Monthly Archives: August 2018

thiruvAimozhi – 7.3.3 – sengani vAyin

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s friends ask “Is your act in line with our shyness and honour?” and she replies “after being captivated by his beauty, my heart lost all of those”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram. Everyone except one of her friends withdraw themselves saying “this is not possible for us”; that one friend said “this is not good for us; should you not control your heart and sustain yourself?”, parAnguSa nAyaki replies “What can that heart do now? It has lost everything it had by being captivated by his beautiful limbs etc”.

pAsuram

sengani vAyin thiRaththadhAyum senjudar nIL mudi thAzhndhadhAyum
sangodu chakkaram kaNdugandhum thAmaraik kaNgaLukku aRRuth thIrndhum
thingaLum nALum vizhA aRAdha thenthiruppEreyil vIRRirundha
nangaL pirAnukku en nenjam thOzhI! nANum niRaiyum izhandhadhuvE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sem – reddish
kani – enjoyable like a fruit
in – attractive due to the sweetness etc
vAy – divine lips
thiRaththadhAyum – plunged into

(revealing his supremacy)
sem – reddish
sudar – radiant
nIL – tall
mudi – in the divine crown
thAzhndhadhAyum – residing humbly matching the supremacy
sangodu chakkaram – the divine ornaments which confirm such supremacy
kaNdu ugandhum – becoming joyful
thAmarai – like a greatly enjoyable lotus
kaNgaLukku – for the divine eyes
aRRu – without attachment to anything else
thIrndhum – existing exclusively
en nenjam – my heart
thOzhI – Oh friend who helped our union previously!
thingaLum – every month
nALum – every day
vizhA – festivals
aRAdha – happening continuously without a break
thenthiruppEreyil – in thenthiruppEreyil
vIRRu – highlighting his distinguished nature
irundha – one who is mercifully residing
nangaL – manifesting himself to people like us
pirAnukku – benefactor who is easily approachable in this archAvathAram (deity form)
nANum – natural shyness
niRaiyum – obedience
izhandhadhu – lost

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh friend who helped our union previously! My heart is plunged into emperumAn’s enjoyable, reddish fruit like lips; it is residing humbly under the reddish, radiant, tall, divine crown, matching its [crown’s] supremacy; it is becoming joyful seeing the divine ornaments which confirm such supremacy; it is existing exclusively for the greatly enjoyable lotus like divine eyes; it has lost its natural shyness and obedience to the benefactor who is easily approachable in this archAvathAram, highlighting his distinguished nature, mercifully residing in thenthiruppEreyil where festivals are happening continuously without a break, every day and month, manifesting himself to people like us.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

parAnguSa nAyaki is saying “sengani vAyin thiRaththadhAyum, senjudar nIL mudith thAzhndhadhAyum, sangodu chakkaram kaNdugandhum, thAmaraik kaNgaLukku aRRuth thIrndhum – nenju nANum niRaiyum izhandhadhu kAN!“. A muni (sage) named Saubhari, with his special power, assumed fifty forms. The one with whom she united, could do a lot more than that. Just as emperumAn could fully pervade every entity, her heart too could be captivated individually in his every limb. [Alternative explanation] The multifarious forms acquired during experience with bhagavAn as said in chAndhOgya upanishath “sa EkathA bhavathi thridhA bhavathi” (he assumes one form, three forms and so on), is happening to the heart in separation.

  • sem kani vAyin thiRaththadhAyum –  Being captivated in the divine lips which are trying to say “Whether I am away from you in separation or present in your vicinity, am I not your belonging?” That too she is not even going into in-depth experience of the divine lips [just seeing the lips from outside is captivating her].
  • vAyin thiRaththadhAyum – Is this experience not as big as mahAbhAratham?
  • sem sudar … – When emperumAn spoke about the separation and stood a few steps away from her, she saw the divine crown which is highlighting his supremacy, revealing that he is the lord of both nithya vibhUthi and leelA vibhUthi (spiritual and material realms), and fell flat on the ground and held his divine feet.
  • sangodu … – She then saw the AzhwArs (Sanka and chakra) which are the tools for him to eliminate the enemies when in separation, and which are so beautiful not to take our eyes off them, and became joyful.
  • thAmaraik kaNgaLukkaRRuth thIrndhum – If one escapes for his words “thavAsmi” (I am yours), he/she will be captivated by his eyes; she became totally existing for him for those eyes. While separating from her, he glanced at her in such a manner that she was uplifted, to not exist for anyone else. Just as emperumAn assumed eight forms [being the antharyAmi for dhEvas, asuras, vAsuki (the serpent) and manthara (the mountain); kUrmam (tortoise), antharikshAvathAram (the form which appeared on top), upEndhram and the form which held the mountain from falling off), ] while churning the ocean, her heart took several forms to experience emperumAn’s different features. All his abilities can occur for her heart too.
  • thingaLum nALum … – While festivals are celebrated on a daily basis in the desirable abode, would the heart remain with us in suffering! [the abode] where monthly festivals and daily festivals never stop.
  • vIRRirundha nangaL pirAnukku – The benefactor who is manifesting such benevolent presence to us. parathvam (his presence in paramapadham) is for nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs; vyUham (his presence in kshIrAbdhi) is for for those who are comparable to mukthAthmAs; vibhavam (his incarnations such as SrI rAma, krishNa et al) is for the virtuous ones; but this archAvathAram is for the samsAris who have committed sins.
  • en nenjam – His favours, beauty etc are like diamond-melters [which can melt my heart which is hard like diamond]. [Oh friend!] You know the hard nature of my heart. Both the heart and he are perfectly aligned [he is attached to the devotees, it is attached to him].
  • nangaL pirAnukku en nenjam – as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.15 “rAghavOrhathivaidhEhIm” (SrI rAma who matches sIthA).
  • thOzhI – You can understand the hardness of my heart, and now you too are siding with him.
  • nANum niRaiyum izhandhadhuvE – Is there anything which it has not lost? See what happened by his separation for a fraction of a moment! I lost myself; mothers and friends lost me; my heart lost its shyness and obedience.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 54 – dhEvarAy niRkum

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avathArikai

Some people asked AzhwAr “You are abusing rudhra and other celestial entities by calling them as pollAdha dhEvarai. But SAsthras consider your emperumAn also as a dhEva, upEndhra, the brother of indhra and as one among brahmA, vishNu and rudhra, again as a dhEva among the other two primary dhEvas and as being controlled by other dhEvas. Wouldn’t these faults encumber him?” AzhwAr ridicules them saying “All the SAsthras which you people learnt are a waste since you do not know that the one who is in the form of upEndhra and as vishNu is none other than SrIman nArAyaNa who pervades everyone and everything as sarvAntharyAmi”.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

dhEvarAy niRkum aththEvum aththEvaril
mUvarAy niRkum mudhupuNarppum yAvarAy
niRkinRadhellAm nedumAl enROrAdhAr
kaRkinRadhellAm kadai

Word for Word Meanings

dhEvarAy niRkum aththEvum – among (Adhithya, indhra et al) dhEvathAs (celestial entities) standing as vishNu and as upEndhra
aththEvaril – among those dhEvas
mUvar Ay niRkum – standing as one among the three mUrthi (forms)
mudhu puNarppum – the first incarnation
yAvar Ay niRkinRadhu ellAm – standing as all chith (sentient) and achith (insentient) entities such as dhEvas et al
nedumAl enRu OrAdhAr – those who do not analyse and know that he is nArAyaNa alone
kaRkinRadhu ellAm kadai – all the education that they have had is very lowly.

vyAkyAnam

dhEvarAy niRkum aththEvum – Making the people of this world astonished saying “He (emperumAn) is one among the twelve Adhithyas and indhra”, he remained as one among the Adhithyas and as upEndhra, the younger brother of indhra (lord of celestial entities), also with the name of vAmana (dwarf). AzhwAr reminisces the way emperumAn incarnated as one among dhEvas. There are also those who construe the meaning for this as “Being the antharyAmi (indwelling soul) of dhEvas”. However, since later in the pAsuram AzhwAr is going to say “yAvarAy niRkinRadhellAm” and since mentioning about upEndhra ahead of vishNu as in the line “mUvarAy niRkum mudhupuNarppum” is more apt, and since the flow is better this way, it is better to construe this as referring to upEndhra.

aththEvaril mUvarAy niRkum mudhupuNarppum – Among the dhEvas, standing along with brahmA and rudhra, giving the impression to the people of the world that he is equal to the other two so as to be addressed as mummUrthi (the three forms) thus taking the first incarnation as vishNu.

mUvarAy niRkum – standing as one among the three. Alternatively it could be construed as – standing as three. Even though he stands between brahmA and rudhra to be thought of as one among them, did not knowledgeable people affirm, as mentioned in SrIvishNu purANam 1-2-66 “srushti sthithyanthakaraNIm brahmavishNuSivAthmikAm I sa samgyAm yAthi bhagavAnEka Eva janArdhana:  II” (it is nArAyaNa who is also known as janArdhana who creates, sustains and annihilates, attaining the names of brahmA, vishNu and Siva respectively )!

mudhu puNarppum – the ancient incarnation with the name vishNu. mudhumai – ancient; puNarppusankalpa (will or vow). (Here) It refers to the incarnation which came about out of emperumAn’s vow. Just as emperumAn had mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 4.6sambhavAmyAthmamAyayA” (I am born out of the knowledge of my vow), doesn’t his birth take place out of his will rather than out of karma?  Since his birth is not lowly, AzhwAr refers to it with the word puNarppu (incarnation out of his vow).

mudhu puNarppum – Just as it is mentioned in purusha sUktham “pAdhOsyEhAbhavAth puna:” (one of his incarnations anirudhdha incarnated himself again as vishNu), since the incarnation of vishNu is the first incarnation in this world, AzhwAr refers to this as mudhupuNarppu.

mUvarAy niRkum mudhu puNarppum – just as parASara bhattar had mercifully mentioned in SrI rangarAja sthavam 2-5 “madhyE virinchagiriSam prathamAvathAra: thath sAmyatha: sthagayithum thava chEth svarUpam I kim thE parathva piSunairapi rangadhAman sathvapravarthana krupAparipAlanAdhyai:  II” (Oh SrIranga! If the purpose of taking incarnation as vishNu and standing amidst brahmA and rudhra is to show equality with them and to hide your basic nature, why did you carry out the deeds of(1) exhibiting your sathva guNa (purely auspicious qualities) which manifests your supreme nature and (2) protecting brahmA and rudhra in that same incarnation?) Is it not well known that he (vishNu) is the incarnation of the supreme purusha?

Is it that he only remained as vishNu, controlling brahmA and rudhra as well as their physical forms? AzhwAr says next that he also controls all entities which are sentient . . .

yAvarAy niRkinRadhu ellAm – controlling the physical forms of dhEva (celestial), manushya (human), thiryak (animal) and sthAvara (botanical) species and all the sentients who control these forms. It is implied here that there is no insentient entity which is not controlled by a sentient entity. Has it not been mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 2-17avinASi thu thath vidhdhi yEna sarvamidham thatham” (know that those AthmAs which control all these insentient entities are indestructible)!

dhEvarAy . . . . ellAm nedumAl – one of the commentators for this prabandham, SrI appiLLai construed this to mean that all the sentients such as dhEvas who are totally devoted to karma yOga, brahmA and rudhra who are considered as primary amongst them, other species such as manushya (human) etc are all the attributes of emperumAn and they are all his servitors.

yAvarAy niRkinRadhellAm nedumAl enRu OrAdhAr – those who do not know that it is only SrIman nArAyaNa, who pervades all the entities which are different from himself through sentient entities giving them physical forms and names, incarnates as upEndhra and vishNu and remains as one among dhEvas and as one among the three primary deities.

niRkinRadhellAm nedumAl – it is only nArAyaNa who stands as all entities and who stands amongs dhEvas and with brahmA and rudhra.

nedumAl enRu OrAdhAr kaRkinRadheLLam kadai – it is not only that whatever people learn goes as wasted if they do not know that it is only the supreme being who incarnates amongst dhEvas and between brahmA and rudhra; it becomes the cause for their continuing to struggle in samsAram. It is similar to what has been mentioned in SrI vishNu purANam “vidhyA’nyA SilpanaipuNam” (all learning other than about emperumAn is equivalent to repairing one’s sandals).

We will move on to the 55th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.3.2 – nAnak karunguzhal

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s friends et al say “should you be anxious? should you not sustain yourself by holding your heart tight?” and she replies “my heart which became immersed in the divine lips of the emperumAn who is mercifully residing in thenthiruppEreyil, is not under my control”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently,  parAnguSa nAyaki says to her friends, mothers and neighbours “I am unable to control my heart which became attached to emperumAn who has infinite supremacy, simplicity etc”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. In the previous pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki spoke to her mother directly; thinking “she cannot be stopped anymore”, the mothers, friends and the neighbours came together and started advicing her. She replies to them “I am unable to hear your advice since my heart is out of my control as it has become attached to emperumAn who has infinite supremacy and simplicity, and hence cannot stop it; you see, my heart is consumed by the ocean [of love]”

pAsuram

nAnak karunguzhal thOzhimIrgAL! annaiyargAL! ayaRchEriyIrgAL!
nAn iththanai nenjam kAkka mAttEn en vasamanRidhu irAp pagal pOy
thEn moyththa pUm pozhil thaN paNai sUzh thenthiruppEreyil vIRRirundha
vAnap pirAn maNi vaNNan kaNNan sengani vAyin thiRaththadhuvE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nAnam – fragrant due to application of fragrant materials
karu – black
kuzhal – hair
thOzhimIrgAL – oh friends!
annaiyargAL – oh mothers (who control them and me)!
ayaR chEriyIrgAL – oh neighbours (who have arrived to enquire about the situation)!
nAn – I (who am very attached to emperumAn)
thani – independent  (and having more attachment than I)
i – this
nenjam – heart
kAkka mAttEn – unable to stop (from leaving me);
en – to me
vasam – obedient
anRu – not;
idhu irAp pagal – night and day
pOy – leaving me
thEn – beetles
moyththa – swarming
pUmpozhil – having flower gardens
thaN – cool
paNai – water bodies
sUzh – surrounded
then – fortified
thiruppEreyil – in thenthiruppEreyil
vIRRu – manifesting his greatness
irundha – residing
vAnam – resident of paramapadham
pirAn – supreme
maNi – like a radiant gemstone
vaNNan – one who is having form
kaNNan – krishNa (who is obedient towards his devotees)
sem – reddish
kani – like a fruit
vAyil – beautiful lips
thiRaththadhu – became attached

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh friends who have black, fragrant hair due to application of fragrant materials! Oh mothers! Oh neighbours! I am unable to stop this independent heart of mine; it is not obedient to me; night and day, it is leaving me and is becoming attached to the reddish fruit like beautiful lips of krishNa who is having a radiant gemstone like form, who is the resident of paramapadham with supremacy, and is now residing, manifesting his greatness, in the fortified thenthiruppEreyil, which is surrounded by cool water bodies and is having flower gardens which are swarmed by beetles.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nAnak karum kuzhal thOzhimIrgAL – nAnam – nice fragrance. She is highlighting it as a blame for them. As they are with the best fragrance, she is unable to bear it like a deer which will die if a hair falls off it [in separation, she cannot just bear her own decorations, she cannot even bear others’ decorations]. Would I not stay here itself, if you were not here [decorating yourself like this]? Their hair reminds her of emperumAn‘s dark hair. Should the friends not be in the same state like her as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkinthA kANdam 5.18 “Ekam dhu:kham sukham cha nau“ (sharing sorrow and joy)? While she is not even caring for her hair and will perish if she sees the fragrance, can her friends use fragrances? As he engages with her in union, whatever flowers etc they discard, are given fully by her to her friends only. Since it was his merciful gift, even if those flowers become dry, they will continue to keep them in their hair! That reminds her of him and tortures her. Alternative explanation – they do use fragrances too. That is, they decorate themselves since if they remain morose without decoration, that will cause more anxiety to her. They will work to uplift her mood even at the cost of ignoring their own suffering [of decorating in such situations]. While bhagavAn who is indicated by “a” in praNavam and AthmA who is indicated by “ma” in praNavam are both present since time immemorial, the AthmA was not uplifted. Now, the act of uniting them is that which uplifts him; in this manner, they need to convince her to uplift her. They will not bother about their own suffering, they remain “we should bring glory for the lord”; this is similar to iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) who is more anguished than perumAL (SrI rAma) [during separation from sIthAp pirAtti], would sustain himself with care for the protection of perumAL. iLaiya perumAL is said to be parama bhOgi [great enjoyer, great serpent]. SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.60 “saumithrE paSya pampAyA:” (Oh lakshmaNa! See this pampA river banks) – though he could see the enjoyability there, he turned away from the scenery to distract perumAL; [so perumAL says] brother! look at this.
  • nAnak karum kuzhal – A thamizh scholar said “since nAnam is an adjective for kuzhal, this means hair which appears like nAvi (musk, civet scent)”. This also implies fragrance only.
  • thOzhimIrgAL – Those who speak priyam (favourable sweet words) have gone to the group of those [mothers] who speak hitham (advice)!
  • thOzhimIrgAL! annaiyargAL! ayaRchEriyIrgAL! – The three stages are highlighted here – a) I know some secret and not even share it with the friends b) the friends and I know of it and the mothers don’t know about it and c) friends, mothers and I know but others don’t know; crossing all these stages, things have become so public that, she is calling for everyone. She need not tell anyone; this being the case, she is so anguished that even the enemies will pity her state. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.18 “mAm samAnaya dhu:khithAm” (unite me who is suffering, with SrI rAma) – sIthAp pirAtti tells rAvaNa to unite her with SrI rAma. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam “thadhAkuru dhayAm mayi” (show mercy to me), sundhara kANdam 39.10 “vAchA dharmam avApnuhi”  (become righteous through your speech), she is speaking the words that should be spoken to thiruvadi (hanuman) et al, to the one who separated her from SrI rAma.
  • thOzhimIrgAL … – [Being my friends] How you liked what I liked! How you looked out for my priyam and hitham! How you remain indifferent towards me!

The friends ask “What is our fault? As you crossed your limits, we too crossed our limits”, she says

  • nAn iththani nenjam kAkka mAttEn – Do you have any reason like I do, to cross your limits?
  • nAn – Did you lose your heart [to any one]? Implies her situation is not the same as theirs.
  • ith thani nenjam – Just as I have become distinguished from you, my heart has become distinguished from me.
  • thani nenjam – Independent heart which does not obey me. Even the heart of sIthAp pirAtti who is said to be SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39.40 “thath thasya sadhruSam bhavEth” (it will be fitting if SrI rAma could come on his own and take me) is not a match for her heart.
  • kAkka mAttEn – (I don’t have the ability to protect myself) She can only say as in periya thiruvandhAdhi 1 “mundhuRRa nenjE iyaRRuvAy emmodu nI kUdi” (Oh heart which is rushing towards perumAL before me! wait, let us pray together), and cannot stop it. It left me without seeing anyone else as said in SrIvishNu purANam 5.18.22 “kurava:kim karishyanthi dhagdhAnAm virahAgninA” (what would the elders do to us. I am burnt by this fire of separation); it is not returning after hearing something from him; from “mAttEn“, it appears that she tried to stop the heart, but it went without listening and she gave up. Just as samsAris (materialistic people) won’t withdraw themselves from worldly pleasures derived from Sabdha (sound) etc, AzhwAr will not withdraw himself from bhagavath vishayam.

Can someone say “mAttEn” (I won’t stop)? Should the heart not be submissive to the self in all cases?, she says

  • en vasam anRu idhu – What shall I do if it ends up separating the child from the mother? Only when SrI bharathAzhwAn listens to kaikEyi’s words and rules the kingdom, she will listen to her mother’s words and withdraw herself. Am I am not your daughter now? My heart too is like me. Instead of being present for my sake, it made me follow it.

When asked “even if the heart is not obedient generally, should you not advice it when it is obedient?” She says

  • irAp pagal pOy – I am not seeing any moment when I can advice it, in the available time; her attachment is unlike [that of materialistic people] where one is sometimes attached to bhagavath vishayam and other times to worldly pursuits. Only if it is here for a moment, we can advice it.
  • thEn moyththa … – Did it get captivated in a matter from which it can be withdrawn? Can we withdraw those who are captivated by the enjoyability of the town itself? thEn indicates beetle.
  • pUm pozhil … – In thenthiruppEreyil which has blossomed gardens and water bodies.
  • vIRRirundha – Manifesting his seated posture of paramapadham, as it is, in here. Is this town like that paramapadham? This place is such that, one person’s clothes will be worn by many [such inferior abode]; this abode is the place from where both the paramapadham and samsAram are perfected.
  • vAnap pirAn – This implies the faultless supremacy.
  • thenthiruppEreyil vIRRirundha vAnap pirAn – The benefactor who manifested the posture of SrIvaikuNtam in this abode.
  • maNi vaNNan – The beautiful form which will make us hold him tight, even if he lacks the supremacy.
  • kaNNan – One who lets the residents of this samsAram to enjoy the form which is enjoyed by the residents of paramapadham.
  • vAnap pirAn … – Is it possible to measure the supremacy, beauty or simplicity?
  • sem kani vAyin thiRaththaduvE – Just as one will get caught in the swirl during floods, she got caught in his lips; wouldn’t one return only when the boundary of the desired matter is found? It got captivated in the reddish, fruit like lips; only when it returns to me, can I listen to your advice.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 53 – kallAdhavar ilangai

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avathArikai

Some samsAris asked AzhwAr “What is the reason for your position in saying enakkAvAr Ar oruvarE and our position vilaikkAtpaduvar? Also, please mercifully tell us the way in which we can redeem ourselves”. AzhwAr responds saying “being not connected with other deities is the reason for my greatness and the same is the reason for your lowliness. If you wish to redeem yourselves, sever your connection with other deities”.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kallAdhavar ilangai kattazhiththa kAguththan
allAl oru dheyvam yAnilEn pollAdha
dhEvaraith thEvarallAraith thiruvillAth
thEvarai thERElmin dhEvu

Word for Word Meanings

kallAdhavar ilangai – the country of lankA populated by the ignorant demons
kattu azhiththa – destroying its fortress
kAguththan allAl – other than SrI rAma
oru dheyvam – another deity
yAn ilEn – I will not accept as a deity
pollAdha dhEvarai – deities with deformities
dhEvar allArai – (in truth) lacking in the qualities of being a deity
thiru illA dhEvarai – without having any connection with pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi), those who bear the name as deity
dhEvu – as deities
thERElmin – please do not think of

vyAkyAnam

kallAdhavar ilangai – lankA which is polulated like the hive of wasps, with ignorant demons. Just as sIthAppirAtti  doubted, as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21-9 “iha santhO na vA santhi” (does this place not have learned people?) It is the habitat of ignorant people who could not tolerate the presence of the only intelligent person vibhIshaNa and drove him out of the country. Here, the term kalvi refers to knowledge relating to mOksham as mentioned in SrIvishNu purANam 1-19-41 “sA vidhyA yA vimukthayE” (learning is that which is used for attaining mOksham). Isn’t it well known that those in lankA lack that learning!

kattazhiththa kAguththan – the divine son of emperor dhaSaratha who destroyed the fortress of lankA.

kAguththanallAl oru dheyvam yAnilEn – I will not think of  anyone other than that benefactor who is totally devoted to the huge yAgam (a ritual with agni, fire) for protection through surrendering, as being fit enough for being attained. AzhwAr implies that this is the reason for his greatness.

yAn ilEn – AzhwAr tells samsAris that not having this quality of not worshipping other deities, even through forgetfulness, is the reason for their lowliness. This AzhwAr is similar to hanuman who said as in SrI rAmAyaNam uththara kANdam 40-15 “snEhO mE paramO rAjan thvayi nithyam prathitishtitha: bhakthiScha niyathA vIra bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi II” (Oh emperumAn! The affection that I have towards you is huge. This affection is firmly established in you).

When asked by the samsAris as to the way by which they can redeem themselves, AzhwAr tells them the nature of other deities and tells the samsAris to sever their connection with such deities…..

pollAdha dhevarai – unlike emperumAn who attracts the heart and eyes of his followers through his divine form, nature, qualities and activities, these other deities do not have the kind of form to see or fame which is sweet to hear or do not have the capability to grant boons which will be everlasting. Their forms will be crude and grotesque with deformed eyes, eyes which emit fire and with matted hair, with powdered ash applied all over the body, unlike the lotus like eyes of emperumAn who is like a mother to the world. Their activities too will be crude such as plucking the head of one’s own father, begging all over the world in order to remove the curse that got stuck on removing the head of father, destroying holy rituals, running away out of fear from a demon called basmAsura and helping another demon bANAsura and getting defeated in the battle in the bargain etc. These are in direct contrast to the sweet activities of emperumAn who killed the wicked ones, protected the good ones, redeemed dead sons and granted mOksham to bird, demon and pot. Instead of asking for pathram pushpam … (SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.26) for worshipping, these deities will ask for the flesh of devotee’s son. Thus their qualities will also be crude. Since they are crude in various ways, AzhwAr calls them as crude deities.

Next AzhwAr realises that he has called them as dhEva by mistake….

dhEvarallArai –  if one were to disregard such cruelties in them and analyse their basic nature in order to worship them they will be such that they will look up to emperumAn for alms for their sustenance and be without any greatness. In other words, they will not be apt to be worshipped.

dhEvarallArai – just as it is mentioned in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi “ayanmudhalAththandha naLirmA malarundhi vIttaippaNNi viLaiyAdum vimalan”, is it correct to call those who were created by emperumAn for his pastime, as deities? Is it apt to call those who run away from battlefield (in the war with bANAsura which they indulged in and lost) or those who borrow radiance and decorate themselves or those who learn vEdhas from emperumAn or those who carry a skull in their hands in order to get rid of a curse or those who run away when troubled by demons? With what feature or quality in them can they be called as dhEvas?

What is the reason for their not being dhEvas? …

thiruvillAththEvarai – since they do not have the grace of SrI mahAlakshmi, they are not dhEvas. Since they do not have the connection with periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who even the vEdhas praised by saying “SradhdhayA dhEvO dhEvathvamaSnuthE” (only due to periya pirAtti, even SrIman nArAyaNa qualifies to be a dhEva), they do not qualify to be dhEvas.

thiruvaillAththEvarai – when referring to lowly persons in the world, they are called as thiruvilAr (lacking in wealth).

thiruvillAththEvarai – did not purusha sUktham which spoke about emperumAn “uthAmruthathvasya ISAna:” as the one who grants mOksham, say “hrIScha thE lakshmIScha pathnyau… sarvam manishANa” (SrIdhEvi and bhUdhEvi are your consorts… we will obtain everything from you) concluding that it is due to his being SrImAn that he grants mOksham!

pollAdhadhEvarai dhEvarallArai thiruvillAththEvarai – since they do not have any connection with pirAtti, even though they are not really dhEvas, they are called as dhEvas as they carry the name dhEvas. Hence AzhwAr is calling them as pollAdha dhEvar and thiruvillAththEvar.

thEREnmin dhEvu – AzhwAr tells us not to respect them as deities. If you follow this [instruction] you can also say “enakkAvAr Ar oruvarE” (who is equal to me, as AzhwAr had sung in the earlier pAsuram).

thEREnmin dhEvu – since these deities also grant materials such as son, cow, food etc they may be called as deities. Hence you may also think that these deities are fit to be attained. Since the materials which they give are transient (they do not last long), are lowly and are granted ultimately by emperumAn as mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.22mayaiva vihithAn hi thAn” through these deities, AzhwAr tells us not to think of them as deities.

We will take up the 54th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – ४६

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आर्ति प्रबंधं

<< पासुर ४५

उपक्षेप

पिछले पासुरम में मामुनि ,आचार्य के महत्त्व कि श्रेय जो गाते हुए उन्हीं के कृपा को अपनी उन्नति की कारण बतातें हैं।  इसी विषय कि इस पासुरम में और विवरण देतें हैं।

पासुरम ४६

तिरुवाय्मोळि पिळ्ळै तीविनैयोंदम्मै

गुरुवागि वंदु उय्यक्कोंडु – पोरुविल

मदि तान अळित्तरूळुम वाळवंरो नेंजे

एतिरासरक्कु आळानोम याम

 

शब्दार्थ:

नेंजे – हे मेरे ह्रदय !

याम – हम

आळानोम  – सेवक बने

एतिरासरक्कु –  एम्पेरुमानार के

(इसका कारण है )

तिरुवाय्मोळि पिळ्ळै – तिरुवाय्मोळि पिळ्ळै (मामुनि के आचार्य )

गुरुवागि  – आचार्य के रूप में अवतार किये

वंदु –   और हमारे जगह को पधारें

तीविनैयोंदम्मै – हम, जो क्रूर पापों के घने बादल हैं

उय्यक्कोंडु  –  उन्के कृपा से स्वीकृत किये गए और उन्नति के योग्य माने गए

अळित्तरूळुम  – हमें आशीर्वाद किये , (यह देकर )

मदि तान  – तिरुमंत्र की ज्ञान

पोरुविल – जो अद्वितीय ( शास्त्र की भी किसी और से तुलना की जा सकती हैं, पर इसकी नहीं )

वाळवंरो – (हे मेरे ह्रदय!) यह इसी आचार्य के कृपा से ही हैं न ? ( इन्हीं के कारण हम एम्पेरुमानार के सेवक बने)

 

सरल अनुवाद

इस पासुरम में मामुनि अपने आचार्य के श्रेय की वर्णन करतें हैं।  वें कहतें कि आचार्य के कृपा से पाए गए तिरुमंत्र से ही वें श्रीमन नारायण के सेवक के सेवक बन सकें।  

 

सपष्टीकरण

यहाँ पहले तिरुवाय्मोळिपिळ्ळै की श्रेयस कि प्रशंसा की गयी हैं। श्रीमन नारायण के सारे भक्त जो श्री वैष्णव और इस साँसारिक लोक के दिव्य जीव याने  भूसुरर कहलातें हैं, इन सारें लोगों से तिरुवाय्मोळि दिव्य प्रबंध और अमृत मानी जातीं हैं। नम्माळ्वार खुद कहतें हैं, “तोंडरक्कमुदु उण्ण चोल मालैगळ सोन्नेन” (तिरुवाय्मोळि ९.४.९). तिरुवाय्मोळि पिळ्ळै एक ऐसे आचार्य हैं जो तिरुवाय्मोळि को स्वास में लेकर उसी में जीतें थे। उसमें से तरह तरह के मकरंद कि आनंद उठाते हैं, जैसे शब्दों कि सजावट कि मकरंद , अर्थों की मकरंद और उन पासुरमो के मनोभाव कि मकरंद। वे केवल तिरुवाय्मोळि को धर्म मानकर जियें और अन्य शास्त्रों को घास समान मानें। वें नम्माळ्वार के चरण कमलों में शरणागति कर, उन्के प्रति सारें कैंकर्य किये।  तिरुवाय्मोळि के संबंध के कारण वें तिरुवाय्मोळिपिळ्ळै कहलायें गए। मामुनि अपने ह्रदय को कहतें हैं , “हे मेरे प्रिय ह्रदय! हमें देखो। “अोप्पिल्ला तीविनैयेनै उय्यक्कोंडु (तिरुवाय्मोळि ७.९.४)” के वचनानुसार हम क्रूर पापों के प्रतिनिधि हैं। और तिरुवाय्मोळिप्पिळ्ळै आचार्य के रूप में अवतार किये और हमें विमुक्त किये।” इसी को वें अपने उपदेश रत्न मालै में, “तेनार कमल तिरुमामगळ कोळूनन ताने गुरुवागि (उपदेश रत्न मालै ६१) कहतें हैं। आगे मामुनि कहतें हैं , “ वें (तिरुवाय्मोळिप्पिळ्ळै) हमारें जगह पधारें और तिरुमंत्र से जनित यह दिव्य ज्ञान दिए। यह अन्य शास्त्रोँ से जनित ज्ञान से अलग हैं। हे मेरे ह्रदय!  उनके इस कृपा के कारण ही हमें एम्पेरुमानार के प्रति कैंकर्यं करने का भाग्य मिला। तिरुमंत्र में यहि उत्तम अर्थ प्रकट किया गया हैं कि, भगवान श्रीमन नारायण के सेवकों के सेवक रहना सर्व श्रेष्ट स्थिति हैं। और इस अर्थ को महसूस करने के कारण ही हम एम्पेरुमानार के नित्य सेवक बनते हैं।

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासी

आधार :  http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2017/03/arththi-prabandham-46/

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 52 – vilaikkAtpaduvar

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked “Could you say that there is none who is equal to you in this world?” he responds in this pAsuram that world is full of these types of people (as explained in the vyAkyAnam).

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vilaikkAtpaduvar visAdhiyERRuNbar
thalaikkAtbali thirivar thakkOr mulaikkAl
vidamuNda vEndhanaiyE vERA EththAdhAr
kadamuNdAr kallAdhavar

Word for Word Meanings

thakkOr – lowly people
vilaikku AL paduvar – they will become slaves in order to eke out a living
visAdhi ERRu uNbar – willingly take on others diseases and enjoy them (as part of accepting mruthyudhAn (donation of death)
thalaiiku AL bali thirivar – they will roam around offering their heads for someone else to live, indulging in human sacrifice.
mulaikkAl vidam uNda vEndhanaiyE – kaNNan (krishNa who drank the poisonous milk from pUthanA’s bosom
vERu A EththAdhAr – not worshipping pointedly
kallAdhavar – being without knowledge
kadam uNdAr – enjoying only sins

vyAkyAnam

vilaikkAtpaduvar – people who will sell their souls to others for very low values. Their souls are expected to be servitors only to emperumAn, which are only his possession and which are sweet to him like SrI kausthubam [SrI kausthubam is a divine jewel decorating the divine chest of emperumAn and is said to represent all AthmAs (souls)]

viSadhiyERRuNbar – when an affluent person suffers from a disease, for the sake of money that he offers, these people will not hesitate to take on his disease and will be willing to enjoy that too. visAdhi – vyAdhi (disease)

uNbar – while they enjoy the money that the affluent person offers, these people will be willing to enjoy his disease too.

Is it only this much?  …..

thalaikkAt bali thirivar – when a person who is suffering from terminal disease escapes from it, these people will be willing to offer their heads as a sacrifice to lowly deities; they will go around town, looking for such ‘diseased’ people.

thakkOr – very intelligent people [mentioned with sarcasm]. What sort of knowledge do these people have that they will be willing to sell themselves or take up someone else’s disease or offer their heads, all for the sake of money, without realising that one can but paint only if the canvas is there!

What is the reason for their knowledge to get blunted like this?

mulaikkAl vidamuNda vEndhanaiyE vERA EththEdhAr kallAdhavar – not worshipping with their intelligence, emperumAn, who drank not  only the poison that the demon pUthanA who came in the guise of yaSOdhA had applied on her bosom, but also the poison of her deceit and killed her. The implied meaning is that since they are not knowingly worshipping emperumAn, who removes enemies of his followers as his profession, their enemy of ignorance is still around.

vEndhanaiyE vERA EththAdhAr – those who do not worship emperumAn specifically. Since they are people who will do anything for money, there will be no shortcoming in their praising the dogs and ghosts of this word as indhra and chandhra (i.e. as great people). But they seem to have taken a vow that they will not worship emperumAn even once, due to their ignorance.

vERA EththEdhArvERA  would mean pointing out specifically. There are some who would construe the meaning of vERA EththEdhAr as those who do not worship in a special way.

kadamuNdAr – they swallow their sins, just as it has been mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA SlOkam 3-13thE thvagham bhunjathe pApA:” (those sinners eat their sins). kadam – sin.

vEndhanaiyE vERA EththEdhAr kadamuNdAr kallAdhavar – this follows the meaning expressed in SrI bhagavath gIthA SlOkam 7-15na mAm dhukrithinO mUdA: prapadhyanthE narAdhamA: I mAyayA’pahrutha gyAnA: Asuram bhAvamASrithA: II” (fools, lowest among men, those with their knowledge blunted by illusion and demonic people do not attain me as they are all sinners). If the text is taken as kadanuNdAr the meaning will be that those who keep borrowing in order to sustain themselves.

kallAdhavar – even after knowing that they cannot repay, these people will go on borrowing due to their blunted knowledge.

We will move on to the 53rd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 51 – enakkAvAr Ar oruvarE

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram AzhwAr said that he has no ills. In this pAsuram he says that he has no equal.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

enakkAvAr Ar oruvarE emperumAn
thanakkAvAn thAnE maRRallAl punakkAyA
vaNNanE unnaip piRar aRiyAr enmadhikku
viNNellAm uNdo vilai

Word for Word Meanings

punam – growing on its own land
kAyA – the flower kAyAmpU’s (a purple coloured flower from the plant kAyA)
vaNNanE – Oh emperumAn who has the same complexion!
enakku – for me who remains that you are the only protector
AvAr Ar oruvarE – is there anyone who is an equal? (There is none)
emperumAn – the sarvESvaran (lord of all)
thAnE thankkAvAn allAl – will be equivalent to himself. There is nothing else.
maRRu – will you be my equal?
unnai piRar aRiyAr – other than me, no one else knows about you
en madhikku – for my intellect (which knows you fully)
vinnellAm uNdO vilai – even if all entities in SrIvaikuNtam get together, can they compare with me?

vyAkyAnam

enakkAvAr Ar oruvarE – Oh benefactor! In both vibhUthis (nithyavibhUthi – SrIvaikuNtam and leelA vibhUthi – materialistic realm) is there anyone who is comparable to me?

All the vEdhas and those who follow these vEdhas uniformly say that he (emperumAn) is the most superior and that there is none anywhere near him, as brought out by (1)  svEthasvathara upanishath “na thvathsamaSchApyadhigaScha dhruSyathE” (there is none who is equivalent or superior to that paramapurusha (superior entity)) 2) SrI bhagavath gIthA 11.43na thvathsamOsthyabhyadhika kuthOnyO lOkathrayE’pyaprathimaprabhAva” (Oh the incomparable entity! There is none in the three worlds who is your equivalent. Could there be one who is superior to you?) sarvESvaran says “When such is the case, why are you proclaiming about yourself?”

emperumAn thanakkAvAn thAnE maRRallAl – you, the sarvESvaran, are equivalent to yourself. Even you cannot be my equivalent. Just as yourself, I am also without anyone comparable to me. Just as there is none who is your equivalent in protecting others, there is none who is my equivalent among those who are protected. You, who would say “there is none who protects me”, cannot be compared to me who would say “only emperumAn is the protector”

Let it be so. There are others in this world who are in your state, who consider only me as the protector. Will those people not be comparable to you?

punakkAyA vaNNanE unnaip piRar aRiyAr – there is none who knows you other than me, who will not leave your beautiful divine form even if you turn out to be one who tortures instead of one who protects.

punakkAyAvaNNanE – Oh one who has the complexion of kAyAmpU (a type of flower with purple colour) which blossoms in its own land and who has its qualities of softness, coolness, fragrance etc!

punakkAyAvaNNanE! unnaip piRar aRiyAr – will those who consider their physical forms as their souls, know you? Will those who feel that they are totally independent, know you? Will those who worship other deities, know you? Will those who worship you for obtaining other benefits, know you? Will those who observe other means to attain you, know you? Or will rishis, who meditate on your basic nature, know you?

emperumAn then asks him “in nithyavibhUthi, there are great entities such as vishvaksEnar, ananthAzhwAn, garudan et al who know me. Will they, at the least, be comparable to you?”

en madhikku viNNellAl uNdO vilai – in this samsAram where everyone puts in his efforts to attain anything, I am worshipping your divine feet as the means for attaining you. Do all the entities in SrIvaikuNtam (vishvasksEnar et al) have the total belief that my intellect has in you? The implied meaning here is that since they (entities in SrIvaikuNtam) have already attained the goal, the firmness that AzhwAr has in emperumAn as the means will be lacking in them. AzhwAr says “I have no objection to the fact that they will know your svarUpam, rUpam etc (basic nature, divine form etc). But even if they all get together, they cannot equal me. They dwell in a place where enemy (karma, deeds from past) is non-existent whereas I am staying in samsAram where karma rules in a cruel way with the firm belief that ‘you are the protector’. Will they be comparable to me? Could the lotus in pond be compared to one which blossoms from a clay oven? Could daylight be comparaed to lamp in the night?” Hasn’t nammAzhwAr too mercifully mentioned in thiruviruththam 79 “sIdhanaiyE thozhuvAr viNNuLArilum sIriyarE” (those who worship the cool emperumAn without any break are superior to those in SrIvaikuNtam)!

enakkAvAr Ar oruvarE – thus, since there is no one in both vibhUthis who could be compared to me, who is there who could be compared to me? Since this pride comes not out of ahankAram (vanity) but due to connection with emperumAn, this is not considered as a fault but is acceptable completely.

We will take up the 52nd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.3.1 – veLLaich churiu sangu

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Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Third decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki is informing that she desires to go to thenthiruppErai due to the suffering she is going through, which is beyond words, to her mother who is enquiring about her state.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently,  parAnguSa nAyaki is telling her determination to go to thenthiruppErai where emperumAn resides, due to his manifesting his form with the enjoyable weapons, limbs and periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAn) in her heart.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

veLLaich churi sangodAzhi Endhi thAmaraik kaNNan en nenjinUdE
puLLaik kadAginRa ARRaik kANIr en soillich chollugEn annaimIrgAL!
veLLach chugamavan vIRRirundha vEdha oliyum vizhA oliyum
piLLaik kuzhA viLaiyAttoliyum aRAth thiruppEreyil sErvan nAnE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

annaimIrgAL – Oh those who try to keep me away from him thinking “we are your mothers [so we know what is good for you]” (without realising my internal emotions which are beyond the expression of words)!

(as per my desire)
veLLai – having white colour
churi – having curliness
sangodu – with SrI pAnchajanya
Azhi – divine chakra
Endhi – holding
thAmaraik kaNNan – one who is having lotus eyes (which made me fully exist for him)

(the one which can hold even if he entered along with his abodes)
en – my
nenjin – heart
UdE – inside
puLLai – periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr)
kadAginRa – riding (to his desire)
ARRai – way
kANIr – you don’t know!

(for this experience)
en solli – through which words
sollugEn – Will I be able to explain?

(now)
veLLach chugam – having the flood of bliss due to experiencing him
avan – one who shines in my heart
vIRu – manifesting his greatness
irundha – the divine abode where he is
vEdha oliyum – the loud chants of vEdham by those who enjoy such beautiful sitting posture of emperumAn
vizhA – due to the ever occurring uthsavams (festivals)
oliyum – sound of the musical instruments etc

praising his qualities and activities as said in “bhAshA kavi kIrthanA:
piLLaik kuzhA – group of children
viLaiyAdu – play
oliyum – loud noise
aRA – are heard continuously without a break
thiruppEraiyil – in thiruppEreyil
nAn – I
sErvan – will reach

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh those who try to keep me away from him thinking “we are your mothers!” emperumAn who is having lotus eyes and holding the white, curly SrI pAnchajanya and the divine chakra, is inside my heart riding periya thiruvadi and you don’t know how he does that! Will I be able explain it through words? emperumAn who is shining in my heart which is having the flood of bliss as a result of experiencing him, is manifesting his greatness in the divine abode, thiruppEreyil; the loud chants of vEdham by those who enjoy such beautiful sitting posture of emperumAn, the sound of the musical instruments etc due to the ever occurring uthsavams and the loud noise of the playing of the group of children, are heard continuously without a break; when will I reach there?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • veLLaich churi sangodu Azhi EndhiAzhwAr constantly engages in the beauty of emperumAn‘s divine hand and chakra combination as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.5.1thavaLa oN sangu chakkaram” (white coloured radiant conch and chakra),  thiruvAimozhi 6.9.1kUrAr Azhi veN sangu” (sharp chakra and white conch), thiruvAimozhi 7.2.1sangu chakkarangaL enRu kai kUppum” (she performs anjali saying “Sanka, chakra”). He is known as mugilvaNNan (one who has complexion of cloud); holding the conch which is curly and white, contrasting with the complexion of his divine form, and the beautiful chakra which does not need any additional adjectives.
  • thAmaraik kaNNan – She is reminiscing what is said in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.1thAmaraik kaN enRE thaLarum” (becomes tired by just saying “lotus eyes”). Just as his divine shining form is represented by his divine weapons, his glance highlights his internal qualities. Naturally, the compassion in the heart is revealed through the eyes. Just as the eyes appear to be enemies for the unfavourable ones, similar to the divine weapons, for the favourable ones, his divine weapons are seen as adding beauty to his divine form similar to the divine eyes. The favourable ones will enjoy the divine eyes along with the divine weapons and the divine weapons along with the divine eyes. The divine weapons are recited along with the divine eyes to indicate how emperumAn won over her; they will make one say as in jithanthE sthOthram 1 “jithanthE” (victory!). The eyes are recited along with the weapons, to highlight his beauty. Here nanjIyar mercifully used to highlight the words of nilAththukkuRi pagavar [this can be seen in thiruvAimozhi 3.7.2]. Just as the AzhwArs [Sanka, chakra] are ornaments to decorate the hands, the eyes are ornaments for the face. As said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 1thirukkaNdEn ponmEni kaNdEn thigazhum arukkan aNi nirRamum kaNdEn serukkiLarum ponnAzhi kaNdEn purisangam kaikkaNdEn ennAzhi vaNNan pAL inRu” (I had the fortune to worship SrI mahAlakshmi, his beautiful divine form,the beautiful, resplendent radiance shining like a sun from his form, his beautiful divine disc which is bursting out in the battle field and his beautiful divine conch which is curling towards the right), the divine weapons too appear as decoration, along with his physical beauty. As AzhwArs (Sanka and chakra) have decorated his hands, they are known as ornaments.
  • en nenjin UdE – Since it is not in their[mothers’] heart, they will say “this is not acceptable”.
  • en nenjin UdE puLLaik kadAginRaemperumAn bestowed AzhwAr unblemished knowledge and devotion and made his heart to be said as in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.2nenjamE nIL nagar” (considering my heart as a big divine city); while there is sufficient space in paramapadham [which is three times the size of material realm], as he would climb the shoulders of thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) and ride along to sustain the dwellers of paramapadham, here emperumAn is manifesting the same inside his heart.
  • nenjin UdE – They will say “Would whatever is present inside, be not seen outside as well?” She will say “if he is not present in my heart, I too can be considered as non-existing”. emperumAn is roaming around in parAnguSa nAyaki’s divine heart with the AzhwArs (Sanka, chakra) as hamsa (swan), chakravAga (another bird) on a pond, the divine limbs as fully spread out, blossomed lotus, the divine form which is like the water and lotus leaves in that pond, periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr) holding emperumAn as mount mEru holding that pond. This is how emperumAn engages with his dear devotees. nanjIyar was once travelling to kOyil (SrIrangam) and meets piLLAn on the way; nanjIyar asks piLLAn “Does ISvara only have svarUpa vyApthi (pervading everywhere with his subtle antharyAmi form) or does he also have vigraha vyApthi (present in the heart, with a visible antharyAmi form)? piLLAn replied “bhAshyakArar (emperumAnAr) primarily explained svarUpa vyApthi in his commentaries; yet, embAr (disciple of emperumAnAr) told me once ‘I have heard from emperumAnAr once that emperumAn is present with a visible form in the heart of his devotees for their worship’ ” Just as it is said in thaiththirIya AraNyaka “guhAyAm” (one who resides in the cave of mind/heart), katOpanishath “gahvarEshtam purANam” (the ancient person who resides in the mind/heart), periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.2.10 “aravaththamaLiyinOdum azhagiya pARkadalOdum aravindhap pAvaiyum thAnum agam padi vandhu pugundhu” (emperumAn entered my heart with his serpent bed, beautiful milky ocean and SrI mahAlakshmi) and SrI rAmAyaNam “EshAm indhIvara SyAmO hrudhayE suprathistitha:” (In whose hearts dark-coloured bhagavAn is firmly present),  “en nenjinUdE puLLaik kadAginRa” is also similar to these. In SubhASraya prakaraNams [sections which explain meditation on the auspicious form of emperumAn], as said in muNdaka upanishath 3.2.3 “thasyaisha AthmA vivruNuthE thanUmsvAm” (bhagavAn shows his true form to those who are dear to him), his divine form as the target of meditation is explained; subsequently he presents his form only to them as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 1.13 “Esha sarvasva bhUthasthu” (This embrace of mine is equivalent to everything else). Let the others say whatever they like; but there is nothing greater than this path which is shown by our AzhwArs; even those who [sections of vEdhAntham] say “there is something inside/beyond the [divine] form”, are only speaking about the true nature of bhagavAn; they are not negating the form.
  • puLLaik kadAginRa – garudAzhwAr would eagerly wonder “Are we going to be roaming around inside AzhwAr‘s heart only?” emperumAn would tap him to speed him up saying “Yes! How did you know?” and garudAzhwAr would continue his run inside; [is garudAzhwAr more eager to protect AzhwAr than emperumAn?] as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.4 “dhImatha:” (one who is conscious, his [it is in context of lakshmaNa being more protective of sIthAp pirAtti, than SrI rAma]), garuda’s duty is to unite the devotees with emperumAn.
  • kadAginRa – [present tense] not recollecting what happened in the past and not talking about future. Is there any specific instruction needed for what is happening now?
  • kANIr – You are not seeing. Even what is happening at present, is not fulfilling the purpose due to your efforts to stop it. Are you not hearing the noise of garudAzhwAr’s flying? It is unfortunate that I have to explain about what is well known.
  • kANIr – Are you trying to stop me, even after having eyes and ears? You too see this using your internal vision! They said “We have not seen it; you who have seen it, explain it to us!”
  • en sollich chollugEn – I cannot explain it; what can I say and which words can I use? Just as it is beyond your vision, it is beyond my speech. It appears that the experience which filled his heart cannot be fitted in to his speech!
  • en sollich chollugEn – I am not speaking due to my weakness; due to his unlimited greatness, we cannot speak about him. I need not speak since you are not going to believe me anyway.
  • annaimIrgAL – If you are like me [like minded], based on what is already known, we can do as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.9bOdhayantha: parasparam” (discuss with each other) [but you are much older than I].
  • en sollich chollugEn annaimIrgAL – I cannot express my anguish through words; you are stopping me in your old ways due to lack of understanding my situation; do I need only those who constantly stop me?

They ask “If we don’t have the eyes to see and the ears to hear, what are you planning to do?” She says I am going to the town where those who advice and try to withdraw me from him are not present. This abode [thenthiruppEreyil] is an abode which will not let one think about those [parents, friends etc] who separated as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran idham SarIram” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm).

  • veLLach chugam avan – One who has a flood of bliss. One who retains the infinite bliss which originated during the union, even during separation. The bliss he gave during union remains even in separation.
  • veLLai – When it is read as “veLLai“, it means faultless bliss [pure bliss, without suffering]. It should be recited as “avan vIRRirundha – thenthiruppEreyil“. This is the opposite to what is said in her case in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.4itta kAl itta kaiyaLAy irukkum” (she remains with her leg and hand placed wherever they were). While she is suffering here, he is seated jofyfully manifesting his opulence there.
  • avan vIRRirundha – Being seated victoriously after winning her over. If he remains forgetting the situation, should we also remain like that? If he remains complete and prideful there, should we who are with faults and are suffering, remain quiet? If he remains ignoring the rules, should we also not break the rules? If only we were united with someone whose separation is bearable, we can remain tolerant. Should we not break the rules, and even pursue madal [an act of crying out in public complaining about the beloved person]? Isn’t it said in periya thirumozhi 9.3.9 “namakkE nalam Adhalin” (if it is good for us)?
  • vEdha oliyum – Being heartless, he is hearing the ancient praises. That is, he is hearing about his previous successes. That is, the praises such as in jithanthE sthOthram 1 “jithanthE puNdarikAksha” (Oh lotus-eyed lord! Victory for you).
  • vizhA oliyum – It appears like celebration for winning her over.
  • aRA – Immediately after the thIrththavAri (concluding) day, they will perform thirumuLaichchARRu (commencement of the next uthsavam). Just as akrUra performed aSvamEdha yAgams continuously after acquiring the syamanthka maNi (a precious gemstone), for makaranedunguzhaik kAdhar, there are continuous uthsavams; parAnguSa nAyaki is a sthrI rathnam (gem among women). But the celebrations are not held where she is present [instead they are in thenthiruppEreyil].
  • piLLaik kuzhA viLaiyAttoliyum aRA – She is saying that she would leave the town where even aged [matured] persons are stopped [from engaging in bhagavath vishayam] and to the town where even young children [who are not matured] are engaged in bhagavath vishayam constantly, are present.  Even young children would be immersed in makaranedunguzhaikkAdhan’s beauty and would constantly utter about that as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 6.16 “bAlA api krIdamAnA gruha dhvArEshu sangaSa: | rAmAbhishtava samyukthASchakrurEva mitha: kathA: ||” (Children who are in playing-stage will assemble at the entrance and sing about the glories of SrI rAma).  uththara rAmAyaNa SlOkam “rAmO rAmO rAma ithi” (Saying rAma, repeatedly) is beautifully explained here by nampiLLai.
    • rAmO rAmO rAma ithi –  Like some say “sORu sORu sORu” (food, repeatedly)
    • prajA nAm abhavan kathA: – this is the recital for everyone who has taken birth
    • rAma bhUtham jagatha bhUth – The whole kingdom became rAmAdhvaitham (everyone was seeing SrI rAma everywhere). What is the reason for feeling the experience of nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm), here?,
    • rAmO rAjyam praSAsathi – The dwellers of ayOdhyA are not enjoying the result of their karma; they are enjoying the mercy of SrI rAma. As said in samkshEpa rAmAyaNam, “nachAgnijam bayam kinchith” – fire never gets hotter than it is necessary to cook rice. “nApsu majjanthi janthava:” – the water which will drown objects, will make them float. Water [ocean] has already seen the prowess of SrI rAma. thiruchchandha viruththam 31 “vElai vEva vil vaLaiththa” (launched his bow to heat the water of the ocean).
  • thiruppEreyil sErvan nAnE – It is natural that the loser reaches the abode of the winner. As said in “thAmaraik kaNNan en nenjinUdE“, she will sing “jithanthE” and fall there [at his divine feet].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 50 – kURRamum sArA

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr instructed others to recite the divine names of sarvESvaran (lord of all) to reap the benefit of having been given a tongue. In this pAsuram he says that he has no ills since he has taken the divine names of emperumAn in his heart and sheds all his worries.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kURRamum sArA kodu vinaiyum sAra thI
mARRamum sArA vagai aRindhEn ARRang
karaikkidakkum kaNNan kadal kidakkum mAyan
uraikkidakkum uLLaththenakku

Word for Word Meanings

kadal – in thiruppARkadal (milky ocean)
kidakkum – reclining
mAyan – amazing entity
ARu karai – at kapisthalam on the banks of river kAvEri
kidakkum – reclining
kaNNan – krishNa’s
urai – the divine charama SlOka (ultimate hymn)
enakku – for me
uLLaththu – heart
kidakkum – is registered

Hence
kURRamum sArA – fear of yama (deity of righteousness) not approaching
kodu vinaiyum sArA – cruel sins not approaching
thI mArRamum sArA  – bad reputation not approaching
vagai – means
aRindhEn – I knew

vyAkyAnam

kURRamum sArA vagai aRindhEn – I knew the means by which yama will not come near me. It is apt to recall here some pAsurams from dhivya prabandham such as nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 68 “thiRambEnmin kaNdIr” (yama tells his messengers “What I now instruct you, do not go against”), thiruvAimozhi 10-2-1 “kedum idarAyavellAm kEsavA enna nALum koduvinai seyyum kURRin thamargaLum kuRugakillAr” (by reciting the divine name kESava, all the hurdles will disappear; the messengers of yama who indulge in cruel punishments every moment, will not come anywhere near and will run away), thirumalai 1nAvalittu uzhitharuginROm namanthamar thalaigaLmIdhE ” (we are walking on top of the heads of yama’s messengers, raising svictorious slogans), periya thirumozhi 8-10-7 “vaLLalE! un thamarkkenRum namanthamar kaLLarpOl” (Oh the magnanimous one! the messengers of  yama will hide from your followers just as thieves would hide themselves ) and SrIvishNu purANam SlOkam 3-7-14 “svapurushamabivIkshya” (having observed the supreme being).

koduvinaiyum sArA vagai aRindhEn – I also knew the means by which terrible sins, which cause yama to come near me, will not approach me.

thI mARRamum sArA vagai aRindhEn – I also knew the means by which ill reputation such as “he is a dhEhAbhimAni (one who mistakes physical body for soul); he is a svathanthrAbhimAni (he thinks that he is independent); he is a dhEvathaNthara paran (he worships other deities); he is vishayAntharaparan (he is after worldly pursuits); he is upAyAntharaparan (he goes after other means to attain emperumAn))” will not approach me. thImARRam – calamity; evil

What is the basis for knowing such means?

kadal kidakkum mAyan ARRangaraik kidakkum kaNNan uraikkidakkum uLLaththu enakku – kaNNam (krishNa) lies in kapisthalam on the shores of the river kAvEri in order to be accessible to all those who cannot approach him at thiruppARkadal (milky ocean) where he normally reclines as an amazing entity who is approached by brahmA et al; such krishNa, during the mahAbhAratha war had said, as mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18-66sarva dharmAn parithyajya mAmEkam SaraNam vraja I aham thvA sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi mA Sucha: II” (leaving aside all the means for attaining mOksham, along with their traces, hold on to me alone, as the means; I will liberate you from all sins; don’t feel sad). These words will always be in my heart. Thus I knew the means by which yama, cruel sins and ill reputation will not approach me.

kadal kidakkum mAyan – he is an amazing entity who reclines in the milky ocean where he can be approached only by a few people such as those living in SvEthadhvIpam (another planet like ours).

ARRangaraikkidakkum kaNNan – just as in a town, when a person goes in search of another and doesn’t find him easily, he goes to the riverfront and waits for him there (since everyone comes to the river for their needs), emperumAn also reclines near the river bed, waiting for those who have desire in him to come there to worship him.

kaNNan – krishNa, who becomes the matter for everyone’s eyes.

kaNNan urai – the charama SlOkam recited by krishNa. Alternatively, we can construe this as emperumAn’s divine names which refer to his svarUpa (basic nature), rUpa (divine form), vibhUthi (wealth) and chEshtitha (divine activities).

uraikkidakkum – the heart where his divine names rest. In other words, to me who has the knowledge about him.

kaNNan uraikkidakkum uLLaththenakku kURRamum sArA – for me, who has his instructions “sarva dharmAn parithyajya” (letting go of all means) in my heart, there is no fear about yama which haunts those who are engaged only in their varNASrama dharmam (doing whatever is ordained in the vEdhas for one’s classification and status).

kaNNan uraikkidakkum ….. koduvinaiyum sArA – there is no scope for me who is fully engaged in krishNa’s instructions, to have any connection with pApa / puNya (vice / virtue) which would befall those who observe certain deeds desirous of end results, which those deeds would give them.

ARRangaraikkidakkum – this implies certain qualities such as simplicity which are referred to in emperumAn’s utterance of the word mAm (in the charama SlOkam), which are known as ASrayaNa saukaryApAthaka guNas (those which facilitate his followers to attain him).

kadal kidakkum mAyan – this implies certain qualities such as gyAna sakthi which are referred to in his utterance of the word aham (in the charama SlOkam) which are known as ASrithakAryApAthaka guNas (qualities which facilitate his carrying out the activities of his followers).

We will move on to the 51st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.3 – veLLaich churi sangu

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Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the third decad – previously, AzhwAr became pacified mediating upon the qualities of periya perumAL; still he desired for external experience and became very distressed; considering emperumAn‘s merciful presence in close proximity in thiruppErai to subdue that distress,  highlights the following aspects:

  1. his being with distinguished weapons etc which are externally enjoyable
  2. his great supremacy and simplicity
  3. his attractive, beautiful limbs etc
  4. his being with amazing qualities which are enjoyable
  5. his eliminating unfavourable aspects
  6. his great magnanimity
  7. his destruction of great enemies
  8. the manifestation of great devotion towards him
  9. his protection during deluge
  10. his crushing of enemies of his devotees

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr had great urge to reach the dhivyadhESam where such emperumAn is residing. AzhwAr informs about this desire to those caring relatives and friends who are in his close proximity. This scenario is explained as, AzhwAr assuming a feminine mood and desiring to go to his divine consort makara nedunguzhaik kAdhar emperumAn who is residing in thenthiruppErai (thenthiruppEreyil). At that time, her friends and mothers try to stop her saying “this is not proper etiquette [you have to wait for his arrival to accept you]”; she tells them “I cannot avoid going there; either you all take me there or else I will go myself” and mercifully reveals her determination through these pAsurams.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

Previously, as said in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.4itta kAl itta kai” (foot and hand, remained wherever they were placed), parAnguSa nAyaki remained unconscious; her friends were down even before her; her mother alone called out considering her state, but gave up in the end; finally she regained consciousness and started walking. The reason for her regaining consciousness is, she sustained herself by constantly uttering the qualities of periya perumAL such as aSaraNya SaraNyathva (being the refuge for those without a refuge) etc which she seeks and the qualities of his divine form such as beauty etc, and hearing the same from her mother. The qualities are such that they will bring back life in a dead person.

After regaining consciousness, being able to think about the suffering of separation, she reached the state of not sustaining without attaining him, and due to not having that desire fulfilled , she became distressed. Her heart became captivated by makara nedunguazhaik kAdhan emperumAn who resided in close proximity in thenthiruppEreyil to subdue her anxiety, she decided “I will go to his divine abode”. As before, her friends and mothers surrounded her and said “You should not have so much love; this will lead to disrepute to us”; she replies “there is no use of your advice; my heart is captivated by him; hence, you help me go there to avoid the blame of me leaving without your consent” and informs her determination to them.

Alternatively, piLLAn explains it in this manner.

As it is said in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.11 “mugilvaNNan adiyE – ivaL aNugi adaindhanaL” (she reached the divine feet of periya perumAL only), as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.17 “samA dhvAdhaSa thathrAham” (I enjoyed blissfully with SrI rama for twelve years), parAnguSa nAyaki enjoyed overwhelming bliss with periya perumAL for a long time, both their individual identities will perish due to that overwhelming union unless there is a separation in between; as they are now interacting as a single [different] entity due to the union, without the separation their individual identities will be lost; at this time, emperumAn who always looks out for the survival of both the entities, proposes to separate, and as parAnguSa nAyaki does not know about separation [she has such overwhelming experience in union that she has forgotten about previous separation], she thinks “Oh! may be this is one aspect of our enjoyment together” and allows him to separate; emperumAn, leaves citing his going for hunting as the reason and she bids farewell by accompanying him up to the gate – now, the separation will show its real impact certainly; subsequently, she started anguishing; seeing this, her friends and mothers asked her “what are you thinking about?” She said “As the divine daughter of SrI janakarAja accompanied SrI rAma and enjoyed the places where he sat, stood and roamed around, I too desire to be with him where he is”. They said “that does not fit your nature of being a modest wife; your words are invalid”. She said “What is the point in your stopping me? I cannot remain here; it is better if you took me over there”. They said “We won’t agree to do that”. So she said “I will go alone if I have to”.

[SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.17 is explained here]

  • samA dhvAdhaSa thathrAham – I who cannot even get momentary audience of him, enjoyed with him for a long time previously!
  • rAghavasya nivESanE – In the mansion of my father-in-law, as he eliminated all the hurdles, I enjoyed his company for a long time.
  • bhunjAnAmAnushAn bhOgAn sarva kAma samrudhdhinI – I enjoyed all pleasures as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “sarvAn kAmAn” (all pleasures). [Are all qualities fully present in SrI rAmAvathAram?] Here it is unlike that; as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.26 “bahavO nrupa kalyANa guNA: puthrasya santhithE” (Oh emperor! You son (SrI rAma) has many auspicious qualities), the qualities are doubled here.

With this, it is explained that as we cannot withdraw our senses from worldly pleasures, AzhwAr cannot be withdrawn from bhagavath vishayam. Our attachment to worldly pleasures arises from karma; his attachment to bhagavAn arises from his mercy.

The words which are seen here as spoken by the mother [of parAnguSa nAyaki] are a special mood/state of AzhwAr; speaking as the divine consort of emperumAn is also a special mood/state of AzhwAr; among these when AzhwAr speaks as the mother who stops her daughter – he emphasises “what if the prAvaNyam (great love towards emperumAn) which is a natural quality of AthmA, becomes the upAyam (means) to attain him?” When he speaks as the daughter – he emphasises “as the upAyam is emperumAn only, isn’t it just natural to have prAvaNyam [great love to reach him immediately]?” Hence in these two different moods, AzhwAr himself reveals these two principles. This decad is great since parAnguSa nAyaki regained her composure and gained the ability to call emperumAn herself.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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