Monthly Archives: September 2018

thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.1 – kaRpAr irAmapirAnai

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Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr says “Would those who analyse about priyam (aspects which give pleasure) and hitham (aspects which do good), learn about anyone other than the great benefactor SrI rAma, who, out of his own will, made the residents of SrI ayOdhyA feel happy/sad in his union/separation?”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kaRpAr irAma pirAnai allAl maRRum kaRparO?
puRpA mudhalAp pul eRumbAdhi onRinRiyE
naRpAl ayOththiyil vAzhum sarAsaram muRRavum
naRpAlukku uyththanan nAnmuganAr peRRa nAttuLE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pA – sprouted and spread
pul – grass
mudhalA – starting with
pul – very lowly
eRumbu – ant
Adhi – etc
naRpAl – the good place (where SrI rAma’s qualities are observed)
ayOththiyil – in SrI ayOdhyA
vAzhum – those who are living, with the joy of enjoying the qualities [of SrI rAma]
sarAsaram – in the form of chara (mobile) and achara (immobile)
muRRavum – all entities
nAnmuganAr peRRa – created by brahmA
nAttuLE – in the universe
onRu – any means to be uplifted
inRiyE – while not having
naRpAlukku – the apt land [paramapadham], which is a good place
uyththanan – placed;

(hence)
kaRpAr – those who desire to learn something which is priyam and hitham
irAman – chakravarthith thirumagan (the son of emperor dhaSaratha and who is too desirable, and who is embodiment of dharma)
pirAnai – great benefactor
allAl – other than
maRRum – any entity
kaRparO – will they learn?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Those who are living in the good place, in SrI ayOdhyA, with the joy of enjoying the qualities [of SrI rAma], all entities in the form of chara (mobile) and achara (immobile) created in the universe by brahmA, starting with the sprouted and spread out grass, very lowly ant etc, who were not having  any means to be uplifted, were all placed in the apt land, which is a good place, by SrI rAma; those who desire to learn something which is priyam and hitham, will they learn about any entity other than the great benefactor, chakravarthith thirumagan (SrI rAma)?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kaRpAr … – AzhwAr is considering that anything other than learning about SrI rAma, will not be counted as learning. Did the rishi not say in SrIvishNu purANam 6.5.84 “thath gyAnam agyAnam athOnyathuktham” (that is knowledge and everything else is ignorance)? The knowledge which helps one reach bhagavAn is knowledge; everything else is said to be ignorance only.
  • kaRpAr – One learns something because “it is pleasing at the time of learning” or “it will lead to something good in the future”; since it is said “irAma pirAnai” (SrI rAma, the benefactor), both the aspects are found here only and nowhere else. rAma indicates the beauty which will bind oneself fully to him without going anywhere; pirAn indicates how he makes chEthanas become exclusively existing for him manifesting that beauty and his magnanimity of presenting his beauty for the sake of others only as done by moon, southerly breeze, sandalwood and water. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.32 “priyavAdhIcha” – when perumAL (SrI rAma) mercifully speaks, one cannot do anything but listen to that; when heard, his words will only be sweet. When asked “for whom?”, it is said “bhUthAnAm” – for all creatures which have existence; one only needs to be different from insentient objects [i.e. one should simply be sentient]. When asked “would it be pleasing then but lead to something else?”, sathyavAdhIcha – whatever he says will not be anything other than for the well-being of everyone. If his one word is praised like this, it is obvious for the rest of his words. He captivated the entire kingdom to be as said in uththara rAmAyaNa SlOkam “rAmO rAmO rAma ithi” (Saying rAma, repeatedly). perumAL’s existence is the cause for the AthmA’s existence; rest of the aspects [of perumAL) are for the enjoyment of the AthmA. The pAsuram says “will those who are interested in priyam and hitham, seek anyone other than SrI rAma?” SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.29 “sAkshAth rAmAth vinirvruththO dharmaSchApi SriyAsaha:” (Only SrI rAma can make both righteousness and wealth combine truly) – the pAsuram says that SrI rAma is both the means and goal, being inseparable from each other.
  • kaRpAr irAma pirAnai – His goal is not to say kaRpAr (learners); his goal is to say that “others are not worthy to be learnt”. When it is done out of love, one will naturally learn about SrI rAma only; thus, one should simply avoid engaging in others. AzhwAr does not eliminate worshipping other dhEvathAs etc by saying “maRRu” (others), but is discriminating between the different forms of the worshippable lord. AzhwAr is not of the nature to eliminate the unworthy dhEvathAs, but is eliminating emperumAn’s parathvam (paramapadha nAthan) and other incarnations.
  • maRRum kaRparO – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam uththara kANdam 40.16 “bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi” (hanuman says – my mind will not focus on anyone else). [This SlOkam is explained in detail]
    • snEhO mE parama: – When SrI rAma was mercifully returning to paramapadham, he enquired hanuman “Would you follow me?”, hanuman replies “my love is not limited to that”. As said in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 100en than aLavanRAl yAnudaiya anbu” (my love is greater than me) and thiruvAimozhi 9.6.1 “uyirin param anRip perugumAl vEtkaiyum” (my love stretches beyond myself).
    • rAjamsthvayi – It was not acquired by myself. Grammar says “ranjchayathIthi rAjA”.
    • nithyam prathishtitha: – Since it is about holding on to emperumAn, it cannot be done as said in “I will hold on to one form now and another form later”.
    • bhakthiS cha niyathA – snEham is the state of dhaSaratha chakravarthi who gave up his life unable to bear the separation of perumAL; bhakthi is the state of iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) who surrendered properly when perumAL said “stop; remain here in ayOdhyA”, he said to him “kurushva” (you should accept me as your servitor and order).
    • vIra – You could have been victorious elsewhere with your valour, but cannot defeat me here. Since hanuman too is valorous, he is talking about the way SrI rAma won over him [by showing his valour].
    • bhAva: na anyathra gachchathi – Even if you take me along, you cannot redeem my heart. As said in thiruvAimozhi 1.7.8ennudaiya nal nenjam thannai agalvikkath thAnum killAn ini” (it will be impossible for himself to separate my heart which has become partial towards him), even the omnipotent emperumAn cannot redeem his heart.
    • anyathra na gachchathi – As said in amalanAdhipirAn 10 “kaNda kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE” (the eyes which have seen SrIrangAnAtha will not see anything else). anyathra implies, he does not even like to utter the name of the other forms. As said in siRiya thirumadalmaRRArAnum uNdenbAr” (ignorant ones say that there is a goal named mOksham), here AzhwAr is saying “maRRum kaRparO” .
  • kaRparO – Isn’t he [AzhwAr] a chEthana? He considers everyone to be himself; as those who say “how will the children of this town eat without rich/pure sugar as the side dish?” [A story is narrated in the arumpadham to explain this – once, a prince was tired and ended up in a house looking for food. The lady of the house offered him some rice. He asked for a side dish and the lady give him some salt/pickle. The prince at once wondered “How would children in this town eat without rich/pure sugar?”, considering everyone to be having a royal lifestyle like himself].

Further, the reason for learning about SrI rAma, giving up everything else, is explained.

  • pul pA mudhalA – pA indicates material, pul (grass) being that material; alternatively – pA indicates spreading out, implying well spread out grass. Being beyond the reach of the mouth of the cows. This implies wheat grass etc.
  • pul eRumbAdhi – Starting with the lowest of animals, ant. Ant is usually recited along with brahmA [to indicate highest and lowest forms of living beings]. AzhwAr is not highlighting any specific importance to grass, ant etc; he is saying that they were the ones to receive the attention of SrI rAma first; just as flood will flow into low-lying areas first. Lowest of plant life is grass; lowest of animal life is ant; since they are cited together here, it eliminates the principle of “gyAnam (knowledge) leads to mOksham”.  It also emphasises that having [evolved] consciousness or not, is irrelevant for perumAL’s compassion. It emphasises that the differences due to their karma are also irrelevant; with respect to the unconditional lord, one needs to have aprathishEdham (not stopping emperumAn from helping) only for the result to fructify. Looking at the state of SrI bharathAzhwAn, while the people were crying, the trees which were neck-deep in water, also withered as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.4 “apivrukshA: parimlAnA:” (Even the trees withered). SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.5 is explained; “upathapthOdhakA nadhya:” – there is no difference between the water and those who fall into the water. upathaptha means one cannot even reach the banks. “palvalAni sarAmsicha” – there is no difference between small and big entities. As said in “vanAni upavanAnicha” – forests and gardens [were drowned].
  • onRu inRiyE – Not saying everything [every creature]; since there is “muRRavum” subsequently which indicates all creatures. Now, “onRu inRiyE” implies that they do not have any sAdhana (means) which will lead them to the goal. When one observes the inferior nature of self and the superior nature of the result attained, one will realise that one has nothing in self. Looking at the [great] result that is achieved, one cannot claim anything in the self, whether one gets the result through parama bhakthi or bhagavAn. Now, when there is no means in anyone when emperumAn acknowledged everyone, he who gave the result, is the sAdhanam (means) [Even “dhESOyam sarvakAmadhuk” (residence in dhivyadhESam will grant all wishes), is only said for glorification]! He granted this great result to them just because they resided there without leaving.
  • naRpAl ayOththi – In SrI ayOdhyA which has good places. pAl – place. With this, it is implied that just being in this town, will bring bhakthi towards SrI rAma. It is said “dhESOyam sarvakAmadhuk” (residence in dhivyadhESam will grant all wishes). But it is said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 7.1 “gyAthi dhAsI yathO jAthA” (servant maid of relatives of kaikEyi, residing with her since birth). What is the explanation for that? [i.e. why was mantharA evil minded, even after being in ayOdhyA?] One who is born in this town will not have any enmity towards perumAL. As she was born elsewhere, she just remained an unknown person. udAli (one of the primary commentators for SrI rAmAyaNa) explained this as “yatha:kuthaSchijjAthA” (She was born somewhere). Not taking birth in this land of SrI ayOdhyA, has become the enemy for her. The divine abode itself can bring in all goodness. While the residents of this town (SrIrangam), eat, wear clothes, celebrate emperumAn, talk with each other and roam around [like everyone else], when there is a hurdle/danger for perumAL (emperumAn), they will consider their own bodies as that of the enemies, and even give them up. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam “rAgavArthE parAkrAnthA na prANE kuruthEdhayAm” (The army which has surrounded to support SrI rAma, does not have any love towards their own life), as the prANas (lives), due to having been together for so long, seek acknowledgement [from the soldiers], they said “when we should choose between the owner (SrI rAma) and you, would we choose you?” When SrI rAma says in uththara kANda 18.18 “prANAn parithyajya” (I will protect my devotees even at the cost of my own life), why would anyone see their own life?
  • ayOththiyil vAzhum – Instead of saying “varththikkum” (residing), AzhwAr has said “vAzhum” (living gloriously), since in ayOdhyA, there is no such difference [everyone lives gloriously there]; as said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 8.9 “vEngadaththaip padhiyAga vAzhvIrgAL” (live gloriously having thiruvEngadam as your abode) and nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 11.5 “nallArgaL vAzhum naLir arangam” (the SrIrangam where many noble people live gloriously). Since once residing in the apt abode itself is redemption, AzhwAr is saying “ayOththiyil vAzhum“. The eternally apt emperumAn is having his presence here always. Our experience happens once in a while due to our connection with achith (body); due to the same emperumAn [who is present in paramapadham], being present here, there is no shortcoming in the divine abode.
  • naRpAlukku uyththanan – He changed them to have noble qualities. That is making them feeling happy/sad based on union/separation. If joy/sorrow occurs based on one’s karma, it is limited. But as they occurred by his grace, it leads to goodness for everyone. For SrI rAma who could liberate one from the bondage here and grant him the supreme bliss in paramapadham as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 68.80 “mayAthvam samanugyAthO gachcha lOkAn anuththamAn” (Being ordained by me, you shall reach the supreme abode), it is not difficult to instill such quality of being unable to sustain in his absence.
  • nAnmuganAr peRRa nAttuLE – naRpAlukkuyththanan – When an emperor makes one of his confidantes as a king for a small kingdom, he will ensure that his own orders and independent desires will be implemented in the kingdom. Similarly, in this materialistic realm which is under the control of four-headed brahmA who is the chief for the samsAri chEthanas (materialistic people), emperumAn eliminated brahmA’s independence, and reformed the dependence of the residents of ayOdhyA on their karma, by manifesting his qualities, and made them survive when they have him and feel sad in his absence. This being the case, would one learn anything other than SrI rAma?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 77 – thaRpennai

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says “Let emperumAn’s sankalpa, the words and their meanings etc remain. After seeing how he showered his distinguished grace on me, who is the epitome of all the faults, how can I praise the human beings with my tongue?”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thaRpennaith thAnaRIyAnElum thadangadalaik
kaRkoNdu thUrththa kadal vaNNan eRkoNda
vevvinaiyum nInga vilangA manam vaiththAn
evvinaiyum mAyumAl kaNdu

Word for Word Meanings

thadam kaladai – expansive ocean
kal koNdu – with mountains
thUrththa – one who built a dam and blocked it
kadal vaNNan thAn – emperumAn who has a dark complexion similar to the ocean
ennai – me (who is the epitome of all faults)
thaRpu – real nature
aRiyAnElum – even if (he is) not aware of
en koNda – having stolen me
vevvinaiyum – all the cruel sins
nInga – to leave
kaNdu – thinking with his heart
manam – his divine mind
vilangA – not going elsewhere
vaiththAn – mercifully kept (in a focussed way)

(Hence)
evvinaiyum – all those which are known as sins
mAyum – will be destroyed
Al – how wonderful

vyAkyAnam

thaRpennaith thAnaRIyAnElum – even if he did not know me, as I am [ i.e. my true nature]. This AzhwAr has said of himself in thiruchchandha viruththam 90 “kulangaLAya IriraNdil onRilum piRandhilEn, nalangalAya naRkalaigaL nAlilum navinRilEn pulangaLaindhum venRilEn poRiyilEn” (I am not born in any of the four varNas (classification of society based on qualities and activities), I have not learnt any of the four vEdhas which show correct path to all, I have not won over the five senses and I am trapped in worldly pursuits such as Sabdham (sound) etc ).  Even if emperumAn does not know that I have such faults…..

thAnaRiyAnElum – Just as mentioned in “yassarvagya: sarvavith” even if he, who is the omniscient, does not know my faults. ennaith thAnaRIyAnElum – Instead of saying ‘my faults’ why is AzhwAr saying ‘me’? Since AzhwAr feels that he is the epitome of all faults, he says ‘me’ instead of ‘my faults’. aRiyAnElum – has it not been mentioned “avigyAtha hi bhakthAnAm Agassu kamalEkshaNa:” (when it comes to the faults of his devotees, the lotus-eyed (emperumAn) remains ignorant)?

thadangadalaik kaRkoNdu thUrththa kadal vaNNan – he built a dam in the huge ocean with stones; he has dark and cool form, just like the ocean; he has qualities such as profundity etc similar to the ocean. He built a dam across the ocean with stones which would normally sink in the ocean, and achieved a feat which no one else can, in line with his quality of having agadithagatanA skill (achieving the impossible).

AzhwAr says that emperumAn achieved such feats not only for pirAtti (sIthAppirAtti, for rescuing whom he built the dam) but also for me . . . .

eRkoNda vevvinaiyum nIngak kaNdu – when I was fully transformed like an insentient entity being enveloped by all the sins, he graced me such that all the sins ran helter skelter, just as mercifully mentioned by nammAzhwAr in periya thiruvandhAdhi “vAnO maRi kadalO mArudhamO thIyagamO kAnO orungiRRum kaNdilamAl” (How strange! After attaining emperumAn, we have not seen where the sins covering us went. Did they disappear in the sky or in the ocean or in the wind or in fire or in the forest?) vevvinai – cruel sins; some people split this as ev vinay – all the sins.

vilangA manam kaNdu vaiththAn – he kept me in his mind through his sankalpa (divine will) and did not look at anything else. Just as nammAzhwAr has mercifully mentioned in periya thiruvandhAdhi 68 “kallum kanaikadalum vaigundha vAnAdum pullenRozhindhana” and periyAzhwAr in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5-4-9 “panikkadalil paLLigOLaip pazhagavittu Odivandhu emperumAn left everything else and thought only of me.

aRiyAnElum – manam vaiththAn – even if emperumAn did not know my faults, he kept his mind on me. One who did not know, started knowing. One, who did not know my faults, multiplied my qualities ten times or hundred times and started engaging with me. One who is avigyAthA (one who does not know faults) became sahasrAmsu (knowing (qualities) thousand times) [from SrI vishNu sahasranAmam].

eEvvinaiyum mAyumAl – once he keeps his mind on me, is there any way by which the sins will not be destroyed? Thus, all sins such as bhagavathapachAram (disrespectful acts towards emperumAn), bhAgavathapachAram (disrespetful acts against emperumAn’s followers) and asahyApachAram (disrespectful acts against anyone without any reason) will get destroyed. The pathos behind this is that this is the agadithagatanA (doing the impossible) act carried out by emperumAn towards me.

We will take up the 78th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.5 – kaRpAr

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<< Previous decad

Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth decad – previously AzhwAr meditated upon the great power of sarvESvaran who has many victories, and determined that he is the only one capable of eliminating the hurdles; to reveal the principle “there is no protector other than him”, and highlights the following aspects:

  1. his ability to grant the ultimate results, just with his own will
  2. his protection, along with eliminating the hurdles
  3. his liberation of SiSupAla
  4. his engagement in creation
  5. the history of SrI varAha
  6. his ability to be the seeker for the sake of his followers
  7. his protection of mArkaNdEya
  8. his killing of hiraNya as a favour for his followers
  9. his eliminating of the enemies of pANdavas
  10. his eliminating of samsAra (bondage)

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr says that it is agreeable to all that emperumAn with such qualities and having distinguished incarnations which reveal his ultimate simplicity, is the only refuge for one’s removal of unfavourable aspects and attaining of favourable aspects.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decad, AzhwAr enjoyed emperumAn’s victories; these are for the sake of the followers. AzhwAr becomes amused thinking “while emperumAn is presenting himself for the people [of this world], these people are still attached to other matters”. As said in yajur brAhmaNam 3.7 “yasyAsmi na thamantharEmi” (For whomsoever I am a servitor, I will not leave him and go to anyone else), the one whose presence sustains everyone, he presents himself to everyone starting from the time of his birth. Meditating upon emperumAn incarnating in many births for the protection of everyone, his act of placing his svarUpa (true nature), rUpa (form), guNa (qualities) etc for the sake of others, his being the embodiment of the compassion which is the cause for aforementioned aspects, and the acts resulting out of that compassion, AzhwAr becomes amused at  these samsAris (materialistic people) who, while having this great treasure (emperumAn), are seeking worldly wealth similar to what is said in “apavarakE hiraNya nidhim nidhAya upari sancharanthO yathA na dhrakshayanthi“; while there is treasure buried underneath the centre of the home, walking over it several times to acquire knee pain, without knowing the presence of such treasure.

It was said that, kUraththAzhwAn, once explained this whole decad in the context of SrI rAmAvathAram. The reason for that is, as said in “one among thousand” and “a small pit in the ocean”, each avathAram has a few qualities from the many wonderful qualities of perumAL (SrI rAma). After meditating upon SrI rAma’s life as said in thiruvAimozhi 7.3.7pEr eyil sUzh kadal then ilangai seRRa pirAn” and thiruvAimozhi 7.4.7mARu niraiththu iraikkum sarangaL“, which were previously mentioned, through this, other avathArams of emperumAn are thought about. Even those who are immersed in other avathArams, will praise SrI rAma as in thiruppAvai 12manaththukku iniyAnai” (one who is pleasing to the mind), when they incidentally think about him.

siRiyAththAn knowing well “bhattar is partial towards SrI rAmAvathAram”, and desiring to find out how bhattar would mercifully clarify his doubt, asked bhattar “While perumAL has all good qualities, he does not have the nIrmai (saulabhyam, being easily approachable) of krishNa who went as a messenger with the message tied to his neck when the pANdavas said ‘you go as a messenger on our behalf “; bhattar mercifully explained “it is not like that; he did not go as a messenger since no one requested him to do so [had anyone asked him to do that, he would have done that too]”. There was no other emperor [superior to SrI rAma, at that time]. Since he was born in the dynasty of emperors, there was no one who could ask him to do that. One who could give up his throne and walk to the forest with matted hair, would not have refused to be a messenger too. Now, siRiyAththAn asks again “One may go to the forest; but isn’t it more difficult to enter the assembly of dhuryOdhana?” mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 95 ‘yathra sUktham dhuktham vA samam syAn madhusUdhana’ (vidhura says – Oh madhusUdhana! Where good words and bad words have no difference, learned person will not speak there).  He entered the assembly of dhuryOdhana which did not understand the difference between krishNa’s firm statement “you should at least give five towns to pANdavas” and dhuryOdhana’s reply “I will not give them even the land required to place a small pin”. bhattar says – As SrI rAma realised the greatness of thiruvadi (hanuman) for going as a messenger, he himself went as a messenger in krishNAvathAram as said in periya thirumozhi 2.2.3 “pinnOr thUdhu Adhi mannarkkAgip peru nilaththAr innAr thUdhan ena ninRAn” (SrI rAma, subsequently in krishNAvathAram, went as a messenger for the pANdavas, to be wondered by the people of the world “emperumAn has lowered himself to be called as the messenger for pANdavas”).

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 76 – pAttum muRaiyum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked “What is the reason for your not singing about others?” He responds saying that all the words and their meanings in the world have been created due to emperumAn’s sankalpa (will), implying that only emperumAn has the greatness to be sung about.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

pAttum muRaiyum padu kadhaiyum palporuLum
Ittiya thIyum iruvisumbum kEtta
manuvum surudhi maRai nAngum mAyan
thanamAyaiyil pattadhaRpu

Word for Word Meanings

pAttum muRaiyum – musical and prosaic
padu kadhaiyum – ithihAsas (epics) which came about to describe the old narrations
pal poruLum – purANas which describe many meanings
Ittiya thIyum – agni (fire) which was created to have all five elements within it due to panchIkaraNam (homogenisation of the five elements)
iru visumbum – expansive sky (thus the five elements)
kEtta manuvum – manu smruthi which is spoken of in vEdhas too
surudhi – the method of learning through uchchAraNa and anuchchAraNa (teacher saying once and disciples repeating the same three times)
maRai nAngum – the four vEdhas

(thus, all these)
mAyan than – one who has amazing power, that emperumAn’s
mAyaiyil patta – through his sankalpa (will)
dhaRpu – have existence

vyAkyAnam

pAttum muRaiyum padu kadhaiyum pal poruLum – vyAkyAthA periyavAchchAn piLLai’s opinion is that these four words denote the meanings which are spoken of extensively in purANas (ancient narratives which would appear new each time they are read). According to SrI vishNu purANam 6-8-13 these are “sargaScha prathisargaScha vamSam manvantharANi cha I vamSanucharitham kruthsnam mayAthra thava kIrthitham II” (creation, annihilation, lineage, period of manu and narratives of lineages were narrated by me to you).

pAttum – starting from kings and going up to sarvESvara, the songs which were sung about the greatness of each. Don’t purANas sing extensively about celestial entities, pithrus (forefathers), kings as mentioned in mAthsya purANam “agnE: Sivasya mahAthmyam”?

muRaiyum – the order of lineages and manvantharam (manu’s period). parASara bhagavAn called this “vamSamanvantharANi cha” (lineage and manvantharam).

padu kadhaiyumsrushti (creation), pralayam (annihilation), history of lineages which happened earlier. parASara maharishi called this “sargaScha prathisargaScha vamSAnucharitham kruthsnam”.

palporuLum – apart from these, various other meanings which are explained in purANas regarding activities based on varNa (four classifications based on qualities and profession) and ASrama (status in societal life), determination of terrestrial movement etc.

This is the interpretation of periyavAchchAn piLLai. The interpretation of appiLLai is:

pAttum muRaiyum – prose and proper music which sings about prose.

padu kadhaiyum – ithihAsas (epics) which talk about old narratives describing how they happened.

pal poruLum – various meanings described by purANas starting with sargaScha prathisargaScha.

Ittiya thIyum – agni (fire) which was created in order to exhibit the other elements (ether, water, wind and earth) through the method of panchIkaraNam (homogenisation). Homogenisation is the method by which emperumAn split each of the elements into eight parts, retaining four parts in the mother element and mixing each of the other four parts with each of the other four elements.

iru visumbum – sky (ether) which is bigger than the other four elements since it pervades them. Mentioning about these two elements (agni (fire) and AkASam (sky)) is representative of the other three elements and the materials which are resultant from them.

In periyavAchchAn piLLai’s interpretation, all these are vAchyam (meanings of words) and what follow are the vAchagams (words). In appiLLai’s interpretation, Ittiya thIyum iruvisumbum alone is meaning of words. Those which precede and succeed this are words.

kEtta manuvum . . . .dhaRpu – Just as mentioned in thaiththirIya samhithai 2-2 “yadhyai kincha manuavadhath thath bhEshajam” (whatever has been mentioned by manu is medicine), manusmruthi which has been quoted in vEdhas, and the four vEdhas themselves which have been taught by AchArya (teacher) and heard by Sishya (due to which they are called as Sruthi) have the nature of total truth since they have been created by the AScharya bhUtha (amazing entity, emperumAn) through his sankalpa (will). This implies that the connection between a word and its meaning has been created by emperumAn’s sankalpa.

mAyai – this refers to the knowledge through sankalpa (will) as brought out by Arsha nigaNdu (lexicon) saying “mAyA vayunam gyAnam” kaNNa (krishNa) also mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 4-6Athma mAyayA sambhavAmi” (I am born out of my will). dhaRputhathvam; truth.

We will take up the 77th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandthAdhi – 75 – nAkkoNdu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr asks whether he, who would not praise brahmA, rudhra et al who have abundant knowledge and power, will praise lowly human beings.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

nAkkoNdu mAnidam pAdEn nalamAgath
thIkkoNda senjadaiyAn senRu enRum pUkkoNdu
vallavAREththa  magizhAdha vaigundhach
chelvanAr sEvadimEl pAttu

Word for Word Meanings

thIkkoNda sem sadaiyAn – rudhra who has reddish matted hair which looks like fire
nalam Aga – aptly
enRum – every day
pU koNdu – carrying flowers
senRu – (himself) going
valla Aru – within his power
Eththa – praise
magizhAdha – not feeling happy (considering it as something great for him)
vaigundham selvanAr – SrI vaikuNta nAtha’s
sE adi mEl pAttu – (with) the pAsurams which are fit for his divine feet
nAkkoNdu – with the tongue
mAnidam – human beings
pAdEn – I will not sing

vyAkyAnam

nAkkoNdu mAnidam pAdEn – Just as it is said “sA jihvA yA harim sthauthi” (only that which praises emperumAn is tongue), I will not sing about lowly human beings with the tongue which is to be used only for singing about emperumAn.

AzhwAr was asked “Then, who will you sing?” He responds “I will sing about him who is praised by rudhra, who, you people think highly of”

thIkkoNda senjadaiyAn – one who has reddish matted hair which has agni, that irritates the eyes, in it.  Alternatively, just as poygai AzhwAr had mentioned in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 97anaRku angai ERRAn” (held his beautiful hands for fire), one who has fire in his hands and reddish matted hair.

senRu enRUm – since it is ordained, going himself

pUkkoNdu vallavARu  enRum Eththa – taking soft flower, water, lamp, dhUpam (fragrant smoke) etc,  which are the implements for carrying out thiruvArAdhanam (divine worship), appropriate for the soft divine form of emperumAn. Worshipping emperumAn every day, utilising the knowledge and power that he (rudhra) has, to the extent that he can. Mentioning flower is representative of other materials required for carrying out worhip.

enRum nalamAga Eththa – praising emperumAn appropriate to his greatness, at all times.

vallavARu Eththa – however much one praises him, it (the act of praising) can never be considered to have been completed. Hence, praising (worshipping) him to the extent that one can. mahAbhAratham karNa parvam 83-65 says “varshAyuthair yasya guNA na SakyA vakthum samEthairapi sarvalOkai: ” (whose qualities cannot be spoken of even if (people in) all the worlds get together and speak for ten thousand years….); nammAzhwAr in his thiruvAimozhi 4-3-10 mercifully says “yAnum Eththi Ezhulagum muRRumEththip pinnaiyum thAnumEththilum thannai Eththa Eththa engeydum ” (even  after I (who had been given knowledge through emperumAn’s grace) praise him, even after all the (people in the) seven worlds praise him, even after he himself praises him, is it possible to complete praising him?) emperumAn is of the kind where it is not possible to complete praising him.

Eththa magizhAdha – There is scope for emperumAn becoming happy only if he considers it great being praised by these people. In truth, the praising of such people creates only faults for him, as mentioned by nammAzhwAr in periya thiruvandhAdhi 2 “pugazhvOm pazhippOm” (if we, who do not have any knowledge, attempt to praise you, it will end up as a fault only) and in thiruvAimozhi 3-1-7kEzhththa sIr araN mudhalAk kiLar dheyvamAyk kiLarndhu sUzhththamarargaL thudhiththAl un thol pugazh mAsUNAdhE ” (if entities such as rudhra et al attempt to praise all your qualities by taking on their roles as small deities, each taking one aspect to praise you, will that not end up as faulting you?)

What is the reason for emperumAn not being happy despite a superior entity such as rudhra praising him?

vaigundhach chelvanAr – since he is the lord of all the opulence in SrIvaikuNtam, such praises by dhEvas (celestial entities) will not bring about any change in his stature.

magizhAdha vaigundhach chelvanAr – did not vEdham also say as in thaiththirIya upanishath nArAyaNavalli 10-20 “vruksha iva sthabdhO dhivi thishtathyEka” (emperumAn remains as incomparable in paramapadham, without any change, like a tree)?

magizhAdha vaigundhach chelvanAr – emperumAn does not feel happy when entities such as rudhra et al praise him as these entities, when qualities of rajas and thamas (passion and ignorance) are prominent, gear up to fight with him. He is happy being praised with deep affection, by nithyas (nithyasUris, the permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam) and mukthAthmAs (those who have been liberated from samsAram and have attained SrIvaikuNtam)) in SrIvaikuNtam.

selvanAr sEvadimEl pAttu – with the pAsurams which have been sung on the divine feet of emperumAn who is the wealth of pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi), I will not praise the lowly human beings, says AzhwAr.

We will move on to the 76th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.4.11 – kunRam eduththa

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Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Those who learn with their hearts this decad,  which enlists emperumAn’s victories, will be granted victories by this decad itself”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kunRam eduththa pirAn adiyArodum
onRi ninRa satakOpan urai seyal
nanRi punaindha Or AyiraththuL ivai
venRi tharum paththum mEvik kaRpArkkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kunRam eduththa – one who lifted gOvardhana
pirAn – for krishNa, the great benefactor
adiyArodum – bhAgavathas who are distinguished servitors
onRi – united
ninRa – having the nature
satakOpan – AzhwAr’s
urai seyal – the act through speech
Or – unique
AyiraththuL – among the thousand pAsurams
nanRi – the goodness of revealing the victories of sarvESvaran
punaindha – having
ivai paththum – this decad
mEvi – with the meanings
kaRpArkku – those who practice
venRi – victory in every aspect
tharum – will grant.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

AzhwAr remained united with and having the same nature as the bhAgavathas who are distinguished servitors for krishNa, the great benefactor, who lifted gOvardhana; those who practice with the meanings, such AzhwAr’s this decad among the thousand pAsurams, which is having the goodness of revealing the victories of sarvESvaran, will be granted victory in every aspect, by this decad itself.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kunRam eduththa … – AzhwAr becoming pleased being together with the bhAgavathas who are engaged in emperumAn’s quality of lifting up the gOvardhana hill, and the beauty at that time, recited this pAsuram as an outlet for that joy.
  • nanRi punaindha Or Ayiram – The thousand pAsurams which classified sarvESvaran’s parathvam (supremacy) and saulabhyam (simplicity). nanmai (goodness) means telling the samsAri (materialistic person) that emperumAn is the sarvESvaran, he is easily approachable by all and he is the refuge for all; this is what has been mercifully explained by AzhwAr from the first decad. This decad which enlists the victories of sarvESvaran.
  • mEvik kaRpArkku – venRi tharum – This decad will grant victories to those who learn this with great attachment. For aiSvaryArthi (those who seek wealth), it will eliminate the hurdles for acquiring wealth; for kaivalyArthi (the one who seeks self-enjoyment), it will eliminate the hurdles [in that pursuit]; for bhagavath charaNArthi (those who seek bhagavAn’s divine feet) – for upAsanka (one who pursues karma, gyAna or bhakthi yOgam), it will grant control over senses; for prapanna, it will grant victory over hurdles in performing kainkaryam.

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 74 – padhippagaigyarkku

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr mentioned about charama SlOka vaibhavam (glory of charama SlOkam). In this pAsuram, through an incident relating to vainathEya (garuda) as mentioned in mahAbhAratham, he says that sarvESvara (lord of all) will carry out the SaraNAgatha rakshaNam (protection of the surrendered) somehow or the other.

The vainathEya vrudhdhAntham (incident of garuda) has been explained in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 103-105, as mentioned below:

mAdhali, the charioteer of indhra (head of celestial entities and the lord of three worlds bhU:, bhuva: and suva:) was looking for a suitable alliance for his daughter guNakESi. He went along with nAradha muni (son of brahmA) to many places looking for suitors and finally desiring to select a snake sumukha in pAthAla lOkam (nether world), asked sumukha’s grandfather Aryaka. Aryaka confided in mAdhali that garuda has already killed sumukha’s father and has vowed to kill and eat sumukha within one month.  Undeterred by this, mAdhali went to indhra who was with upEndhra (emperumAn in the divine form of vAmana) and briefed him about this. upEndhra bhagavAn told indhra that sumukha could be given nectar (elixir). However, indhra, fearing the valour of garuda, granted sumukha long life, as a boon. Immediately, mAdhali gave his daughter in marriage to sumukha. On hearing this, garuda went to indhra who was with upEndhra and spoke ruthlessly to indhra for having assisted his prey, preventing him from having his prey. sumukha, in the form of snake, coiled himself around upEndhra’s seat [as an act of surrendering]. Looking at this, garuda told bhagavAn “despite my being your vehicle and your flag, is this the way you repay? Think whether I, who am bearing you, am more powerful or you”. emperumAn looking at garuda, said, “enough of your trumpeting. Don’t speak, ignorant of the fact that I bear you and all the worlds. See if you can bear my thumb alone” and pressed his thumb on garuda. Unable to bear the weight, garuda fell down. He then paid obeisance to emperumAn and asked for forgivance. emperumAn removed sumukha with his big toe, put him on garuda’s shouder and told him to protect him as his refuge. From then onwards, the two became good friends. This is the incident narrated in mahAbhAratham. This incident has been spoken of by poygai AzhwAr in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 80aduththa kadum pagaigyarkku” and by thirumangai AzhwAr in periya thirumozhi 5-8-4 “nanju sEravdhOr”.

Hasn’t sarvESvaran (lord of all) mercifully stated in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-33 “abhayam sarva bhUthEbhyO dhadhAmi” (I give to one, who surrenders to me, protection from all). This pAsuram describes the way he gave refuge to sumukha who surrendered to him, from garuda who is principal among his followers. Since both are his followers, emperumAn followed a distinguished way in protecting one from the other. In case he had not given protection to sumukha, his words in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-3 “mithrabhAvEna samprAptham na thyajEyam kathanchana I dhOshO yathyapi thasya syAth sathAmEthadhagarhitham II” (Even if a person comes in the garb of a friend, I will never forego him. If he has faults, it is very good. This is not something to be ridiculed by good persons) would have been proved false. Even though he has been decreed as prey for garuda, since sumukha was desirous of living, he had committed fault against garuda. If emperumAn had taken sumukha on himself and protected him, then his saying in varAha purANam “madh bhaktham Svapacham vApi nindhAm kurvanthi yE narA: I padhmakOti SathEnApi na kshamAi kadhAchana II” (even if my devotee is a lowly person who eats dog’s meat, if anyone commits an offence against him, I will not forgive him for hundreds of crores of kalpams (a lengthy period of time)) would have been proved false. Thus, without any falsehood occurring for either of these two sayings, emperumAn gave the responsibility of protecting sumukha to garuda himself.

There could be a doubt as to whether garuda, a nithyasUri (permanent dweller of SrIvaikuNtam), would kill and eat snakes and whether he would argue with emperumAn. When emperumAn took the incarnation of upEndhra as the son of athithi and kasyapa, and as the younger brother of indhra, garuda too incarnated as son of vinathA, as a bird, and stood as the vehicle for emperumAn. Since he incarnated as a bird, in line with that nature, killing and eating snakes is justified for him. Arguing with emperumAn and being shown his place was intended to tell the world as to what happens when one carries out bhagavathapachAram (misdeed against emperumAn) and to manifest emperumAn’s greatness.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

padhippagaigyarkku ARRAdhu pAythirai nIrppAzhi
madhiththadaindha vALaravam thannai madhiththavanthan
vallAgath thERRiya mAmEni mAyavanai
allAdhonRu EththAdhennA

Word for Word Meanings

padhi pagaigyarkku ARRAdhu – fearful of periya thiruvadi (garuda) , who has been  enemy from the beginning.
pAy thiRai niRp pAzhi – the divine bed which is like ocean having water with expansive waves.
madhiththu – believing (emperumAn) as refuge
adaindha – coming and attaining
vAL aravam thannai – sumukha, the resplendent snake
madhiththu – supporting
avan than – that (inimical) garuda
val Agaththu ERRiya – one who made him climb the powerful form of garuda
mAmEni mAyavanai allAdhu – apart from sarvESvaran (lord of all) who has a great, auspicious divine form
onRu – another
en nA – my tongue
EththAdhu – will not praise

vyAkyAnam

padhippagaigyarkku – the word pathin refers to lineage; hence this word refers to the enmity (between garuda and sumukha) for generations together. In other words, an enemy for the clan. Just as it is mentioned in thiruchchandha viruththam “puLLin meyppagai” (the real enemy of birds), is it not the natural enmity which exists between snake and garuda?

ARRAdhu – fearful of garuda’s might

pAythirai nIrppAzhi – the divine mattress which is like the ocean containing water with expansive waves. Since in mahAbhAratham it is mentioned that sumukha coiled around emperumAn’s cot, it is assumed as the mattress. Alternatively, since this incident could have happened after kalpam, it could be construed that this narrative had taken place in thiruppARkadal.

madhiththadaindha – ascertaining and attaining emperumAn who would protect the person who has surrendered just then, leaving aside even nithyasUris such as garuda, AdhiSEsha et al, just like a cow would protect the calf that it has given birth to on that day, and would drive away the calf which it had given birth to in the previous year with its horn and hoofs.

vAL aravam thannai – sumukha, the resplendent snake. Even in its state of being fearful of garuda, it was emitting radiance. It was having the radiance since it was confident after seeing emperumAn’s auspicious qualities of sauseelyam, saulabhyam (simplicity, easy to approach) etc, even before emperumAn approved of it, thinking “my task will fructify”. Did not vAlmIki say that vibhIshaNa looked radiant after ascertaining that SrI rAma will never reject him, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 16-17 “antharikshagatha: SrImAn” (vibhIshaNAzhwAn who set out in the sky and was resplendent)?

madhiththu – emperumAn decided that he would protect sumukha through garuda, who is sumukha’s enemy. Thinking of him, despite being lowly, as an entity. Thinking of sumukha as one who was surrendering, the moment he coiled around the cot. Hasn’t thirumangai AzhwAr too mercifully stated in his periya thirumozhi 5-8-4 “nanju sErvadhOr venjiinaravam veruvidandhu nin SaraN enach charaNAy nenjiRkoNdu nin anjiRaippaRavaikku adaikkalam koduththu aruL seydhadhu aRindhu ” (knowing your ability when the snake (sumukha) which spits poison and which was angry, became terrified of garuda and surrendered to you and you became its protector and, keeping in your mind its sorrowful state and his words, you gave that snake as garuda’s entity for protecting him)

avan vallAgaththu ERRiya – making garuda to joyously don the snake sumukha like a garland on his powerful shouders so that sumukha could live without fear of anyone.

mAmEni – emperumAn’s divine form overflowed with joy since the activity for his follower was completed successfully. This was similar to how SrI rAma had felt on coronating vibhIshaNa prior to waging war with rAvaNa, as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNa yudhdha kANdam “abhishichya cha lankAyAm rAkshasEndhram vibhIshaNam I kruthakruthyas thadhA rAmO vijvara: pramOdha ha II” (SrI rAma, on completing the coronation of vibhIshaNa as the king of demons in lankA, felt relieved of his fever, and was joyous that his task has been completed).

mAyavanai – one who is with amazing qualities and amazing divine form

allAdhu onRu EththAdhu en nA – my tongue will not praise anyone other than emperumAn; it will  not praise minor deities like rudhra who ran away, leaving his follower stranded , as in bANAsura war. Since AzhwAr does not consider other deities as important at all, he calls them as onRu [one, someone etc].

We will go on to the 75th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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