Daily Archives: September 3, 2018

thiruvAimozhi – 7.5 – kaRpAr

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth decad – previously AzhwAr meditated upon the great power of sarvESvaran who has many victories, and determined that he is the only one capable of eliminating the hurdles; to reveal the principle “there is no protector other than him”, and highlights the following aspects:

  1. his ability to grant the ultimate results, just with his own will
  2. his protection, along with eliminating the hurdles
  3. his liberation of SiSupAla
  4. his engagement in creation
  5. the history of SrI varAha
  6. his ability to be the seeker for the sake of his followers
  7. his protection of mArkaNdEya
  8. his killing of hiraNya as a favour for his followers
  9. his eliminating of the enemies of pANdavas
  10. his eliminating of samsAra (bondage)

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr says that it is agreeable to all that emperumAn with such qualities and having distinguished incarnations which reveal his ultimate simplicity, is the only refuge for one’s removal of unfavourable aspects and attaining of favourable aspects.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decad, AzhwAr enjoyed emperumAn’s victories; these are for the sake of the followers. AzhwAr becomes amused thinking “while emperumAn is presenting himself for the people [of this world], these people are still attached to other matters”. As said in yajur brAhmaNam 3.7 “yasyAsmi na thamantharEmi” (For whomsoever I am a servitor, I will not leave him and go to anyone else), the one whose presence sustains everyone, he presents himself to everyone starting from the time of his birth. Meditating upon emperumAn incarnating in many births for the protection of everyone, his act of placing his svarUpa (true nature), rUpa (form), guNa (qualities) etc for the sake of others, his being the embodiment of the compassion which is the cause for aforementioned aspects, and the acts resulting out of that compassion, AzhwAr becomes amused at  these samsAris (materialistic people) who, while having this great treasure (emperumAn), are seeking worldly wealth similar to what is said in “apavarakE hiraNya nidhim nidhAya upari sancharanthO yathA na dhrakshayanthi“; while there is treasure buried underneath the centre of the home, walking over it several times to acquire knee pain, without knowing the presence of such treasure.

It was said that, kUraththAzhwAn, once explained this whole decad in the context of SrI rAmAvathAram. The reason for that is, as said in “one among thousand” and “a small pit in the ocean”, each avathAram has a few qualities from the many wonderful qualities of perumAL (SrI rAma). After meditating upon SrI rAma’s life as said in thiruvAimozhi 7.3.7pEr eyil sUzh kadal then ilangai seRRa pirAn” and thiruvAimozhi 7.4.7mARu niraiththu iraikkum sarangaL“, which were previously mentioned, through this, other avathArams of emperumAn are thought about. Even those who are immersed in other avathArams, will praise SrI rAma as in thiruppAvai 12manaththukku iniyAnai” (one who is pleasing to the mind), when they incidentally think about him.

siRiyAththAn knowing well “bhattar is partial towards SrI rAmAvathAram”, and desiring to find out how bhattar would mercifully clarify his doubt, asked bhattar “While perumAL has all good qualities, he does not have the nIrmai (saulabhyam, being easily approachable) of krishNa who went as a messenger with the message tied to his neck when the pANdavas said ‘you go as a messenger on our behalf “; bhattar mercifully explained “it is not like that; he did not go as a messenger since no one requested him to do so [had anyone asked him to do that, he would have done that too]”. There was no other emperor [superior to SrI rAma, at that time]. Since he was born in the dynasty of emperors, there was no one who could ask him to do that. One who could give up his throne and walk to the forest with matted hair, would not have refused to be a messenger too. Now, siRiyAththAn asks again “One may go to the forest; but isn’t it more difficult to enter the assembly of dhuryOdhana?” mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 95 ‘yathra sUktham dhuktham vA samam syAn madhusUdhana’ (vidhura says – Oh madhusUdhana! Where good words and bad words have no difference, learned person will not speak there).  He entered the assembly of dhuryOdhana which did not understand the difference between krishNa’s firm statement “you should at least give five towns to pANdavas” and dhuryOdhana’s reply “I will not give them even the land required to place a small pin”. bhattar says – As SrI rAma realised the greatness of thiruvadi (hanuman) for going as a messenger, he himself went as a messenger in krishNAvathAram as said in periya thirumozhi 2.2.3 “pinnOr thUdhu Adhi mannarkkAgip peru nilaththAr innAr thUdhan ena ninRAn” (SrI rAma, subsequently in krishNAvathAram, went as a messenger for the pANdavas, to be wondered by the people of the world “emperumAn has lowered himself to be called as the messenger for pANdavas”).

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 76 – pAttum muRaiyum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked “What is the reason for your not singing about others?” He responds saying that all the words and their meanings in the world have been created due to emperumAn’s sankalpa (will), implying that only emperumAn has the greatness to be sung about.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

pAttum muRaiyum padu kadhaiyum palporuLum
Ittiya thIyum iruvisumbum kEtta
manuvum surudhi maRai nAngum mAyan
thanamAyaiyil pattadhaRpu

Word for Word Meanings

pAttum muRaiyum – musical and prosaic
padu kadhaiyum – ithihAsas (epics) which came about to describe the old narrations
pal poruLum – purANas which describe many meanings
Ittiya thIyum – agni (fire) which was created to have all five elements within it due to panchIkaraNam (homogenisation of the five elements)
iru visumbum – expansive sky (thus the five elements)
kEtta manuvum – manu smruthi which is spoken of in vEdhas too
surudhi – the method of learning through uchchAraNa and anuchchAraNa (teacher saying once and disciples repeating the same three times)
maRai nAngum – the four vEdhas

(thus, all these)
mAyan than – one who has amazing power, that emperumAn’s
mAyaiyil patta – through his sankalpa (will)
dhaRpu – have existence

vyAkyAnam

pAttum muRaiyum padu kadhaiyum pal poruLum – vyAkyAthA periyavAchchAn piLLai’s opinion is that these four words denote the meanings which are spoken of extensively in purANas (ancient narratives which would appear new each time they are read). According to SrI vishNu purANam 6-8-13 these are “sargaScha prathisargaScha vamSam manvantharANi cha I vamSanucharitham kruthsnam mayAthra thava kIrthitham II” (creation, annihilation, lineage, period of manu and narratives of lineages were narrated by me to you).

pAttum – starting from kings and going up to sarvESvara, the songs which were sung about the greatness of each. Don’t purANas sing extensively about celestial entities, pithrus (forefathers), kings as mentioned in mAthsya purANam “agnE: Sivasya mahAthmyam”?

muRaiyum – the order of lineages and manvantharam (manu’s period). parASara bhagavAn called this “vamSamanvantharANi cha” (lineage and manvantharam).

padu kadhaiyumsrushti (creation), pralayam (annihilation), history of lineages which happened earlier. parASara maharishi called this “sargaScha prathisargaScha vamSAnucharitham kruthsnam”.

palporuLum – apart from these, various other meanings which are explained in purANas regarding activities based on varNa (four classifications based on qualities and profession) and ASrama (status in societal life), determination of terrestrial movement etc.

This is the interpretation of periyavAchchAn piLLai. The interpretation of appiLLai is:

pAttum muRaiyum – prose and proper music which sings about prose.

padu kadhaiyum – ithihAsas (epics) which talk about old narratives describing how they happened.

pal poruLum – various meanings described by purANas starting with sargaScha prathisargaScha.

Ittiya thIyum – agni (fire) which was created in order to exhibit the other elements (ether, water, wind and earth) through the method of panchIkaraNam (homogenisation). Homogenisation is the method by which emperumAn split each of the elements into eight parts, retaining four parts in the mother element and mixing each of the other four parts with each of the other four elements.

iru visumbum – sky (ether) which is bigger than the other four elements since it pervades them. Mentioning about these two elements (agni (fire) and AkASam (sky)) is representative of the other three elements and the materials which are resultant from them.

In periyavAchchAn piLLai’s interpretation, all these are vAchyam (meanings of words) and what follow are the vAchagams (words). In appiLLai’s interpretation, Ittiya thIyum iruvisumbum alone is meaning of words. Those which precede and succeed this are words.

kEtta manuvum . . . .dhaRpu – Just as mentioned in thaiththirIya samhithai 2-2 “yadhyai kincha manuavadhath thath bhEshajam” (whatever has been mentioned by manu is medicine), manusmruthi which has been quoted in vEdhas, and the four vEdhas themselves which have been taught by AchArya (teacher) and heard by Sishya (due to which they are called as Sruthi) have the nature of total truth since they have been created by the AScharya bhUtha (amazing entity, emperumAn) through his sankalpa (will). This implies that the connection between a word and its meaning has been created by emperumAn’s sankalpa.

mAyai – this refers to the knowledge through sankalpa (will) as brought out by Arsha nigaNdu (lexicon) saying “mAyA vayunam gyAnam” kaNNa (krishNa) also mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 4-6Athma mAyayA sambhavAmi” (I am born out of my will). dhaRputhathvam; truth.

We will take up the 77th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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