SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
See nampiLLai’s introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
See nampiLLai’s introduction.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
In the first decad – AzhwAr surrendered unto emperumAn previously with an eye on the goal; emperumAn manifested the severity of the hurdles in order to eliminate them; AzhwAr who was already frightened as in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “kAttip paduppAyO” (are you planning to finish me by revealing varieties of pleasures?), thiruvAimozhi 6.9.8 “innam keduppAyO” (will you torment me further?), on seeing the severity of the hurdles such as body, senses etc as said in “samsAra Srama parithApa thaptha chEthA:“, becomes even more sorrowful and highlights the following aspects:
- the completeness of the relationship with emperumAn who is the eliminator of the hurdles and emperumAn’s other qualities
- his great enjoyability
- his acts for the protection [of others]
- his ability to accomplish impossible tasks
- eliminating hurdles as his nature
- his presence in all forms
- his engagement in great tasks to fulfil the needs of his devotees
- his being with distinguished symbols
- his being the creator, etc of all worlds
- his ability to absorb everything
Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr calls out with great sorrow due to his relationship with emperumAn saying “You who are of such nature, even after seeing the torture given by the senses etc which are at your disposal, are not eliminating them”.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nampiLLai‘s introduction.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction
AzhwAr pursued emperumAn as much as it was possible for him [i.e. properly surrendered to him] saying “amarndhu pugundhEn“. But he did not see that the hurdles were eliminated and the goal was attained. He thinks “he is planning to abandon me”. falling on the ground and staying there, calls out for him. When one pursues the means (emperumAn) where there is no scope for delay, he would call out until the goal is attained. What he did previously was – he highlighted his own Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self), surrendered unto the divine feet of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn in the presence of periya pirAttiyAr. But, he did not see that surrender leading him to the result as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.14 “mAm Eva yE prapadhyanthE mAyAm EthAm tharanthi thE” (Only those who surrender unto me, will cross over this material nature/realm [by my grace]). Now, he becomes upset thinking “he may be planning to abandon me”. After pondering upon the nature of samsAram (material realm) and feeling helpless, and even after surrendering unto the divine feet of emperumAn, as his desire was not fulfilled, AzhwAr, being scared, considers emperumAn as a cruel person who would send his armed servants to torture those who surrender unto him. To have ISvara bestowing his mercy, one needs to have a) realisation of the defects of the samsAram (material realm) and b) meditation of the distinguished nature of emperumAn. There is nothing further needed than surrendering unto him. Since even after doing all of these, his desire is not accomplished, AzhwAr calls out thinking “even my best option is exhausted”. Now there are only two options as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.19 “kshipAmi” (I push them [in demoniac births]) and SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.10 “dhadhAmi” (I bestow [the knowledge]); AzhwAr thought “let us not become the target of kshipAmi”. Why is this? Hasn’t emperumAn already given him the budhdhi yOgam (knowledge) which is [part of] “dhadhAmi“? AzhwAr is feeling “emperumAn gave me such knowledge only to torment me”. He is neither aiming to fulfil his desire based on his own strength; nor is he willing to lose it based on the lack of strength in emperumAn; whatever is required for the goal, was already performed by him; so, there is no reason for him to lose it. But why has he not attained the goal? emperumAn thought “Only if there is some fault in AzhwAr, the ultimate goal is said to be not attained; as he exists for my sake, it is better if he remains here for now”. emperumAn had something in his mind to have it accomplished by AzhwAr. Further, since this is AzhwAr‘s final body [birth in this material realm], though he has surrendered, due to his great love for AzhwAr’s divine form, he has not liberated it. It is his attachment towards AzhwAr’s divine form, which made AzhwAr fall at his feet and say in thiruvAimozhi 10.7.10 “mangavottu” (you should agree to relieve me). With true love [of emperumAn towards AzhwAr], there cannot be any other reason. Isn’t this [AzhwAr’s body] his body too; but AzhwAr is thinking “if he has something to be accomplished through me, could he not get it done by those who would comfortably live here”. emperumAn thought that the knowledge he bestowed will help AzhwAr sustain himself; but the same knowledge became the reason for his urge towards emperumAn. emperumAn thought “let me act in proper order”; AzhwAr considered “he is planning to abandon me” due to emperumAn‘s such attitude. For AzhwAr who has visualised nithya vibhUthi (paramapadham) and emperumAn’s auspicious divine form and who is having the urge to go and enjoy emperumAn there, it is impossible to sustain with the knowledge “samsAram is also a form of his wealth”. He remains as said in thiruvAimozhi 8.1.9 “yAnum nIdhAnAyth theLithoRum nanRum anjuvan naragam nAnadaidhal” (As I realise my servitude towards you, I become fearful about reaching the hellish material realm). AzhwAr meditated upon his own state as mentioned here, emperumAn having many persons to protect, being a protector being his nature, self having the aptness to be protected, self’s own lack of interest in these [protecting self, and worldly matters], the qualities such as sathvam (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) and the cause for these qualities viz virtues, body, senses etc, and the cause for these such as mUla prakruthi (primordial matter), mahAn, ahankAram etc and the result of which such as avidhyA (ignorance), karma (deeds), vAsanA (impressions), ruchi (inclination) etc all of these being at the disposal of emperumAn; he then determined “He placed me in this samsAram where sensual pleasures and senses are present, only to abandon me after I become a prey for them; now we have entered the group which is the target of ‘kshipAmi‘. In this his instruments were seen, to abandon me. In that, his presence in the grand assembly in paramapadham is to laugh along with the residents there, at my sufferings. He has the samsAram as a prison for me. He bestowed unblemished knowledge/devotion to make me tremble and suffer unlike others [who joyfully live in ignorance]”, placed his head at emperumAn’s divine feet, and wailed from there to be shown pity by all those who heard him.
In thiruvAimozhi 6.2 “minnidai madavAr” – AzhwAr assumed a feminine form and spoke in romantic anger. But since it felt like speaking through someone else’s mouth, AzhwAr in his own mood, attained a state where he was upset. He is totally comparable to sIthAp pirAtti, the divine daughter of SrI janakarAja. That is, instead of blaming anyone else, he would say “My own sin is the cause for all of these”. But why is such a person, blaming emperumAn now? When one realises the aptness [of the relationship], one can ascertain the aspects which are on himself to be on emperumAn. When a child falls in a well, it can be said “the mother pushed him in”. The reason for that is “If the mother carefully looked after the child, would he fall into the well? It is her carelessness which caused the disaster” and hence the mother could be blamed. udhanga came to krishNa and told him “When both the groups are related to you in the same manner, why did you protect pANdavas and let dhuryOdhana et al to be destroyed; can you act like this with partiality?”, krishNa highlighted their faults and said “they didn’t have the inclination towards dharma (virtues)”. And udhanga asked “Why didn’t you instill that inclination in them?”.
But, AzhwAr hates the worldly pleasures so much to as say in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “pala nI kAttip paduppAyO” (are you planning to finish me by revealing varieties of pleasures?), thiruvAimozhi 6.9.8 “kiRi seydhennaip puRaththittu innam keduppAyO” (will you trick me into placing me away and torment me further?) and even without his knowledge his senses are attracted towards bhagavAn as seen in thiruvAimozhi 3.8 “mudiyAnE“. Wouldn’t it be contrary to say such AzhwAr is under the clutches of his own senses? When the neighbouring house is on fire, one would naturally fear for one’s own house; when one sees a rope near an anthill, one would confuse it with a snake naturally. AzhwAr saw that the worldly people and self are having similar bodies; he saw that everyone is under the clutches of his/her senses and is suffering; he becomes frightened thinking “what if we also suffer?” and calls out.
[Three examples are cited for surrendering in distress]
[Example 1 – SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 59.45 is explained here – Monkey warriors surrendered to SrI rAma on seeing rAvaNa’s valour]
- SAkAmrugA: – Even after entering the battle, not having the focus there. Aren’t they just jumping from one branch to another?
- rAvaNa sAya kArthA: – The arrows in the hands of rAvaNa who even frightened the protectors of various directions.
- jangmuS SaraNyam SaraNam smarAmam – They surrendered to the one who can relieve them from their danger.
[Example 2] As seen in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 94.17 “rAkshasair vadhyamAnAnAm vAnarANAm mahachamU: | SaraNyam SaraNam yAthA rAmam dhaSarathAthmajam ||” (The great army of monkey warriors who were tormented by the army of demons, surrendered unto SrI rAma, the son of dhaSaratha), just as the monkey elders who were tormented by the demons, surrendered unto perumAL, AzhwAr too feared his senses which are explained in periya thiruvandhAdhi 51 “manamALum Or aivar van kuRumbar” (the cruel, five senses which dominate the mind), and is calling out to emperumAn.
[Example 3] She is going through the same suffering as sIthAp pirAtti, the divine daughter of SrI janakarAja as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 15.24 “priyam janam apaSyanthIm paSyanthIm rAkshasIgaNam svagaNEna mrugIm hInAm SvagaNai: AvruthAmiva” (One who is not seeing any of her dear ones, and who is seeing the demoniac people, and one who resembles a baby deer who was caught in a herd of wolves).
piLLai thirunaRaiyUr araiyar used to explain “in these ten pAsurams, the first half indicates how a child who was caught by a tiger [in the dream] would suffer when woken up in the hands of the mother”. As said in SrIvishNu purANam “thAvadhArthi” SlOkam [explained already in thiruvAimozhi 6.10 pravESam], after surrendering one cannot be upset with self; one can only be upset with emperumAn. Even surrendering unto emperumAn in thirumalA caused him to cry out instead of getting him the goal accomplished.
Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.
- pAsuram 1
- pAsuram 2
- pAsuram 3
- pAsuram 4
- pAsuram 5
- pAsuram 6
- pAsuram 7
- pAsuram 8
- pAsuram 9
- pAsuram 10
- pAsuram 11
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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