Daily Archives: October 30, 2018

thiruvAimozhi – 7.9 – enRaikkum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth decad – AzhwAr enjoyed ISvara‘s diversified wealth which reveals his amazing abilities which fit well with his quality of elimination of AzhwAr’s hurdles and became joyous; he analyses the reason for the delay of elimination of his hurdles and sees that emperumAn has left him in this material realm to accept his vAchika kainkaryam (service by speech) and, becoming pleased with that, ignores his hurdles and highlights the following aspects of emperumAn:

  1. his natural relationship with AzhwAr which makes him have AzhwAr at his service like he would have achith (insentient) serving him
  2. his first initiative
  3. his activities for the sake of the devotees
  4. his desire [towards AzhwAr] ignoring the hurdles
  5. supremacy he acquired due to such desire
  6. the ultimate state of supremacy
  7. elimination of sins which are hurdles for experiencing such supremacy
  8. his auspicious qualities which are greatly enjoyable
  9. the eternal nature of such enjoyability
  10. his unlimited favours without expecting anything in return

AzhwAr meditated upon these aspects and thought “Such great emperumAn eliminated my hurdles and accepted my vAchika kainkaryam; what will I do in return to him?” and becomes greatly blissful being grateful.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

Previously [starting from thiruvAimozhi 7.1uNNilAviya“] AzhwAr asked repeatedly “When one is to attain sarvESvara, even if there are hurdles, if he decides to grant himself, those hurdles will not have any effect; while this is the case, why am I, who thinks ‘my result is dependent on you’, is left in this samsAram (material realm) like this?” emperumAn too, instead of giving a straight solution for this, would manifest some qualities and divert AzhwAr’s attention. Now, in previous decad too AzhwAr asked “While I don’t fit in this samsAram, and cannot sustain without you and you are being my means, how is it that you are amazingly keeping me in this samsAram and conducting me? You should mercifully explain”, emperumAn said “Look at my amazing aspects!”  and manifested his universal form and engaged AzhwAr in that. AzhwAr too would meditate upon those aspects at that time and would subsequently come back and ask the same question. AzhwAr asks “While I am not fitting in this samsAram, why are you keeping me here?” and emperumAn responds “Should you forcefully ask this question to me? If you desired for everything you saw and tasted them, and if you accumulated karma as per those acts, if you had impressions and tastes based on previous births, would you not remain here due to these?” AzhwAr again forcefully asks “While they were there, you ignored them and bestowed me unblemished knowledge and devotion, eliminated my bondage and made me exist exclusively for you; after doing all of these, why are you still keeping me here?” and emperumAn merficully responds with the straight answer “Alright. You said you have completely placed yourself at my disposal in thiruvAimozhi 2.9.4thanakkEyAga enaik koLLum IdhE‘ (only this aspect of having me exclusively exist for you); hence, can I not use you as per my wish? Hence, your nature will be to bring about greatness to me; hence, as I gave knowledge to the world by placing SrI bhIshma on a bed of arrows [and made him recite SrIvishNu sahasranAmam], I am getting you to sing some prabandhams which can be used by myself and my devotees to fruitfully spend our time; we will keep you in this samsAram, until this task is completed”; meditating upon that, AzhwAr could not tolerate emperumAn’s words thinking “Here is sarvESvara himself, who is avAptha samastha kAma (one who has no unfulfilled desire), yet considers that he is having some shortcoming and getting it remedied by me”.  He further thought “If he wanted some prabandhams praising him, while the most intelligent SrI vEdha vyAsa bhagavAn, SrI vAlmeeki bhagavAn, SrI parASara bhagavAn et al, mudhalAzhwArgaL who are known as ‘sendhamizh pAduvAr‘ (beautiful thamizh poets) et al are present, he is engaging me who has been in this samsAram since time immemorial, who is entrenched in worldly pleasures, and who is in the state of achith as said in thaiththirIya upanishath ‘asannEva sa bhavathi’ (he ceases to exist) and is making me sing praises which are apt for him. What a great quality! What a great quality!” and meditated on sarvESvara’s favour towards him, and as he could not do anything matching in return, speaks with gratitude and overwhelming emotions.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thiruvandhAdhi – 24 – thAnE thaniththOnRal

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In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr mentioned that whether emperumAn protects or not, only he is to be attained since he is naturally related to us. In this pAsuram he proves through both anvayam and vyathirEkam (connection and difference or affirmative and negative aspects) that emperumAn is the protector and he says that there is no question of emperumAn not protecting us.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thAnE thaniththOnRal thannaLapponRillAdhAn
thAnE piRargatkum thaRROnRal thAnE
iLaikkiRpAr kIzhmElAm mINdamaippAnAnAl
aLakkiRpAr pArin mEl Ar

Word by Word Meanings

thanith thOnRal thAnE – he is the only one who has incomparable incarnations
than aLappukku – to compare with him
onRum illAdhAn thAnE – he is the only one who does not have any entity
piRargatkum thaRRONRal thAnE – he is the most famous antharyAmi (indwelling soul) for all the others
thAnE iLaikkil – if such an emperumAn drops down (from protecting)
pAr kIzh mElAm – the earth will become topsy turvy and lose its balance
mINdu amaippAnAnAl – if he starts protecting once again
aLakkiRpAr – one who can estimate (the extensiveness that he has in protecting)
pAril mEl Ar – who is there, on the earth?


thAnE thaniththOnRal – he is the only one who incarnates, without any comparison. Unlike jIvAthmAs who are born out of their karma (past deeds), emperumAn takes incarnations on his own volition, in order to uplift the jIvAthmAs. Hence AzhwAr refers to him as thaniththOnRal. The implied meaning is that this term, on its own, establishes the fact that he is the protector.

To a question whether there is anyone else who does like this, AzhwAr responds  . . .

thannaLapponRillAdhAn – he is one who does not have any other entity (who or) which can be considered as comparison.  Hence the opinion is that there is no one else who can protect.

thAnE piRargatkum thaRROnRal – Just as it is mentioned in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 5-7 “Esha tha AthmA antharyAmyamrutha:” (only this paramapurusha (supreme entity) who is the sarvAntharyAmi (indwelling soul of all) has amruthathvam (does not have death) and remains as your indwelling soul), he remains as the indwelling soul for all, other than himself, and is the reason for their existence, behaviour and activities. It is implied through this that when all the others are under his control, there can be no place for doubting whether he is the protector for all.

thAnE iLaikkil pAr kIzh mElAm – If he momentarily steps back from protecting others, the earth will turn turtle. Since earth has not become topsy turvy, the implied meaning is that he protects at all times. Through vyathirEkam (negation) AzhwAr establishes, thus far, that emperumAn is the protector.

Now, through anvayam (connection or assertion) he establishes the same fact.

mINdu amaippAnAnAl – when all the sentient entities become identical to insentient entities, during the time of deluge, and merge with him, if emperumAn decides in his divine mind that he should protect them and creates them (again)

aLakkiRpAr pArin mEl Ar – who can estimate his qualities of being the indwelling soul of all entities, looking after their existence, providing them with SAsthras (sacred texts), incarnating etc and protecting them?

We will move on to the 25th pAsuram, next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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வரவரமுனி சதகம் 1

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ஸ்ரீ: ஸ்ரீமதே சடகோபாய நம:  ஸ்ரீமதே ராமானுஜாய நம: ஸ்ரீமத் வரவரமுநயே நம:

வரவரமுனி சதகம்

वरवरमुनिवर्यपादुरत्नं वरदगुरुंगुरुमाश्रये गुरूणाम् |
उपनिशदुपगीतमर्थतत्वं तदिह यदीयवशम्वदं समिन्धे || १||

வரவரமுனிவர்ய பாது  ரத்னம் வரதகுரும் குருமாச்ரயே குரூணாம் |
உபநிஷதுப கீதமர்த்த தத்வம் ததிஹ யதீய வசம் வதம் ஸமிந்தே   || 1

வரவர முனிம் = மணவாள மாமுனிகளின்

பாது ரத்நம்  = திருவடிகளுக்கு ரத்நம்  போல் சிறந்த அடியார்

குரூணாம் குரு  =ஆசார்யர்களுக்கு ஆசார்யராய் இருப்பவர்

உபநிஷதுபகீதம் அர்த்த தத்வம்  = உபநிஷத்துகளில் ஓதப்படும் பொருளை

ததிஹ யதீய வசம் வதம் ஸமிந்தே =தம் அதீனமாக உடையவர் ஆகிய

வரதகுரும் ஆச்ரயே = வரதகுருவை வணங்குகிறேன்.

மணவாள மாமுனிகளின் திருவடிகளுக்கு ரத்னம் போல் சிறந்த அடியவர், ஆசார்யர்களுக்கு ஆசார்யராய் இருப்பவர், உபநிஷத்துகளில் ஓதப்படும் உண்மைப்பொருளைத் தம் அதீனமாக உடையவர் ஆன வரதகுருவை வணங்குகிறேன்.   

आकल्पमत्र भवतु प्रदयन् धरित्रीं
अस्मद्गुरुर्वरवरप्रवरो मुनीनाम |
अन्तस्तमश्शमनम् अन्तदृषां यदीयम्
अम्लानपल्लवतलारुणमङ्घ्रियुग्मम्  || २॥

ஆகல்பமத்ர பவது ப்ரதயந் தரித்ரீம்
அஸ்மத் குருர் வரவர ப்ரவரோ முநீநாம் |
அந்தஸ்தமச் சமநம் அந்தத்ருசாம்   யதீயம்
அம்லாந பல்லவ தலாருணம்அங்க்ரி யுக்மம் || 2

எந்த மணவாள மாமுனிகள் வாடாத தளிர்போல் சிவந்த இரண்டு திருவடிகள் பார்வை இழந்தவர்களுடைய உள் இருளைப் போக்க வல்லதோ அந்த முனிவர்களின் தலைவர், எமது குருவான மாமுனிகள் இந்த பூமியைப் ப்ரகாசப் படுத்திக்கொண்டு கல்பம் முடியும்வரை இங்கிருக்கவேண்டும்.

गुणमणिनिधये नमो नमस्ते गुरुकुलधुर्य नमो नमो नमस्ते |
वरवरमुनये नमो नमस्ते  यतिवरतत्वविदे नमो नमस्ते  ||  ३ ||


குணமணி நிதயே நமோ நமஸ்தே
குருகுல துர்ய நமோ நமோ நமஸ்தே |
வரவரமுநயே நமோ நமஸ்தே
யதிவர தத்வ விதே நமோ நமஸ்தே || 3

சிறந்த குணங்களுக்கு நிதியாக இருப்பவரின் பொருட்டு வணக்கம். ஆசார்யர்களில் சிறந்தவரே உமக்கு வணக்கம்.    மணவாள மாமுனிகளே உமக்கு வணக்கம். யதிராஜரின் திருவுள்ளம் அறிந்தவரே உமக்கு வணக்கம்.

कुरु मयि विमलं दृगञ्चलं ते कुशलनिदानदयानिधे नमस्ते |
निशिचरपरिपन्थिनित्ययुक्ते निमिकुलमङ्गलदीपिके नमस्ते ||४ ||

குருமயிவிமலம் த்ருகஞ்சலம் தே
குசல நிதாந தயாநிதே நமஸ்தே |
நிசிசர பரிபந்தி நித்ய யுக்தே
நிமிகுல மங்கல தீபிகே நமஸ்தே || 4

க்ஷேமத்துக்குக் காரணமான கருணைக் கடலே! உமது சுத்தமான கடைக்கண் பார்வையை என்னிடம் செலுத்தும்.உமக்கு வணக்கம். அரக்கர்களின் விரோதிகளுடன் கூடியவளே நிமிகுல தீபமானவளே! வணக்கம். (நிமிகுல தீபம்= சீதாப்பிராட்டி)

रविसुतसुहृदे नमोनमस्ते रघुकुलरत्न नमो नमो नमस्ते |
दशमुखमकुटछिदे नमस्ते दशरथनन्दन सन्ततं नमस्ते ||   ५ ||

ரவி ஸுத ஸுஹ்ருதே நமோ நமஸ்தே
ரகுகுல ரத்ந நமோ நமோ நமஸ்தே  |
தச முக மகுடச் சிதோ  நமஸ்தே
தசரத நந்தன ஸந்ததம் நமஸ்தே || 5

சுக்ரீவனுடைய நண்பனான உனக்கு வணக்கம். ரகுகுல ச்ரேஷ்டரான உமக்கு வணக்கம். பத்துத்தலை உடைய ராவணன் கிரீடத்தை அறுத்த உமக்கு வணக்கம். தசரத குமாரனான உமக்கு வணக்கம்.

यदि पुनरभिधेयमद्वितीयं |
कृतिभिरतः परमीक्ष्यते न किञ्चित् ||
विजहति न हि जातु शुक्तिमुक्तं |
विशदशशिद्युतिमौक्तिकं विदग्धाः || ६ ||

யதி புனரபிதேய மத்விதீயம்
க்ருதிபிரத: பரமீக்ஷ்யதே நகிஞ்சித் |
விஜஹதி நஹிஜாது சுக்தி முக்தம்
விசத சதி  த்யுதி மௌக்திகம் விதக்தா: || 6

ஒப்புயர்வற்ற ஒரு பொருள் இருக்குமானால் இதற்கு மேல் முயற்சிகளால் ஒன்றும் காணப்படவில்லை என்றால் நிர்மல சந்த்ரன் போன்ற காந்தியுள்ள முத்தை நிபுணர்கள் சிப்பியிலிருந்து வந்தது என்று ஒருபோதும் விட மாட்டார்கள்.  

देव प्रसीद मयि दिव्यगुणैकसिन्धो |
दृष्ट्या  दयाSमृतदुहा सकृदीक्षितुं माम् ||
नैतेन कृत्यमसतेति न चिन्तयित्वा |
नारायणं गुरुवरं वरदं विदन्मे ||७ ||

தேவ ப்ரஸீத மயி திவ்ய குணைக ஸிந்தோ: |
த்ருஷ்ட்யா தயாம்ருத துஹா ஸக்ருதீக்ஷிதும் மாம்  ||
நைதேந க்ருத்வமஸிதேதி நசிந்தயித்வா  |
நாராயணம் குருவரம் வரதம் விதந் மே    || 7

தேவனே! திவ்ய குணங்களுக்குக் கடல் போன்றவரே! தயை எனும் அம்ருதத்தைப் பெருக்குகிற பார்வையால் என்னை ஒரு தடவை பார்ப்பதற்கு தயை புரிவீராக. இந்த அஸத்தால் ஆக வேண்டியது ஒன்றுமில்லை என்று நினைக்காமல் எனக்கு ஆசார்யர் வரத நாராயண குரு என்பதை அறிந்து அருள் புரிய வேண்டும்.

श्रीमद्रङ्गं जयतु परमंधाम तेजोनिधानं |
भूमा तस्मिन् भवतु कुशली कोपि भूमासहायः ||
दिव्यं तस्मै दिशतु विभवं देशिको देशिकानाम् |
काले काले वरवरमुनिः कल्पयन् मङ्गळानि || ८ ||

ஸ்ரீமத் ரங்கம் ஜயது பரமம் தாம தேஜோ நிதாநம் |
பூமா தஸ்மிந் பவது குசலீ கோபி பூமா ஸஹாய: ||
திவ்யம் தஸ்மை திசது பகவந் தேசிகோ தேசிகாநாம் |
காலே காலே வரவரமுநி: கல்பயந் மங்கலானி ||  8

ஒளிக்கு நிதி போன்ற சிறந்த தலமான செல்வமுள்ள ஸ்ரீரங்க நகரம் விளங்க வேண்டும். அதில் ஒளிகளுக்கெல்லாம் ஒளி(யான எம்பெருமான்) க்ஷேமமாக வாழ வேண்டும். ஆசார்யர்களுக்கு ஆசார்யரான மணவாள மாமுனிகள் காலந்தோறும் மங்கலங்களைச் செய்துகொண்டு அவருக்கு ஓர் ஒளியை அளிக்க வேண்டும்.

तस्यै नित्यम्प्रदिशति दिशे दक्षिणस्यै नमस्याम् |
यस्यामाविर्भवति जगताञ्जीवनी सह्यकन्या ||
पुण्यैर्यस्याः क्षितितलजुषं पूरुषं रङ्गभूषां |
पश्यन्धन्यो वरवरमुनिः पालयन्वर्तते नः || ९ ||

தஸ்யை நித்யம் ப்ரதிசத திசே தக்ஷிணஸ்யை நமஸ்யாம் |
யஸ்யாமாவிர் பவதி   ஜகதாம் ஜீவநீ ஸஹ்ய கந்யா ||
புண்யைர் யஸ்யா: க்ஷிதிஜல ஜுஷம் பூருஷம் ரங்க பூஷாம் |
பஷ்யந்தந்யோ வரவரமுநி: பாலயந் வர்த்ததே ந: || 9

எல்லா உலகத்தின் வாழ்வுக்கும் காரணமான காவிரி நதி எந்த திசையில் பெருகுகிறதோ அந்தத் தெற்குத் திசையை நோக்கி, எந்தத் திசையின் புண்யங்களால் பூமியை அடைந்த ரங்க நகருக்கு ஆபரணமான புருஷோத்தமனை ஸேவித்துக்கொண்டு தம்மைக் க்ருதார்த்தனாக நினைத்து மணவாள மாமுனிகள் நம்மைக் காத்துக் கொண்டுள்ளாரோ அந்த திசையை தினமும் வணங்குங்கள்.

आशापाशैरवधिविधुरैः स्वैरमाकृष्यमाणं |
दूराद्दूरं पुनरपि न मे दूयतामेव चेतः ||
अन्तःकृत्वा वरवरमुने नित्यमङ्घ्रिद्वयं ते |
धाराकारस्मरणसुभगं निश्चली भूय तत्र || १० ||

ஆசா பாசைரவதி விதுரை: ஸ்வைரமாக்ருஷ்யமாணம் |
தூராத் தூரம் புநரபி ந மே தூயதாமேவ சேத : ||
அந்த: க்ருத்வா வரவர முநே நித்யமங்ரி த்வயம் தே |
தாராகார ஸ்மரண ஸுபகம் நிஸ்சலீ பூய தத்ர || 10

முடிவில்லாத பல ஆசைகளால் தன்  இஷ்டம்போல் வெகுதூரம் இழுக்கப்பட்ட என் மனம் மறுபடி வருந்த வேண்டாம். வரவர முநியே! தினந்தோறும் உமது திருவடிகளையே நினைப்பதால் புனிதமாகி அங்கேயே ஸ்திரமாக இருக்கக் கடவது.

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pUrva pItikA – Part 5

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama: 

Full Series

<< pUrva pItikA – Part 4

In the beginning of kali yugam, the humans condemn the Supreme Lord Hari. By the end of kali yugam, there would be none who chant His divine names. smrithis say that “when one cannot perform a certain ritual, the best alternative is to just do the japam of the respective manthras”. Thus, bhishma considers chanting of bhagavAn’s extraordinarily divine names as the loftiest of all dharmas, a very affable subject to the mind, pleasant to practice, free of cost, free from physical exertion, easily practiced, attractive to the Supreme Master who is not very far away from each of us, by giving joy to Him, capable of removing the greatest fears of samsAra.

The various divine sages also concur in this regard, as can be illustrated as below:
“Of all the dharmas, best are those which are related to the worship of vishNu ”
“bhagavAn vishNu protects His devotees just as a soul protects its body”
“There is no other deed for well-being better than being devoted to gOvindha”.

परमं यॊ महत्तॆजः परमं यॊ महत्तपः ।
परमं यॊ महद्ब्रह्म परमं यः परायणम् ॥ ९ ॥
पवित्राणां पवित्रं यॊ मङ्गलानां च मङ्गलम् ।

bhagavAn gives effulgence even to the other sources of light such as the sun

Thereafter, bhIshma replied to the inquiry about the ultimate destination. Speaking thus, he set the mind of dharmarAja yudhishtra ready for listening to the thousand glorious names of the Lord, with the four slOkas beginning with ‘paramam ya:. Out of those, he replies to the second question “which is the ultimate destination?” in the first one and half slOkas.

‘thEja:’ – being effulgent by nature, and also which lights up the other objects. The boundless effulgence of the Lord is shown in the upanishadhic verses such as “having attained the form of supreme effulgence”, “The sun shines bright by using His effulgence” etc.

The words ‘mahath’ and ‘param’ respectively deny the presence of any other source of effulgence equalling or exceeding bhagavAn. This meaning of the words ‘mahath’ and ‘param’ should be remembered with every subsequent occurrence in the slOkas.

He is called ‘thapa:’ since he rules over everyone (ईष्टॆ सर्वस्य इति तपः). This is as shown in the various scriptural statements such as “The one who rules over the dhEvas”, “the one who is the Supreme to even the rulers”, “He is the Supreme ruler of all” etc.  He is called ‘brahma’ since He possesses ceaseless auspicious nature and qualities, and also since He is magnificent, omnipotent and nurturing everyone.

Removal of impurities upon contact with bhagavAn

Amongst the purities, He is the purest with none to equal or exceed. The word ‘pavithram’ connotes the origin of purity. The word ‘Sudhdhi’ or purification refers to the voidance of impurities. The impurities, here, refer to the transformations in the insentient entities (achEthanam) due to the contact with rajas and thamas. Amongst the sentient entities (chEthanam), impurities refer to the effects of such transformations,such as ignorance, offence unto the Supreme Entity, passion, hatred, etc. Since bhagavAn is totally against such inauspicious effects, He uproots all these impurities from the sentient and insentient entities Himself.

The scriptures declare thus:

“The individual soul is fully purified by the knowledge of the Supreme Soul”
“One should meditate upon the Supreme Lord nArAyaNa at all times such as while taking bath etc. The utterance of the divine names of the Lord are only prescribed by the vEdhas as the remedy for all bad deeds that one might have done in the past”                                                    “The one who knows me as free of births and eternal is freed from all his sins”

Only by contact with bhagavAn shall all entities gain purity

Even the other entities such as the holy rivers and shrines gain their sanctity only by getting in contact with bhagavAn.

“All of those entities (both sentient and insentient bound in this samsara) such as dhEvas and others are impure because they are all bound by karma.”

“All entities right from the highest four-faced brahma up to the lowest inanimate pillar are bound in this samsAra due to their karma.”

It is a well established fact that the purity of such demigods comes from their actions such as worship of the Supreme Lord, praising His divine qualities, partaking of the holy water that washed His lotus feet, and the like.

“gangA gains greatness due to the fact that the water actually originated from the left toe of vishNu”. Also, statements like “vishNu is called ‘apAmpathi’ because water is His abode” show the sanctity of inanimate objects such as water.

The entity called ‘time’ is sanctified by His incarnations and divine deeds such as His slumber (dhakshiNAyaNa), waking up (uththarAyaNa), the twelfth day of the moon (dhvAdhaSa), days when He was born in different incarnations (jayanthi), the divine star of vishNu (SravaNa) etc. All of these periods of time gain sanctity due to His association with them.The qualities of soul such as internal and external restraints and the like gain their sanctity due to their resulting in the knowledge about Him.The various rituals such as oblations, donations, penance, annual ceremonies etc gain their sanctity due to their nature of being limbs of worship of bhagavAn.

The classes of people such as brAhmaNas gain their sanctity due to their eligibility to study the vEdhas which speak about His glories. This is as per the scriptural statement that says “Having known the all pervading VishNu, the learner of vEdhas (vipra) attains the status of a scholar (viprathva) and sees the truth about the Supreme Entity”.

The vEdhas, smrithis and other scriptures supplementing them are all sanctified by their glorifying the Supreme Entity, and also expounding about His auspicious qualities, as illustrated in the statements “All the VEdhas speak about nArAyaNa”, “The vEdhas and smrithis are verily my commandments” etc.

The AraNya kaNda of mahAbhAratha, while talking about the places of pilgrimage, start with the phrase “the holy dhwarakA” and continues thus: “The incomprehensible Supreme Soul hari – the slayer of demon named madhu – resides in that place. That is verily the place of holiness; that is verily the Supreme abode; that is verily the holiest place of pilgrimage; that is verily the abode of highest penance.”

Having spoken about the sanctity of all holy places only due to the association with SrIman nArAyaNa, it is clearly iterated in th mahAbharatha thus: “The holiest of all entities is verily gOvindha Himself. He is the most virtuous among all virtuous entities”.

bhagavAn is more sought after than the lower auspicious entities 

bhagavAn is addressed as “the most auspicious among the auspicious entities” (mangalAnAm cha mangalam). For the same reason, He is also the Supreme Destination to be attained by all the individual souls – who have been released from the clutches of samsAra and thus are engaged in enjoying the eternal bliss of their true nature of self.

The original question reads “which is the Supreme Destination that an individual soul should attain?” (Question no. 2). In reply to this, bhishma says “whoever is the most sought after entity” (ya: parAyaNam). This usage of “whoever” is deliberately made to bring out the high popularity of bhagavAn being the Ultimate Destination for all among the scriptures. Thus, bhIshma says, “whoever is denoted by all the adjectives used till now, He alone is the Supreme Destination for all of us”.

दैवतं दॆवतानांश्च भूतानां यॊsव्ययः पिता ॥ १० ॥
यतः सर्वाणि भूतानि भवन्त्यादियुगागमॆ ।
यस्मिंश्च प्रलयं यान्ति पुनरॆव युगक्षयॆ ॥ ११ ॥

bhagavAn being the instrumental cause of creation, including the four faced brahma

Finally, in response to the first question about the One Supreme Entity prescribed in the scriptures, bhIshma replies from the second half of the previous SlOka, beginning with “dhaivatham”. He is verily the Supreme Godhead entity among demigods such as brahma, Siva,  indhra et al. (‘dhaivatham dhEvathAnAm’). How?

Since He is the caring and affectionate father of all such beings, right from dhEvas up to the most ignorant creatures in this creation (‘bhUthAnAm pithA’).

The prime difference between Him and the fathers that we have in our respective births in this creation is that He is eternal (‘avyaya:’). He never ceases to exist as an ever caring father in all our births. Since He is eternal, and referred by the name ‘sanAthana’ (existing from time immemorial), no one in this world is an orphan. Such fatherhood of the Supreme Entity is shown here, with the SlOkas beginning with ‘yatha: sarvANi’. ‘yatha:’ (by whom) – indicates that He is the instrumental cause of this creation.

‘sarvANi’ (all) – refers to absolutely everything right from the four faced brahma up to the lowest branch of a tree

‘bhUthAni bhavanthi’ – objects are born

‘adhiyugAgamE’ – When the lifetime of one four-faced brahma ends, bhagavAn creates another four faced brahma and continues with the creation process thereon. Also, to indicate that such type of creation – of even the four faced brahma – is not just at the beginning of one creation, but at the beginning of every such creation with several cycles of 71 chathuryugas (a cycle of four yugas namely krutha, thrEthA, dhvApara and kali, recurring 1000 times, makes one day of brahmA and 360 such days make one year of brahmA and 100 such years is the lifetime of brahmA), bhIshma has used the word ‘adhiyugAgamE’, indicating the beginning of every such cycle.

(to be continued…)

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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