Monthly Archives: September 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 9.10 – mAlainaNNi

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Previous decad

Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth decad, AzhwAr cried out due to the urge in attaining emperumAn; seeing that ISvara manifested his easily approachable presence in thirukkaNNapuram in archAvathAra form and pacified his urge; being satisfied with that, AzhwAr highlighted the following aspects of emperumAn:

  1. his great favour of resting on pipal leaf
  2. the greatness of his divine abode
  3. his being with distinguished wealth
  4. his great enjoyability
  5. his granting of paramapadham
  6. his eliminating the hurdles which block his experience for the devotees
  7. his being unconditionally, easily approachable
  8. his eliminating bondage for the devotees
  9. his being the cause
  10. his being the divine lord of SrI mahAlakshmi

Meditating upon these, and meditating upon how such emperumAn is mercifully standing as the recipient of kainkaryams and to accept the servitude, in the divine abode [of thirukkaNNapuram] where he can be approached, being very blissful, AzhwAr says “Being a bhaktha (devotee), a prapanna (surrendered person), through words (reciting his names etc), approach him, enjoy him, serve his divine feet and live with your sorrows of bondage being removed” and concludes highlighting his being the goal due to being the recipient of kinchithkAram (even a little bit of service).

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In thiruvAimozhi 9.8 “aRukkum vinai“, AzhwAr greatly desired to attain emperumAn; since he did not attain emperumAn while he desired, he became very anguished and that was explained in thiruvAimozhi 9.9 “malligai kamazh thenRal“; that was anguish in the night. Seeing his suffering due to not having his desire fulfilled, ISvara pacified AzhwAr by saying “Should you desire for me and then feel anguished for not attaining me? Am I not the one who is desiring to attain you? Am I not the one who is anguished due to not having attained you? Do you have any shortcoming? Did I not arrive and have my presence in thirukkaNNapuram specifically for you while the assembly in the unshakeable paramapadham is in tact? I will fulfil your desire at the end of your present body” AzhwAr being pacified, becomes blissful; emperumAn’s nature/form is such that when he says “I will do something”, we will feel as if we have already attained it and become blissful.

In this manner, AzhwAr being blissful started instructing others saying “When this is his nature, sarvESvaran, being approachable by all, manifested his presence in thirukkaNNapuram; do bhakthi (devotion) at his divine feet; those who are unable to do bhakthi, do prapaththi (surrender); even if you don’t have full faith in such surrender, at least do it in speech; he will accept that and not abandon you; hence, everyone approach him”. Other than while being unconscious, AzhwAr cannot stop himself from giving good advice to others when he is conscious.

When asked “ISvara saying ‘at the end of this body, your desire [of ascending to paramapadham] will be fulfilled’ and AzhwAr becoming blissful does not make sense; is it not said in vEdhAntham that one gets liberated after one’s prArabdha (accumulated karma which has started yielding results) karma is exhausted?” – in this decad, AzhwAr says “do bhakthi” and “those who cannot do bhakthi, do prapaththi”. There [in vEdhAntha], it talks about the qualified person, upAsaka [bhakthi yOga follower]. Here [in this decad], AzhwAr is talking about prapanna [surrendered person]; this principle is explained in chAndhOgya upanishath “thasya thAvadhEva chiram yAvanna vimOkshyE athasampathsyE” (After acquiring desire to be liberated, I am waiting for a very long time). When asked “Isn’t this phrase in Sruthi (vEdham) analysed ‘whether it is talking about SarIrAvasAnam (end of the body) or karmAvasAnam (end of karma)’ and determined in our sidhdhAntham (philosophy) that it is speaking about karmAvasAnam? Will this (emperumAn giving mOksham to AzhwAr at the end of this body) not be contrary to that principle?” – only when a phrase is looked at contextually, it can be understood; for an upAsaka, since his results will fructify only after his means reach its ultimate state, in his case, he will be here until the end of karma; but, a prapanna, right in the beginning says “You are responsible for all my burdens” and performs bharanyAsam (placing his burden) on sarvESvara; [hence] there is no reason for [further] delay as in “there is something for him to still accomplish to bring his practice to the ultimate state, to have the results attained”! And ISvara to whom the individual has performed bharanyAsam, is not incapable and hence that is not a reason for the delay. Hence, as per these logic, there is no contradiction in such prapanna getting the result at the end of the present body.

Now, it is said that mAdhavi attained liberation as soon as she surrendered in gAruda purANam, SrIranga mAhAthmyam chapter 3 “bhagavatham prapannA sA bhagavantham avApasA” (she surrendered to bhagavAn; she reached him). In mudhgala upAkyAna (mudhgala’s incident), it is said that “those who were experiencing the results of their sin in naraka (hell) subsequently attained liberation, having heard the names of bhagavAn”; it is also said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 4.9 “one who has knowledge about the confidential aspects of emperumAn’s incarnations, will be liberated at the end of present life”; “thyakthvA dhEham punar janma naithi” (he does not acquire another birth, after the present body); it is also said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi” (I will liberate you from all of your sins).

Should one not attain bhagavAn as soon as one performs surrender? Doesn’t one pray ‘you should eliminate this hurdle [body] and give me your divine feet’ [as nammAzhwAr prayed in thiruviruththam 1]? Even after this, if one remains with the material body which is not pleasing to him, is it because of remaining karma or is it because of ISvara placing him in such situation? If ISvara is placing a prapanna in such situation, then he will be blamed of some faults [that is, he is watching a prapanna suffer, hence he is being cruel, and so on]; it will also contradict his own words where he said that he will sever our hurdles and will carry us towards him; hence, isn’t it clear that he is remaining here due to his karma, and experiencing joy and sorrow just as any bound soul will experience? If there is still some karma remaining, why would he be in bondage until all the karma is exhausted [karmAvasAnam]? That is not required, since a prapanna is categorically different from others. If one falls dead and gets liberated immediately after his prapaththi, everyone will fear prapaththi thinking it to be a poisonous pond. Now, as he is kept here for some time [after prapaththi], just as people were given knowledge with SrI bhIshma [on his death bed], he will instruct others, others will see his conduct and be reformed and others will benefit in this manner. ISvara will not disregard this final body [of the invididual, though it is material body], thinking “this is the body which facilitated the AthmA to come to me”. For the [dhruptha] prapanna (one who is satisfied with getting liberated soon, but not immediately], it is not [generally] possible to have the urge “my hurdles should be removed immediately and I should reach your divine feet now”. Since the AthmA is used to material body, he will not immediately desire to give it up; [generally] he only gets the desire not to acquire another material body, not to enter a womb; hence as per “thath krathu nyAyam” (logic of results matching the efforts/desire), that is how he will get the result as well. Considering the prapanna’s desire too [on top of the previously explained reasons], ISvara thinks “if he has desire in this material body still, let him remain here for some time”.

In that short time, why is ISvara not avoiding sufferings and diseases for such prapanna and not making him live joyfully differentiating him from others? Just like worldly people, why is ISvara letting him feel anguished when losing something and feel joyful when attaining something? The prapanna is the one who prayed “You should eliminate this hurdle [body] and give me yourself”. But even after knowing that this body [and bodily pleasures] are lowly, the prapanna is not completely abandoning it. If such person were placed in the most joyful state, he will think “if this is filled with pleasure here, why not we enjoy it for some more time?” If the prapanna were placed according to his own desire, he may end up taking birth here in material world again; hence, ISvara, seeing the well-being of the prapanna, thinks “Let him remain like this”. Hence, as the familiar material body naturally goes away and before he desires for another material body, ISvara will fulfil the task of taking him to paramapadham. The familiar body will naturally go; since he does not know what is coming next, he does not have a taste for it. But he superficially knows that “this [materialistic body] is not good”. In the beginning [i.e. while surrendering], since he said a word “please eliminate this for me”, ISvara will not be blamed for giving him apurushArtham [purushArtham is what is desired by the purusha. emperumAn will only give what is desired by the AthmA. As the prapanna asked for elimination of bondage, ISvara will not be blamed for granting that which is not desired by the AthmA]. Now, in the final moments, the prapanna will be in the state of a wood or stone. Hence, ISvara will keep the previous request of the prapanna as the reason; thus, the prapanna cannot reject ISvara’s help, ISvara will grant liberation at that time. He himself declared [in varAha charama SlOkam] that “When one is in the state of matter [during last moments], I will not expect anything from him, and will deliver him myself”. It is said that “These two SlOkams [the two SlOkams recited by varAha emperumAn which are collectively called as varAha charama SlOkam] are said to be emperumAn’s sarvasvam (granting of everything)” These SlOkams are explained further in detail:

  • sthithE manasi – Even the mind which is said in periya thirumozhi 1.1.4  as “ninRavA nillA nenjum” (the restless mind) should remain fixed in one thing. For one who has a heart which is similar to a cow which roams around, it is difficult to engage in a single task; [should the heart be focussed on one task?] even while attaining the goal, one should engage with the heart; arjuna said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 6.34thasyAham nigraham manyE vAyOr iva sudhushkaram” (I think that it is very difficult to restrain it, like controlling a fierce storm). When the people of the world pursue great efforts to be with UrvaSI (well-known celestial woman), she voluntarily offered herself to arjuna. At that time arjuna said “Aren’t you my mother?”, offered obeisances and stayed away. arjuna who is such a renunciate said these words [that the mind is restless].
  • sussvasthE SarIrE – The body which is always changing, remains steady.
  • dhAthu sAmyE sthithE – For that, the dhAthus (constituents) in the body should be balanced instead of something being high and something else being low. The body should be at ease and when sathva guNam (goodness) is on the rise, if a person meditates upon me and thinks “Who are we? This body is made of matter; there is an AthmA which is beyond the body; he is a servitor for ISvara; attaining such bhagavAn is mOksham (liberation) for this AthmA”.
  • viSvarUpam cha mAm – Just as AthmA suffers when a thorn pierces the body, since I am the AthmA of every entity and I who feel for anything happening to every entity. Thinking about me.
  • ajam – Unlike the AthmA, I don’t have the bewilderment acquired through birth.
  • thathastham kAshta pAshANa sannibham mriyamANam aham smarAmi – While active, the AthmA is also conscious; even when he is in iunconscious state like matter, I will not expect anything from him saying “he is not thinking about me [in his last moments]”, and will remain thinking about him always.
  • math bhaktham – Did the prapanna surrender unto someone who promises to protect but abandons when required? Did the prapanna surrender unto someone who accepts service from him for a long time and when the time comes for delivery, abandons him pointing to the days when he did not serve?
  • nayAmi paramAm gathim – Just as emperumAn took away “kaLvan koL pirAtti” [parakAla nAyaki, thirumangai AzhwAr in feminine mood, was taken away by emperumAn as highlighted in periya thirumozhi 3.7] by covering her with his upper cloth, emperumAn will himself hold the prapanna’s hand and take him to paramapadham. Instead of sending AdhivAhika (those who usually take AthmAs to paramapadham) or sending periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) and taking the AthmA, emperumAn who is the chief of AdhivAhikas will himself take him.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 45 – mannavan vANan

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mannavan vANan avuNarkku vAL vEndhan                                              60
thannudaiya pAvai ulagaththuth thannokkum
kanniyarai illAdha kAtchiyAL thannudaiya                                                61
innuyirth thOzhiyAl emperumAn InthuzhAy
mannu maNivaraiththOL mAyavan pAviyEn                                             62

Word by word meaning

mannavan – being the king among kings
avuNarkku vAL vEndhan – being a radiant leader among asuras [demonic entities]
vANan thannudaiya pAvai – as the daughter of bANAsura
ulagaththu than okkum kanniyarai illAdha kAtchiyALushai, who is so extremely beautiful, with none in the world equalling her in beauty
thannudaiya innuyir thOzhiyAl – with the help of her dear friend, chithralEkai
mannu maNi varai thOL mAyavan – one with amazing activities, having divine shoulders adorned with divine thuLasi garland and matching a mountain of gemstones

vyAkyAnam

purandharanOdu Er okkum mannavan vANan – bANasura, the king among kings, who equalled the greatness of indhra [as mentioned in the previous verse]

avuNarkku vAL vEndhan – leader of demonic entities

thannudaiya pAvai – his daughter

ulagaththuth than okkum kanniyarai illAdha  kAtcvhiyAL – among girls of her age, there was none who could equal her in beauty

thannudaiya innuriyth thOzhiyAl – with the help of her friend, dearer than her life, chithralEkai, who was like her right hand

emperumAn InthuzhAy – azhagiya maNavALap perumAL nAyanAr, one of the commentators for this prabandham mercifully says “apart from confirming that emperumAn is full of auspicious qualities to counter those who say that the supreme entity is without any quality, just like emperumAnAr (bhagavath rAmAnujar) who gets deeply involved in the auspicious qualities of emperumAn, she too [thirumangai AzhwAr in feminine mood] gets deeply engaged with the material [sweet thuLasi] which will not allow her to go past and neither will it allow her to describe clearly.

emperumAn – one who made me his servitor by making me engage with him full and set out with madal [in order to attain him].

InthuzhAy mannu maNi varaiththOL mAyavan – amazing entity with shouders matching a mountain made of gem stones and having very sweet thuLasi, fitting well on those shoulders

mAyavan – even though AzhwAr is in a state where he despises emperumAn, the moment he thinks of emperumAn, due to the involvement, he calls him as an amazing entity. He says “What a wonder is this! Even when I am setting out to engage in madal, he is making me get engaged with him!”

pAviyEn – since she is unable to attain the shouders which had embraced her earlier, she is calling herself as pAviyEn (one who has sinned). Alternatively, this could be considered as – isn’t ushai a fortunate girl having a friend who brought her beloved person as soon as she [uhsai] got involved with him! What sort of sin have I committed that even when I wish to engage in madal, I have friends who are trying to dissuade me?”  Another interpretation – “What sins have I committed! All those who are going in the long street, where I am setting out with madal, are dissuading me from engaging in madal”. Yet another interpretation – “getting caught in the deep river of bhagavath kAmam (love for emperumAn), I am unable to extricate myself and reach the shore and engage in madal. What sin have I committed?”

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 21 (Names 201 to 210)

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201) sarvadhruk (सर्वदृक्)

bhagavAn sees all the creatures – that are supportive, opposing as well as neutral to him – befittingly in order to control them. Hence, he is called ‘sarvadhruk’ – the one who sees all entities. The root ‘dhruS’ (दृश्) gets the ‘kvin’ (क्विन्) adjunct and ‘ku’ (कु) substitutes the adjunct, resulting in the word ‘dhruk’ (दृक्).

This divine name corresponds to the addressing of bhagavAn as ‘sarvathOmukha:’ (the one who faces everyone in all directions) in the manthras.

Etymology: The one who himself sees every creature – whether they are in favor of him, opposing to him or unbiased – and controls them all befitting to their disposition is called sarvadhruk.

अनुकूलान् तटस्थांश्च प्रतिकूलानपि स्वयम् |
नियन्तुं च यथायॊग्यं यः पश्यति स सर्वदृक् ||

202) simha: (सिंहः) (also repeated in 489)

Who is that sarvadhruk? He is verily the one who is hailed as ‘simha:’ – the ferocious lion. He is the one who incarnated as the ferocious and mighty nArasimha – with a great divine body combining the human and lion forms.

Etymology: The one who fiercely pounces upon his enemies who are like mighty elephants and destroys them is called simha:.

रिपुद्विपानां निष्पॆषभीषणः सिंह उच्यतॆ |

203) sandhAthA (सन्धाता)

Although fierce in pouncing upon the enemies who are like mighty elephants, bhagavAn is called ‘sandhAthA’ since he is the one who lovingly unites his dear devotees such as prahlAdha and the like with himself.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sandhAthA’ since he unites his dear devotees such as PrahlAdha and the like with himself.

प्रह्लादाद्यैः सन्धाता संश्लॆषकरणाच्च सः |

204) sandhimAn (सन्धिमान्)

Once united thus, since bhagavAn’s union with such devotees remains eternal, he is called ‘sandhimAn’. The ‘mathup’ (मतुप्) adjunct is used in the context of eternity in this divine name.

Etymology: The one whose union with his dear devotees like prahlAdha et al (whom he united as ‘sandhAthA’) remains eternal is called ‘sandhimAn’.

प्रह्लादाद्यैः नित्यसन्धिः यस्य स्यात् सन्धिमान् स्मृतः |

205) sthira: (स्थिरः)

Once bhagavAn unites his dear devotees with himself as ‘sandhAthA’ and remains with them eternally as ‘sandhimAn’, since he doesn’t take notice of any of their offences anymore, he is called ‘sthira:’ – the one who is not moved by offences.

The ‘kirach’ (किरच्) adjunct is used (as in ajira:, shishira:, et al) with the root ‘sthA’ (स्था) and the ‘AkAra’ (आ) goes off, resulting in this divine name.

In the manthra varNas, he is hailed as ‘bhadhra:’ – the friendly one, which corresponds to this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sthira:’, since he is not moved by offences of his devotees after uniting with them.

अपचारॆsप्यचाल्यत्वात् सन्धानॆ स्थिर उच्यतॆ |

206) aja: (अजः) (also repeated in 96, 524)

Since bhagavAn sprang from the pillar, and was not born in a mother’s womb like other mortals, he is called ‘aja:’ – the one who is not born like others.

The scriptures hail bhagavAn as ‘aja:’ for two reasons: One, since he is not born in a mother’s womb like the lower mortals, and two – since he wins over many people.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn was born in a pillar, and not born like the other mortals, he is called ‘aja:’.

स्तम्भजत्वादितरवदजातत्वादजः स्मृतः |

207) dhurmarshaNa: (दुर्मर्षणः)

The one whose sight is not endured by his adversaries is called as ‘dhurmarshaNa:’ – the one who cannot be won over. The manthra varNa hails bhagavAn as ‘bhIshaNa:’ (‘that brahman who holds the discus and the conch in his hands is the most fierce’).

Etymology: The one whose mere sight cannot be endured by his opponents is called ‘dhurmarshaNa:’.

दुष्करं मर्षणं यस्य परैर्दुर्मषणः स्मृतः |

208) SAsthA (शास्ता)

bhagavAn is called ‘SAsthA’ since he lawfully punishes all the impeding bad elements. As the scriptures say:

  • “The demons were terrified just by his roar…”
  • “All the demons run at his mere sight…”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn punishes all impeding bad elements, which is why he is hailed as ‘SAsthA’.

समस्तान् कण्टकान् शास्तीत्यतः शास्तॆति कीर्त्यतॆ |

209) viSruthAthmA (विश्रुतात्मा)

bhagavAn is known with all admirations by everyone at all places and at all times for his noble character. Hence, he is called ‘viSruthAthmA’ – the famous one. The scriptures say thus, to show his fame: “Of all the kings among dhEvas, manushyas and others, only bhagavAn was the one who tore the chest of the infamous hiraNyakaSipu”.

Etymology: The one whose divine deeds are heard by the dhEvas with awe, and the one who is the abode of all noble characters is hailed by such dhEvas as ‘viSruthAthmA’. he is indeed the bestower of great fame.

विस्मयॆन श्रुतं दॆवैः सैहं यस्यापदानकम् |
शीलं तैर्विश्रुतात्मा सॊ महाकीर्तिप्रदॊ मनुः ||

210) surArihA (सुरारिहा)

Since bhagavAn tore the chest of hiranyakaSipu – who was the enemy of all dhEvas, he is called ‘surArihA’ – the slayer of the enemy of dhEvas. The dhyAna manthra of nArasimha hails bhagavAn thus: “he is the one who instills fear among the bad elements by showing the shining rows of his fierce nails in both the hands, while assuring fearlessness among his dear devotees at the same time with the same hands”

Etymology: The slayer of hiranyakaSipu is hailed as ‘surArihA’.

हिरण्यकशिपॊर्हन्ता कीर्त्यतॆ स सुरारिहा |

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गुरुर्गुरुतमॊ धामः सत्यः सत्यपराक्रमः ।
निमिषॊsनिमिषः स्रग्वी वाचस्पतिरुदारधीः ॥ २३ ॥
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adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.11 – avanai vittu

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Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Those who desire him, recite this decad and attain him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

avanai vittaganRuyir ARRagillA aNi izhai Aychchiyar mAlaip pUsal
avanai vittagalvadhaRkE irangi aNi kurugUrch chatakOpan mARan
avani uNdumizhndhavan mEl uraiththa AyiraththuL ivai paththungoNdu
avaniyuL alaRRi ninRuymmin thoNdIr achchonna mAlai naNNith thozhudhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

avanai vittu aganRu – being separated from krishNa who is greatly enjoyable
uyir ARRagillA – those who cannot sustain themselves
aNi izhai – wearing ornaments, expecting his arrival
Aychchiyar – gOpikAs
mAlai – in the evening time
pUsal – the way they called out, having not seen his arrival
avanai vittu agalvadhaRkE – due to being separated from him
irangi – anguished
aNi kurugUr – being the controller of beautiful AzhwArthirunagari
satakOpan mARan – nammAzhwAr
avani – earth
uNdu – consumed so that the deluge does not consume it
umizhndhavan mEl – on the one who spat it out
uraiththa – mercifully spoke
AyiraththuL ivai paththum koNdu – pursuing this decad among the thousand pAsurams
avani uL – in the earth
alaRRi ninRu – calling out in group, out of love
thoNdIr – Oh those who are desirous of enjoying [emperumAn]!
achchonna mAlai – krishNa who is attached to his devotees, who is explained there
naNNith thozhudhu – reaching and worshipping him
uymmin – uplift!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

gOpikAs who cannot sustain themselves being separated from the greatly enjoyable krishNa, were wearing ornaments, expecting his arrival and called out for him having not seen his arrival in the evening time; nammAzhwAr, the controller of AzhwArthirunagari, anguished due to being separated from him, mercifully spoke about this on him who consumed the earth so that the deluge does not consume it and spat it out. Oh those who are desirous of enjoying him! Pursuing this decad among the thousand pAsurams, in the earth, calling out in group, out of love for krishNa who is attached to his devotees, who is explained there, reach him, worship him and uplift yourself. This decad reflects the gOpikAs individually calling out for krishNa as well as one gOpikA joining a group of gOpikAs and calling out for him.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • avanai vittu aganRu uyir ARRagillA aNi izhai Aychchiyar – The gOpikAs who separated from him and are unable to sustain themselves, have decorated themselves eagerly expecting his arrival. As said in in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 8.7 “kongaimEl kungumaththin kuzhambazhiyap pugundhu” (enter to have the kumkum decorations on bosoms to fade away), decorating themselves expecting krishNa’s arrival, and as he did not arrive at the expected time, the gOpikAs of the five lakh families of thiruvAyppAdi (gOkulam), due to their sorrow in separation from krishNa, called out.
  • avanai vittu agalvadhaRkE irangi – AzhwAr alone suffered the collective suffering of all those girls.
  • avani uNdu umizhndhavan mEl uraiththa – AzhwAr mercifully spoke this about the divine feet of sarvESvara who protected everyone during the danger of deluge and created them again! This pAsuram should be read us “thoNdIr – aNi kurugUrch chatakOpan mARan, avani uNdumizhndhavan mEl uraiththa AyiraththuL – avanai vittagalvadhaRkE irangi – avanai vittaganRuyir ARRagillA aNi izhai Aychchiyar mAlaip pUsal – sonna – ippaththum koNdu – ammAlai naNNith thozhudhu – avani uL alaRRi ninRuymmin”. AzhwAr is saying this to get emperumAn to lift him up from the deluge of separation.
  • achchonna mAlai naNNith thozhudhu – avani uL alaRRi ninRu uymmin thoNdIr – Reaching emperumAn who can create such great desire in us for him, worshipping him, oh those who are desirous towards him! Call out incoherently, standing on this earth and seek to be uplifted. Those who recite these pAsurams need not call out like me; there is no shortcoming for the result unlike me who desired saying “en solli uyvan” (how will I be saved?)

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 44 – thannudaiya kongai

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thannudaiya kongai mugam neRiyath thAn avan than
pon varai Agam thazheeikkoNdu pOyth thanadhu                               58
nannagaram pukku nayandhinidhu vAzhndhadhuvum
munnuraiyil kEttu aRivadhillaiyE – sUzh kadaluL                                59
ponnagaram seRRa purandharanOdu Er okkum         

Word by word meaning

thannudaiya kongai mugam neRiya – such that the face of her bosom became stiff
thAn – (discarding her shyness) on her own
avan than – that arjuna’s
pon varai Agam – beautiful, mountain-like chest
thazheeikkoNdu pOy – embracing
thanadhu – her
nal nagaram pOy pukku – reaching beautiful place (in the land of snakes)
nayandhu – celebrating
inidhu vAzhndhadhuvum – that she lived happily
mun uraiyil kEttu aRivadhillaiyE – have you not heard of, in mahAbhAratham?
sUzh kadaluL – in the expansive ocean
pon nagaram seRRa – one who destroyed the towns of hiraNyAsura
purandharanOdu Er okkum – it will parallel the greatness of dhEvEndhra (head of celestial entities)

vyAkyAnam

thannudaiya kongai mugam neRiya – manifesting only her love, without waiting for reciprocation, to the extent of showing off the face of her bosom

thAn avan than ponvaraiyAgam thazheeikoNdu pOy – embracing his chest which looked like a golden mountain, even if he did not evince any interest

pon varai Agam – while all the people in the world were carrying out penance in order to attain celestial damsel Urvasi, did not that Urvasi very much desire to embrace arjuna? Such arjuna’s chest.

thanadhu nannagaram – unlike the town here [in materialistic world] where people prevented others from engaging in madal, her (ulUpi’s) town had people who celebrated those who engaged in carrying out madal.

pugundhu – entering [such a town]

nayandhu – celebrating. Being united with him for a long time

inidhu vAzhndhadhuvum – unlike people here who prevent [anything good happening], since she had friends who showed her ways to attain him and who praised her, she lived happily.

mun uraiyil kEttu aRivadhillaiyE – it wil not matter if one has not learnt kAmaSAsthra (treatise on love). But wouldn’t one have heard of epics such as mahAbhAratha, for the sake of attaining puNya (virtue)? If one had heard of it, one would have understood the greatness of engaging in madal.

From the verse sUzh kadaluL, until the verse pErinbam eydhinAL, the pAsuram speaks about how ushai, the daughter of bANAsura captured anirudhdha the grandson of krishNa, and enjoyed with him.

sUzh kadaluL ponnagaram seRRa purandharan – indhra (the head of celestial entities) who entered oceans and destroyed the demons of hiraNyapura and attained the name purandhara.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 20 (Names 191 to 200)

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191) marIchi: (मरीचिः)

The one who shows his faultless divine forms even to those who are born blind is called ‘marIchi:’ – the resplendent one. The root ‘mrug’ (मृङ्) gets the ‘Ichi:’ (ईचिः) adjunct as per the aphorism ‘मृकणिभ्यामीचिः’, resulting in this divine name. The word ‘mrug’ (मृङ्) means the one who enlightens, in this context. The knowledgeable scriptures show him as the one who is resplendent as the blemish-free moon, while contemplating upon him.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn reveals his divine nature when he incarnates as hamsa (the great swan) even to the blind creatures, he is called ‘marIchi:’.

अन्धॆभ्यॊsपि च जन्तुभ्यॊ हंसग्रीवावतारतः |
प्रकाशितस्वरूपत्वात् मरीचिरिति कल्प्यतॆ ||

192) dhamana: (दमनः)

He is further called ‘dhamana:’ – the oppressor, since he subdues the heat of samsAra by his constant stream of charming light.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhamana:’ since he subdues the heat of samsAra by his divine charming light.

भवतापस्य दमनात् कान्त्या दमन ईरितः |

193) hamsa: (हंसः)

Who is such a one (dhamana:)? He is ‘hamsa:’ – the great swan.

The one whose walk is extremely charming is called ‘hamsa:’. Also, the one whose smile is very charming is called ‘hamsa:’. (मनॊहरं हन्ति – गच्छति, स्मयतॆ वा इति हंसः).

The maula samhithA interprets this divine name as ‘the one who shears bondages of his devotees’ (हन्ता संगानाम्).

The kAtaka bhashya says: “Since bhagavAn is ever free from all blemishes, and since he is ever qualified with the most auspicious qualities, he is called ‘hamsa:’”. The scriptures hail bhagavAn thus, in this regard: “…to that bhagavAn – who is sentient, embodiment of pure sathva, the auspicious refuge of all (SubhAshrayam), and the supreme soul”

Etymology: The one who shears the bondages of his devotees, and the one who walks and smiles most charmingly is called ‘hamsa:’.

हन्ता संगस्य हसति गच्छतीति मनॊहरं हंसः |

194) suparNa: (सुपर्णः) (also repeated in 859)

The etymologists say that bhagavAn is called suparNa:, since he possesses beautiful wings. Also, he is called so, since he makes the individual souls cross the ocean of samsAra.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called suparNa: since he possesses beautiful wings. Alternately, he is called suparNa: since he takes the individual souls to the other shore of samsAra (makes them cross the samsAra).

शॊभनपर्णत्वात् सुपर्णमिति कथ्यतॆ |
संसारपारनयनात् सुपर्ण इति वा मतः ||

(Note: The SlOkas in the etymologies of ‘suparNa:’ and ‘hamsa:’ are read together in order to satisfy the criteria of the meter (chandhas छन्दस्). They are broken down just to explain the two different names.)

हन्ता संगस्य हसति गच्छतीति मनॊहरं |
हंसः शॊभनपर्णत्वात् सुपर्णमिति कथ्यतॆ |
संसारपारनयनात् सुपर्ण इति वा मतः ||

195) bhujagOththama: (भुजगॊत्तमः)

Thence the divine incarnation as ‘padhmanAbha’ is explained. In the 48th divine name ‘padhmanAbha:’ (padhmanAbhO~maraprabhu:), the vyUha form of anirudhdha was projected as padhmanAbha, showing his creatorship of the four faced brahmA after the vyUha formation. Here, starting from the 195th divine name, bhagavAn’s divine incarnation as padhmanAbha even before such vyUha formation is shown (the primordial incarnation is being said; hence, no fault in ‘repetition’ of name).

The first divine name for the padhmanAbha incarnation is ‘bhujagOththama:’ – the master of the divine serpent. This word ‘bhujagasya’ (भुजगस्य) means ‘of the divine serpent’, and ‘uththama:’ (उत्तमः) means ‘the master’. This, therefore, indicates bhagavAn’s reclining on the holy snake bed of AdhiSEsha.

bhagavAn’s dhyAna manthra says: “…in my mind, he sleeps on the snake bed, with divine knowledge and form. He verily pervades everything”

The AraNya parva of mahAbharatha says thus: “bhagavAn vishNu sleeps on the snake bed all alone in the great milky ocean, will all splendor”

The vaishNava sanmhithA says “bhagavAn sleeps on the divine serpent bed nourishing all the worlds that he swallows at the end of creation”

Etymology: The primordial incarnation of bhagavAn as padhmanAbha is being said now. The master of the divine serpent AdhiSEsha (the one who reclines on the serpent bed) is called ‘bhujagOththama:’.

प्रादुर्भावॆषु प्रथमः पद्मनाभॊsथतूच्यतॆ |
भुजगस्यॊत्तमः शॆषी भुजगॊत्तम उच्यतॆ ||

196) hiraNyanAbha: (हिरण्यनाभः)

That bhagavAn himself is hiraNyanAbha:, since he possesses a beautiful navel that attracts the minds of everyone.

Etymology: The one with a beautiful navel like the gold is called ‘hiraNyanAbha:’.

हिरण्यनाभः सौन्दर्यनाभिर्यस्यॆति स स्मृतः |

197) suthapA: (सुतपाः)

That bhagavAn himself is called as ‘suthapA:’ as well. The word ‘thapas’ refers to knowledge. The one who is witness to all knowledge, and the seat of all knowledge is called ‘suthapA:’. The dhyAna manthra of bhagavAn says thus: “…bhagavAn, who is a personification of supreme knowledge”

Etymology: The word ‘thapas’ refers to knowledge. The one who possesses that itself as his own divine body (and hence hailed as the one full of knowledge) is called ‘suthapA:’.

तपॊ बुद्धिः सैव तनुः सुतपाः यस्य स स्मृतः |

198) padhmanAbha: (पद्मनाभः) (also repeated in 48, 348)

The name padhmanAbha: – the one with a lotus in the navel – comes as explained before (as said in the divine name bhujagOththama:; i.e., this name shows bhagavAn’s primordial incarnation even before the formation of vyUha).

The brahma purAna speaks thus about the divine names ‘hiraNyanAbha’ and ‘padhmanAbha’:

“Long ago, there was a divine sumptuous lotus with eight petals that originated from the navel of that bhagavAn reclining on the serpent bed. The carpel of that great lotus was golden, and that portion itself is said to be the great mEru mountain.”

Etymology: The one from whose navel was born a royal, divine, sumptuous lotus with eight petals, whose golden carpel was itself said to be the ‘mEru’ mountain is called ‘padhmanAbha:’.

पार्थिवं भूरि पद्मं तु नाभावष्टदलं महत् |
यस्य हॆममयी दिव्या कर्णिका मॆरुरुच्यतॆ |
यस्य नाभौ तदुत्पत्तिः पद्मनाभः स उच्यतॆ ||

199) prajApathi: (प्रजापतिः) (also repeated in 70)

The one who is the master of all creatures – right from the four faced brahmA who was born in that lotus in his navel, upto the lowest mortals in this creation – is called ‘prajApathi:’ (the master of all creatures). This is applicable – not only during the creation of four faced brahmA during the prAkrutha Srushti, but also during the destruction and re-creation of the first three worlds (bhU:, bhuva:, suva:) by the four faced brahmA during the naimiththika praLayam  and Srushti.

(NOTE: naimiththika praLayam refers to the destruction of up to the three worlds bhU:, bhuva: and suva: at the end of brahmA’s day. The same will be re-created during his next day. No other world would be affected by this. Whereas prAkrutha praLayam refers to the end of the whole creation at the end of brahmA’s age of 100 years, after which a new four faced brahmA is created by bhagavAn and the whole process of creation is repeated again.)

Etymology: The master of all creatures right from the four faced brahmA (created during the prAkrutha Srushti) upto the lowest mortals created during the naimiththika Srushti is called ‘prajApathi:’.

नैमित्तिकॆ तु यॆ सृष्टाः प्रजाः ब्रह्ममुखास्तथा |
तॆषां चैव पतिः स्वामी प्रजापतिरिहॊच्यतॆ ||

================================
अमृत्युः सर्वदृग्सिंहः सन्धाता सन्धिमान् स्थिरः ।
अजॊ दुर्मर्षणः शास्ता विश्रुतात्मा सुरारिहा ॥ २२ ॥
================================

200) amruthyu: (अमृत्युः)

Thereafter, the nArasimha incarnation is hailed. The word ‘amruthyu:’ means ‘the one oppressor of death’. This is as hailed in the manthras as ‘mruthyOrmruythyu:’ मृत्यॊर्मृत्युः (the one who is the death of verily the death itself).

Etymology: Thence the divine form of nArasimha is hailed, which wards off all deaths.

नारसिंहमथ स्तौति सर्वमृत्युनिवारणम् |

Thus ends the second centum (dvithIya Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI haritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhvAn) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The second centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.10 – mAlaiyum vandhadhu

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Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Even the night has arrived, great sorrow is occurring and we are still not seeing him; now we cannot sustain in the presence of these harmful entities, without him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

mAlaiyum vandhadhu mAyan vArAn mAmaNi pulamba vallERaNaindha
kOla nannAgugaL ugaLumAlO kodiyana kuzhalgaLum kuzhaRumAlO
vAloLi vaLar mullaik karumugaigaL malligai alambi vaNdAlumAlO
vElaiyum visumbil viNdalaRumAlO en solli uyvan ingavanai vittE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

mAlaiyum vandhadhu – the evening time, when he told that he will return, has arrived;
mAyan – the amazing person whose presence would turn everything [even those unfavourable ones in his separation] favourable
vArAn – is not coming;
mAmaNi – huge bells
pulamba – to make sound
val – very prideful
ERu – bulls
aNaindha – joined
kOlam – having attractive forms
nal – having the joy of uniting with the bulls
nAgugaL – mother cows
ugaLum – roaming around joyfully due to the bliss;
kuzhalgaLum – flutes (played in many places, to gather the cows)

(reminding me of his music from flute)
kodiyana – to be unbearable
kuzhaRum – making sounds which are unclear;
vAl – bright
oLi – having radiance
vaLar – with growing creepers
mullai – wild jasmine
karumugai – malabar jasmine
malligaigaL – jasmine flowers
alambi – immersing
vaNdu – beetles
Alum – making noise;
vElaiyum – ocean too
visumbil – reaching the sky
viNdu alaRum – cries out;
ingu – at this stage
avanai vittu – without him
en solli – saying what
uyvan – will I sustain myself?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The evening time, when he told that he will return, has arrived; the amazing person whose presence would turn everything favourable, is not coming; the mother cows having attractive form and having the joy of uniting with the very prideful bulls, joined with the bulls having huge bells which make sounds, and are roaming around joyfully due to the bliss; flutes are making unclear sounds which are unbearable for us; beetles are making noise after immersing in the wild jasmine, malabar jasmine and jasmine flowers which have bright radiance and growing creepers; ocean too is reaching the sky and is crying out; at this stage, without him, what will I say to sustain myself?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mAlai … – It looks like she has connected mAlai (garland) and mAl (emperumAn). The time he marked for his return has arrived, but he has not. When we see him, all the unfavourable aspects will feel like favourable aspects.
  • mA maNi pulamba – To have the huge bells making sounds.
  • val ERu … – The bull will not return without uniting with the cow. The attractive, friendly cows which united with the bulls which will not return without fulfilling their desire [of uniting with the cow], due to the bliss of the union, were roaming around joyfully. While I am anguishing here, they are enjoying.

When asked “Now, what did he do now?” she says “he is still working on his arrival”.

  • kodiyana … – To gather the cows which are scattered everywhere, all the cowherds will take their flutes and play them in the evening time to inform their arrival in the town, to eliminate the anger from the heart of the cowherd girls, in a manner that the letters, words and the meanings of their music cannot be understood; that [music] is being harmful for her.
  • vAl oLi … – The wild jasmine which is having great brightness and which is present everywhere, similar malabar jasmine and jasmine flowers – the beetles which entered them, drank the honey in them and made sound, are also dancing around; the insects, were expressing their joy of union and were dancing.
  • vElaiyum –  Even the ocean, reached up to the sky and called out. It reminded me of losing the courage during union and calling out, and tormented me.
  • ingu avanai vittu en solli uyvan – Amidst the harmful entities, what will I say and survive, in his absence? They are tormenting me further; he has not come; is there anything called survival for me? I am finished.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 43 – konnavilum nIL vEl

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konnavilum nILvEl kurukkaL kulamadhalai
thannigar onRillAdha venRith thananjayanaip                                       56
pannAgarAyan madappAvai pAvai than
manniya nAN achcham madam enRivai agalath                                    57

Word by word meaning

kol navilum nIL vEl – having a spear, which is long and which knows how to kill, in the hand
kurukkaL kula madhalai – one who was born in the clan of kurus
than nigar onRu illAdha venRi – one with unparalleled victories
dhananjayanai – arjuna
pannAgarAyan madam pAvai – woman with timidity, ulUpi, who is the daughter of gauravya, a king of snakes
pAvai than manniya nAN achcham madam ivai agala – ridding herself of feminine qualities such as shyness, fear, timidity

vyAkyAnam

min Adum kol navilum nIL vEl – spear having radiance similar to lightning, moving very fast, having the ability to kill enemies even on sighting them, churning their stomachs, having a length such that it can kill enemies wherever they are.

kurukkaL kulamadhalai – one born in the clan of kurus; they are like the teachers for the whole world. One who is prominent among them.

thannigar onRillAdha – one who is such courageous that even SrI krishNa cannot equal him

venRith thananjayanai – arjuna who knows nothing other than victory

dhananjayanai – one who has won over the purushArtham (ultimate benefits) of wealth and lust. Did he not consider Urvasi, who desired him, as his ‘mother’ [since she is one of the consorts of his father, indhra]?

pannAgarAyan madappAvaipannagam: padhA na gachchadhIthi pannaga: (that which cannot move with its feet) – meaning a snake. The term pannagarAyan has got lengthened [for one syllable] and has got changed to pannAgarAyan. Daughter of the king of snakes, with abundant femininity.

madappAvai – There is none who is greater than she, in femininity.

pAvai than manniya nAn achcham madam ivaiyagala – The qualities of shyness, fear and timidity, which are natural rather than having been acquired after the time of birth, getting destroyed like an ocean drying up.

nANam – in activities which are inappropriate for a female, mind getting shrivelled.

achcham – mind trembling even at the thought of such an activity.

madam – pretending to be ignorant even after knowing everything.

payirppu – loathing even if the dress of any male touches her

Since any woman with chastity will not give up the fourth mentioned quality (payirppu) it has not been taken here as an essential quality for a lady.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 19 (Names 181 to 190)

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

<< Part 18

181) amEyAthmA (अमॆयात्मा) (also repeated in 103)

bhagavAn is called amEyAthmA, since he possesses the profoundness befitting his divine nature and forms, just like the vast and deep ocean.

Etymology: The one who possesses profoundness like the deep ocean is called ‘amEyAthmA’.

सिन्धुगम्भीरभावॊ यॊ ह्यमॆयात्मा स कीर्तितः |

182) mahAdhridhruth (महाद्रिधृत्)

Here onwards, the divine sports of bhagavAn in his various incarnations according to his own free will, befitting his divine forms and auspicious qualities, are elaborated.

bhagavAn is hailed by this divine name ‘mahAdhridhruth’, since he bore the great manthara mountain on his back when he incarnated as kUrma (the great tortoise) while churning the milky ocean.

Etymology: The one who bore the great manthara mountain on his back (in the form of great tortoise – kUrma) is called ‘mahAdhridhruth’.

महान्तं मन्दरं यॊ हि धृतवान् स महाद्रिधृत् |

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महॆष्वासॊ महीभर्ता श्रीनिवासः सतां गतिः ।
अनिरुद्धः सुरानन्दॊ गॊविन्दॊ गॊविदां पतिः ॥ २० ॥
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183) mahEshvAsa: (महॆष्वासः)

Also, bhagavAn wields the magnificent bow and arrows (महान् + इषूणाम् + आसः). he displayed his proficiency with the wielding of arrows while constructing the bridge (rAmasEthu) across the mighty ocean, as well as while exterminating rAvaNa and his army.

Etymology: The one who is adorned with the fierce bow (named ‘SArnga’ शार्ङ्गः) is called ‘mahEshvAsa:’.

महॆष्वासः स विज्ञॆयश्चण्डकॊदण्डमण्डितः |

184) mahIbharthA (महीभर्ता)

The one who bears the elegant earth (bhUmA dhEvi) is called ‘mahIbharthA’.

Etymology: The one who sportily bears the earth (bhUmA) is called ‘mahIbharthA’.

धरणीधरलीलस्सः महीभर्तॆति शब्द्यतॆ |

185) SrInivAsa: (श्रीनिवासः) (also repeated in 614)

The divine name ‘SrInivAsa:’ (the abode of SrI mahAlakshmi) shows bhagavAn’s divine sport of attracting SrI mahAlakshmi – who was born from the milky ocean during the churning – by speaking the most pleasing words and ascending her on his own chest.

Etymology: The one who attracted SrI mahAlakshmi and made his own chest as her divine abode is called ‘SrInivAsa:’.

मथनानीतलक्ष्मीवान् श्रीनिवासः स ईरितः |

186) sathAmgathi: (सतांगतिः) (also repeated in 451)

Although his deeds are driven by his own free will, bhagavAn does only those things that are both pleasing and favoring to his dear devotees. Hence, he is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.

Etymology: The one who becomes the refuge of all devotees by performing deeds that are pleasing and favoring to them is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.

प्रणतानां प्रियकरः सतांगतिरिहॊच्यतॆ |

187) anirudhdha: (अनिरुद्धः) (also repeated in 644)

The one who thus becomes the very life force of the entire creation with his innumerable and unfathomable divine deeds (as explained in the previous divine name ‘sathAmgathi:’), and subdues his opponents in the process, is called by the divine name ‘anirudhdha:’ – the non oppressed. As the maula samhithA puts it, “bhagavAn anirudhdha is characterized by boundless divine deeds favorable to his devotees”.

Etymology: The one who is characterized by boundless divine deeds (favorable to his devotees) (and slays his opponents in the pursuing endeavor), he is called ‘anirudhdha:’.

अनन्तचॆष्टायुक्तत्वादनिरुद्ध उदाहृतः |

188) surAnandha: (सुरानन्दः)

Thence, the incarnation of anirudhdha as ‘hamsa:’ (हंसः) is being elaborated. Since all dhEvas are delighted by bhagavAn when he arrives as their sole savior in all their difficulties, he is called ‘surAnandha:’ – the delighter of dhEvas.

Etymology: He is called ‘surAnandha:’, who delights all dhEvas at all times (by warding off their difficulties).

सुरानन्दः सुरान् सर्वान् आनन्दयति यः सदा |

189) gOvindha: (गॊविन्दः) (also repeated in 543)

The one who is praised by all such dhEvas (who are delighted by bhagavAn, as seen in the previous divine name) is called ‘gOvindha:’ – the praised one.

The root ‘gO’ गॊ (praise) is conjoined with ‘vindha’ विन्द (to get), and is suffixed with the adjunct ‘Sa:’ (शः), resulting in this divine name.

All dhEvas hail bhagavAn as the one who favors them at times of crisis.

Etymology: The one who is gotten with words of praise from dhEvas is called ‘gOvindha:’.

गवां स्तुतिगिरां विन्दॊ गॊविन्दः स उदाहृतः |

190) gOvidhAm pathi: (गॊविदां पतिः)

The word ‘gO’ (गॊ) refers to the words of vEdhas. The ones who know such vEdhas in their true purport are called ‘gOvidhA:’ (गॊविदाः). The one who is worshipped by such knowledgeable men, and hence protects them from all evils is called ‘gOvidhAm pathi:’ – the protector of the knowledgeable men.

The scriptures say: “Know that hamsa mUrthi as the soul of all gyAnayagya (ज्ञानयज्ञः), and worship him”.

Etymology: The word ‘gO’ refers to the vEdhic verses. ‘gOvindha:’ is the one who is praised by such vEdhic verses. The one who protects the knower of such vEdhas is called ‘gOvidhAmpathi:’.

गावॊ वॆदगिराः प्रॊक्ताः गॊविन्दस्तत्सुपालनात् |
गॊविदांपतिरुद्दिष्टॊ वॆदविद्वत्पदॊ मनुः ||

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मरीचिर्दमनॊ हंसः सुपर्णॊ भुजगॊत्तमः ।
हिरण्यनाभः सुतपाः पद्मनाभः प्रजापतिः ॥ २१ ॥
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adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.9 – Udhum aththInguzhaRkE

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “I cannot sustain myself” seeing how emperumAn stands amidst some cowherd girls and is playing flute, yet he is doing some strange acts highlighting his suffering in separation and singing some songs.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

Udhum aththInguzhaRkE uyyEn nAn adhu mozhindhidai idaith than sey kOlath
thUdhu sey kaNgaL koNdonRu pEsith thUmozhi isaigaL koNdonRu nOkkip
pEdhuRum mugam seydhu nondhu nondhu pEdhai nenjarRavaRap pAdum pAttai
yAdhum onRaRigilam amma amma mAlaiyum vandhadhu mAyan vArAn

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

idai idai – in between
adhu – his words which indicate his humility to be known by them, which are only known to them
mozhindhu – telling
Udhum – playing
aththIm kuzhaRkE – for that sweet flute sound
nAn – I
uyyEn – am unable to sustain;
than – for them (eyes)
sey – did
kOlam – having beauty

(going ahead in that matter)
thUdhu sey – going as messenger
kaNgaL koNdu – with the eyes
onRu pEsi – revealing his opinion clearly
thUmozhi – (in his dishonesty) having very pure words
isaigaL koNdu – with music
onRu nOkki – glancing as per his desires
pEdhuRu mugam seydhu – (due to the liking in the sweetness of song) revealing that liking in his face
nondhu nondhu – becoming anguished further (thinking “what will happen to helpless girls who hear this song?”)
pEdhai – young girls’
nenjaRavu – the separation which happened due to the love-fight in their hearts
aRa – to be eliminated fully
pAdum pAttai – the song which he sang
Adhum onRu – in any manner
aRigilam – we are unable to comprehend;

(at this stage)
amma amma – Oh mother! Oh mother!
mAlaiyum vandhadhu – night has arrived;
mAyan – amazing emperumAn
vArAn – is not coming.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

I am unable to sustain myself hearing the sweet flute sound which is revealing his words which indicate his humility to be known by them, which are only known to them, in between. His eyes which are beautiful on their own, are going as messenger, revealing his opinion clearly; his music which is having very pure words, is glancing as per his desires; his face is revealing his liking for the music and is becoming anguished further; we are unable to comprehend in any manner the song which he sang to have the separation which happened due to the love-fight in the young girls’ hearts, eliminated fully. Oh mother! Oh mother! The night has arrived; the amazing emperumAn is not coming. When recited as “adhu ozhindhu“, it implies, stopping that flute music. “than sey kOlam” indicates reddish beauty too.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Udhum aththIm kuzhaRkE uyyEn nAn – The flute music itself is harming so much that the others are superfluous.
  • idai idai adhu mozhindhu – He sings saying some lowly words in between such as “I separated from you; I cannot tolerate the separation”. Since she cannot say those lowly words and acts herself, she is saying “adhu” (that). embAr when explaining this sequence, mercifully said – As said in “mOr uLLadhanaiyum sOREyO” (As explained in thiruvAimozhi 4.6 – Can I feed you rice as long as you have curd? [A lady agrees to feed a man who comes to her residence. He says “I have curd and you give me as much rice as needed to finish this curd” and she agrees. He keeps diluting the curd (by repeatedly adding water) and tells the lady “I still have some curd left” and for that the lady replies “Can I feed you rice as long as you have curd?” – the principle explained here is – Previously AzhwAr experienced samSlEsham (togetherness) and viSlEsham (separation) with emperumAn. We could explain the connection all along. But how long can we do that? AzhwAr’s emotions are beyond our understanding/expression here]). When the dhESika (expert) himself [AzhwAr] is saying “adhu” without explaining it, how do we who are neutral [who are not seeing the inner emotions of AzhwAr] explain this? Alternative explanation – it is said as “adhuvozhindhu” – implying “leaving that” meaning “leaving the songs which are sung in between”.
  • than sey … – The divine eyes which are ornaments for themselves, and which can reveal their opinion to others. The eyes which will fall at the feet of the girls who think “we won’t go to him” due to anger. It will do everything which nambi mUththa pirAn (balarAma) can do [on behalf of krishNa]. Being engaged in playing flute, since the mouth cannot speak, the eyes will assume the activity of speaking. The clarity given by speech is given through glance.
  • thU mozhi isaigaL koNdu onRu nOkki – Since the music is mixed with beautiful speeches, engaging with the glance will be like engaging with the music. Though being engaged with music, he knows prose as well. This is how the activities of speech and sight have interchanged.
  • pEdhuRu mugam seydhu nondhu nondhu – Since his ears are closer to the music being played, he became distressed thinking “If we are ourselves are so immersed in this music, how will the helpless girls feel about it?” “If the music can torment a hard-hearted person like me, what suffering will the helpless girls undergo?”
  • pEdhai nenju aRavaRap pAdum pAttai – The song which will make the girls forget their love-fight and unite with him.
  • Adhum onRu aRigilam – I am not understanding the way it is harming me.
  • amma amma – Torment! Torment!
  • mAlaiyum vandhadhu – The evening time has arrived to harm me greatly. It feels that this evening time will finish me, without having to survive and suffer further.
  • mAyan vArAn – The amazing emperumAn, who would come and hold the feet of those who are separated from him to make them shy, is not coming now.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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