Monthly Archives: September 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.11 – avanai vittu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Those who desire him, recite this decad and attain him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

avanai vittaganRuyir ARRagillA aNi izhai Aychchiyar mAlaip pUsal
avanai vittagalvadhaRkE irangi aNi kurugUrch chatakOpan mARan
avani uNdumizhndhavan mEl uraiththa AyiraththuL ivai paththungoNdu
avaniyuL alaRRi ninRuymmin thoNdIr achchonna mAlai naNNith thozhudhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

avanai vittu aganRu – being separated from krishNa who is greatly enjoyable
uyir ARRagillA – those who cannot sustain themselves
aNi izhai – wearing ornaments, expecting his arrival
Aychchiyar – gOpikAs
mAlai – in the evening time
pUsal – the way they called out, having not seen his arrival
avanai vittu agalvadhaRkE – due to being separated from him
irangi – anguished
aNi kurugUr – being the controller of beautiful AzhwArthirunagari
satakOpan mARan – nammAzhwAr
avani – earth
uNdu – consumed so that the deluge does not consume it
umizhndhavan mEl – on the one who spat it out
uraiththa – mercifully spoke
AyiraththuL ivai paththum koNdu – pursuing this decad among the thousand pAsurams
avani uL – in the earth
alaRRi ninRu – calling out in group, out of love
thoNdIr – Oh those who are desirous of enjoying [emperumAn]!
achchonna mAlai – krishNa who is attached to his devotees, who is explained there
naNNith thozhudhu – reaching and worshipping him
uymmin – uplift!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

gOpikAs who cannot sustain themselves being separated from the greatly enjoyable krishNa, were wearing ornaments, expecting his arrival and called out for him having not seen his arrival in the evening time; nammAzhwAr, the controller of AzhwArthirunagari, anguished due to being separated from him, mercifully spoke about this on him who consumed the earth so that the deluge does not consume it and spat it out. Oh those who are desirous of enjoying him! Pursuing this decad among the thousand pAsurams, in the earth, calling out in group, out of love for krishNa who is attached to his devotees, who is explained there, reach him, worship him and uplift yourself. This decad reflects the gOpikAs individually calling out for krishNa as well as one gOpikA joining a group of gOpikAs and calling out for him.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • avanai vittu aganRu uyir ARRagillA aNi izhai Aychchiyar – The gOpikAs who separated from him and are unable to sustain themselves, have decorated themselves eagerly expecting his arrival. As said in in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 8.7 “kongaimEl kungumaththin kuzhambazhiyap pugundhu” (enter to have the kumkum decorations on bosoms to fade away), decorating themselves expecting krishNa’s arrival, and as he did not arrive at the expected time, the gOpikAs of the five lakh families of thiruvAyppAdi (gOkulam), due to their sorrow in separation from krishNa, called out.
  • avanai vittu agalvadhaRkE irangi – AzhwAr alone suffered the collective suffering of all those girls.
  • avani uNdu umizhndhavan mEl uraiththa – AzhwAr mercifully spoke this about the divine feet of sarvESvara who protected everyone during the danger of deluge and created them again! This pAsuram should be read us “thoNdIr – aNi kurugUrch chatakOpan mARan, avani uNdumizhndhavan mEl uraiththa AyiraththuL – avanai vittagalvadhaRkE irangi – avanai vittaganRuyir ARRagillA aNi izhai Aychchiyar mAlaip pUsal – sonna – ippaththum koNdu – ammAlai naNNith thozhudhu – avani uL alaRRi ninRuymmin”. AzhwAr is saying this to get emperumAn to lift him up from the deluge of separation.
  • achchonna mAlai naNNith thozhudhu – avani uL alaRRi ninRu uymmin thoNdIr – Reaching emperumAn who can create such great desire in us for him, worshipping him, oh those who are desirous towards him! Call out incoherently, standing on this earth and seek to be uplifted. Those who recite these pAsurams need not call out like me; there is no shortcoming for the result unlike me who desired saying “en solli uyvan” (how will I be saved?)

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 44 – thannudaiya kongai

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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thannudaiya kongai mugam neRiyath thAn avan than
pon varai Agam thazheeikkoNdu pOyth thanadhu                               58
nannagaram pukku nayandhinidhu vAzhndhadhuvum
munnuraiyil kEttu aRivadhillaiyE – sUzh kadaluL                                59
ponnagaram seRRa purandharanOdu Er okkum         

Word by word meaning

thannudaiya kongai mugam neRiya – such that the face of her bosom became stiff
thAn – (discarding her shyness) on her own
avan than – that arjuna’s
pon varai Agam – beautiful, mountain-like chest
thazheeikkoNdu pOy – embracing
thanadhu – her
nal nagaram pOy pukku – reaching beautiful place (in the land of snakes)
nayandhu – celebrating
inidhu vAzhndhadhuvum – that she lived happily
mun uraiyil kEttu aRivadhillaiyE – have you not heard of, in mahAbhAratham?
sUzh kadaluL – in the expansive ocean
pon nagaram seRRa – one who destroyed the towns of hiraNyAsura
purandharanOdu Er okkum – it will parallel the greatness of dhEvEndhra (head of celestial entities)

vyAkyAnam

thannudaiya kongai mugam neRiya – manifesting only her love, without waiting for reciprocation, to the extent of showing off the face of her bosom

thAn avan than ponvaraiyAgam thazheeikoNdu pOy – embracing his chest which looked like a golden mountain, even if he did not evince any interest

pon varai Agam – while all the people in the world were carrying out penance in order to attain celestial damsel Urvasi, did not that Urvasi very much desire to embrace arjuna? Such arjuna’s chest.

thanadhu nannagaram – unlike the town here [in materialistic world] where people prevented others from engaging in madal, her (ulUpi’s) town had people who celebrated those who engaged in carrying out madal.

pugundhu – entering [such a town]

nayandhu – celebrating. Being united with him for a long time

inidhu vAzhndhadhuvum – unlike people here who prevent [anything good happening], since she had friends who showed her ways to attain him and who praised her, she lived happily.

mun uraiyil kEttu aRivadhillaiyE – it wil not matter if one has not learnt kAmaSAsthra (treatise on love). But wouldn’t one have heard of epics such as mahAbhAratha, for the sake of attaining puNya (virtue)? If one had heard of it, one would have understood the greatness of engaging in madal.

From the verse sUzh kadaluL, until the verse pErinbam eydhinAL, the pAsuram speaks about how ushai, the daughter of bANAsura captured anirudhdha the grandson of krishNa, and enjoyed with him.

sUzh kadaluL ponnagaram seRRa purandharan – indhra (the head of celestial entities) who entered oceans and destroyed the demons of hiraNyapura and attained the name purandhara.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 20 (Names 191 to 200)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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<< Part 19

191) marIchi: (मरीचिः)

The one who shows his faultless divine forms even to those who are born blind is called ‘marIchi:’ – the resplendent one. The root ‘mrug’ (मृङ्) gets the ‘Ichi:’ (ईचिः) adjunct as per the aphorism ‘मृकणिभ्यामीचिः’, resulting in this divine name. The word ‘mrug’ (मृङ्) means the one who enlightens, in this context. The knowledgeable scriptures show him as the one who is resplendent as the blemish-free moon, while contemplating upon him.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn reveals his divine nature when he incarnates as hamsa (the great swan) even to the blind creatures, he is called ‘marIchi:’.

अन्धॆभ्यॊsपि च जन्तुभ्यॊ हंसग्रीवावतारतः |
प्रकाशितस्वरूपत्वात् मरीचिरिति कल्प्यतॆ ||

192) dhamana: (दमनः)

He is further called ‘dhamana:’ – the oppressor, since he subdues the heat of samsAra by his constant stream of charming light.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhamana:’ since he subdues the heat of samsAra by his divine charming light.

भवतापस्य दमनात् कान्त्या दमन ईरितः |

193) hamsa: (हंसः)

Who is such a one (dhamana:)? He is ‘hamsa:’ – the great swan.

The one whose walk is extremely charming is called ‘hamsa:’. Also, the one whose smile is very charming is called ‘hamsa:’. (मनॊहरं हन्ति – गच्छति, स्मयतॆ वा इति हंसः).

The maula samhithA interprets this divine name as ‘the one who shears bondages of his devotees’ (हन्ता संगानाम्).

The kAtaka bhashya says: “Since bhagavAn is ever free from all blemishes, and since he is ever qualified with the most auspicious qualities, he is called ‘hamsa:’”. The scriptures hail bhagavAn thus, in this regard: “…to that bhagavAn – who is sentient, embodiment of pure sathva, the auspicious refuge of all (SubhAshrayam), and the supreme soul”

Etymology: The one who shears the bondages of his devotees, and the one who walks and smiles most charmingly is called ‘hamsa:’.

हन्ता संगस्य हसति गच्छतीति मनॊहरं हंसः |

194) suparNa: (सुपर्णः) (also repeated in 859)

The etymologists say that bhagavAn is called suparNa:, since he possesses beautiful wings. Also, he is called so, since he makes the individual souls cross the ocean of samsAra.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called suparNa: since he possesses beautiful wings. Alternately, he is called suparNa: since he takes the individual souls to the other shore of samsAra (makes them cross the samsAra).

शॊभनपर्णत्वात् सुपर्णमिति कथ्यतॆ |
संसारपारनयनात् सुपर्ण इति वा मतः ||

(Note: The SlOkas in the etymologies of ‘suparNa:’ and ‘hamsa:’ are read together in order to satisfy the criteria of the meter (chandhas छन्दस्). They are broken down just to explain the two different names.)

हन्ता संगस्य हसति गच्छतीति मनॊहरं |
हंसः शॊभनपर्णत्वात् सुपर्णमिति कथ्यतॆ |
संसारपारनयनात् सुपर्ण इति वा मतः ||

195) bhujagOththama: (भुजगॊत्तमः)

Thence the divine incarnation as ‘padhmanAbha’ is explained. In the 48th divine name ‘padhmanAbha:’ (padhmanAbhO~maraprabhu:), the vyUha form of anirudhdha was projected as padhmanAbha, showing his creatorship of the four faced brahmA after the vyUha formation. Here, starting from the 195th divine name, bhagavAn’s divine incarnation as padhmanAbha even before such vyUha formation is shown (the primordial incarnation is being said; hence, no fault in ‘repetition’ of name).

The first divine name for the padhmanAbha incarnation is ‘bhujagOththama:’ – the master of the divine serpent. This word ‘bhujagasya’ (भुजगस्य) means ‘of the divine serpent’, and ‘uththama:’ (उत्तमः) means ‘the master’. This, therefore, indicates bhagavAn’s reclining on the holy snake bed of AdhiSEsha.

bhagavAn’s dhyAna manthra says: “…in my mind, he sleeps on the snake bed, with divine knowledge and form. He verily pervades everything”

The AraNya parva of mahAbharatha says thus: “bhagavAn vishNu sleeps on the snake bed all alone in the great milky ocean, will all splendor”

The vaishNava sanmhithA says “bhagavAn sleeps on the divine serpent bed nourishing all the worlds that he swallows at the end of creation”

Etymology: The primordial incarnation of bhagavAn as padhmanAbha is being said now. The master of the divine serpent AdhiSEsha (the one who reclines on the serpent bed) is called ‘bhujagOththama:’.

प्रादुर्भावॆषु प्रथमः पद्मनाभॊsथतूच्यतॆ |
भुजगस्यॊत्तमः शॆषी भुजगॊत्तम उच्यतॆ ||

196) hiraNyanAbha: (हिरण्यनाभः)

That bhagavAn himself is hiraNyanAbha:, since he possesses a beautiful navel that attracts the minds of everyone.

Etymology: The one with a beautiful navel like the gold is called ‘hiraNyanAbha:’.

हिरण्यनाभः सौन्दर्यनाभिर्यस्यॆति स स्मृतः |

197) suthapA: (सुतपाः)

That bhagavAn himself is called as ‘suthapA:’ as well. The word ‘thapas’ refers to knowledge. The one who is witness to all knowledge, and the seat of all knowledge is called ‘suthapA:’. The dhyAna manthra of bhagavAn says thus: “…bhagavAn, who is a personification of supreme knowledge”

Etymology: The word ‘thapas’ refers to knowledge. The one who possesses that itself as his own divine body (and hence hailed as the one full of knowledge) is called ‘suthapA:’.

तपॊ बुद्धिः सैव तनुः सुतपाः यस्य स स्मृतः |

198) padhmanAbha: (पद्मनाभः) (also repeated in 48, 348)

The name padhmanAbha: – the one with a lotus in the navel – comes as explained before (as said in the divine name bhujagOththama:; i.e., this name shows bhagavAn’s primordial incarnation even before the formation of vyUha).

The brahma purAna speaks thus about the divine names ‘hiraNyanAbha’ and ‘padhmanAbha’:

“Long ago, there was a divine sumptuous lotus with eight petals that originated from the navel of that bhagavAn reclining on the serpent bed. The carpel of that great lotus was golden, and that portion itself is said to be the great mEru mountain.”

Etymology: The one from whose navel was born a royal, divine, sumptuous lotus with eight petals, whose golden carpel was itself said to be the ‘mEru’ mountain is called ‘padhmanAbha:’.

पार्थिवं भूरि पद्मं तु नाभावष्टदलं महत् |
यस्य हॆममयी दिव्या कर्णिका मॆरुरुच्यतॆ |
यस्य नाभौ तदुत्पत्तिः पद्मनाभः स उच्यतॆ ||

199) prajApathi: (प्रजापतिः) (also repeated in 70)

The one who is the master of all creatures – right from the four faced brahmA who was born in that lotus in his navel, upto the lowest mortals in this creation – is called ‘prajApathi:’ (the master of all creatures). This is applicable – not only during the creation of four faced brahmA during the prAkrutha Srushti, but also during the destruction and re-creation of the first three worlds (bhU:, bhuva:, suva:) by the four faced brahmA during the naimiththika praLayam  and Srushti.

(NOTE: naimiththika praLayam refers to the destruction of up to the three worlds bhU:, bhuva: and suva: at the end of brahmA’s day. The same will be re-created during his next day. No other world would be affected by this. Whereas prAkrutha praLayam refers to the end of the whole creation at the end of brahmA’s age of 100 years, after which a new four faced brahmA is created by bhagavAn and the whole process of creation is repeated again.)

Etymology: The master of all creatures right from the four faced brahmA (created during the prAkrutha Srushti) upto the lowest mortals created during the naimiththika Srushti is called ‘prajApathi:’.

नैमित्तिकॆ तु यॆ सृष्टाः प्रजाः ब्रह्ममुखास्तथा |
तॆषां चैव पतिः स्वामी प्रजापतिरिहॊच्यतॆ ||

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अमृत्युः सर्वदृग्सिंहः सन्धाता सन्धिमान् स्थिरः ।
अजॊ दुर्मर्षणः शास्ता विश्रुतात्मा सुरारिहा ॥ २२ ॥
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200) amruthyu: (अमृत्युः)

Thereafter, the nArasimha incarnation is hailed. The word ‘amruthyu:’ means ‘the one oppressor of death’. This is as hailed in the manthras as ‘mruthyOrmruythyu:’ मृत्यॊर्मृत्युः (the one who is the death of verily the death itself).

Etymology: Thence the divine form of nArasimha is hailed, which wards off all deaths.

नारसिंहमथ स्तौति सर्वमृत्युनिवारणम् |

Thus ends the second centum (dvithIya Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI haritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhvAn) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The second centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
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SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.10 – mAlaiyum vandhadhu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Even the night has arrived, great sorrow is occurring and we are still not seeing him; now we cannot sustain in the presence of these harmful entities, without him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

mAlaiyum vandhadhu mAyan vArAn mAmaNi pulamba vallERaNaindha
kOla nannAgugaL ugaLumAlO kodiyana kuzhalgaLum kuzhaRumAlO
vAloLi vaLar mullaik karumugaigaL malligai alambi vaNdAlumAlO
vElaiyum visumbil viNdalaRumAlO en solli uyvan ingavanai vittE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

mAlaiyum vandhadhu – the evening time, when he told that he will return, has arrived;
mAyan – the amazing person whose presence would turn everything [even those unfavourable ones in his separation] favourable
vArAn – is not coming;
mAmaNi – huge bells
pulamba – to make sound
val – very prideful
ERu – bulls
aNaindha – joined
kOlam – having attractive forms
nal – having the joy of uniting with the bulls
nAgugaL – mother cows
ugaLum – roaming around joyfully due to the bliss;
kuzhalgaLum – flutes (played in many places, to gather the cows)

(reminding me of his music from flute)
kodiyana – to be unbearable
kuzhaRum – making sounds which are unclear;
vAl – bright
oLi – having radiance
vaLar – with growing creepers
mullai – wild jasmine
karumugai – malabar jasmine
malligaigaL – jasmine flowers
alambi – immersing
vaNdu – beetles
Alum – making noise;
vElaiyum – ocean too
visumbil – reaching the sky
viNdu alaRum – cries out;
ingu – at this stage
avanai vittu – without him
en solli – saying what
uyvan – will I sustain myself?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The evening time, when he told that he will return, has arrived; the amazing person whose presence would turn everything favourable, is not coming; the mother cows having attractive form and having the joy of uniting with the very prideful bulls, joined with the bulls having huge bells which make sounds, and are roaming around joyfully due to the bliss; flutes are making unclear sounds which are unbearable for us; beetles are making noise after immersing in the wild jasmine, malabar jasmine and jasmine flowers which have bright radiance and growing creepers; ocean too is reaching the sky and is crying out; at this stage, without him, what will I say to sustain myself?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • mAlai … – It looks like she has connected mAlai (garland) and mAl (emperumAn). The time he marked for his return has arrived, but he has not. When we see him, all the unfavourable aspects will feel like favourable aspects.
  • mA maNi pulamba – To have the huge bells making sounds.
  • val ERu … – The bull will not return without uniting with the cow. The attractive, friendly cows which united with the bulls which will not return without fulfilling their desire [of uniting with the cow], due to the bliss of the union, were roaming around joyfully. While I am anguishing here, they are enjoying.

When asked “Now, what did he do now?” she says “he is still working on his arrival”.

  • kodiyana … – To gather the cows which are scattered everywhere, all the cowherds will take their flutes and play them in the evening time to inform their arrival in the town, to eliminate the anger from the heart of the cowherd girls, in a manner that the letters, words and the meanings of their music cannot be understood; that [music] is being harmful for her.
  • vAl oLi … – The wild jasmine which is having great brightness and which is present everywhere, similar malabar jasmine and jasmine flowers – the beetles which entered them, drank the honey in them and made sound, are also dancing around; the insects, were expressing their joy of union and were dancing.
  • vElaiyum –  Even the ocean, reached up to the sky and called out. It reminded me of losing the courage during union and calling out, and tormented me.
  • ingu avanai vittu en solli uyvan – Amidst the harmful entities, what will I say and survive, in his absence? They are tormenting me further; he has not come; is there anything called survival for me? I am finished.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
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periya thirumadal – 43 – konnavilum nIL vEl

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konnavilum nILvEl kurukkaL kulamadhalai
thannigar onRillAdha venRith thananjayanaip                                       56
pannAgarAyan madappAvai pAvai than
manniya nAN achcham madam enRivai agalath                                    57

Word by word meaning

kol navilum nIL vEl – having a spear, which is long and which knows how to kill, in the hand
kurukkaL kula madhalai – one who was born in the clan of kurus
than nigar onRu illAdha venRi – one with unparalleled victories
dhananjayanai – arjuna
pannAgarAyan madam pAvai – woman with timidity, ulUpi, who is the daughter of gauravya, a king of snakes
pAvai than manniya nAN achcham madam ivai agala – ridding herself of feminine qualities such as shyness, fear, timidity

vyAkyAnam

min Adum kol navilum nIL vEl – spear having radiance similar to lightning, moving very fast, having the ability to kill enemies even on sighting them, churning their stomachs, having a length such that it can kill enemies wherever they are.

kurukkaL kulamadhalai – one born in the clan of kurus; they are like the teachers for the whole world. One who is prominent among them.

thannigar onRillAdha – one who is such courageous that even SrI krishNa cannot equal him

venRith thananjayanai – arjuna who knows nothing other than victory

dhananjayanai – one who has won over the purushArtham (ultimate benefits) of wealth and lust. Did he not consider Urvasi, who desired him, as his ‘mother’ [since she is one of the consorts of his father, indhra]?

pannAgarAyan madappAvaipannagam: padhA na gachchadhIthi pannaga: (that which cannot move with its feet) – meaning a snake. The term pannagarAyan has got lengthened [for one syllable] and has got changed to pannAgarAyan. Daughter of the king of snakes, with abundant femininity.

madappAvai – There is none who is greater than she, in femininity.

pAvai than manniya nAn achcham madam ivaiyagala – The qualities of shyness, fear and timidity, which are natural rather than having been acquired after the time of birth, getting destroyed like an ocean drying up.

nANam – in activities which are inappropriate for a female, mind getting shrivelled.

achcham – mind trembling even at the thought of such an activity.

madam – pretending to be ignorant even after knowing everything.

payirppu – loathing even if the dress of any male touches her

Since any woman with chastity will not give up the fourth mentioned quality (payirppu) it has not been taken here as an essential quality for a lady.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 19 (Names 181 to 190)

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181) amEyAthmA (अमॆयात्मा) (also repeated in 103)

bhagavAn is called amEyAthmA, since he possesses the profoundness befitting his divine nature and forms, just like the vast and deep ocean.

Etymology: The one who possesses profoundness like the deep ocean is called ‘amEyAthmA’.

सिन्धुगम्भीरभावॊ यॊ ह्यमॆयात्मा स कीर्तितः |

182) mahAdhridhruth (महाद्रिधृत्)

Here onwards, the divine sports of bhagavAn in his various incarnations according to his own free will, befitting his divine forms and auspicious qualities, are elaborated.

bhagavAn is hailed by this divine name ‘mahAdhridhruth’, since he bore the great manthara mountain on his back when he incarnated as kUrma (the great tortoise) while churning the milky ocean.

Etymology: The one who bore the great manthara mountain on his back (in the form of great tortoise – kUrma) is called ‘mahAdhridhruth’.

महान्तं मन्दरं यॊ हि धृतवान् स महाद्रिधृत् |

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महॆष्वासॊ महीभर्ता श्रीनिवासः सतां गतिः ।
अनिरुद्धः सुरानन्दॊ गॊविन्दॊ गॊविदां पतिः ॥ २० ॥
=================================

183) mahEshvAsa: (महॆष्वासः)

Also, bhagavAn wields the magnificent bow and arrows (महान् + इषूणाम् + आसः). he displayed his proficiency with the wielding of arrows while constructing the bridge (rAmasEthu) across the mighty ocean, as well as while exterminating rAvaNa and his army.

Etymology: The one who is adorned with the fierce bow (named ‘SArnga’ शार्ङ्गः) is called ‘mahEshvAsa:’.

महॆष्वासः स विज्ञॆयश्चण्डकॊदण्डमण्डितः |

184) mahIbharthA (महीभर्ता)

The one who bears the elegant earth (bhUmA dhEvi) is called ‘mahIbharthA’.

Etymology: The one who sportily bears the earth (bhUmA) is called ‘mahIbharthA’.

धरणीधरलीलस्सः महीभर्तॆति शब्द्यतॆ |

185) SrInivAsa: (श्रीनिवासः) (also repeated in 614)

The divine name ‘SrInivAsa:’ (the abode of SrI mahAlakshmi) shows bhagavAn’s divine sport of attracting SrI mahAlakshmi – who was born from the milky ocean during the churning – by speaking the most pleasing words and ascending her on his own chest.

Etymology: The one who attracted SrI mahAlakshmi and made his own chest as her divine abode is called ‘SrInivAsa:’.

मथनानीतलक्ष्मीवान् श्रीनिवासः स ईरितः |

186) sathAmgathi: (सतांगतिः) (also repeated in 451)

Although his deeds are driven by his own free will, bhagavAn does only those things that are both pleasing and favoring to his dear devotees. Hence, he is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.

Etymology: The one who becomes the refuge of all devotees by performing deeds that are pleasing and favoring to them is called ‘sathAmgathi:’.

प्रणतानां प्रियकरः सतांगतिरिहॊच्यतॆ |

187) anirudhdha: (अनिरुद्धः) (also repeated in 644)

The one who thus becomes the very life force of the entire creation with his innumerable and unfathomable divine deeds (as explained in the previous divine name ‘sathAmgathi:’), and subdues his opponents in the process, is called by the divine name ‘anirudhdha:’ – the non oppressed. As the maula samhithA puts it, “bhagavAn anirudhdha is characterized by boundless divine deeds favorable to his devotees”.

Etymology: The one who is characterized by boundless divine deeds (favorable to his devotees) (and slays his opponents in the pursuing endeavor), he is called ‘anirudhdha:’.

अनन्तचॆष्टायुक्तत्वादनिरुद्ध उदाहृतः |

188) surAnandha: (सुरानन्दः)

Thence, the incarnation of anirudhdha as ‘hamsa:’ (हंसः) is being elaborated. Since all dhEvas are delighted by bhagavAn when he arrives as their sole savior in all their difficulties, he is called ‘surAnandha:’ – the delighter of dhEvas.

Etymology: He is called ‘surAnandha:’, who delights all dhEvas at all times (by warding off their difficulties).

सुरानन्दः सुरान् सर्वान् आनन्दयति यः सदा |

189) gOvindha: (गॊविन्दः) (also repeated in 543)

The one who is praised by all such dhEvas (who are delighted by bhagavAn, as seen in the previous divine name) is called ‘gOvindha:’ – the praised one.

The root ‘gO’ गॊ (praise) is conjoined with ‘vindha’ विन्द (to get), and is suffixed with the adjunct ‘Sa:’ (शः), resulting in this divine name.

All dhEvas hail bhagavAn as the one who favors them at times of crisis.

Etymology: The one who is gotten with words of praise from dhEvas is called ‘gOvindha:’.

गवां स्तुतिगिरां विन्दॊ गॊविन्दः स उदाहृतः |

190) gOvidhAm pathi: (गॊविदां पतिः)

The word ‘gO’ (गॊ) refers to the words of vEdhas. The ones who know such vEdhas in their true purport are called ‘gOvidhA:’ (गॊविदाः). The one who is worshipped by such knowledgeable men, and hence protects them from all evils is called ‘gOvidhAm pathi:’ – the protector of the knowledgeable men.

The scriptures say: “Know that hamsa mUrthi as the soul of all gyAnayagya (ज्ञानयज्ञः), and worship him”.

Etymology: The word ‘gO’ refers to the vEdhic verses. ‘gOvindha:’ is the one who is praised by such vEdhic verses. The one who protects the knower of such vEdhas is called ‘gOvidhAmpathi:’.

गावॊ वॆदगिराः प्रॊक्ताः गॊविन्दस्तत्सुपालनात् |
गॊविदांपतिरुद्दिष्टॊ वॆदविद्वत्पदॊ मनुः ||

=================================
मरीचिर्दमनॊ हंसः सुपर्णॊ भुजगॊत्तमः ।
हिरण्यनाभः सुतपाः पद्मनाभः प्रजापतिः ॥ २१ ॥
==================================

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.9 – Udhum aththInguzhaRkE

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “I cannot sustain myself” seeing how emperumAn stands amidst some cowherd girls and is playing flute, yet he is doing some strange acts highlighting his suffering in separation and singing some songs.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

Udhum aththInguzhaRkE uyyEn nAn adhu mozhindhidai idaith than sey kOlath
thUdhu sey kaNgaL koNdonRu pEsith thUmozhi isaigaL koNdonRu nOkkip
pEdhuRum mugam seydhu nondhu nondhu pEdhai nenjarRavaRap pAdum pAttai
yAdhum onRaRigilam amma amma mAlaiyum vandhadhu mAyan vArAn

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

idai idai – in between
adhu – his words which indicate his humility to be known by them, which are only known to them
mozhindhu – telling
Udhum – playing
aththIm kuzhaRkE – for that sweet flute sound
nAn – I
uyyEn – am unable to sustain;
than – for them (eyes)
sey – did
kOlam – having beauty

(going ahead in that matter)
thUdhu sey – going as messenger
kaNgaL koNdu – with the eyes
onRu pEsi – revealing his opinion clearly
thUmozhi – (in his dishonesty) having very pure words
isaigaL koNdu – with music
onRu nOkki – glancing as per his desires
pEdhuRu mugam seydhu – (due to the liking in the sweetness of song) revealing that liking in his face
nondhu nondhu – becoming anguished further (thinking “what will happen to helpless girls who hear this song?”)
pEdhai – young girls’
nenjaRavu – the separation which happened due to the love-fight in their hearts
aRa – to be eliminated fully
pAdum pAttai – the song which he sang
Adhum onRu – in any manner
aRigilam – we are unable to comprehend;

(at this stage)
amma amma – Oh mother! Oh mother!
mAlaiyum vandhadhu – night has arrived;
mAyan – amazing emperumAn
vArAn – is not coming.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

I am unable to sustain myself hearing the sweet flute sound which is revealing his words which indicate his humility to be known by them, which are only known to them, in between. His eyes which are beautiful on their own, are going as messenger, revealing his opinion clearly; his music which is having very pure words, is glancing as per his desires; his face is revealing his liking for the music and is becoming anguished further; we are unable to comprehend in any manner the song which he sang to have the separation which happened due to the love-fight in the young girls’ hearts, eliminated fully. Oh mother! Oh mother! The night has arrived; the amazing emperumAn is not coming. When recited as “adhu ozhindhu“, it implies, stopping that flute music. “than sey kOlam” indicates reddish beauty too.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Udhum aththIm kuzhaRkE uyyEn nAn – The flute music itself is harming so much that the others are superfluous.
  • idai idai adhu mozhindhu – He sings saying some lowly words in between such as “I separated from you; I cannot tolerate the separation”. Since she cannot say those lowly words and acts herself, she is saying “adhu” (that). embAr when explaining this sequence, mercifully said – As said in “mOr uLLadhanaiyum sOREyO” (As explained in thiruvAimozhi 4.6 – Can I feed you rice as long as you have curd? [A lady agrees to feed a man who comes to her residence. He says “I have curd and you give me as much rice as needed to finish this curd” and she agrees. He keeps diluting the curd (by repeatedly adding water) and tells the lady “I still have some curd left” and for that the lady replies “Can I feed you rice as long as you have curd?” – the principle explained here is – Previously AzhwAr experienced samSlEsham (togetherness) and viSlEsham (separation) with emperumAn. We could explain the connection all along. But how long can we do that? AzhwAr’s emotions are beyond our understanding/expression here]). When the dhESika (expert) himself [AzhwAr] is saying “adhu” without explaining it, how do we who are neutral [who are not seeing the inner emotions of AzhwAr] explain this? Alternative explanation – it is said as “adhuvozhindhu” – implying “leaving that” meaning “leaving the songs which are sung in between”.
  • than sey … – The divine eyes which are ornaments for themselves, and which can reveal their opinion to others. The eyes which will fall at the feet of the girls who think “we won’t go to him” due to anger. It will do everything which nambi mUththa pirAn (balarAma) can do [on behalf of krishNa]. Being engaged in playing flute, since the mouth cannot speak, the eyes will assume the activity of speaking. The clarity given by speech is given through glance.
  • thU mozhi isaigaL koNdu onRu nOkki – Since the music is mixed with beautiful speeches, engaging with the glance will be like engaging with the music. Though being engaged with music, he knows prose as well. This is how the activities of speech and sight have interchanged.
  • pEdhuRu mugam seydhu nondhu nondhu – Since his ears are closer to the music being played, he became distressed thinking “If we are ourselves are so immersed in this music, how will the helpless girls feel about it?” “If the music can torment a hard-hearted person like me, what suffering will the helpless girls undergo?”
  • pEdhai nenju aRavaRap pAdum pAttai – The song which will make the girls forget their love-fight and unite with him.
  • Adhum onRu aRigilam – I am not understanding the way it is harming me.
  • amma amma – Torment! Torment!
  • mAlaiyum vandhadhu – The evening time has arrived to harm me greatly. It feels that this evening time will finish me, without having to survive and suffer further.
  • mAyan vArAn – The amazing emperumAn, who would come and hold the feet of those who are separated from him to make them shy, is not coming now.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 42 – ponnnavilum Agam

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ponnavilum Agam puNarndhilaLE pUm gangai
munnam punal parakkum nannAdan minnAdum                                       55

Word by word meaning

pon navilum Agam – in the chest (of her beloved) which is like gold
puNarndhilaLE – did she not get embraced?
pU gangai punal munnam parakkum nal nAdan – the head of the great country where the beautiful waters of the river gangA had earlier increased its flow abundantly
min Adum – having radiance

vyAkyAnam

pon navailum Agam puNarndhilaLE – just as sIthAppirAtti had embraced SrI rAma as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 30-39 “bharthAram parishasvajE” (tightly embraced her husband) after the annihilation of the demon kara, and healed the injuries caused by thousands of arrows with her bosom, (vEgavadhi) gave fomentation to the injuries on the chest of her beloved, which looked like reddish gold, who had drawn his bow in the battle for her sake, by falling over his chest and embracing him.

(pUm gangai . . . . kEttaRivadhillaiyE) thirumangai AzhwAr now recapitulates the story mentioned in the two hundred and thirty fourth chapter of Adhiparvam in mahAbhAratham which narrates how a nagakanni (a girl born in the clan of snakes) by name ulUpi saw arjuna when he was having a bath in the river gangA, during his pilgrimage, desired him lustfully, compelled him, pulled him to her place, expressed her desire for him without any shame and enjoyed him.

pUm gangai – did she (ulUpi) engage in madal for someone who was infamous? Was it not for the most famous arjuna who was born in a great, regal lineage!

pUm gangai – river gangA with orchards full of blossomed flowers on both banks. Did not periyAzhwAr divinely mention in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-7-10 “kAn thadam pozhil sUzh gangai” (gangA surrounded by orchards with sweetly fragrant flowers) and in 4-7-9 “karai maram sAdik kaduththizhi gangai” (gangA striking against the trees on the banks with torrential force)!  Alternatively, as mentioned in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-7-2 “nalandhigazh sadaiyAn mudikkonRai malarum nAraNan pAdhaththuzhAyum kalandhizhi punalAl pugar padu gangai” (the radiant gangA river which flows down with the reddish konRai (cassia) flower), which is worn by Siva who has matted hair purified by the SrIpAdha thIrtham (divine water from the divine feet) of SrIman nArAyaNa and the greenish thuLasi which decorates the divine feet of SrIman nArAyana), this could refer to gangA which comes down with the flowers from the head of Sankara (Siva) and the divine feet of chadhuppuyan (four divine shouldered SrIman nArAyaNa). Another interpretation – gangA  which is flowing with the kaRpaga flowers (kaRpaga is a celestial, wish-fulfilling tree) as mentioned in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-7-7 “kaRpagamalarum kalandhizhi gangai”.

munnam punal parakkum – even if a small amount of water is formed in himAlayA mountains, the water flows first in his country (the country of nAgas).  Being the head-sluice (gate from which water flows first). This refers to the abundance (wealth) of water in his country.

nannAdan – this refers to the wealth of land.

Next the pAsuram refers to the wealth of the head of the country.

 In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 18 (Names 171 to 180)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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171) athIndhriya: (अतीन्द्रियः) (also repeated in 662)

Having elaborated thus about the core divine qualities of the various forms (para, vyUha and vibhava) of the sweet nectarine ocean – bhagavAn (till the 170th divine name), his divine nature is elucidated further – starting from this divine name.

He is called ‘athIndhriya:’, since he is inaccessible to the sense organs.

Etymology: He is called ‘athIndhriya:’, who transcends the reach of sense organs.

ज्ञानॊपकरणव्रातम् अतिक्रान्तॊ ह्यतीन्द्रियः |

172) mahAmAya: (महामायः)

How does bhagavAn transcend the reach of sense organs? He achieves this, since he is ‘mahAmAya:’ – the one who possesses the fascinating ‘mAyA’. bhagavAn possesses the supreme ‘mAyA’ (a mesmerizing blanket) like a magical veil, using which he hides himself from all entities which are distant to him.

The pAncharAthra Agama hails bhagavAn as the one who is flanked by the divine auspicious qualities on the one side, as well as the divine ‘mAyA’ on the other.

Etymology: He, who possesses a magical blanket/veil that deludes every non-devoted entity and hides him from their senses, is called ‘mahAmAya:’. This eight syllable manthra makes the chanter shine.

माया यस्याप्रपन्नानां सर्वॆषामस्ति मॊहिनी |
महामायः स विज्ञॆयॊ वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुज्वलः ||

173) mahOthsAha: (महॊत्साहः)

Although possessing the form of knowledge itself (ज्ञानमयः), bhagavAn is differentiated from the non-acting, dormant and complacent ‘ISvara’ that is projected by the sAnkhyas. Rather, bhagavAn is attributed with a ‘wealth’ of action, which shows his divine auspicious qualities. This is shown by this divine name ‘mahOthsAha:’ – the greatly enthused one.

This means he is greatly enthused to act. The word ‘uthsAhana’ (उत्साहन) – in this context – refers to the nature of doer. This ‘action’ itself is attributed as one of the greatest wealth of bhagavAn.

After all, is he not the one who creates all these worlds again and again for the well being of the individual souls? He is absolutely independent and is not controlled by anyone else. There is none who can appoint him to any task whatsoever. Yet, he – out of a fraction of his own free will – creates all these worlds for all the individual souls to use as a stepping stone to reach him. He creates all the variations in the worlds to accommodate the differences between the individual souls in terms of their prior karma. He creates all the entities complimentary to his divine creation of worlds (like the senses, five elements, et al), so as to enable the individual souls to use them as tools to reach him. Although possessed with complete free will and power to create the worlds differently in every cycle of creation, yet he follows his own creation patterns and creates the worlds just like how they were previously – and that too, exercising his total independence. A very small fraction of his powers are celebrated today as the great powers such as ‘aNimA’ (अणिमा), ‘mahimA’ (महिमा), etc. that the practitioners of yoga attain in their pursuits. 

Etymology: He is called ‘mahOthsAha:’, who possesses extreme enthusiasm in action (creation, sustenance and destruction of the worlds) itself as his wealth. This manthra grants wealth (of kainkaryam) upon the chanters.

महदुत्सहनं यस्य ह्यैश्वर्यं कर्तृलक्षणम् |
महॊत्साहः सविज्ञॆयॊ मनुरैश्वर्यदायकः ||

174) mahAbala: (महाबलः)

Since bhagavAn does not expect any external aid in all his endeavors, and since he is self sufficient in his prowess, he is called ‘mahAbala:’ – the one with herculean strength.

It is with this extraordinary strength that bhagavAn does all his actions of creation, sustenance and destruction. Although he carries out all these mighty actions, he is least fatigued, and is well established in his own greatness. He is the one who has shunned all other external aides in his work. Although performing the impossible tasks of creation, sustenance and destruction all alone, he exhibits immense enthusiasm and power in carrying out the tasks with ease and dexterity.

The maula samhithA hails bhagavAn as the one who further multiplies the creation, which is already multiple in number.

Furthermore, he bears all of his creation as his own body (He resides as the indweller of the entire creation, and bears the whole creation as his body). Just a very small fraction of his power is manifested in this creation in various forms today.

Etymology: The one who doesn’t expect any external aide in his tasks of creation (and hence, sustenance and destruction, and solely depends on his own power) is called ‘mahAbala:’.

कर्तृन्तरानपॆक्षॊ यः सृष्टॆ स स्यात् महाबलः |

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महाबुद्धिर्महावीर्यॊ महाशक्तिर्महाद्युतिः ।
अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः श्रीमानमॆयात्मा महाद्रिधृत्॥ १९ ॥
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175) mahAbudhdhi: (महाबुद्धिः)

Contradicting the school of philosophy that says that an insentient entity is the cause of creation, it is being shown here that a highly knowledgeable entity is the original cause – with this divine name ‘mahAbudhdhi:’ – the omniscient one.

bhagavAn’s divine knowledge is highly pervasive, and is not restricted by space, time or nature. Neither is his divine and expansive knowledge limited by distance (of the ‘known’ object), nor by delusions. Rather, bhagavAn possesses very accurate knowledge about each and every entity at all times. It is inherent in bhagavAn, and not newly attributed. It is also eternal, and doesn’t need the aid of external senses (such as eyes, nose, ears, etc) to identify objects. On the contrary, bhagavAn actually uses his senses like eyes, ears et al. all by his own free will, as shown in the previous divine names ‘puNdarIkAksha:’, ‘SuchiSravA:’ et al.

bhagavAn doesn’t require the use of any senses for knowing any object, since he is capable of knowing anything from any of his senses (ex: he doesn’t necessarily require eyes to see; rather, he can see through any other sense organ just as much as he can see with his eyes, and so on). When it is well known that even an ordinary snake doesn’t necessarily require ears to hear, what – then – can be spoken of that omnipotent supreme brahman?

The jaya samhithA says thus: “bhagavAn is capable of listening with all of his senses, just like a snake listens with its eyes itself”.

Each and every entity is known by bhagavAn lucidly, just as much as one can know a gooseberry placed on his own palm. This is as shown in the scriptures:

  • “…the one who has eyes everywhere, and who has his face all around the world…”
  • “He sees even without eyes, he hears even without ears”
  • “He has his eyes, head and face all around this world…” etc

Sriman nAthamuni hails bhagavAn thus in his nyAya thathva: “The one who knows everything very clearly all by himself, and knows  all entities at the same time”

Some miscreants mock at bhagavAn’s omniscience, considering such omniscience as merely an ‘exaggeration’. They say, “if someone can know all objects with just one faculty (knowledge, in this case), then he can surely taste, smell and hear with his eyes as well” (which is next to impossible in this visible world). This mockery is just a baseless argument in line with the budhdhist philosophy about omniscience (contextually).

If it is true that statements about the eternity of an entity are just ‘exaggeration’s, doesn’t it imply that such entities are not eternal in reality? Similarly, bhagavAn’s omniscience is not an exaggeration either. The mockery at ‘omniscience’ itself is actually in a different context altogether, and cannot be applied to bhagavAn (the statement that ‘omniscience’ is an exaggeration applies to lower mortals like us, and not bhagavAn).

When a mere crow, owl and an eagle can use their senses of sight, hearing, et al to different degrees and in different ways, and when the same sense organs namely eyes, ears, etc. can be used very differently by men advanced in their pursuit of manthrasidhdhi, thapas, et al (in comparison with the use of senses by ordinary men), wouldn’t it prove that it is wrong to speak lowly about bhagavAn’s capability of using his senses differently than what we can perceive? Rather, bhagavAn is omnipotent and he can use any of his senses for any purpose equally.

Just a very small fraction of this whole ‘knowledge’ of bhagavAn is seen as the seat of knowledge in all sentient entities – namely badhdha, muktha and nithya (bound, liberated and ever liberated souls).

Etymology: The one unto whom great knowledge (or omniscience) is an inherent trait is called ‘mahAbudhdhi:’.

महाबुद्धिर्महज्ज्ञानं स्वरूपं यस्य सॊच्यतॆ |

176) mahAvIrya: (महावीर्यः)

We see in our daily life that the causes such as milk undergo transformations while curdling. Similarly, is bhagavAn also undergoing transformations while creating these worlds? NO! bhagavAn is called ‘mahAvIrya:’ – the cause who has no transformation, since he is not affected the least bit while creating all these worlds.

Just as agar, musk, flower etc radiate fragrance by their mere presence, so also bhagavAn accomplishes all these creations just by his mere presence. This is as per the scriptural statement: “The fragrant items radiate their fragrance just by their presence. There is nothing more needed (no transformations) in order to feel the fragrance. Similarly, bhagavAn also creates all these worlds just by his mere presence, and needs no other transformation”. Just a very small fraction of such energy is seen in the yOgis in this world, which keeps them from agitations.

(NOTE: In this divine name, it is to be understood that bhagavAn’s role of material cause for this creation (‘upAdhAna kAraNathvam’) is being said; because, only the material cause undergoes transformations while resulting in a certain effect. Whereas, bhagavAn doesn’t undergo any kind of transformations whatsoever, although being the material cause for the whole creation.)

Etymology: Although it is common to see transformations in the cause while resulting in a certain effect, the one who shows such immense energy that he undergoes no such transformations while creating these worlds is called ‘mahAvIrya:’.

हॆतौ सति विकारित्वॆsप्यविकारिश्च लक्षणम् |
महद्धि वीर्यं यस्यॆति महावीर्यः स च स्मृतः ||

177) mahASakthi: (महाशक्तिः)

In refutation of the pASupathya school of thought that denies bhagavAn’s disposition of being the material cause for this creation, this divine name shows the glorious powers of bhagavAn. He is called ‘mahASakthi:’ – the most powerful one, since he transforms the primordial nature to create these worlds.

That power of bhagavAn only acts as the material and instrumental causes. It is not attained by any effort. Rather, it is inherently present in bhagavAn. bhagavAn, with this immense power, transforms the primordial nature (prakruthi प्रकृति:), which is just a part of his divine body, into the various effects namely the twenty four taththvas constituting the entire creation.

Do we not see a spider being both the material cause as well as the instrumental cause? (It creates its web out of its own saliva. So it is both the instrumental cause (it only creates) as well as the material cause (using its own saliva)).

If this is true and non-debatable in case of an ordinary spider, then what is to be debated about the omniscient and omnipotent bhagavAn?

A very small scale illustration of such transformations of bhagavAn’s divine body can be seen in our daily life in phenomena such as curdling of milk and the like.

(Note: bhagavAn is indeed all three causes of creation – instrumental, material and ancillary. Since he only decides to create all worlds, he is the instrumental cause. Since he uses his own divine body for creation, he is the material cause. Since he creates all these with a mere thought, he is the ancillary cause as well. Even while his own divine body (prakruthi प्रकृति:) transforms during all these creations, he is unaffected in his own nature (parama-Athma-svarUpam परमात्मस्वरूपं). This is how we saw that he has no transformations in the previous divine name, and yet understand that his divine body only undergoes all changes in this divine name).

Etymology: He who possesses great power is called ‘mahASakthi:’.

शक्तिश्च महती यस्य महाशक्तिः स कीर्तितः |

178) mahAdhyuthi: (महाद्युतिः)

Differentiating bhagavAn from other entities that expect an ancillary aid, this divine name shows that bhagavAn is the one who doesn’t expect any ancillary aid in any of his endeavors. This name shows that his divine effulgence is immense, and does not need any external agency to induce this.

bhagavAn’s effulgence repels all darkness – both internal and external, and appears to be pleasing to his devotees while being fierce to his opponents at the same time. Just a very small fraction of his effulgence is seen in the lustrous bodies such as precious gems and the sun.

In all the preceding six names (including this one) – starting from 173 to 178 (mahOthsAha:, mahAbala:, mahAbudhdhi:, mahAvIrya:, mahASakthi: and mahAdhyuthi:), the greatness of each of bhagavAn’s divine qualities is shown, a very small fraction of which can perform all worldly actions that we comprehend. Thus, there is no good opportunity for bhagavAn to show all these qualities to the fullest anytime. This is just like the small tides on a vast ocean, which can never show all the water in the ocean while rising, but just fall off into the same ocean knowing this failure.

This is elaborated further in the scriptures thus:

  • “bhagavAn’s powers are supreme, and are varied. All the knowledge, support and actions of bhagavAn are inherent and natural to him”
  • “bhagavAn is a concentrated cluster of effulgence, support, mastership, wealth, knowledge, valor, strength, and many other divine qualities”
  • “Unlimited reserve of knowledge, strength, power, wealth, valor, and effulgence is represented by the word ‘bhaga:’ (भगः). The one who possess all these auspicious qualities and is free from all inauspicious ones is called ‘bhagavAn’ (भगवान्)”, etc

All the scriptures hailing bhagavAn’s supremacy echo the same thoughts.

In these six names (173 to 178) only do bhagavAn’s other innumerable auspicious qualities such as impartiality, affection etc merge for some or the other purpose.

Etymology: The one who naturally possesses supreme effulgence without any external aid is called ‘mahAdhyuthi:’.

तॆजॊsनपॆक्षरूपं स्वं महद्यस्य महाद्युतिः |

179) anirdhESyavapu: (अनिर्दॆश्यवपुः) (also repeated in 662)

bhagavAn is called ‘anirdhESyavapu:’ – the one whose divine body cannot be described, since he is a complete embodiment of all the six auspicious qualities. As the scriptures hail bhagavAn, they say: “…that bhagavAn, who shines like blazing fire, is an embodiment of all six qualities together”, et al.

The same thought is echoed in the maula samhithA: “Those who possess intellect, mind, and the external limbs is said to have a body made of seven elements (the five principal elements earth, air, water, fire and space, and additionally the mahath and ahankAra). Such bodies are said to be made of primordial nature.”

Having said this, it continues to analyze bhagavAn’s divine body thus: “How is bhagavAn’s divine body? What is it made of? bhagavAn’s body is like that of bhagavAn only (no other simile to it). his divine body is completely made of the same element which bhagavAn himself is (eternal sense, knowledge and bliss सत्यम् ज्ञानम् अनन्तम्)! bhagavAn is full of knowledge, wealth and strength – to the extent that he can be said to have been made of these elements only! Just as coal, metals etc. turns into fire itself from all sides when burnt (just as they seem to be verily the fire itself while burning), just as honey is an embodiment of sweet in all ways when drunk, just as a broken piece of gold is fully golden from all sides, just as a beautiful palace is a ‘form’ of beauty itself from all sides when seen, so also bhagavAn is completely of the form of knowledge from all sides; he is completely of the form of wealth from all sides; he is completely of the form of strength itself from all sides. He becomes what he desires”, et al

The scriptures have described the pancha-upanishath (पञ्चॊपनिषत्) form of bhagavAn thus.

This means that bhagavAn’s divine body made of the six qualities is like the gems and precious stones (the six qualities) impregnated on a wonderful golden leaf (Sudhdha sathva SarIram (शुद्धसत्त्वशरीरम्)). It is NOT like the hidden gems in a body made of the three guNas (body made of primordial nature, such as ours). Even the vishNu purAna accepts that bhagavAn’s divine forms, colors, etc cannot be confined by mere words; rather, they are all beyond description. They all lack similes. Thus, bhagavAn’s divine body is very unique and is beyond the sense of description.

(Many people say that bhagavAn has no body at all, and that he is just pure consciousness. This divine name clearly refutes this, and shows that bhagavAn does possess a divine body, but just beyond our comprehension)

Etymology: bhagavAn possesses a divine body made of the six qualities – gyAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakthi and thEjas, and is completely unique in the sense that it has no simile whatsoever. It is full of effulgence. Thus, bhagavAn is only called as ‘anirdhESyavapu:’.

ज्ञानादि षाड्गुण्यमयम् उपमानविवर्जितम् |
वपुरस्यास्ति तॆजिष्ठम् अनिर्दॆश्यवपुर्हि सः ||

180) SrImAn (श्रीमान्) (also repeated in 22, 222)

The one who is always bedecked with divine ornaments befitting his divine form is called ‘SrImAn’ – the wealthy one.

Etymology: The one who always possesses the wealth of divine ornaments – befitting his divine forms – is called ‘SrImAn’.

दिव्यभूषणसम्पद्भिर्युक्तः श्रीमान् सदा स्मृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.8 – pudhamaNam mugandhu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Those entities which were harming me individually and together, are now competing with each other to hurt me”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pudhu maNam mugandhu koNdeRiyumAlO pongiLa vAdai pun sekkarAlO
adhu maNandhaganRa nangaNNan kaLvam kaNNanil kodidhini adhanilumbar
madhu maNa malligai mandhak kOvai vaN pasum sAndhinil panjamam vaiththu
adhu maNandhinnaruL AychchiyarkkE Udhum aththInguzhaRkE uyyEn nAn

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pongu – rising up
iLa – softened
vAdai – northerly breeze
pudhu maNmam – fresh fragrance
mugandhu koNdu – fetching and carrying
eRiyum – blowing at me;

(after evening time)
pun – having weakened
sekkar – being reddish sky;

(at this time)
adhu – having greatness which is beyond words
maNandhu – united
aganRa – separated
nam kaNNan – krishNa who was humble towards us
kaLvam – mischievous acts

(while tormenting us by being in our thoughts)
kaNNanil – more than he
kodidhu – are being cruel;
ini – further
adhanil umbar – more than that
madhu – honey
maNam – having fragrance
malligai – jasmine’s
mandham – without losing freshness
kOvai – in garland
vaN pasum sAndhinil – more than distinguished cool sandalwood paste
panjamam vaiththu – with the tune named panchama
adhu maNandhu – engaging in union which is difficult to comprehend
in aruL – being the target of his sweet mercy
AychchiyarkkE – for the gOpikAs
Udhum – playing (to be known on its own)
ath thIm kuzhaRkE – for the sweet sound of the flute which reveals the beautiful sight at that time
nAn – I
uyyEn – will not survive.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The softened northerly breeze is rising up, fetching and carrying fresh fragrance and blowing at me; the reddish sky has weakened; the mischievous acts of union and separation of krishNa who is having greatness which is beyond words, are more cruel than he; further, there is jasmine garland having freshness and flower with honey and fragrance; more than that, there is the distinguished cool sandalwood paste and the tune named panchama; beyond all of these, I will not survive the sweet sound of the flute which reveals the beautiful sight at that time which is being played by krishNa for the gOpikAs who are target of his sweet mercy by engaging in union with them, which is difficult to comprehend.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pudhu maNam mugandhu koNdu eRiyumAlO pongu iLa vAdai – The northerly breeze which is generally soft, rose up and blew the fresh fragrance as it understood about my having femininity.
  • pun sekkarAlO – Even the reddish sky has weakened; looking at the inferior [cruel] nature of the subsequent times [night], just as day time, evening has also become desirable.
  • adhu maNandhu … – He united in a manner which is beyond words. Even vAlmeeki bhagavAn who compiled twenty four thousand SlOkams on the sad aspect [as SrI rAmAyaNam started with the sad incident of birds getting killed], did not say anything about the union, since it is beyond words; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 2.40 “SOka: SlOkathvam Agatha:” (that which started with SOkam (sadness) beautifully fell in place as SlOkams), it is mainly focussed on the SOkam [Though vAlmeeki bhagavAn has explained some aspects of union between perumAL and pirAtti, since it started with SOkam, there is more importance for that]. The mischievous acts such as sweet talks and interactions during the union, of such obedient krishNa.
  • kaNNanil kodidhu – The interactions of krishNa who remained as our property during union, are more harmful than he is. Looking at those acts, he look nobler than they are.
  • ini adhanil umbar – further, more than that.
  • madhu maNa malligai mandhak kOvai … – Garland which was densely prepared with jasmine which is having honey and fragrance, beautiful fresh sandalwood paste are also tormenting me; further, the flute sound is coming along with the tune named panchama and tormenting us; alternative explanation – all of these are carrying the tune named panchama and tormenting us.
  • adhu maNandhu – To unite with us; alternative explanation –  for the gOpikAs with whom he united in this manner.
  • in aruL AychchiyarkkE – The cowherd girls who became target of his mercy.
    • AychchiyarkkE Udhum – That is, this flute sound will put those [elders], who are guarding, to sleep and will pull the young girls by their hair. It is like saying “the arrow shot at this person” [aimed at and hitting the target]. Even if I survived the other harmful entities, I will not survive this flute sound. If the torments of all of those together are at one level, the torment of the flute sound alone is at a higher level.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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