Monthly Archives: June 2018

nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 13 – vIdAkkum peRRiyaRiyAdhu

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avathArikai

After AzhwAr mercifully stated that those who know emperumAn attain him, he was asked ‘it is said that attaining him is very difficult as mentioned in vEdhas “yagyEna dhAnEna thapasA’nAsanEna brAhmaNa vividhishanthi” (brAhmaNas desire to know emperumAn through rituals, donations, penance and fasting). This being the case, could you say that attaining him is simple?’ by those who are following other means to attain him. AzhwAr responds to them through this pAsuram.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vIdAkkum peRRIyaRiyAdhu mey varuththik
kUdAkki ninRuNdu koNduzhalvIr! vIdAkkum
meypporuLdhAn vEdha mudhaRporuLdhAn viNNavarkku
naRporuLdhAn nArAyaNan

Word for Word Meanings

vIdu Akkum peRRI aRiyAdhu – not knowing the path to attain mOksham (liberation)
mey – physical body
varuththi – creating distress through fasting etc
kUdu Akki – making it very much like a skeleton, without any strength
ninRu – carrying out penance like this for a long time
uNdu koNdu – eating thereafter
uzhalvIr – Oh those who are toiling!
vIdu Akkum – one who can grant mOksham (liberation)
mey poruLdhAn – he is certainly a means
vEdham mudhal poruLdhAn – he has been shown as the supreme being by sacred texts
viNNavarkku – for nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam)
nal poruLdhAn – the enjoyable entity
nArAyaNan – it is only SrIman nArAyaNa

vyAkyAnam

vIdAkkum peRRi aRiyAdhu – without knowing which (type of) means will grant liberation. AzhwAr feels amazed that people are considering the insentient type of means such as karmayOgam (path of carrying out ordained deeds) for attaining liberation instead of knowing that the supreme being himself is the means.

mey varuththikkUdAkki – punishing the body, while carrying out penance, and making it appear like a skeleton. Aren’t they the people who believe as said in “thapasA’nASakEna” (through penance, by fasting)!

ninRu – remaining like this for a long time.

uNdu – enjoying the benefit of the penance for sometime.

koNdu uzhalvIr –Oh those who wander about thinking that by carrying out karmayOgam for some more time, you can attain mOksham! If the text is konRu uzhalvIr the meaning will change as those who wander by killing yourself!

aRiyAdhu mey varuththi . . . .uzhalvIr – As mentioned in “vammin pulavIr! Num mey varuththik kai seydhu uymiinO” for carrying out kainkaryam (service to emperumAn), if one should exert oneself through physical efforts it will be a means for uplifting oneself as well as being sweet to carry out as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9-2susukam karththum”.  AzhwAr says that it is foolhardy to starve the body and make it into a skeleton, thinking that it is the means to attain liberation.

When told “Alright, we do not know what is the means for liberation. Since you know it, why don’t you mercifully mention it to us”, AzhwAr says….

vIdAkkum mey poruLdhAn nArAyaNan – his name will announce that he is the means for liberation. Haven’t you heard of his name! AzhwAr is asking whether they have not heard of the authentic source “nAraSabdhEna jIvAnAm samUha: prOchyathE bhudhai: I gathirAlambanam thasya thEna nArAyaNa; smrutha: II”(the sound [word] nArAyaNa denotes the collection of jIvAthmAs. Since he is the means as well as the end result for those jIvAthmAs, he is called as nArAyaNa).

vIdAkkum mey poruLdhAn – even the karmas (deeds carried out as per sacred texts) will bear fruit for those who carry them only if they make nArAyaNa happy. Thus these deeds are not the direct means to attain him. Only nArAyaNa is the direct means who grants the end results. Thus, AzhwAr says, get rid of the thought that these deeds are the means and carry out service to him.

When asked if there is any other proof that he is the means for liberation, AzhwAr says…

vEdha mudhaRporuLdhAn – quotations from purusha sUktham and nArAyaNa sUktham are given, as mentioned below:

nArAyaNa sUktham “nArAyaNam …… pArAyaNam” (nArAyaNa is the highest means)

purusha sUktham “uthAmruthathvasyESAna:” (only the supreme being is the lord for mOksham)

amruthasyaisha sEthu” (he is the bridge for reaching mOksham ).

Thus, it is nArAyaNa who is mentioned in vEdhas as the primary means for attaining mOksha.

AzhwAr is further asked, “If he is the means, is there any other object which is attained and enjoyed?”  He says…

viNNavrakkum naRporuLdhAn – he is the entity who is enjoyed by the nithyasUris in SrIvaikuNtam.

vEdha mudhaRporuLdhAn viNNavarkku naRporuLdhAn – vEdhas clearly state, as in SrI vishNu sUktham “thadh vishNO: paramam padham sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:  ” (that is SrIvaikuNtam; the nithyasUris keep looking at him constantly); as in purusha sUktham uththara bhAgam (end part) “yO dhEvEbya Athapathi I yO dhEvAnAm purOhitha: ” (one who remains for nithyasUris and one who is the object of attainment from time immemorial…); and as said in subhAlO’panishath “SaraNam gathir nArAyaNa: ” (it is nArAyaNa who is both means and the object of attainment).

When asked who is he who remains as both means and object of attainment, AzhwAr says …

nArAyaNan – it is nArAyaNa. The implied meaning is that this name shows as to who is the means and object of attainment.

We will take up 14th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 4

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pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

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Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[SaraNAgathi’s greatness was highlighted. Now, we move on to the third explanation which is based on SaraNAgathi’s greatness]

With this pAsuram starting with “agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA“, AzhwAr surrenders to thiruvEngadamudaiyAn by falling at his divine feet, manifesting his own Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self) and with the purushakAram of periya pirAttiyAr.

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA – This upAyam [emperumAn as the means] is both nirapEksha (without expectation) and sApEksha (with expectation), due to the different states. How is it nirapEksha? emperumAn himself, without any expectation, will instill the inclination [in the AthmA], nurture that inclination, eliminate the hurdles, carry the AthmA to paramapadham and accept the kainkaryam [from the AthmA] which is apt; he does not need any assistance. (Why is it said sApEksha? It is because, he expects a qualified person who surrenders and purushakAram). As this means is for a qualified person, it is adhikAri sApEksham; (just as it is expecting a qualified person, it also expects purushakAram) How is that? When the qualified person, retracts [from surrendering] seeing his own previous offences, and emperumAn’s independent attitude, omniscience etc, pirAtti who says “don’t fear” is required. (Hence) emperumAn expects both a qualified person to surrender and pirAtti who facilitates the process of surrender.
  • agalagillEn iRaiyum – I cannot separate from you even for a moment. Who is speaking like this? She is the one who is the lord of three types of chEthanas (nithya, muktha, badhdha AthmAs), and the controller of the lord of both spiritual and material realms! The proof for her being the lord of three types of chEthanas is in SrI sUktham “ISvarIm sarva bhUthAnAm” (the lord of all creatures). The proof for her being the controller of the lord of both realms is in “pum pradhAna ISvara ISvarIm” which means emperumAn is the ISvara for pradhAna (achith) and pum/purusha (chith); she is the lord of such emperumAn. Thus, she is explained as the controller for everyone. How does she control? She controls the three types of chEthanas as the mother; she controls ISvara as the beloved person with love. While mAthruthvam (motherhood) is natural for her, can the praNayithvam (being the beloved person of emperumAn) which occurs occasionally, be incidental? No. Since her distinguished beauty is the base for emperumAn’s love towards her, that loving relationship is also eternal. Even his activities such as creation etc are under her control as said in SrI sthavam “yasyA vIkshya mukham thadhingitha parAdhInO vidhaththEkilam“, he would perform creation etc being captivated by her [adolescent] age and her divine glance. Why should that be the case? Isn’t it said that he engages in creation out of his own mercy in SrIrangarAja sthavam “karaNa kaLEbarai gatayithum dhayamAna manA:“? Only when he creates looking at the helpless state of the chEthanas, his mercy would trigger the creation; but it is his own helpless state [of being mesmerised by her beauty], as she glances at him, he realises his own self, and as his mercy is being triggered by her, he performs creation due to that mercy. When she controls emperumAn, she does that without affecting her own nature which is explained in neeLA sUktham “asyESAnA jagathO vishNu pathnI” (the lord of the universe and the beloved wife of vishNu) and in SrIvishNu purANam 1.8.17 “vishNO: SrIranapAyinI” (lakshmi who is inseparable from vishNu); How is that possible? Just as rays of the sun which remain at the disposal of the sun, yet will add splendour to the sun, and just as the fragrance is subservient to the flower, yet it makes the flower precious. Just as ISvara remains svathanthra (independent) yet be totally existing for pirAtti, pirAtti too remains exclusive subservient to emperumAn yet adds splendour to him. Generally, separation [sorrow] is due to karma [past deeds]; while she is untouched by karma, can she say “agalagillEn“? Just as [worldly people would speak based on] karma, pirAtti is saying this based on his distinguished greatness. But shouldn’t one just enjoy the distinguished greatness [instead of fearing if one will lose that enjoyment]? Just as one who acquired a priceless gemstone will fear “will this stay with me?”, she is needlessly fearing “what if I have to leave his divine chest?”.
  • iRaiyum agalagillEn – I will not even bear the separation which leads to union [that which enhances the experience]. Just as emperuAn will not tolerate any other assistance when he is the means, she is too tender to even bear the separation which leads to union. Staying in his divine chest, she is informing his own distinguished nature by saying “I am unable to bear your separation”. As he is omniscient wouldn’t he already know his distinguished nature? Isn’t it a defect in his knowledge if he comes to know about it when she tells him? If he does not know based on her telling him, it will be a defect for his love towards her! It is also said in thiruvAimozhi 8-4-6 “thanakkum than thanmai aRivariyAnai ” (he cannot know about his qualities himself). Creation of the universe etc are subject to his knowledge; it is said in thiruvAimozhi 3.10.8gyAnamahdhE koN(du) ellAk karumangaLum sey” (he is being the controller for all the worlds, with his knowledge). His state is such that he cannot even say “agalagillEn iRaiyum“. Only when we see his words during separation, we can understand his greatness compared to that of pirAtti who has seen his greatness. She said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 40.10 “mAsAdhUrdhvam na jIvishyE” (I will not be able to survive for more than a month if I don’t see SrI rAma). But he said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “najIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I will not survive even for a moment if I don’t see sIthA). For one who is dependent, one needs to be patient until the owner arrives; but for an independent person, there is no such restriction. So, is there any shortcoming for mumukshus (those who desire for liberation) when such distinguished couple is present [as their refuge]? For those who pursued them individually, total destruction is certain for them. But for those who remain “the divine couple is our goal”, they will certainly be uplifted. We can see this in the case of rAvaNa et al [rAvaNa desired for sIthA alone, he got killed. sUrpaNakA desired for SrI rAma alone, she lost her nose and ears. vibhIshaNAzhwAn desired for sIthA and SrI rAma, he was rewarded aptly].
  • alar mEl mangaipirAtti who is having most tender like the soft fragrance of a flower which is filtered out from buds and dust and aptly enjoyable age. She who has the features which would make him tell “agalagillEn” is now saying that herself.
  • uRai mArbA – After relishing the joy in his divine chest, the flower in which she was born, appears to be a thorn.  Just as the divine daughter of SrI janaka never thought about SrI mithilA and just as liberated souls would never think about the material realm as said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran idham SarIram” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm), after relishing the most enjoyable divine chest of emperumAn, she never thinks about the flower. When her knowledge is fully expanded, it is not a fault of her knowledge if she does not know about and see material realm; but it is emperumAn’s most enjoyable nature [which makes her not see the material realm]; so, she too is not seeing the material realm due to his enjoyable nature.
  • uRai mArbA – Just as she is not seeing the flower, she is also not seeing any other limbs of emperumAn beyond his divine chest. The other limbs will remain unused/unseen. Until here, “SrI” and “math” are explained. SrI is said to explain the purushakAram which is required [for SaraNAgathi]. What is the purpose of “math”, the eternal togetherness? That indicates the eternal presence with emperumAn, which ensures that the one who surrenders need not look for a specific time to surrender.
  • nigaril pugazhAy … – Now, this explains the word, nArAyaNa. While nArAyaNa means ownership of both spiritual and material realms, and being the cause of the universe as said in padhma purANam “narAjjAthAnithathvAni” (all entities originate from nara), our AchAryas highlighted the four qualities namely saulabhyam, sauSeelyam, vAthsalyam and svAmithvam which are required in emperumAn to be a refuge; AzhwAr is explaining the proper sequence of those qualities. While talking about those qualities, why is vAthsalyam listed in the beginning? Since the one who surrenders has offences, when purushakAram is done by pirAtti, subsequently, for emperumAn to enjoy such offences as qualities, he needs vAthsalyam – that is why it is highlighted as the first quality [vAthsalyam is the motherly forbearance where a mother will treat her child’s defects as enjoyable aspects]. Would “nigaril pugazhAy” mean vAthsalyam? This is explained in [SaraNAgathi] gadhyam, while emperumAnAr explained certain qualities including vAthsalyam in chUrNikai 5apAra kAruNya sauSeelya vAthsalya …” (boundless mercy, simplicity and motherly forbearance), he also separately highlights in chUrNikai 5ASritha vAthsalyaika jaladhE” (having overflowing motherly forbearance towards devotees). This explains why vAthsalyam is the most celebrated and primary quality of emperumAn.
  • ulagam mUnRudaiyAy – The reason for the previously explained vAthsalyam, which is the motherly relationship [svAmithvam – being the lord/creator of all] is highlighted here. One becomes vathsalA (one with motherly care), due to giving birth to  a child.
  • ennai ALvAnE” indicates sauSeelyam. Would AzhwAr who surrenders manifesting his Akinchanyam, say this in the context of gratitude at the time of performing kainkaryam [for engaging him in service]? (He is highlighting this so that emperumAn engages him in service without abandoning him.) In the first word (SrI – agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA), he spoke seeing pirAtti‘s purushakAram; then, (nArAyaNa – nigaril pugazhAy) he spoke seeing emperumAn‘s upAyathvam (being the means); now – he is speaking this (ennai ALvAnE) seeing the world (since he is one among the residents of the world). Here, he is talking about the favour done by emperumAn to self, that is, emperumAn transforming AzhwAr who was one among the worldly people who consider the gain/loss of worldly pleasures as the ultimate gain/loss, into one who knows “other means such as karma yOga etc are hurldes”, having pirAtti as purushakAram and emperumAn himself being the upAyam (means) and upEyam (goal). How is this referred to as sauSeelyam? As said in “Seelam nAma – mahathOmandhaissaha nIrandhrENa samSlEsha:” (sauSeelyam means a great personality mingling with lowly person without any difference similar to water mixing with water), AzhwAr is saying “emperumAn mingled with me without seeing his own greatness and my lowliness”.
  • nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL indicates saulabhyam. The categorisation of servitors indicated in “amarar munik kaNangaL” is the same as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.9.9 “vaigundhaththamararum munivarum” (the amaras (who are focussed on kainkaryam without break) and munivars (who are focussed on meditating upon emperumAn‘s qualities) and in linga purANam “bhakthai: bhAgavathaissaha(devotees and followers). nigaril means there is none comparable to them [amara – nithyasUris, muni is explained as mukthAthmAs]. samsAris (worldly people) are not a match due to their bondage. mukthAthmAs are not a match due to their having bondage previously. As ISvara has responsibilities such as creating the universe etc, he is also not a match for them. [Do they not have responsibilities such as creation etc?] It is said in brahma sUthram 4.4.17 “jagath vyApAra varjam” (they (nithyas, mukthas) have all capabilities except engaging in activities related to material realm) and brahma sUthram 4.4.21 “bhOga mAthra sAmya lingAthcha” (Having similar identity in enjoyment only) – so they have enjoyment in bhagavAn related matters only.
  • virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE – This is their desire. Similar to the presence of a  lamp in a dark room, more than in paramapadham, as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 47 “kAnamum vAnaramum” (forests, monkeys), as he has all the beautiful qualities such as simplicity etc here to accept even the most lowly ones, and since they see what is not present even in paramapadham, they like it more here; saulabhyam is archaka parAdhInathvam (being at the disposal of the one who worships him), the quality of accepting everyone irrespective of their being superior or inferior.

We will see the remaining portion of this pAsuram in the next part of this article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 12 – madhiththAy pOy nAngin

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai

AzhwAr implores people to analyse the hardships which those who do not know emperumAn face and the benefit that gajEndhrAzhwAn (the elephant gajEndhra) accrued by thinking about him as mentioned in the SlOkam “sa thu nAgavara: SrImAn manasA’chinthayath harIm” (that gajEndhrAzhwAn who has the wealth of kainkaryam (service to emperumAn) thought of hari (emperumAn) in his mind). While the pAsuram has been addressed to emperumAn, in line with the earlier and the succeeding pAsurams, the people of the world are the real target.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

madhiththAy pOy nAngin madhiyAdhAr pOy vIzha
madhiththAy madhikOL viduththAy madhiththAy
madukkidandha mA mudhalai kOL viduppAn Azhi
vidaRkiraNdum pOyiraNdin vIdu

Word for Word Meanings

pOy – analysing all the SAsthras (sacred texts)
madhiyAr – those who do not know you
nAngil – among the four major species (celestial, human, animal and plant)
pOy vIzha – falling [into one of the four species]
madhiththAy – you had taken a vow
madhi – moon’s
kOL – curse
viduththAy – Oh one who caused it to disappear!
madu – in a pond
kidandha – having arrived at (due to a curse)
mA mudhalai – a huge crocodile
kOL – grasping (the elephant gajEndhra)
viduppAn – to liberate it
Azhi – the divine disc
vidaRku – to propel
madhiththAy – you thought of
iraNdum – both the elephant and the crocodile
pOy – leaving their earlier stage
iraNdin – for the two creatures
vIdu – for liberation from their curse and for attaining SrIvaikuNtam
madhiththAy – you took a vow

vyAkyAnam

nAngil pOy madhiyAr vIzha madhiththAy – you had vowed that those who do not know you despite analysing the four vEdhas will bite the dust.

nAngil madhiyAdhAr – “chathur vEdhadharO viprO vAsudhEvam na vindhadhi I vEdhabhArabharAkrAnthas sa vai brAhmaNagardhabha:  II” (the brAhmaNa who studies the four vEdhas and who does not know vAsudhEvan (emperumAn), is like a donkey which carries the loaded vEdhas (which is like invaluable saffron) ). These people (who, despite analysing vEdhas do not know emperumAn) are despised like this (like the example given here).

madhiyAr nAngil pOy vIzha madhiththAy – you vowed that such people will be born in the four major species (of celestial, human, animal and plant) repeatedly. emperumAn has mercifully mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16-19thAnaham dhvishatha: krUrAn samsAreshu narAdhamAn I kshipAmyajasramaSubhAnAsurIshvEva yOnishu  II” (I push those who hate me, who are cruel, who are the worst among people  and sinners, into the demonic species repeatedly).

madhi kOL viduththAy – you removed the affliction of chandhra (moon) who knew you. Is it not well known that those who do not know you suffer and those who know you are joyous!

Has this been seen elsewhere before?

madukkidandha mAmudhalai kOL viduppAn AzhividaRku madhiththAy – you decided to release the divine disc (to allow the elephant to be liberated) when the crocodile in the pond grasped firmly.

mAmudhalai – both in terms of physical form and strength, the crocodile was bigger than the elephant.

kOL – the strong grasp (of the crocodile)

Azhi vidaRku madhiththAy – while you could have killed the crocodile through your vow/will, you came to the pond and released the disc so that you would sustain gajEndhra who wanted to have your dharSan (seeing) with the divine hand and divine disc. While removing the enemy could have been achieved with emperumAn’s vow, pleasing the follower can be done only through releasing the disc. Aren’t emperumAn’s divine, auspicious form and armaments/ornaments meant only for his followers, as quoted in jithanthE SlOkam 5 “na thE rUpam na chAkArO nAyudhAni nA chAspadham”  (your basic nature, your divine form, your weapons, your dwelling place are not meant for you; they are for your devotees)!

iraNdum pOy iraNdin vIdu madhiththAy – you vowed that both crocodile and elephant would get rid of their forms and return to their original forms – crocodile regained its old gandharva (a class of celestial entity) form and the elephant went to SrIvaikuNtam. vIdu – position. This word can also mean liberation. Hence emperumAn vowed that crocodile will get liberated from its curse and elephant, liberation from samsAram.

Legend has it that a sage dhEvala was carrying out penance in a water body. At that time, a gandharva by name hUhU grasped the sage’s leg due to which the sage cursed him that the gandharva will be born as a crocodile and eat by grasping its victims. Similarly, indhradhyumna, a vishNubhaktha (devotee of vishNu) was meditating when he did not see the arrival of sage agasthya. The sage cursed him that he will become an elephant due to his vanity. Though born as an elephant, indhradhyumna was devoted to vishNu. One day, when he entered a pond to pluck a flower and offer it to emperumAn, he was grasped by the crocodile (gandharva) and the two fought for a very long time. Ultimately, when the elephant cried out to emperumAn AdhimUlam (the prime cause) he was saved by emperumAn and both crocodile and elephant were liberated from their curse.

We will take up the 13th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 3

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

<< Part 2

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

Listen

 

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[nampiLLai explains the greatness of prapaththi (SaraNAgathi) in great detail to instill the taste for it in everyone, in this third explanation]

AzhwAr mercifully explains through this pAsuram that which is discussed in all SAsthrams, essence of the vEdhAntham which is the root for all of these SAsthrams, and the special principle which is supported by all our AchAryas in unison. There is special greatness due to the pursuit of this upAyam (SaraNAgathi) by nammAzhwAr, who is the first/foremost AchArya, who is having the great knowledge which was bestowed by bhagavAn himself as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1mayarvaRa madhinalam aruLinan” (emperumAn mercifully bestowed unblemished knowledge and devotion). There are others who use this means to get other benefits and use other means to get emperumAn himself; unlike them, AzhwAr has the special greatness of pursuing emperumAn as both the means and goal.

When he is the goal, what is wrong in pursuing different means? That is because, they are sAdhyam (involving self effort), many, difficult to perform and contrary to the nature of the self. There are many such sAdhanams (upAyams, means).  What are they? karma yOga, gyAna yOga and bhakthi yOga.

karma yOga

With the knowledge about the understanding of the true self, as one performs the karmas (deeds) which match the varNa and ASrama of the self without expecting the result and with detachment in the doership and ownership of the karma, and as a worship of bhagavAn, the sins which are the hurdles will be eliminated and mind will be purified; further true realisation of self will occur, knowledge about bhagavAn and love towards him will occur, and finally that [love] will lead to the ultimate result [liberation] through parabhakthi (true knowledge), paragyAna (unable to bear separation from bhagavAn) and paramabhakthi (final stage before liberation).

gyAna yOga

Restraining the senses, realising the self, acquiring knowledge about bhagavAn, developing love towards him; finally that will lead to the ultimate result [liberation] through parabhakthi (true knowledge), paragyAna (unable to bear separation from bhagavAn) and paramabhakthi (final stage before liberation).

bhakthi yOga

Engaging karma and gyAna directly in matters related to bhagavAn [i.e. performing activities as worship to bhagavAn and having the thoughts fully focussed on bhagavAn], as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.65manmanA bhava madhbhakthO madhyAjI mAm namaskuru” (Have your heart focussed on me constantly; (moreover) have deep love for me; (that too) become my worshipper; (moreover) become my worshipper; offer obeisances to me (with all your three faculties viz mind, speech and body)); ; finally that will lead to the ultimate result [liberation] through parabhakthi (true knowledge), paragyAna (unable to bear separation from bhagavAn) and paramabhakthi (final stage before liberation).

nAma sankIrthanam

Further, unlike these three, thirunAmam [nAma sankIrthanam] is explained as an easier means. Where? As bhIshma was explaining many different means to dharmaputhra, dharamputhra asked him as in mahAbhAratham sahasranAma adhyAyam “kO dharamas sarvadharmANAm bhavatha:paramOmatha:” (Among all the means, which one do you consider as the best?); he explained thirunAmam as his most favourite starting with “EshamE sarvadharmANAm“. Isn’t thirunAmam an ancillary aspect of other means [such as karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgas]? Can it be an independent means? Since it performs both elimination of hurdles and bestowing the result as explained in “janma samsAra bandhanAth … muchyathE” (will liberate from the bondage in material realm) and “yAthi brahma sanAthanam”  (attains eternal, supreme lord), it is considered as an independent means too.

dhivyadhESa vAsam

As said in garuda purANam “dhESOyam sarva kAma dhuk” (this divine abode will fulfil all desires), living in dhivyadhESam [and other holy shrines] itself is explained as a means to attain all goals.

bhAgavatha sEvA

As said in “ArAdhAnAm sarvEshAm vishNO: ArAdhanam param | thasmAtha paratharam prOktham thadhIyArAdhanam param ||” (worshipping vishnu is the best among all types of worship; even better than that is worshipping his devotees), it is understood that all desires will be fulfilled by worshipping bhagavAn‘s devotees.

But all these means are difficult to pursue, and due to their being tinged with ahankAra (individual’s doership, ego), they are explained to be given up. prapaththi which is singular [unique], ready to deliver, easy to perform, apt and matchless as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “thasmAth nyAsam EshAm thapasAm athiriktham Ahu:” (Among the aforementioned means, surrender is explained as the best), is explained in this pAsuram.

In the previous nine pAsurams, the nature of SaraNya (emperumAn who is the refuge) and that of adhikAri (one who surrenders) were explained; in this pAsuram, the SaraNAgathi prakAram (method of surrender) is explained.

The nature of SaraNya is infinitely enjoyable, apt, one which eliminates the hurdles and easy to approach for all. Unlike other qualities, for one to surrender, his saulabhyam is a unique requirement.

  • parathvam (emperumAn‘s form in paramapadham) is in a different realm which cannot be pursued [immediately] by a chEthana [sentient entity] when he acquires the inclination towards emperumAn.
  • vyUham (emperumAn’s form in kshIrAbdhi (milky ocean)) is specifically meant for the celestial beings such as brahmA et al, it is also similar to parathvam only.
  • avathArams (emperumAn’s incarnations such as varAha, narasimha, vAmana, SrI rAma, krishNa et al) helped those fortunate ones who were present back then but cannot help those from subsequent times.

thiruvEngadamudaiyAn’s divine feet is the only abode where without both these limitations [difficulty to reach due to place/time factors], at all times, everyone can approach as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.2vAnavar vAnavar kOnodum” (nithyasUris, along with (their leader) sEnai mudhaliyAr (vishvaksEnar)), brahmA et al who are in this material realm, the human beings in this world, and even the animals who are considered inferior as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 47 “kAnamum vAnaramum” (forests, monkeys). As he is ajahathsvabhAvan (one who never gives up his nature), and as he has all the eight qualities such as gyAna, Sakthi etc (vAthsalya (motherly forbearance), svAmithva (lordship), sauSeelya (simplicity), saulabhya (easy approachability), gyAna (knowledge), Sakthi (power), prApthi (being the apt goal), pUrthi (perfection)), thiruvEngdamudaiyAn who is complete in all qualities, is the apt SaraNya.

The nature of the adhikAri (qualified person who surrenders) is to have ananyagathithvam (having no other refuge), prApya ruchi (inclination towards the goal) and svarUpa prakASam (self realisation). Would animals surrender [with such qualities]? We have read and heard from the scriptures [purANams which are recited in the evening times in choultries] that SrI gajEndhAzhwAn surrendered to bhagavAn; this is also explained in few other places by AzhwArs as in:

  • nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 46 – vaippan maNiviLakkA mAmadhiyai mAlukku enRu eppOdhum kainIttum yAnaiyai – The elephant which always stretches its trunk thinking “I will place this great moon as the lamp for emperumAn“.
  • mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 70pugumadhaththAl vAy pUsik kIzh thAzhndhu aruvi ugumadhaththAl kAl kazhuvik kaiyAl migumadhaththEn viNda malar koNdu viRal vEngadavanaiyE kaNdu vaNangum kaLiRu – the elephant gargling its mouth with the exulting liquid which is coming from its forehead and cheeks and carrying out purification process for its mouth, washing its feet with the exulting liquid which is flowing like a river from its head towards the ground, will worship the extremely strong lord at thirumalai with its trunk, which is having blossomed flower with honey which creates exultation.
  • periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.3.3 – punaththinaik kiLLip pudhvavikkAtti un ponnadi vAzhga enRu inak kuRavar pudhiyadhu uNNum ezhil mAlirunjOlai endhAy – my lord in thirumAlirunjOlai where the groups of nomads would pick up grains of millet from the fields, offer them as havis [ritual offering made to emperumAn], hailing “long live emperumAn!”, and eat them.

Now, should we [who have faith in AzhwArs‘ pAsurams] not have as much faith as these [animals, nomads etc]?

Now, it is explained that, as a surrender performed towards SaraNya (emperumAn, who is complete in gyAnam etc) will lead to the expected result, only when a qualified person who is with Anukalyasya sankalpam (vowing to act favourably) etc [prAthikUlyasya varjanam (restraining from unfavourable acts), rakshishyathi ithi visvASam (faith in his protection), gOpthruthva varaNam (accepting him as the means), kArpaNyam (humility) and Athma nikshEpaNam (total submission)] surrenders, it will lead to the expected result.

With this explanation on the greatness of prapaththi/SaraNAgathi, nampiLLai’s third explanation is set to commence. We will see that in the next part of this article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 11 – vAzhththuga vAy

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avathArikai

AzhwAr instructs the others to engage their sensory organs, which were given in order to carry out service for emperumAn, in the matter of that sulabhan (simple person).

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vAzhthuga vAy kANga kaN kEtka sevi magudam
thAzhththi vaNangumingaL thaNmalarAl sUzhththa
thuzhAy mannu nINmudi en thollai mAl thannai
vazhA vaN kai kUppi madhiththu

Word for Word Meanings

sUzhththa – encircling
thuzhAy – divine thuLasi garland
mannu – aptly fitting
nIL mudi – one who has the long divine crown
en thollai mAL thannai – sarvESvaran (supreme being) who has been having affection towards me for a long time
vazhA – without even a moment’s break
vaN kai kUppi madhiththu – joining the hands together in salutation and meditating
magudam thAzhththi – bowing the head down
thaN malarAl – with cool flowers
vaNangumin – attain him
vAy – (your) mouth
vAzhththuga – let it praise (emperumAn)
kaN – eyes
kANga – let them see( only him)
sevi – ears
kEtka – let them hear (only his narratives)

vyAkyAnam

vAzhththuga vAy – praise him with the mouth which has been created only for praising him, as mentioned in the saying “sA jihvA yA harIm sthauthi” (only that which praises hari (emperumAn) is termed as tongue)

kANga kaN – see him with the eyes which have been created only for seeing his divine form.

kEtka sevi – hear his divine qualities, names and activities with the ears which have been created only for hearing his auspicious qualities.

magudam thAzhththi vaNangumingaL – lower the head which has been created to bow down to his divine feet, at his divine feet and worship him.

vaNangumingaL thaNmalarAl – worship him with the apt flowers which are cool enough for his soft divine form.

malarAl – among flowers, there is no rule that only such and such flowers are apt for him and others are not. Has he not mercifully mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.26pathram palam pushpam thOyam yO mE bhakthyA prayachchathi I thadhaham bhakthyupahrutham aSnAmi prayathAthmana:  II” (I take with full happiness with whatever leaf or flower or fruit or water has been offered to me by one with devotion) and hasn’t AzhwAr too mercifully mentioned in his thiruvAimozhi 1.6.1purivadhum pugai pUvE” (whatever fragrance or flower is offered to emperumAn…)!

AzhwAr next describes the distinguished feature of emperumAn for our bowing our head to him.

sUzhththa thuzhAy mannu – donning thuLasi garland in itself is a distinguished feature for his being the supreme entity.

sUzhththa thuzhAy mannu – decorated with the coiled thuLasi garland.

thuzhAy mannu nINmudi – isn’t he the entity who has “thOLiNai mElum nanmArbin mElum sudar mudi mElum thALiNai mElum punaindha thaNNandhuzhAyudai ammAn  ” (the lord who is decorated with cool thuLasi garland on his divine shoulders, on the great chest, on the radiant lock and on his divine feet)! Didn’t kUraththAzhwAn (a primary disciple of bhagavath SrI rAmAnuja) also mercifully say in athimAnusha sthavam “AdhirAjyamadhikam bhuvanAnAm Isa! thE piSunayan kila mauli:” (Oh Lord! That you are the controller of all the worlds is indicated by your divine crown)!

en thollai mAl thannai – we can construe this as one who has showered his affection on me from time immemorial. mAl – an affectionate person.

vazhA – unchanged.

vaN kai kUppi – joining the magnanimous hands together. AzhwAr quotes the adjective (vaN) based on emperumAn’s recitation in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.18udhArAs sarva EvaithE” (those who worship me are magnanimous persons). It can also be taken as AzhwAr celebrating since those who bow down to emperumAn in samsAram (materialistic realm) are indeed rare.

thollai mAL thannai madhiththu vaNangumingaL – worship the supreme being with the heart which thinks of him. Since periyavAchchAN piLLai has said in his vyAkyAnam for this pAsuram “thinking, without a break, of the divine names of supreme being ” it could be construed that the words in the text could also be thollai mAl nAmam.

magudam thAzhththi vaNangumingaL – since you are thinking in vain that you are someone great, get rid of that vanity and worship emperumAn with bowed head.

vAzhththuga vAy…..vaNangumingaLAzhwAr is recalling the verse of rishis who said “vichithrA dhEhasampaththirISvarAya nivEdhithum I pUrvamEva kruthA brahmaN hasthapAdhAdhi samyuthA II” (Oh brahmaNa! This body with its strange hands and legs has been created at the beginning only for offering to the supreme being) and the divine hymn of mudhal AzhwAr (poygai AzhwAr) who mercifully said in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 11vAy avanai alladhu vAzhthAdhu kaiyulagam thAyavanai alladhu thAm thozhA…” (the mouth will not praise anyone except emperumAn and the hands will not worship anyone other than emperumAn who is like a mother to the worlds..).

We will go on to the 12th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 2

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pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

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Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai (Continuation)

[nampiLLai explains the pAsuram in greater detail, in this second explanation]

agalagillEn … – While this pAsuram explains the upAyam (means – SaraNAgathi), it also reveals the upEyam (goal – bhagavAn). This is explained further.

One [i.e. a qualified person] desires to perform kainkaryam to both emperumAn and pirAtti; he pursues both of them together as the means too. With this, their being the eternal goal is explained. Only that which is eternally fresh/new, can be the eternal goal.

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu – This is not spoken in separation. While there is no reason for her to be separated from him, considering the enjoyability there [divine chest of emperumAn], she declares that she does not have the strength to remain separated from him. This is spoken while she is being called inseparable as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.15 “ananyA rAghavENAham” (I am inseparable from SrI rAma) and in SrIvishNu purANam “vishNor SrIranapAyinIm” (lakshmi is inseparable from vishNu)! She is saying that she cannot be separated from him even for a moment.
  • alar mEl mangai – When we see who is speaking like this – it is lakshmi who is the desirable entity even for emperumAn due to her beauty and age; she who makes him say in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “na jIvEyam kshaNamapi” (SrI rAma says – I will not survive even for a moment without seeing sIthA). This is not the same emotion as that of  worldly people; because their separation [from their beloved ones] is based on karma [bondage]; but there is no such karma for her and he goes head-over-heels towards her; hence, there is no separation either due to him or her; so, what is the reason for her saying like this? It came up because her interest is on emperumAn [who is distinguished]. The desires of worldly people are based on the bondage, but her desire is caused by emperumAn himself.
  • uRai mArbAnithya yOgam (eternal togetherness) which is highlighted in the “math” in the first phrase in dhvayam is explained here; that is, her purushakAram is always there. The purpose of their togetherness is that we don’t need to retract [from surrendering] considering his svAthanthriyam (independent attitude) and one’s own samsArithvam (bondage in this material realm). One need not fear considering his sarvagyathvam (omniscience) and one’s sAparAdhathvam (having faults). That is – emperumAn does not have the scope to see the AthmA‘s faults and act accordingly, due to her presence. While their offence towards pirAtti was similar for both the crow and rAvaNa, the crow’s head was saved due to her presence and rAvaNa lost his head due to her absence. Such is the difference between her presence and absence. Even if father himself has become an enemy for a son, the father will not kill his son in his mother’s presence. While he first shot the brahmAsthram for the offence he committed, and as it chased him around and finally he fell at the divine feet of SrI rAma due to not having any other refuge, seeing her, he let him go, giving an alternate reason for the brahmAsthram. Both of their dispositions [crow’s and rAvaNa’s] towards SrI rAma such as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.33 “thamEva SaraNamgatha:” (the crow surrendered to SrI rAma) and SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 36-11 “na namEyam” (I will not worship him) are irrelevant. Why so? Even the crow had the same thoughts in its heart, otherwise he would not have returned home saying as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.38 “svakamAlayam jagAma” (Let me return home [after worshipping SrI rAma]); he only fell down at the divine feet due to his helpless state. rAvaNa too had the same helpless state, but it did not work in his favour, due to her absence. All these principles explained here relate to the first word of dhvayam [SrIman].

Subsequently, next word “nArAyaNa” is explained, starting from “nigaril” to “thiruvEngadaththAnE“.

  • nigaril pugazhAy – His great quality [vAthsalyam – motherly forbearance] which makes him argue in favour of the devotee when such pirAtti [who unites them in first place] herself finds fault in the devotee. That is, as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.9.2 “thAmaraiyALAgilum sidhaguraikkumEl en adiyAr adhu seyyAr seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr enbar” (even if SrI mahAlakshmi complains about followers to emperumAn, he will deny that), he would deny any faults in his devotee. Even if she pinpoints saying “No, now I am finding this fault in him”, he would say “So what? Are they rejecting virtues and saying that there is no paramapadham? They remain confident that I will take care off their accidental mistakes”. When we can highlight a cause for her greatness, we can relate that to him; but there is no other cause for his greatness. This is how the truth is [When it comes to their loving relationship, it is the reverse though]! With this, it is explained that – she would consider his svAthanthriyam and think “what would happen to these souls?” and would consider her tenderness and adolescent age and think “how caring is she for them?” Hence, they both doubt each other to protect others and both the realms (spiritual and material) depend upon their [comfortable] shadow.
  • ulagam mUnRu udaiyAy – His aptness which forces one to not leave him even if he is devoid of any good qualities. While saying “sidhagurikkumEl“, it is to be understood that only when she lacks the qualities which match her nature [such as compassion towards others, total dependence towards emperumAn etc], would she say something like that; similarly, even if he is devoid of any good qualities, he has natural relationship with everyone which makes one not to leave him. The relationship between bhagavAn and AthmA is such that even when bhagavAn discards someone, the AthmA is of the nature that one can wear kAshAya vasthram (saffron coloured cloth indicating a mendicant’s state) and request/pray to him; this also indicates bhagavAn’s right to imprison someone who worships him rarely and yet moves away from him.
  • ennai ALvAnE – One who practically engages me in service. To be not content in saying “if you [referring to nammAzhwAr] are talking about normal servitude [of everyone’s towards me], you also have that”; you [emperumAn] bestowed me [nammAzhwAr] unblemished knowledge and devotion; can you abandon me now?
  • nigaril amarar … – Even those who reside there in paramapadham, are eagerly serving you here in thirumalA only. As said in thiruvAimozhi 10.9.9 “vaigundhaththamararum munivarum“, in paramapadham, there are two types of devotees – kainkarya nishtar [amarar – who constantly engage in service] and guNa nishtar [munivar – who constantly meditate upon his qualities].
  • thiruvEngadaththAnE – The ultimate meaning of the word “nArAyaNa” is his saulabhyam (simplicity); for the word nArAyaNa, many meanings such as being with qualities, lordship, special mercy and simplicity are all applicable. “nArAyaNa” implies that he would reside as the antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul) to bestow all benefits to him; since that simplicity is eternally manifested here [in thirumalA] in thiruvEngamudaiyAn.  How does this saulabhyam become the means? When he said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66mAmEkam“, he specifically pointed to his form of the charioteer. Here it is much greater than that; that simplicity (as charioteer) was neither manifested previously nor subsequently [by krishNa]; this [thirumalA] is where such simplicity is eternally manifested. There he placed a pre-requisite in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.1mayyAsakthamanA: pArtha” (Oh son of kunthI! having a very attached mind in me …); even that is not here.

Now, AzhwAr starts speaking about his own nature.

  • pugal onRu illA adiyEn – Previously he repeatedly said “adiyEn” and “aruvinaiyEn“, identifying his SEshathvam (servitude) and Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self) respectively; now, these two are the qualities required for surrender; he is highlighting them here too. Why should he highlight it [surrender] here? Just as being the means is emperumAn‘s nature, being surrendered is AthmA‘s nature. When this (such surrender) is absent, that will lead to sarvamukthi prasangam (i.e. Why did emperumAn not liberate everyone if he is the natural means for liberation?).
  • adiyEn – The only difference [between dhvayam and this pAsuram] is, “aham” (I) which is understood implicitly there [from the word prapadhyE], is spelt out explicitly as adiyEn.
  • un adik kIzh – This explains “charaNau” (the two divine feet). It should be expressed as in SrI rAmayaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.2 “sa:bhrAthu:charaNau” (my elder brother’s divine feet);
  • amarndhu pugundhEnE – Only if he needs some assistance or if I consider my surrender as the means, is there scope for hurdle or delay.
  • pugundhEnE – we can only enter if he left somewhere; forever emperumAn is with us as the antharyAmi. The AthmA was only misunderstanding his true nature; the removal of such misunderstanding is the only aspect which is required. [So] AzhwAr says “I now have the firm faith [that you are the means]” [i.e. it is not a physical act of surrender, but conviction in the mind]; the present tense in dhvayam [i.e. prapadhyE – I am surrendering] does not mean the same as in bhakthi yOgam where the practice must be carried on forever; but as it is derived based on the enjoyability of the act [surrender], it is performed until the goal is attained [Here, pugundhEnE is in past tense to indicate that the surrender must be performed only once].

nampiLLai’s second explanation is complete. We will see the final explanation in the next article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 10 – AngAravAram adhukEttu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked “brahmA, rudhra et al as well as you take refuge under emperumAn with your faults, without any distinction. Does this mean that there is no difference between them and you?” to which AzhwAr responds in this pAsuram, saying “there is a lot of difference between us. Since I have been granted emperumAn’s mercy, I am capable of seeing him too. brahmA, rudhra et al, who try to see emperumAn through their efforts, are not capable of even praising him”.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

AngAravAram adhu kEttu azhal umizhum
pUngAraravaNaiyAn ponmEni yAngANa
vallamE allamE? mAmalarAn vAr sadaiyAn
vallarE allarE vAzhththu

Word for Word Meanings

Angu – during that time of thrivikrama avathAram
AravAram kettu – hearing the loud sound emanating from brahmA et al as they praised emperumAn

[mistaking that sound for asuras creating commotion]
azhal umizhum – spitting fire of poison
pU kAr aravu aNaiyAn – emperumAn has the furious ananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) as his mattress. That emperumAn’s
ponmEni – the divine form
nAm – we (who are ananyabhakthas [not worshipping other deities])
kANa – to worship
vallam allamE – do we not have the ability? (Yes, we have the ability)
mA malarAn – brahmA who  was born in a great (lotus) flower
vAr sadaiyAn – Siva, who has long matted hair
vAzhththu – in praising (emperumAn)
vallar allarE – they are not capable

vyAkyAnam

Angu – during that time of thrivikrama avathAram, “kazhuvinAn……Angu” as mentioned in the previous pAsuram.

AravAram adhu kEttu – hearing the words of worship (1) by various entities such as brahmA who, as mentioned in the previous pAsuram “maRai koNda mandhiraththAl vAzhththi” (praising through hymns from vEdhas; (2) by people who were referred to by nammAzhwAr in his thiruvAimozhi 7.4.1 “dhisai vAzhi ezha” (words of praise emanating from all directions), (3) by various people in the worlds who said “sangais surANAm dhivi bhUthalasthais thathA manushyair gaganE cha kEsarai: I sthutha: kramAn ya: prasakAra sarvadhA mamAsthu mAngaLya vivrudhdhayE hari: II ” (let that hari, who was praised by entities such as dhEva, manushya et al (celestial, human et al) and who measured the worlds, expand my auspiciousness)

azhal umizhum – spitting fire, mistaking the sounds emanating from various directions which were actually words of praise on thrivikrama, for attempts being made by some [demons] for harming emperumAn.  bhUdhaththAzhwAr, in his iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 71, had mercifully mentioned “vidangAlum thIvAyaravaNai mEl thOnRal dhisaiyaLappAn pUvAradi nimirththapOdhu” (when emperumAn who reclines on the mattress of AdhiSEshan who spits poison from his frightening mouths….). The same meaning can be seen in vEdha “jAgruvAmsas samindhathE…”(nithyasUris remain alert …); by periyAzhwAr in his thiruppallANdu 12sUzhndhirundhEththuvar pallANdE” (emperumAn will be praised by nithyasUris from all sides) and by parASara bhattarsnEhAdhasthAnakshA vyasanibhi ” (those who make an effort to protect [emperumAn] out of misplaced fear).

pUngAr aravaNaiyAn – one who has the furious AdhiSEshan as his mattress.

pUngAr aravu – since AdhiSEshan’s fury is arising out his love towards emperumAn, even that fury appears beautiful to AzhwAr who is praying that this fury should remain unchanged.

ponmEni yAngANa vallamE allamE – are we, who do not consider that there can be anything beyond emperumAn’s divine form as the means and goal, not capable of seeing his divine form? It is implied that they are very well capable of seeing. Even for bhagavAn, his rUpam (divine form) is dearer than his svarUpam (basic nature) as mercifully mentioned by SrI ALavandhAr in his chathu: SlOkI 4 “mUrtham brahma thathO’pi thathpriyatharam rUpam yadhadhbutham”.

mAmalarAn – nAnmugan who resides in the lotus, shooting from emperumAn’s navel.

vAr sadaiyAn – rudhra who has long matted locks.

vAzhththu vallarE allarE – they are not capable of even praising that emperumAn.

mAmalrAn … – brahmA, who has the vanity that he was born in the lotus like divine navel of emperumAn directly, and rudhra, who is vain that he carried out penance, by letting his matted hair fall to the ground, are incapable of praising emperumAn. AzhwAr says that people who consider emperumAn’s divine form as both means and goal are capable of seeing him.

vallamE allamE …..vallarE allarE – only those like AzhwAr who praise those who are affectionate towards emperumAn are capable of seeing him whereas those who consider that they have great power are incapable of even worshipping him.

There is another interpretation for this pAsuram. Angu is considered to be SrIvaikuNtam . AravAram adhu kEttu – hearing the sAma vEdha (one of the four vEdhas, which is sung with intonations) of nithyasUris in SrIvaikuNtam. azhal umizhum – AdhiSEshan spits fire of poison thinking mistakenly that demons have descended on SrIvaikuNtam and are shouting. The rest of the interpretation is similar to the earlier one.

We will take up the 11th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10.10 – agalagillEn – Part 1

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Tenth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, AzhwAr surrenders to thiruvEngadamudaiyAn with periya pirAttiyAr as purushakAram to have his desire fulfilled quickly.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr properly surrenders to thiruvEngadamudaiyAn saying “Without any other refuge, I am surrendering unto your divine feet which has purushakAram [of pirAtti] and the apt qualities”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction. Thus, in the first nine pAsurams, he explained the nature of the SaraNyan (refuge). Here – AzhwAr is surrendering, explaining his own nature. Previously [too], he said “adiyEn“, “aruvinaiyEn” to highlight his own Akinchanyam and SEShathvam (servitude) as part of emperumAn being the refuge; here, he is using the same words as means to attain the result, and surrenders. This pAsuram should be analysed and studied in context of the words in dhvayam. The “aham” (I, the one who surrenders) which is implied through the meaning in dhvayam is explicitly said as “adiyEn” in this pAsuram.

pAsuram

agalagillEn iRaiyum enRu alar mEl mangai uRai mArbA!
nigaril pugazhAy! ulagam mUnRudaiyAy! ennai ALvAnE!
nigaril amarar munik kaNangaL virumbum thiruvEngadaththAnE!
pugal onRillA adiyEn un adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEnE.

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(Due to the relationship as in Sun and his rays, and the great enjoyability in emperumAn)
iRaiyum – not even a moment
agala – to separate
killEn – not ready to
enRu – saying
alarmEl – one who is having softness, enjoyability etc due to being born in the flower,
mangai – lakshmi who is very dear to emperumAn due to her adolescent age
uRai – (in a special portion of emperumAn’s divine form, while her high family lineage, qualities of self and beautiful form are there) being greatly enjoyable due to eternally residing in
mArbA – one who is having the divine chest

(caused by his togetherness with her)
nigar il – matchless (the quality which cannot be simply counted along with the other qualities, due to ignoring the faults of the devotees)
pugazhAy – having great vAthsalyam (motherly forbearance)

(being the cause for that)
mUnRu ulagam – the three types of chEthanas (souls) and achEthana (matter) which are well known from pramANams (authentic scriptures)
udaiyAy – having svAmithvam (lordship) of owning

(not just that supremacy)
ennai – me too who has many faults
ALvAnE – having sauSeelyam (superior person mingling freely with inferior persons) which makes you acknowledge/accept me

(further to that Seelam, having greatness in knowledge and love, to be seen and worshipped by everyone)
nigar – match
il – not having
amarar – amaras (nithyasUris) who are focussed on service
muni – (being engaged in meditating upon his qualities) sages who meditate
kaNangaL – groups
virumbum – residing with great desire (due to his vAthsalyam etc)
thiruvEngadaththAnE – one who is present in thirumalA with perfect saulabhyam (simplicity)!
pugal – refuges such as upAyAntharam (other means such as karma yOga etc) and other saviours (such as other dhEvathAs, self et al)
onRu – any
illA – I who am an ananyaSaraNan (not having any other refuge)
adiyEn – I (who have pArathanthriyam (total dependence))
un – your (who are with purushakAram (of pirAtti) and the qualities)
adi – divine feet
kIzh – beneath

(becoming part of the lines at the bottom of your divine feet)
amarndhu – being seated with exclusive focus on kainkaryam and no other expectation
pugundhEn – I have surrendered.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh emperumAn who is having the greatly enjoyable, divine chest (due to the eternal presence of lakshmi) which is occupied by lakshmi who is very dear to you due to her adolescent age and who is having softness, enjoyability etc due to being born in the flower and who is saying “I am not ready to separate even for a moment”!  Oh one who is having matchless, great vAthsalyam, having svAmithvam of owning the three types of chEthanas and achEthana which are well known from pramANams, having sauSeelyam which makes you acknowledge/accept me too who has many faults and one who is present in thirumalA with perfect saulabhyam of residing with great desire to be worshipped by matchless amaras who are focussed on service and sages who meditate! I who am an ananyaSaraNan who has no other refuges such as upAyAntharam and other saviours, have surrendered unto your divine feet and have become seated beneath them, with exclusive focus on kainkaryam and no other expectation.

[dhvaya mahA manthram is correlated with the words/phrases in this pAsuram]

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum” indicates the meaning of the word “SrI” which means “she is constantly serving him”, which leads to her inseparability from emperumAn
  • alarmEl” indicates her tenderness etc which facilitates her constant engagement with him
  • mangai” indicates her being very dear to him which is the reason for their constant engagement
  • uRai mArbA” indicates the meaning of “math” which means their eternal togetherness
  • From “nigaril pugazhAy” to “thiruvEngadaththAnE“, the meaning of “nArAyaNa” is explained in the same manner Sruthi explained it in “mAthA pithA brAthA nivAsa …“, through the four qualities namely vAthsalya, svAmithva, sauSeelya and saulabhya.
  • pugal onRu illA” indicates Akinchanyam (lack of anything in self) and ananya gathithvam (lack of any other refuge) which are the qualities expected in the qualified person who is surrendering
  • adiyEn” indicates [the meaning of “prapadhyE” which is] the nature of the qualified person who is surrendering based on the action of self [this “adiyEn” is implicit in dhvayam]
  • un” indicates AzhwAr calling out to emperumAn and surrendering unto him saying “your divine feet”
  • adik kIzh” indicates “charaNau” (divine feet)
  • amarndhu” indicates unflinching faith in the divine feet being the means and goal [relates to “pra” in “prapadhyE“]
  • pugundhEn” indicates the act of surrender, i.e. “prapadhyE
  • pugundhEn” being in past tense indicates that the surrender need to be done only once and there is no need for repeated surrenders.
  • The second sentence of dhvayam is also part of this pAsuram along with the first sentence which indicates the acceptance of bhagavAn as means, since this is perfect surrender,
    • as emperumAn‘s relationship with lakshmi, his having auspicious qualities are part of the goal,
    • as the presence of ananya bhOgyathvam (enjoyed only by emperumAn) is revealed through the qualification of the one who is surrendering, i.e. “adiyEn“, similar to ananyArhathvam (existing only for emperumAn) and ananya SaraNathvam (having emperumAn as the only refuge),
    • as “nama:” is explained through “amarndhEn“, which eliminates the doubt of AzhwAr having any desire for other results [such as aiSvaryam and kaivalyam]
    • as “pugundhEn” also indicates the goal

Thus, as this pAsuram reveals the two sentences of dhvaya mahA manthram precisely, it can be hailed as “pUrNa SaraNAgathi” (perfect surrender). In this manner, in this centum, AzhwAr perfectly pursued emperumAn who was highlighted as the means in the previous centum.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

First Explanation

  • agalagillEn iRaiyum enRupirAtti is not speaking this in separation; while she is enjoying the eternal togetherness, she is repeatedly saying “iRaiyum agalagillEn” (I won’t leave even for a moment). This would be the words of those who eternally enjoy him. This is not the same emotion as that of worldly people; because their emotions [towards others] is based on karma; but this is based on the greatness of emperumAn.
  • alar mEl mangai – She has the enjoyability and age which make emperumAn say as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “na jIvEyam kshaNamapi” (SrI rAma says – I will not survive even for a moment without seeing sIthA). She looks an embodiment of fragrance.
  • uRai mArbA – With this, their eternal togetherness is explained. Do I have to look for a specific time to surrender unto him? We don’t have to hesitate looking at our own faults and his independent attitude [pirAtti will make him ignore our faults, give up his independent attitude and accept us]. Once, bhattar was going to instruct the meaning of dhvayam to piLLai azhagiya maNavALa aRaiyar. So he asked everyone else to leave the room. nanjIyar too stood up and walked out, being upset and thinking “Why didn’t he ask me to stay?”. In the meantime, bhattar looked around for nanjIyar and did not find him and hence asked “where is nanjIyar?”, and called him in and explained the meaning of dhvayam to both of them – nanjIyar used to relate to this incident and explain that bhattar explained this particular meaning that time. When nanjIyar asked “If this AthmA is a servitor and bhagavAn is the lord, what is the purpose of pirAtti‘s relationship here?” bhattar mercifully explained to him “Listen to the nature of her role! While rAvaNa and crow [jayantha, son of indhra, who assumed the form of a crow and abused sIthAp pirAtti] have the same relationship and conducted in the same manner [both being offensive towards pirAtti], due to the curse upon rAvaNa, he did not touch pirAtti, but the crow offended pirAtti, who is the mother of all [including the crow]. Yet, due to her presence, the crow’s head was saved and since she was away from SrI rAma, rAvaNa lost his life”. Even rAvaNa became helpless in the end like the crow; still, he was not saved, due to the absence of pirAtti. Now, with respect to mother and father, they don’t deal with the children in the same manner; the mother, will not only ignore the faults of the children, she would also hide from the eyes of the father. That is why, [in dhvaya mahAmanthram], she is explained as an equal partner in the second sentence, but in the first sentence – she is hailed for her simplicity due to her role of purushakAram (recommendation, mediation). When she could instruct hanuman (who was connected directly to SrI rAma) in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116-44 “na kaSchinnAparAdhyathi” (There is none who has not committed a sin), why wouldn’t she fulfil the desires of emperumAn who is waiting to accept her instruction?. When she instructs even to those who don’t listen to her as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21-19 “mithramaupayikam karthum rAma: sthAnam parIpsathA, vadham cha anichchathA ghOram thvayA asau purusharshabha: ” (SrI rAma  who is the best among all purushas (souls) is the apt person to make friends for you who would like to remain in this world and who would not like to die a horrible death), she would not give up on emperumAn who looks at her face waiting for orders. She said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 113-41 “dhAsInAm rAvaNasyAham marshayAmIha dhurbala” (I do not have the wherewithal to see the sufferings of rAvANa’s servant-maids). thiruvadi (hanuman) asked pirAtti to handover the rAkshasis (rAvaNa’s servant-maids) to him, and she said “I am so weak that I cannot bear the suffering of others). There is no weakness in rAvaNa getting killed, SrI rAma being victorious and thiruvadi appearing in front of her – the only weakness relates to her intolerance in seeing others suffer.
  • nigaril … – “nArAyaNa” is explained now. His great qualities which make him say as in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-9-2 “thAmaraiyALAgilum sidhaguraikkumEl en adiyAr adhu seyyAr seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr enbar” (even if SrI mahAlakshmi complains about followers to emperumAn, he will deny that).
  • ulagam mUnRudaiyAy – Even if he is devoid of good qualities, his aptness which will never let us leave him, is explained [i.e. svAmithvam – his being the lord of all].
  • ennai ALvAnE – This is how the aptness is practically implemented. ALugai (ruling) means leading one to mOksham and fulfilling the desires in the due course.
  • nigaril … – The ultimate saulabhyam (simplicity) is explained.
  • pugal onRu illA adiiyEn – Akinchanyam and ananya gathithvam are the qualities in a person who is surrendering.
  • un adik kIzh – SaraNau (the two divine feet).
  • amarndhu – without any gap/hurdle.
  • pugundhEnE – as this unflinching faith does not become part of the means, as it is in the form of upakAra smruthi (gratitude for the favour done by emperumAn) and it is an expression of being a sentient being, it is merely an attribute of the one who surrenders [instead of being the means]. All of these as aspects are explained in the last word of the first sentence of dhvayam [i.e. prapadhyE].

nampiLLai’s first explanation is complete. We will see further explanations in the next article.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 9 – kuRai koNdu nAnmugan

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr mentioned that there is no refuge (other than emperumAn) when we are in difficulties. In this pAsuram, by saying that even for brahmA, rudhra et al who are thought of as being complete in all respects, the refuge is emperumAn only, he emphasises the meaning mentioned in the previous pAsuram.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kuRai koNdu nAnmugan kuNdigai nIr peydhu
maRai koNda mandhiraththAl vAzhththi kaRaikoNda
kaNdaththAn senni mEl ERak kazhuvinAn
aNdaththAn sEvadiyai Angu

Word for Word Meanings

nAnmugan – brahmA
kuRai koNdu – reminiscing his shortcomings
kuNdigai nIr – the water in kamaNdalam [water pot used by ascetics]
peydhu – pouring
maRai koNda – present in the vEdhas [sacred texts]
mandhiraththAl – with hymns such as purusha sUKtham etc
vAzhththi – praising
Angu – during that time (when emperumAn measured the worlds)
aNdaththAn sEvadiyai – the divine feet of that supreme entity [emperumAn]
kaRai koNda kaNdaththAN senni mEl ERa – ensuring that (the divine water from emperumAn’s divine feet] fell on the head of rudhra who has poison in his throat
kazhuvinAn – cleansed

vyAkyAnam

kuRai koNdu – two meanings are given: 1. Reminiscing shortcomings; 2. Getting expectations fulfilled. When mahAbali took away the kingdom of indhra et al after troubling them, brahmA and the celestial entities went to emperumAn and pleaded with him to restore the kingdom that they had lost. emperumAn took the form of vAmana (dwarf) and took alms from mahAbali. Once his request (for three steps) was granted, he took the form of thrivikrama and measured all the worlds with his divine feet. AzhwAr reminisces this incident. In this context, the word kuRai refers to expectations. It can also refer to shortcomings in the person as seen in the explanatory notes of vyAkyAnam of appiLLai.

kuNdigai nIr peydhu – brahmA cleansed the divine feet of emperumAn with the water from his kamaNdalam (water pot) where deity for righteousness, looking at the divine feet of emperumAn reaching sathyalOka (the world of brahmA) melted and filled up brahmA’s kamaNdalam as water. brahmA cleansed out of his gratitude for seeing his expectation [of getting the kingdom back for indhra] fulfilled as well as out of his ordained duty in paying obeisance to emperumAn.

nAnmugan maRai koNda mandhiraththAl vAzhththi – praising the divine feet of emperumAn out of concern for their having gone over mounds and craters [while measuring the worlds] despite being so soft, by reciting hymns such as purusha sUktham etc from vEdhas. By reciting the hymns, brahmA also accrued benefit for his four faces.

kaRai koNda kaNdaththAn senni mEl ERak kazhuvinAn – brahmA cleansed he divine feet of emperumAn so that the divine water will fall on the head of his son, rudhra, who had incurred brahmahaththi dhOsham (a sin which results due to harming a brAhmaNa since he had severed one of brahmA’s heads).

kaRai koNda kaNdaththAn – rudhra with blue throat, who was vain after swallowing the poison hAlahAla since he saved the celestial entities by his act.

senni mEl ERak kazhuvinAn – brahmA cleansed emperumAn’s divine feet in such a way that the water would fall on rudhra’s head.

aNdaththAn sEvadiyaiemperumAn who grew in such a way that he filled the entire universe with his divine form. Alternatively, brahmA, who is the head of one universe, cleansed the divine feet of one who is the lord of all universes, in such a way that the divine water would fall on the head of his son (rudhra) who lives within one of the universes, so that his son’s sin would get removed. This act of brahmA is similar to that of a father who sprinkles his SrIpAdhathIrtham  (water from cleaning his foot) on his habituated errant sons in order to correct them. It is pertinent here to recollect the sayings of brahmA to rishis on this incident when he cleansed the divine feet of emperumAn with the water generated by dharmadhEvathai (deity for righteousness) so that the divine water would fall on his son rudhra to cleanse him of his sins [rudhra was willing to take the water on his head and keep it within his head for thousands of years].

We will take up the 10th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 8 – ilai thuNai maRRu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr was asked “There are some ignorant people who will eat only if there is smoke (in the kitchen) – meaning that they will eat only if something is cooked in their homes. Otherwise they will go hungry. In the same way could you say nAn unnai anRi ilEn kaNdAy nAraNanE? Could you not carry out your task through someone else?”. AzhwAr says that there is none who is a protector other than emperumAn. AzhwAr tells his heart that the others (who are supposed to be protectors) are not only incapable of protecting, they will also pose hurdles in the path of emperumAn when he protects us.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

ilai thuNai maRRen nenjE Isanai venRa
silai koNda sengaNmAl sErA kulai koNda
IraindhalaiyAn ilangaiyai Idazhiththa
kUrambanallAl kuRai

Word for Word Meanings

en nenjE – Oh my heart!
Isanai venRa – one who defeated rudhra
silai koNda – one who donned the bow
sem kaN mAl – emperumAn who has lotus like eyes
sErA – one who did not bow down and get redeemed, but got annihilated
kulai koNda Iraindhu thalaiyAn – rAvaNa who had ten heads close together as if in a cluster
ilangaiyai – lankA
Idu azhiththa – one who annihilated
kUr amban allAl – other than (that) SrI rAma who has sharp arrows
kuRai – during the times when (we) have difficulties
maRRu thuNai – support other than him
ilai – we do not have

vyAkyAnam

ilai thuNai maRRu – it is not important to know that emperumAn is our protector. It is more important to know that others are not protectors. Wouldn’t vaiNavathvam (quality of being a follower of vishNu) be attained if people do not worship other deities, forgetting the divine feet of SrIman nArAyaNa? Did not piLLai lOkAchAryar (one of the preceptors of our sampradhAyam) say in his mumukshuppadi treatise “adhilum anya sEshathvam kazhigaiyE pradhAnam” (giving up being a servitor to other deities is primary) in line with this!

en nenjE – Oh my heart who is favourable to listen to my discourse on this!

en nenjE – aren’t you different from other hearts which follow the saying “chanchalam hi mana:” (heart is fickle minded)!

What is the reason for saying that there is no other protector? This is because only SrIman nArAyaNa is the supreme deity. When asked “others such as rudhra et al are also said to be supreme entities. Why then are you emphasising that only nArAyaNa is supreme?”. AzhwAr says derisively in the next verse as to how rudhra et al were called as supreme.

Isanai venRa silai koNda sengaNmAl – the lord of all with lotus-like eyes, who dons the bow which defeated rudhra. This incident has been described in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam by paraSurAma to SrI rAma (paraSurAma tells SrI rAma that the two bows (one belonging to Siva and the other to vishNu), belonging to the dhEvalOkam (outer world), famous throughout the world, great, firm, strong and eminent, were created by viSvakarma, the celestial carpenter. One was given to rudhra during the war with the three towns (thiripuram, thripura) and it was that bow which later was broken by SrI rAma at the court of King janaka. The other bow, which cannot be approached by anyone, was given by the great ones among the celestial entities to vishNu. After the war on the three towns, the dhEvas wanted to know who among vishNu and rudhra had greater ability. Hence vishNu and rudhra engaged  in a fight. During the fight (with the two eminent bows) when vishNu made a menacing sound (hUnkAra) Siva’s bow cracked a bit and Siva too became unconscious, standing like a pillar. The rishis and celestial entities, seeing the cracking of Siva’s bow, realised the greatness of vishNu).

Isanai venRa silai – the bow which defeated Siva who had the vain feeling that he is ISvara (one who controls everything). We can also construe this as sengaNmAl  who defeated rudhra.

silai koNda – all that emperumAn did was to don the bow. The victorious act was carried out by the bow itself.

sem kaN mAl – supreme being who has reddish eyes, which manifest his ability to control everything. The supreme being was hailed as puNdarIkAkshan based on the saying of vEdhas “kapyAsam puNdarIkam Evam akshiNI” (the two lotus-like eyes which were blossomed by sun).

sem kaN mAl – we can also construe this as SrI rAma who has reddish eyes, showing affection for his followers. Wasn’t SrI rAma hailed as rAmO rAjIvalOchana: and rAma: kamalapathrAksha:, denoting his lotus-like eyes! The words sem kaN would denote both wealth and affection. The word mAl would mean one who is great as well as one who is affectionate.

Ilai thuNai maRRen nenjE Isanai venRa silai koNda sengaNmAl – Is it not apt to enquire whether the one who is victorious is the protector or the one who was defeated!

sengaNmAl sErA – rAvaNa said that he would rather fall back even if he is split into two than falling at the feet of rAma, as that is his nature. This is brought out by in the SlOkam 36-11 of SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam “dhvidhA bhajyEyamapyEvam na namEyanthu kasyachith I Esha mE sahajO dhOsha: svabhAvO dhurathikrama: II”

sengaNmAl sErA – how is that an entity can remain without tilting his head at the divine feet of one even after seeing his lotus like eyes?

Isanai venRa….. sengaNmAl sErA – do we need to talk about unfavourable entities [such as rAvaNa] stringing arrow in offence when favourable entities [such as rudhra], under the influence of thAmasa guNa (ignorant state) string an arrow in offence?

Who is that entity who is so incongruent with emperumAn?

kulai koNda IraindhalaiyAn – rAvaNa who has ten heads, like a bunch.

IraindhalaiyAn ilangaiyai Idazhiththa – lankA was protected by rAvaNa with all his might, as said in “lankAm rAvaNa pAlithAm” (lankA protected by rAvaNa. SrI rAma destabilised such lankA).

kUrambanallAl kuRai illai thuNai – there is none like SrI rAma, who has sharp arrows, as support for us to rid us of our difficulties. chEthana (sentient) entities such as rudhra et al or achEthana (insentient) entities such as beads cannot protect us. Only the sharp arrows of chakravarthy thirumagan (son of emperor dhaSaratha) will be a refuge for us, similar to how they were for sIthAppirAtti.

We will take up the 9th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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