the least bit of transformation in his own nature.

भानुः सर्वस्य भातीति निर्माणॆsप्यविकारतः |

127) vishvaksEna: (विष्वक्सॆनः)

Further, he is called by the divine name ‘vishvaksEna:’ – the protector of worlds – in the form of anirudhdha (अनिरुद्धः) (anirudhdha-vyUha). The word ‘sEna’ refers to the battalion that follows a master. As yAska maharishi puts it, sEna refers to the army of men accompanying a master. Since all creatures in all worlds are protected solely by bhagavAn through this army of souls, he is called ‘vishvaksEna:’ – the one who protects everyone. This divine name represents bhagavAn’s divine quality of power to protect every soul.

Etymology: The word sEna refers to the souls who accompany their master. All souls in all worlds are totally protected by him (resulting in this divine name), and thus he is also called anirudhdha.

इनॆन स्वामिना साकं वर्ततॆ सॆन इत्ययम् |
विष्वग्रक्ष्यॊ जनॊsस्यासौ अनिरुद्धॊ तथॆरितः ||

128) janArdhana: (जनार्दनः)

Since bhagavAn destroys (ardhana) those souls (jana) who raise obstacles in his divine deed of protecting his devotees – and that too, without the least bit of expectation of an external aid, he is called ‘janArdhana:’ – the destroyer of repressing souls. In other words, he is called ‘janArdhana:’ since he protects his devotees from impious men. His gallantry that does not look forward to the aid of anyone else is shown in this divine name.

Each of these four vyUhas namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha highlight two divine qualities each. This is due to bhagavAn’s manifestations thus. However, bhagavAn is replete with all six qualities to the fullest.

The mUla samhithA says thus: “The divine attributes namely knowledge, wealth, power et al. of bhagavAn are all complete, and devoid of any shortcomings. He is verily the one who manifests in four vyUhas namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha. In all these forms, he remains omniscient, omnispective, omnipotent, master of all, opulent, free from any type of bondages, free from deficiencies, very friendly, all-controlling even while not being controlled by anyone else, eternal, free from slumber, fear, anger and laziness, free from desires and ignorance, free from diseases and other blemishes, free from undesirable attributes, and completely irreproachable. This is how the pure devotees of bhagavAn know that vAsudhEva. Those who do not comprehend these divine attributes of bhagavAn vAsudhEva do not know the ultimate truth.”

Thus, bhagavAn vAsudhEva is of a boundless infinite form.

Etymology: Since he quickly destroys the oppressors of his devotees, he is called ‘janArdhana:’.

भक्तविद्वॆषिणां तूर्णं मर्दनात् स जनार्दनः |

129) vEdha: (वॆदः)

Furthermore, since sankarshaNa himself is the giver of knowledge in the form of scriptures, he is called ‘vEdha:’ (वॆदः). The individual souls who gain physical bodies at the time of creation approach sankarshaNa for the source of knowledge. This is as per the scriptural statement that says “to him, who confers the sacred knowledge unto the four faced brahmA…”, etc.

Thus, sankarshaNa bhagavAn is characterized as ‘means of attainment’, ‘source of knowledge’, ‘the leader’, ‘the knowledgeable one’, and ‘the preceptor’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn confers the sacred knowledge in form of scriptures as sankarshaNa, he is called ‘vEdha:’.

संकर्षणत्वॆ शास्त्रार्थप्रदत्वात् वॆद ईरितः |

130) vEdhavith (वॆदवित्) (also repeated in 133)

bhagavAn knows the purport of vEdhas without any confusions or doubts, and hence the divine name ‘vEdhavith’ – the knower of vEdhas.  As bhagavAn himself has declared, “I am only the knower of purport of vEdhas”.

Etymology: The one who knows the purport of vEdhas without doubts or delusions is called ‘vEdhavith’.

असंशयविपर्यासं वॆदार्थं वॆद वॆदवित् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.3 – iniyirundhu ennuyir

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “His divine limbs remain in my heart and are tormenting me”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

iniyirundhu ennuyir kAkkum ARen iNai mulai namuga nuNNidai nudangath
thuniyirungalavi seydhAgam thOyndhu thuRandhemmai ittagal kaNNan kaLvan
thaniyiLam singam emmAyan vArAn thAmaraikkaNNum sevvAyumn neelap
paniyirum kuzhalgaLum nAngu thOLum pAviyEn manaththE ninRIrumAlO!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ini – after those which pacify us become harmful
irundhu – survive
en uyir – my life
kAkkum ARu en – how can I save?
iNai mulai – my bosoms which are attractive to him, due to their apt pairing
namuga – to soften (due to the joy in his embrace)
nuN idai – the slender waist
nudanga – to weaken
thuni – to increase the sorrow
iru – in many ways (more than she can handle)
kalavi seydhu – united
Agam thOyndhu – immersed in my body and enjoyed me (just as a tired person will fully immerse in the pond with great desire)

(subsequently)
emmaith thuRandhu – abandoning me (giving up his mercy)
ittu – leaving me behind (like insentient matter)
agal kaNNan – krishNa who has the main quality of leaving [his devotees]
kaLvan – having mischievous activity during union with the intent to separate
thani – being distinguished, having attained the unattainable goal
iLam singam – (due to that) having youth and pride like young lion
em mAyan – one who is having the amazing acts of humbly interacting with me, to separate
vArAn – (he) is not arriving;
thAmaraik kaNNum – his lotus like eyes which manifested the sorrow in separation
sevvAyum – his reddish lips (which will not speak about separation)
neelam – having bluish colour (due to being loosened in union)
pani – having coolness
iru – expansive
kuzhalgaLum – divine hair
nAngu thOLum – four divine shoulders (which branched out to embrace her, to sustain himself during separation)
pAviyEn – me who is having sin (to be separated and engaged in him), my
manaththE – in mind
ninRu – shining
Irum – tormenting.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

How can I survive and save my life after those which pacify us become harmful? Causing my bosoms which are attractive to him, due to their apt pairing, to weaken the slender waist, to increase the sorrow in many ways, krishNa who has the main quality of leaving, united with me, immersed in my body and enjoyed me, abandoned me and left me. He who is having mischievous activity during union with the intent to separate, who is distinguished, having attained the unattainable goal, having youth and pride like a young lion and who is having the amazing acts of humbly interacting with me to separate, is not arriving. His lotus like eyes which manifested the sorrow in separation, his reddish lips, his expansive, cool divine hair which is having bluish colour, his four divine shoulders are all shining and tormenting me who is having sin, by remaining in my mind.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • ini irundhu en uyir kAkkum ARu en – The body which I considered as mine, has become inimical; the beauty which I considered as mine, has become inimical; is there anything such as surviving and trying to save myself?
  • iNai mulai namuga – The bosoms which are praised by him for their apt pairing, just as when a hard surface loosens when rained upon, became softened on being touched by him during union.
  • nuNNidai nudanga – To weaken the already slender waist which cannot be seen like a field which is covered by crop. While uniting he did not know how to care for the other person; he only got his desire fulfilled.
  • thuni irum kalavi seydhu – Uniting only to lead to sorrow.
  • irum kalavi – The interactions during the union were beyond her ability to handle. Since union will always end in separation, it is said to be causing sorrow; since the union was beyond her ability to handle, it is said to be causing sorrow.
  • Agam thOyndhu – Melting her by the union, as said in mahAbhAratham mOksha dharmam 4.50 “…Esha brahma pravishtOsmi…” (like immersing in a cool pond during a hot summer day, AthmA stays satisfied on attaining bhagavAn), he united with her; like those who will remain immersed in a pond during summer time.
  • thuRandhu – All his deep engagements like these are only to abandon her.
  • emmai ittu – Showing such affection towards me, yet leaving me as some would leave some achith padhArtham (insentient objects) and forget that they have left such objects.
  • agal kaNNan – For him, union happens rarely; separation is his identity; he united since without union there is no separation.
  • kaLvan – His cool glances, sweet talks and interactions during the union captivate us fully. He interacted in such a manner as to make us think that he is doing those due to great love for us, and in separation we realise that he did all of those to later harm us during separation.
  • thani … – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 37.18 “yasyasA janakAthmajA – apramEyam hi thaththEja:” (One cannot measure the greatness of the one who is married to the daughter of SrI janaka), he remained distinguished due to his union with her.
  • iLa – The more he united with him, the younger he became.
  • singam – After uniting with her, he shone with pride as if attaining the unattainable goal.
  • em mAyan vArAn – The one who became flustered thinking about the separation and due to great desire towards me, is not arriving now. His detachment now is as good as his attachment then. The difficulty he had in leaving me then is the same as his arrival now.
  • thAmarai … – Just as he is not visible to our eyes, would these also not be present in the heart [tormenting me]? While going, why should he leave these behind [to torment me]? She is saying that he is having divine eyes which appeared to be considering the union as their benefit; or saying that emperumAn stood showing all his sorrow in separation without speaking about it.
  • sevvAyum – The lips which became reddish due to not explaining about the separation fully. This is emperumAn’s “nimiyum vAyum kaNgaLum” [similar to her features explained in thiruvAimozhi 6.5.2 ].
  • neelap pani irum kuzhalgaLum – The dark, cool, expansive divine hair which became loosened during the union and was not cared for due to the separation.
  • nAngu thOLum – The four divine shoulders which embraced her to sustain himself on seeing  her stumbling until he cares for the hair; it was as said in SrI bhAgavatham 5.3 “… upasamhara” (Oh lord of nithyasUris who is having conch, disc and mace, you have taken birth here with this divine form. Oh my lord! Out of compassion, please conceal this form [and assume a human form] for the sake of kamsa et al [who are unfavourable]); for the girls, the four shoulders will be visible. dhraupadhi said in mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 75.43 “Sanka chakra gadhApANE” (Oh one who holds conch, disc and mace).
  • pAviyEn – I am a sinner to have enjoyed these beauties and lost them, but unable to forget them. My….
  • manaththE ninRu eerumAlO – They are eternally present in the mind and tormenting me. I am not having him within my arms’ reach to embrace him and also not being able to push him away from the heart. He has made me not to survive by losing my knowledge and forgetting him.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

periya thirumadal – 36 – ponnagaram pinnE

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Previous

ponnagaram pinnE pulamba valam koNdu                                                47
mannum vaLanAdu kaivittu mAdhirangaL

Word by word meaning

ponnagaram – all the people who were residing in the beautiful city of ayOdhyA
pinnE pulamba – even though they came behind (SrI rAma) crying (telling him not to go to the forest)
valam koNdu – not stepping back from his from resolve
vaLam mannu nAdu kaivittu – renouncing the wealthy state of kOsala

 vyAkyAnam

ponnagaram – ayOdhyA matches the aprAkrutha (not belonging to material world) land of  SrIvaikuNtam which is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 6-8-1 as “ponnulagu” (golden place). The reason for this is that just as nithyamukthas (permanent residents of SrIvaikuNtam as well as those who went from material world after attaining liberation), the people of ayOdhyA took great joy in mingling with SrI rAma. SrI rAmAyaNam ayodhyA kANdam 59-9 says “api vrukshA: parimlAnA: sapushpAnkura kOrakA:” (Even insentient entities in ayOdhyA such as trees with flower, tender shoot and bud were withering (due to separation from SrI rAma)).

ponnagaram pinnE pulamba – the people of ayOdhyA went behind SrI rAma, wailing, and calling out to him, unable to sustain being separated from him. Did not kulasEkara AzhwAr too say in perumAL thirumozhi 8-5 “suRRamellAm pinthodara” ((SrI rAma) was followed by relatives and others)!

valam koNdu – emperumAn who incarnated as SrI rAma to display qualities of easy approachability, softness etc relating to simplicity, hardened his heart to manifest a deep resolve since he was going away from those who are dear to him. valam – strength.

mannum vaLanAdu kaivittu – though he gave up his right over the throne, did he at the least stay in the country? Did he not leave the country and go to forest?

mannum vaLanAdu – the state of kOsala, which is sweeter than ayOdhyA and over which he had the  right to rule over.

kaivittu – leaving ayOdhyA, with even animals suffering from the pangs of separation, just as it is mentioned by dhaSaratha chakravarthy’s minister sumanthra “mama thvaSvA nivruthasya na prAvarthantha varthmani I ushNamaSru vimunjchanthO rAmE samprasthithE vanam II” (my horses (after leaving SrI rAma) could not go on the correct path; after SrI rAma went to the forest, they shed tears of sorrow). bhUthaththAzhwAr says in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 15thirindhadhu venjamaththuth thErkadavi pirindhadhu sIthaiyai mAn pin pOy” ( was it he (SrI rAma) who entered the forests and got separated from sIthA?)  He normally sleeps on the serpent bed (AdhiSEshan). Did he sleep on the ground? Is it not an act which makes others to feel very much worried for him? Just as kulasEkara AzhwAr says in perumAL thirumozhi 9-2 “evvARu nadandhanai emmirAmAvO” (How did you manage to walk in the forest, our dear SrI rAma?) and in perumAL thirumozhi 9-3 kallaNai mEl kaNthuyilak kaRRanaiyO kAkuththA” (Oh SrI rAma! Did you learn to sleep on a bed of stones?) did he not carry out activities which made those who were dear to him have a churning feel in their stomachs?

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 12 (Names 111 to 120)

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 11

111) amOgha: (अमॊघः) (also repeated in 156)

The one whose relation is never futile is called ‘amOgha:’ – the unfailing one. SrImadh rAmAyana says thus: “Oh rAma! The very sight of yours is unfailing. Praising you would never go in vain. Those who are devoted unto you would never fail to attain their fruits”.

Etymology: The one whose connection is far from being futile is called ‘amOgha:’.

वितथस्पर्शरहितः स ह्यमॊघः प्रकीर्तितः |

112) puNdarIkAksha: (पुण्डरीकाक्षः)

bhagavAn’s eternal abode SrIvaikuNtam is called ‘puNdarIkam’ (पुण्डरीकम्). Since bhagavAn is like the eye of all those who enter SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘puNdarIkAksha:’ – the eye of SrIvaikuNtam.

This means he is like the eye of all those who eternally reside in SrIvaikuNtam. This is as per the scriptural statement that says “He is like the wide eye of SrIvaikuNtam”, et al.

Etymology: The eternal imperishable abode SrIvaikuNtam is called ‘puNdarIkam’. He who is like the eye of the souls who reside in SrIvaikuNtam is called ‘puNdarIkAksha:’.

पुण्डरीकं परं धाम नित्यमक्षरमव्ययम् |
तद्गतानाम् अक्षिभूतः पुण्डरीकाक्ष ईरितः ||

113) vrushakarmA (वृषकर्मा)

Although being aloof as detailed thus, since bhagavAn sports all righteous actions that would benefit even the lowly souls like us, he is called ‘vrushakarmA’ – the one with righteous actions.

Etymology: The one whose actions are known to be beneficial to everyone, and righteous at the same time, such a one with the most auspicious actions is popularly called ‘vrushakarmA’.

श्रॆयस्करं धर्मरूपं कर्म यस्य प्रचक्षतॆ |
वृषकर्मॆति विख्यातॊ शुभकर्मप्रदॊ मनुः ||

114) vrushAkruthi: (वृषाकृतिः)

Since bhagavAn is verily the embodiment of such righteousness, he is called ‘vrushAkruthi:’  – the form of righteousness. Alternately, since his divine form wards off the three heats of samsAra, thereby sprinkling nectar on the fallen souls, and since his actions are most desirable and his form is the most beautiful, he is called ‘vrushakarmA vrushAkruthi:’ (वृषकर्मा वृषाकृतिः). The root for this alternate meaning is in the word ‘vrush’ वृष् (sprinkling).

The scriptures hail bhagavAn thus:

  • “He gladdens the whole world by his cool and divine beauty – akin to ten thousand moons lightening up together”.
  • “With his divine and beautiful form which is free from blemishes, and with his divine look, constantly emitting knowledge from his body, and also with his moon-like lustrous face, he keeps gladdening the fallen souls – who are burnt in the fire of previous karma – in order to ward off their miseries.”
  • “There, he beheld krishNa seated in a high pedestal, bedecked with gems and gold, who looked like the wonderful dark cloud bordering the mEru mountain.”, et al.

Etymology: The one who is verily the embodiment of righteousness is called ‘vrushAkruthi:’. Alternately, the one who sports the divine form and actions that are extremely cool like the nectar to the fallen souls being burnt in the three heats of samsAra is called ‘vrushakarmA vrushAkruthi:’.

धर्मरूपाकृतिर्यस्य स वृषाकृतिरुच्यतॆ |
तापत्रयाग्निदग्धानां सुधॆवात्यन्तशीतलम् |
रूपं कर्म च यस्यास्ति वृषकर्मा वृषाकृतिः ||

===============================
रुद्रॊ बहुशिरा बभ्रुः विश्वयॊनिः शुचिश्रवाः ।
अमृतः शाश्वतस्थाणुः वरारॊहॊ महातपाः ॥ १३ ॥
===============================

115) rudhra: (रुद्रः)

bhagavAn – with such various divine forms and deeds – makes the devotees lose their heart to him and shed tears of joy. Thus, he is called ‘rudhra:’ – the one who makes the devotees cry.

The scriptures have said thus:

“All creatures must see that devotee who sheds the cool tears of joy with goose bumps all over his body at the very thought of bhagavAn, and who is constantly engrossed in the pastime of hailing the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn makes his devotees shed tears of joy by showing them such beautiful and divine forms and deeds, he is called ‘rudhra:’. This manthra bestows joy to all such intimate devotees.

ईदृक् रूपैः चॆष्टितैश्च भक्तान् सानन्दबाष्पयन् |
रॊदयन् रुद्र उद्दिष्टः सर्वसन्तॊषदॊ मनुः ||

116) bahuSirA: (बहुशिराः)

bhagavAn possesses innumerable heads, (thousands of hoods) like the AdhisEsha. Hence he is called ‘bahuSirA:’ – the one with many heads.

Etymology: The one who has many hoods is called ‘bahuSirA:’.

फणाश्च बहवॊ यस्य स वै बहुशिरा मतः |

117) babhru: (बभ्रुः)

Since bhagavAn bears the whole world on his hoods in such a form, he is called ‘babhru:’ – the one who bears the world on his hoods.

The root ‘brU:’ भृ (to bear) gets the ‘ku’ (कु) adjunct, resulting in the form of ‘bhru’ (भ्रु). This results in this divine name ‘babhru:’ (बभ्रुः).

The scriptures say:

  • “He, unto whom all of these worlds form the invaluable gems on the hoods, bears the whole string of creation…”
  • “He who bears the world in the form of ‘anantha’ (अनन्तः) on his hoods….”, etc

Etymology: The one who bears the whole world on his hood in the form of ‘anantha’ is called ‘babhru:’.

अनन्तरूपॊ यॊ धत्तॆ पृथ्वी बभ्रुः स ईरितः |

118) viSvayOni: (विश्वयॊनिः) (also repeated in 151)

The one who sports various divine forms in order to mingle with his devotees very normally, and the one who organizes a special setup for the same, is called ‘viSvayOni:’ – the one who mingles with the world (all creatures).

This means he unites with all the souls himself.

The root ‘yu’ यु (to mix up) gets the ‘nith’ (नित्) adjunct resulting in the word ‘yOni:’ (यॊनिः).

Etymology: BhagavAn is called ‘viSvayOni:’ since he unites with the creatures himself.

विश्वॆषां भॆजुषां स्वॆन विश्वयॊनिस्तु मिश्रणात् |

119) SuchiSravA: (शुचिश्रवाः)

The one who necessarily listens to the words of such devotees is called ‘SuchiSravA:’ – the intent listener.

As bhagavAn has declared himself in the mahAbhAratha, “Oh arjuna, I listen to every word of my devotee who talks pure and pleasant words. I do not listen to the sinful talks ever. That is why I am called ‘SuchiSravA:’  by the learned men”.

The definition of ‘Suchi:’ शुचिः (pure) is laden with devotion.

This is as seen in the mahAbhAratha verse that says: “vidhura offered pure and quality food”, where purity referred to vidhura’s pure love towards bhagavAn.

The same context is further recorded thus: “vidhura’s words were full of righteousness, pleasantness, and full of meaning. Listening to such pure words of vidhura, bhagavAn krishNa wished that the night should never finish. Alas, that night passed and the dawn broke…”

Etymology: The one who intently listens to the words spoken by his devotees is called ‘SuchiSravA:’.

भक्तैरुक्तान्यवश्यं यः शृणॊति स शुचिश्रवाः |

120) amrutha: (अमृतः)

Although serving bhagavAn eternally, since the liberated souls are never satisfied due to bhagavAn’s unquantifiable sweetness and due to his nature of warding off samsAra, he is called ‘amrutha:’ – the sweetest.

The scriptures have hailed bhagavAn thus: “Just as a lower mortal is never satisfied by drinking nectar, so also a true devotee is never fully satisfied by looking at the divine forms of janArdhana”.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘amrutha:’ because he is the one who wards off the shackles of aging and death. Alternately, he is called so, since his devotees are never fully satisfied even by serving him eternally. He is called ‘amrutha:’, also due to his unquantifiable sweetness always.

जरामृत्यॊर्वारणॆन ह्यतृप्तॆर्वाsपि सॆवनात् |
अमृतः स्यात् निरतिशय माधुर्यॆण च सर्वदा ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org