Monthly Archives: October 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 6.2 – minnidai

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Sixth Centum

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In second decad – AzhwAr who set out to surrender to emperumAn with the help of gataka (AchAraya), analysed how ISvaran by his own efforts turned AzhwAr who was facing away from emperumAn with hatred towards him since time immemorial, to turn towards him, and highlights the following aspects:

  1. emperumAn‘s ability to eliminate the enemies, which is the cause for AzhwAr turning towards him
  2. his attractive bodily beauty
  3. his ability to move the immovable objects
  4. his ability to complete impossible tasks
  5. his entourage which is present for the sake of his devotees
  6. his control over all worlds
  7. his great attachment in protecting his devotees well
  8. his great knowledge
  9. the most desirable beauty of his face
  10. his protection by all means

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr thinks about how emperumAn manifested these aspects to him, and eliminated the unnatural hatred and turned him towards emperumAn; he thinks about emperumAn making AzhwAr to enact the mood of a gOpikA (cowherd girl) who was upset with emperumAn and sulking, saying to her friends “I won’t see him even if he comes to me”, as a sport, finished the romantic quarrel and united with her, and mercifully sings this decad in the mood of that gOpikA.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

This AzhwAr resembles many personalities who are engaged in bhagavAn due to fear of samsAram, attachment towards bhagavAn, taste in kainkaryam (service), and the inability to survive in separation. Since he said in thiruviruththam 1 “poynninRa gyAnamum pollA ozhukkum azhukkudambum” (having false knowledge, inappropriate deeds and dirty body), he could be considered to be having the qualities of badhdhas (bound souls in this samsAram); but since he said in the same pAsuram “inninRa nIrmai ini yAm uRAmai” (I cannot tolerate this lowliness) highlighting his unbearability, hecould be considered to be having the qualities of mumukshus (bound souls who are desiring to be freed from this samsAram); as he said in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.1 “vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm” (We should serve continuously), since he cannot spend even a moment without performing kainkaryam, he could be considered to be having the qualities of mukthas (liberated souls); as he said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.7 “ninnalAl ilEn kAN” (I cannot exist without you), since that kainkaryam is saththA prayuktham (that which sustains him), he could be compared to nithyas (eternally free souls in paramapadham). As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.18 “vishNunA sadhrusO vIryE sOmavath priya dharSana:” (He is comparable to vishNu in his valour and moon in his beauty) – as SrI rAma’s every aspect can be compared to every entity existing, everyone’s nature can be seen in different aspects of AzhwAr.

[What is the difference between AzhwAr and others?] This (such qualities), as said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 18.27 “bAlyAth prabruthi susnigdha:” (right from childhood, lakshmaNa was friendly towards SrI rAma), is there right from birth for AzhwAr. Even before maturing, AzhwAr was as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.3aRiyAk kAlaththuLLE adimaik kaN anbu seyviththu” (engaging AzhwAr in service even when he was ignorant (i.e. childhood)) and in thiruviruththam 60 “mulaiyO muzhu muRRum pOndhila … perumAn malaiyO thiruvEngadam enRu kaRkinRa vAsagamE” (parAnguSa nAyaki‘s bosoms are not well developed … yet she is learning about thiruvEnkatam which is the divine abode of emperumAn).

Now, in thiruvAimozhi 4.8ERALum iRaiyOnumAzhwAr declared that he does not need self and the possessions of the self, which are not desired by emperumAn; in thiruvAimozhi 5.3mAsaRu sOdhi“, he declared that he does not need emperumAn and his wealth which are not useful for AzhwAr and tried to destroy them; in thiruvAimozhi 5.10piRandhavARum“, he surrendered to emperumAn and prayed to him to sustain him so that he can enjoy emperumAn’s qualities; he then sent a messenger with such great desire [in thiruvAimozhi 6.1]; the messenger reached emperumAn and informed him, and he too being greatly worried, quickly rushed to AzhwAr as he did to help gajEndhrAzhwAn, and unable to even bear such delay, parAnguSa nAyaki [AzhwAr in feminine mood] becomes very worried and thinks “what can we do now?” and determines “there is no other option than finishing oneself to survive” and tries to destroy herself. This [finishing self] cannot happen based on her will; if that were the case, she would have died when she said “I don’t need my self” in “ERALum iRaiyOn” itself. Just as he is required for her enjoyment, he is required for her destruction too. During separation, one can meditate upon the qualities of other person and sustain oneself; but is there a greater destruction than turning the face away for even a moment in his presence? She is trying to torment him by destroying herself in his presence as he tormented her by staying away from her. While there is a slight delay in his arrival, her romantic anger rises and she tries to finish herself thinking “there is no point in living anymore” – such is her sorrow in separation. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.2 “praNayAchcha abhimAnAchch parichikshEpa rAghavam” (due to previous union with great affection and the possessive pride, she reproached SrI rAma), due to her long familiarity, union and greatness due to the possessive pride, she spoke about SrI rAma; what did she say – SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.3 “kimthvAmanyatha vaidhEha: pithAmE mithilAdhipa: | rAma jAmAtharam prApya sthriyam purusha vigraham ||” (Having got a son-in-law who is a woman in a male form, what will my father, the king of vidhEha, think of himself?), sIthAp pirAtti said – dear husband, can one not take care of his only wife? You are planning to leave me and go to the forest! If our father hears about this, he will be very upset; instead of making him think that a woman in the disguise of a man married his daughter, quickly take me along with you. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kAndam 27.6 “IrshyArOshyau bahishkruthya” (abandoning impatience and anger) – should you not tolerate other’s glories? Give up the anger and jealousy on seeing the greatness I will acquire on walking along with you to the forest. bhuktha SEsham ivOdhagam (as remnants of water are thrown away) – this jealousy should also be discarded. This is how it is done in between lovers – should you not consider the glory of your lover’s as your own? nayamAm vIra (take me along oh brave man!) – If you have not understood yourself, just as you have not understood me, please listen to me. You have no shortcomings; please take me along. visrabdha: (having faith) – if you don’t realise your own self, at least you should listen to those who care for you. pApam mayi navidhyathE (there is no sin in me) – give up this thought now; if you don’t take me along, and if you leave me alone here, I should have some reason which sustains me until you return [pApam makes one sustain even in separation]. This is how romantic anger is manifested. Is this all? These were just what were directly spoken to him by her. Even in front of his messenger (hanuman), she said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.14 “kuSaleeyadhi kAkuthstha: kimnusAgara mEkalAm| mahIm dhahathikOpEna yugAnthAgnir ivOththitha: ||“. kAkuthstha: – He is born in the family heritage where they won’t tolerate insulting others; Is he thinking “I will remedy the humiliation of others, but not of my own”? kimnu sAgara mEkalAm mahIm dhahathi – Is he thinking “I need a different arrow for fluid substance (ocean) and solid substance (lankA)”? He is the one who is having the arrow with which he can burn lankA having the sea water as the fuel (ghee). Though bhUmi dhEvi too is married to you like me, she remained protecting her dress [the ocean is bhUmi dhEvi’s dress; here sIthAp pirAtti is asking that if she should also simply be caring for her dress instead of seeking SrI rAma’s arrival for her protection]; for the kings, the earth is also like a consort [who is to be protected]; the entities remain in the state they were created only until SrI rAma’s eyes turn red in anger, and did he engage in fulfilling his elder’s desires as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.29 “dharmApadhESAth thyajathaS cha rAjyam mAm chApyaraNyam nayatha:padhAthim” (For such SrI rAma who gave up the kingdom to fulfil his father’s desire and who brought me to the forest by walk)? He did all these to only torment me – sIthAp pirAtti said many such harsh words in anger.

parAnguSa nAyaki too, suffered greatly starting from “mAsaRu sOdhi”, tolerated that till “vaigal pUngazhivAy”, and since he did not come until then, sent a messenger, and feeling tensed until the words of the messenger reached him and he arrived, became worried too much, and remained with her helpless state thinking “now, even if he arrives, the union will end in separation only; then, the sorrow of the separation after his union will be even more difficult to bear; hence, the current suffering is better than the new found suffering which is like a new leader manifesting his dominance”. How was she [sIthA]? As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.30 “himahatha naLinIva nashtaSObhA” (with lost beauty, like a lotus plant hit by snow) – the unnatural separation which occurred to her (sIthAp pirAtti) after twelve years of continuous enjoyment without any break; she had lost her beauty due to that. vyasana paramparayA – Just as separation, union is also temporary [i.e., there is continuous anguish]. athi pIdyamAnA – The anguish is greater than what she can handle. sahachara rahithEva chakravAkI – unable to bear the separation even for a moment [like a chakkaravAka bird which cannot bear the separation from its companion even for a moment]. That is the state here. janaka suthA – she was not raised, with knowledge imparted about such situations [she was raised as a grand princess]. krupaNAm dhaSAm prapannA – she attained such a pitiable state that whatever said is no match for her real suffering and only a sample of her suffering. parAnguSa nAyaki too is in similar state. She remains “We can manage the already familiar suffering and we can be finished with that; we don’t need his arrival anymore”. Was there any signs of his arrival which increased her anxiety? Yes. There were many auspicious omens which indicated his arrival. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 27.51 – pakshIcha – The bird spread its wings. SAkAnilaya: – Instead of a dry branch, it stood on a fresh branch. It circumambulated the tree and remained well seated on the branch. prahrushta: – It manifested joy in consuming the fruits etc on the branch. puna:punaSchOththamasAnthvavAdhI – It started speaking good words further. Further more, susvAgathAm vAchamudhIrayAna: – It appeared to be auspiciously saying that SrI rAma is coming. puna:punaSchOdhayathIva – It appeared to be saying that as SrI rAma’s arrival is confirmed why are you not bathing and decorating yourself. hrushta: – It appeared to be having goosebumps just as one would have on seeing SrI rAma’s arrival. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 29.1 thathA gathAm [another SlOkam is cited to explain about the auspicious signs] – as said in rahasyancha prakASamcha, sage vAlmeeki who was blessed by brahmA to see everything in SrI rAma’s life as they happened, is unable to explain the joy of sIthAp pirAtti here. thAm – sIthA, the entity only existed and nothing beyond that was visible. vyathithAm – she appeared as if whatever explained previously is her nature, and now is covered with great sorrow; samAdhvASa thathrAham – she remained to be identified just with her sorrow not realising any of her joyful time for the twelve years. anindhithAm – she remained as she should have, in separation of SrI rAma. If that is not the case, she will be blamed [for not worrying for her separation from SrI rAma]. vyabEthaharshAm – there is no trace of her previous joy. paridhIna mAnasAm – her heart losing its existence, to not handle any future joy also. SubhAm – this is how she has become pale due to separation from emperumAn [since it is a natural reaction, she is praised to be auspicious] unlike becoming pale due to eating soil; she appears to be deserving praise/protection like a sea which pushes out the waves and withdrawing them back. nimiththAni SubhAni bhEjirE – These omens became fortunate by announcing the upcoming auspicious events to sIthA. naram SriyA jushtamivOpajIvina: – they realised their true nature by serving SrI mahAlakshmi herself; this is similar to – those who are in need of funds, would go to the generous ones, accept what is needed by them and become joyful. This is how the omens where.

Now, let us see emperumAn‘s nature.

SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.28 is explained here:

  • ArththOvA yadhivA dhruptha:” (whether one surrenders with great sorrow or with contentment) – one can surrender unto him with great sorrow; or, as the soldiers may refute us when we recite the divine names, even if one surrenders with pride [and wait for the end of this body to reach paramapadham]. [Here there is talk about Artha prapanna, who can no longer wait to reach paramapadham; and dhruptha prapanna, who has understood the lowliness of the material world, the greatness of emperumAn and has surrendered to emperumAn through a sadhAchArya (qualified AchArya) and cannot wait beyond the end of this body to reach paramapadham] Why is this said in this way? Isn’t it well well known that only Artha prapanna qualifies to attain the result? Aren’t those pramANams (authentic texts) which explain that dhruptha prapanna too attain the result, [very few and ] unpopular? [Though the two types of surrender are distinct, why is dhruptha prapanna also treated equally in this SlOkam?] This is because, the goal of this SlOkam is not to highlight the qualities of SaraNAgatha (one who surrenders) but to highlight the qualities of SaraNya (emperumAn who gives refuge). Here, the individuals’ Arthi (urge to reach paramapadham) is not part of the upAyam (means); in that context, there is no difference between Artha prapanna and dhruptha prapanna. emperumAn cares for dhruptha prapanna thinking “Not knowing about himself, he did not even announce to me about his shortcomings thinking ‘I have nothing in my hand’; this being the case, let me protect him”.
  • parEShAm SaraNAgatha: ari: – Among the enemies, he is a surrendered enemy. That means – he can be said as SaraNAgatha since he utters the word “SaraNam” for its sake, but can be called as Sathru (enemy) since he has no such attitude in his heart. Alternative explanation – due to not having any remorse for previous state, and yet saying “SaraNam” for its sake now, he can be said both. As said in periya thirumozhi 1.9.3 “konREn … anRE vandhadaindhEn” (I engaged in needless killings, and I surrendered unto you).
  • prANAn parithyajya – Should we not give up our lives to protect such surrendered persons though they are enemies? Since there is no match for his surrender, giving up my life is not important, but protecting him is more important.
  • rakshithavya kruthAthmanA – One who is well learned [from elders] will do all of these. For those who are knowledgeable, they cannot do anything otherwise.

This is the state of emperumAn.

In this manner, emperumAn cannot tolerate for even those who surrender joyfully [instead of with the great urge]. parAnguSa nAyaki thought he will surely come, considering the following reasons:

  • being greatly anguished starting with mAsaRu sOdhi, then surrendered four times, and since emperumAn did not come even then, she sent a messenger to him; and he thinks that she went through all these sufferings for him only.
  • even after all of this, she is surviving and not dead
  • as she is faithful towards his [compassionate, loving] nature
  • as there are many good omens highlighting his arrival
  • while all these are there, my lack of fortune will bring him in front of me [to have him leave again and cause more agony]
  • as he shamelessly separated from her when such separation is not desired, he would arrive when she doesn’t want him to come.
  • as he is set out to finish me, and plans to unite with me again and separate from me again to finish me

Being determined that he will come, she along with her friends vowed “even if he comes now, we will neither look at him nor speak to him”, and decided to go to a place which is not known to him; they went to a garden which is pleasant for their sports, and stayed in a maNdapa (hall) in the middle of that garden; remaining together in there, they collected all the sentient and insentient tools such as birds, balls etc and placed them in a place so that they are out of reach for him to develop a conversation with them, just as all stocks are carefully placed inside the fort during war times; now, if there is anything that they forgot, he could use them to survive and communicate with them; they built a stone wall which is their neglect, and arranged everything so that he cannot even use his sarvagyathvam (omniscience) to fulfil his desire and sarvaSakthithvam (omnipotence) to perform his actions; as seen in those who desired to speak about krishNa’s activities as in SrIvishNu purANam 5.24.12 “kaSchith su kuSalee krishNa:” (Is krishNa keeping well?), would wonder “what is the use of speaking about him?”; similar to how it’s condemned to recite the divine names of emperumAn in the assembly of demoniac people such as hiraNya et al who are unfavourable towards emperumAn , even in the assembly of parAnguSa nAyaki, hatred became abundant and when some one recited the divine names, they became greatly jealous/angry about it.  This is the state of parAnguSa nAyaki.

Now, let us see the state of emperumAn.

[Here, many incidents related to emperumAn helping his devotees during dangers are highlighted.]

emperumAn heard her sorrowful cry of thiruvAimozhi 6.1.10vERukoNdu ummai yAn irandhEn“. Is he not the one hears good things as said in SrIvishNu sahasranAmam “SuchiSravA:“? He will not remain unperturbed at this stage;

  • when he heard the sorrowful cry of gajEndhrAzhwAn as in vishNu dharmam 68 “paramApadhamApanna:” (fell in great danger). rushed as said in SrIrangarAja sthavam 2.57 “asvIkrutha praNIpAdha maNipAdhukam kimithichAkulAntha:puram avAhana parishkriyam” (The private quarters became bewildered since emperumAn did not accept his usual decorations etc while leaving), not being patient enough to wait for garudAzhwAr to get ready, he started running several steps and his consorts in the private quarters wondered what great activity is going on beyond creation etc, thinking “why is he running like this”, and he climbed on garudAzhwAr without him getting decorated and appeared [for gajEndhrAzhwAn] impressing the greatly knowledgeable devotees to say “bhagavathas thvarAyai nama:” (I bow down to bhagavAn‘s urge in protecting his devotees);
  • When dhraupadhi was tormented by dhuSSAsana and when her five husbands who were well known protectors were present, she called out as in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 58.22 “gOvindhEthi yadhAkranthath” (as how dhraupadhi called out gOvindha!) thinking of me to be the saviour, and I felt bad since “I was not physically present to rescue her from the danger” as said in “mAm dhUravAsinam” (I who was residing in a distant place), and thought “she did what was fitting for her nature [calling out to me], but I having incarnated, have not accomplished the purpose of my incarnation”, feeling sad, crowned dharmaputhra (yudhishtira) again and ensured that she tied her hair [fulfilling her desire of having dhuryOdhana and his brothers killed] and eliminated all the enemies, and yet while ascending to paramapadham, left with a broken heart as said in “nAthisvasthamanA:” (with a heart that is hurt).
  • He felt the agony of not initially helping SrI bhIshma who was resting on the arrow bed as said in mahAbhAratham SAnthi parvam “Sarathalpa gathO bhIshmaS SAmyanniva huthAsana: | mAmdhyAthi purusha vyAgras thathO mEthath gatham mana: ||” (bhIshma, the bull amongst men, resting on the arrow-bed, like a lamp which is dying, meditated upon me; my heart then went to him).
  • As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 17.15 “thEnathEnamanuvrathA:” (So, the people followed SrI rAma), those who are to be followed by me, came to me first and remained sad for that; his divine heart melted due to these reasons emperumAn felt ashamed for not having helped the rishis (sages) of dhaNdakAraNya as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10.9 “prasIdhanthu bhavanthOmE hrIrEshA hi mamAthulA yadhIdhruSairaham viprair upasaththEyair upasthitha:” (I have accepted all of you who are qualified to be approached by me. I am feeling greatly ashamed [that I have not come to you first]; you all should forgive me for my mistake), feeling shameful he begged for their forgiveness; such is his nature;

Now, if he is as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.42 “vyasanEShu cha manushyAnAm” (SrI rAma becomes anguished seeing others suffer), if he is normally like this, what to speak about when his beloved consort is in separation? He stumbles upon thinking “This parAnguSa nAyaki who should be approached and whose hands and feet should be held by me, is now holding on to the feet of a bird; why have I delayed my arrival! What masculinity do I have in me still? What shall I do after going there? Or what shall I do from here?”, feeling that he can no longer survive without uniting with her, arrives at a place which is neither too close nor far from where she was with her friends, and observes that she is unapproachable due to her anger. He starts thinking “how can I eliminate her determination and unite with her?”, and thinks “let me show my beauty and captivate her”, but realises that in her group, everyone is lot more beautiful than he and cannot be captivated by beauty; she is having the greatness of being said as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.5 “asithEkshaNA” (one who is having beautiful dark eyes); then, he thinks “let me captivate them with my supremacy”, but then realises that the private quarters of consorts cannot be won over by sending over the elephants [showing the might]; finally, he decides that he can win her over by his humility only; this humility is of no use, if manifested when she is not glancing at him; now, after doing all of these, his divine feet will not cooperate with him, to just leave her; but he will also not force himself upon her, when she does not accept him [only when we accept his favours and surrender unto him, he will grant us the final result]; [in case of parAnguSa nAyaki] if he forces himself upon her, since she is so tender-hearted, he may even lose her; now, when there is cool water in close proximity, a greatly thirsty person will not go to a desert [searching for water]; that is, if parAnguSa nAyaki becomes upset with him for his slight delay in arrival and decides “I will not allow him in our group”, he will not leave them  and go seeking the bonding with samsAris (materialistic people); now, thinking “what is the means to have their acceptance” and realising that it is not as easy as how thiruvadi (hanuman) toiled in crossing the ocean and convinced sIthAp pirAtti by singing SrI rAma’s glories as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 31.2 “rAjA dhaSarathO nAma” (there was a king named dhaSaratha); thinking “what can be done now? ” as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39.1 “Evam bahu vidhAm chinthAm” (thinking in many ways), he determined “if my head and their feet meet each other, I will hold on to their feet tightly and fit them on my head”. There is no better means than this topmost one; this is seen from the beginning [i.e., surrender is the best means].

Thus, having determined this, he entered a garden which matched his [dark greenish] complexion, approached her and her friends without their knowledge, saw them with gratitude for the full satisfaction of his eyes and stood gratefully. The sight will subsequently lead to conversation etc, but he did not get that; at that stage,  he became weakened since he did not hear the sweet voices of her maina, parrot etc which sustain him; he thought “when I am together with her, her friends have twice the love [towards us] and they will remain the same way when I am separated from her”; but they were angrier than she was towards him. He knows well that whoever approaches him with purushakAram (recommendation), his heart will give in for them as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.2 “sabrAthuScharaNau gAtam” (lakshmaNa holding the divine feet of his brother SrI rAma tight); here, he was unable to acquire their recommendation; now, even if parAnguSa nAyaki accepts him, if her friends don’t agree, she will not allow him in; though SrI rAma said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.34 “dhaththam asya abhayam mayA” (I have given him refuge), he accepted vibhIshaNAzhwAn by saying “Anaya” (bring him) to sugrIva mahArAjar who first said “vadhyathAm” (vibhIshaNa deserves to be killed); he did not get any opportunity through her friends as well. emperumAn who cannot handle the separation of his devotees even for a moment as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “najIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I will not survive even for a moment) and as in sthOthra rathnam 56kshaNEpi thE yadhvirahO’thidhussaha:” (the separation of those great vaishNava is very intolerable even for a moment for you), will not survive in their presence when they don’t look towards him favourably.

Now, due to his approach towards them, the whole place became peacock blue shaded as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 38.14 “SObhayan dhaNdakAraNyam” (the dhaNdaka forest became very beautiful), they became blessed by his permanent glance and got goosebumps, yet they kept instigating themselves with the heat of anger and separation to resist the coolness acquired from his merciful glance; their anger would naturally increase in his presence; thinking about all of these, they confirmed his arrival and together faced off from him; emperumAn too thought that if it is a fort built by enemies, he can knock it down and enter [but it is a anger wall by his dear devotees]; his feet trembled since he could not get close to them even after being in their proximity nor his grief was reducing; at that time, due to his great fortune, he stumbled upon their ball and anklet which they forgot there; as he would feel ecstatic while stumbling upon the butter pot and butter in a dark room, he became greatly ecstatic on finding them, he picked them up and manifested his love towards her fully on those objects by touching them on his eyes, head etc., as done by sIthAp pirAtti when she got SrI rAma’s divine ring [from hanuman]. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.4 “gruhIthvA prEkshamANasA” (taking and seeing that ring) – at first, she did not see it [the ring] fearing “has this occurred by rAvANa’s mischief?”; but once she realised it had come from SrI rAma, she could not take her eyes off that ring. sA prEkshamANA – The same hanuman who had to work hard previously to make her see it saying “paSya dhEvi” (Oh lordess! see it), had to work hard to take her eyes off it;  bharthu: kara vibhUshaNam – She thought how it came into contact with her during pANigrahaNam (father giving daughter’s hand to the son-in-law). kara vibhUshaNam – Beautiful lotus like divine hand [of SrI rAma]. The ring is an ornament for the ornament [hand]. bharthAram iva – on receiving it in her divine hand, she thought about the finger which wore it, and his shoulders; that thought made her forget about the ocean that was separating them; she thought that they were resting on the same bed; she thought that she won that ring over by defeating him in some sportive gambling/chess activities. The vAlmeeki rishi (sage) says “iva” (as if), since she is like mother for him [and he cannot talk about the parents’ romantic aspects]; also, not to remind her that it is not real embrace [which will put her back in sorrow again]. jAnakI – She is born in a clan where there is no question of mixture of sorrow and joy [there is only joy]. mudhithA bhavath – she became ecstatic. He too became ecstatic on acquiring those ball and anklet. When a samsAri (bound soul) becomes muktha (liberated), he will see emperumAn’s leelOpakaraNam (tools for his sport) and bhOgOpakaraNam (tools for his enjoyment) as the same as there is no separate thoughts for him; due to everything being emperumAn’s possession, they all will appear as the same as nithya vibhUthi (paramapadham, the eternal abode of enjoyment); similarly, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s leelOpakaraNam appears to be bhOgOpakaraNam for him. They saw his great attachment towards those objects. They thought – emperumAn who separated from us and who remained well fit, is doing all these to captivate us; this is probably what is happening – after separating from us, he went and spent time with some others; he then separated from them too; he came here with that sorrow; he became bewildered thinking “these are their play items” and finally they thought “he is not doing this with [true] love towards us”; and emperumAn eliminated the Udal (romantic quarrel) by manifesting his beauty, qualities, his inability to live in separation and his humility, and united with her – all these are explained in this decad.

[Inner meaning of this decad] Now, pUrvAchAryas (AchAryas before parASara bhattar) explained this decad as “It is not fitting for AzhwAr‘s SEshathvam (total dependence on emperumAn) to quarrel with emperumAn citing his interest in going to other women. So this should be explained as AzhwAr manifesting his inferiority and trying to move away from emperumAn as he did in thiruvAimozhi 1.5vaLavEzhulagu'”. But bhattar heard this and mercifully said “Whatever our AchAryas could have said! This decad reveals AzhwAr’s great attachment towards bhagavAn. There is no need to explain it in any other way! Let this be the only meaning for this decad”. SrI rAma had a wonderful relationship with sugrIva mahArajar so that he could even strongly argue with him as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 30.82 “hanishyAmi sa bAndhavam” (Since you crossed the line of truth, I will kill you even with your kinsmen).

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 23 – thAzhndhu varam koNdu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that emperumAn, who is attained like this, will remove the hurdles which are like enemies of his follower, will be very simple, and will fulfil all the wishes of his follower. He will give wealth to those who ask for it, kaivalyAnubhavam (AthmA experiencing itself) to those who ask for it and himself to those who want to attain him.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings|:

thAzhndhu varam koNdu thakka vagaigaLAl
vAzhndhu kazhivArai vAzhvikkum thAzhndha
viLanganikkuk kanReRindhu vERRuruvAy gyAlam
aLandhu adikkIzh koNda avan

Word by Word Meaning

thAzhndha – (due to the weight of its fruits, the branches of the wood apple tree remained) lowered
kanikku – for plucking the fruits
kanRu eRindhu – throwing a calf (as a throwing stick)
vERu uru Ay – inapt form of a mendicant as vAmana (for one who has long hands due to the habit of always giving to others)
gyAlam – the earth
aLandhu – measuring
adi kIzh – under his divine feet
koNda – had under his control
avan – that emperumAn
thAzhndhu – worshipping at his divine feet
varam koNdu – attaining his divine feet
thakka vagaigaLAl – appropriate manner (to their states)
vAzhndhu – obtaining wealth or kaivalyam (AthmA enjoying itself) or bhagavath prApthi (attaining emperumAn himself)
kazhivArai – those entities who wish to increase their comforts more and more
vAzhvikkum – emperumAn will grant them

vyAkyAnam

thAzhndhu – unlike rAvaNa who said, as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 36-11 “dhvidhA bhajyEyamapi na namEyam” (even if I were split into two, I will not worship him), giving up one’s ego and falling at the divine feet of emperumAn

varam koNdu – attaining emperumAn and getting with his mercy instead of trying on one’s own efforts to get the desired benefits

varam koNdu – implies that instead of being humble just for one day, having humility permanently

thakka vagaigaLAl – attaining as per the characteristics of the AthmA. Or attaining, following the ways mentioned in SAsthras (sacred texts). Or, as per the worthiness of AthmA. One who desires wealth should think of emperumAn to be always with wealth, worship him and think of emperumAn at the time of death. For one who desires kaivalyam, he should think of the purity of emperumAn. One who desires emperumAn himself should think of emperumAn with his auspicious qualities. This is why AzhwAr used the term thAzhndhu varam koNdu.

vAzhndhu kazhivArai vAzhvikkum – He will let live those who desire to live life fully. He will protect those who spend their time thinking only of emperumAn and considering that as their life.

thakka vagaigaLAl vAzhndhu kazhivArai – He will grant the benefits to those who seek them and let them live. He will call those who come to him for alms, as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7-18udhArA:” (magnanimous persons). However, there are some hurdles in obtaining from him and these do not go easily. Even these will be removed by himself.

thAzhndha viLanganikkuk kanReRindhu – throwing a calf to fell the fruits which had grown from top to bottom in the wood apple tree. Thus, he caused harm to the two demons, vathsAsuran and kapiththAsuran who wanted to harm him [these two demons had entered the calf and wood apple fruit, respectively, with the intention of killing krishNa].

vERRuruvAyemperumAn is the most magnanimous as brought out in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21-7 “gosahasrapradhAthAram” (one who gives away a thousand cows). Yet he made himself as a mendicant [to take his possessions from mahAbali]. Or, one who is the consort of thiru (SrI mahAlakshmi) went asking for alms. Or, initially he asked for three steps of land, showing his small feet [as vAmana] and once it was granted, transformed himself [into thrivikrama] and measured with huge feet.

gyAlam aLandhu adikkIzhk koNda avan – after measuring earth, he kept it under his divine foot. Will such an entity give up on one who desires emperumAn himself?

gyAlam aLandhu adikkIzhk koNda avan – just as a mother will embrace her sleeping child, emperumAn also kept his divine feet on the earth, unknown to the earth, and measured it. Hence he will let his followers prosper.

We shall move on to the 24th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhadhi – 22 – ariyadhu eLidhAgum

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avathArikai

While going to hell is rare, AzhwAr mercifully mentioned about the activities carried out by chEthanas on their own, in the earlier pAsuram. AzhwAr says that even if they do not have any implements [to attain emperumAn], if they leave their responsibility with emperumAn and remain that way, that emperumAn will carry out all the tasks will be evident by merely looking at his greatness. Is it easy for samsAris to attain emperumAn? AzhwAr mentions an easy way. If we are able to attain one who takes care of everything, including our existence, everything will become easy, he says.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

ariyadhu eLidhAgum ARRalAl mARRip
peruga muyalvAraip peRRAl kariyadhOr
veNkOttu mAl yAnai venRi mudiththanRE
thaNkOttu mAmalarAl thAzhndhu

Word by Word Meaning

ARRalAl – with his power
mARRi – removing the hurdle (of chEthana’s efforts)

(taking upon himself, all the tasks which will result in benefits for the chEthana)
peruga muyalvArai – the supreme entity, emperumAn, who is taking all the efforts
peRRAl – if we are able to attain [him]
ariyadhu – mOksham [SrIvaikuNtam] which is very difficult to attain
eLidhu Agum – will become easy

Where have we seen this happen? ……..
veN kOdu – having white tusks
mAl – huge
kariyadhu Or yAnai – black complexioned, unique, gajEndhrAzhwAn [name of the elephant]
venRi mudiththu – victorious (over crocodile) and destroying
thaN – cool
kOdu – on the bank of the pond
mA – great
malarAl – with lotus flower
thAzhndhu anRE – did it not bow down and carry out service [to emperumAn]?

vyAkyAnam

ariyadhu eLidhAgum – attaining the difficult to attain emperumAn and worshipping him are very difficult. What should be done for that?

ARRalAl mARRIp peruga muyalvAraip peRRAlARRalAl could mean either with power or with patience. If we consider the first meaning, this would mean: since emperumAn has no shortcoming in his power, transferring the responsibility from chEthana to himself, and utilising that power for removing the hurdle which stands in the way of the chEthana attaining emperumAn and offering himself to the chEthana. If we attain one who says “why should I expect that this entity (chEthana) should do something? Let me take that responsibility on myself and carry out the task for him”, the difficult-to-get entity will become easy-to-get. emperumAn, with his strength, will protect the chEthana such that the chEthana’s powerlessness will get negated. If the second meaning is considered (with patience), this would mean:  this patience will be useful for emperumAn to put up with all the inimical deeds carried out by the chEthana which would cause hurdles for him in attaining emperumAn.

mARRip peruga muyalvAraip peRRAl – Even the difficult tasks will become easy to achieve if he (a chEthana) can get one who will take the chEthana’s responsibility on his shoulders so that the chEthana doesn’t have to do anything. That person who takes the responsibility will give strength to the chEthana and make that also as an act that gives himself strength. He would feel elated that the chEthana has been able to achieve so much (while actually the achievement is the other person’s) without any knowledge or strength [who can be such a person other than emperumAn!]. It is implied here that he [emperumAn] can be attained only through his grace and if we take any effort that would become the cause for even losing him. As an example, AzhwAr is citing the case of gajEndhran, the elephant.

kariyadhOr veN kOttu mAl yAnai – the elephant which is black in colour, has white coloured tusks and is huge.

venri mudiththanRE thaN kOttu mAmalarAl thAzhndhu – [gajEndhran] the elephant entered the pond, plucked a lotus flower and was harassed by a crocodile. To remove the sorrow of the elephant that it may not be able to offer the flower to the divine feet of emperumAn before the flower withers away, emperumAn came running to the bank of the pond with his dress and crown dishevelled and took  the elephant to safety, on the bank. Once he reached the bank, didn’t gajEndharan offer the flower at the divine feet of emperumAn and remove his enemy! AzhwAr called the elephant, which was troubled by the crocodile, as kariyadhOr veNkOttu mAl yAnai (black coloured, huge elephant with white tusks). The purpose of describing the colour of the elephant and the tusks when the elephant was in such a condition [being troubled by crocodile] is: just as a child falls into a well and the mother thinks “what a beautiful child” and starts thinking about the beauty and the various parts of the child, AzhwAr also thinks of the beauty of the elephant in the same way. The world kOttu refers to bank (of the pond) and the world thaN means being cool. Did the elephant become victorious after it reached the cool bank and offer the flower? Did it become victorious after submitting the flower at the divine feet? Did it not become victorious with emperumAn’s mercy! If the text is thaN thOttu mAmalarAl the meaning will be “huge flower with cool petals”.  When emperumAn had not taken on himself the protection of gajEndhran, the elephant was under the crocodile’s control. As soon as emperumAn took over its protection, the hurdle for elephant disappeared. The one who is protected with emperumAn’s mercy will be strong. When emperumAn is angry and does not protect, the enemies will be strong. Just as emperumAn himself  has mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 12-7thEshAm aham samuthdhArthA mruthyu samsAra sAgarAth” (I save them from the ocean of samsAram), he will protect. When he is angry, he will push us into difficulties, as mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16-19 “kshipAmi ajasramaSubAn AsurIshvEva yOnishu” (I will push them into demonic births). Thus [if we leave out protection to emperumAn] the difficult task will become easy. All that is required of chEthana for this to happen is not to obstruct when emperumAn wants to shower his mercy on him.

We shall move on to the 23rd pAsuram, next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 21 – thAm uLarE

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avathArikai

Looking at their fullness [chEthanas], there is no way that they would reach hell. AzhwAr wonders as to why they seek exception and fall into hell. In the earlier pAsuram he advised that we should worship emperumAn well. For that to happen, we should be there [alive] in the first instance.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thAmuLarE tham uLLam uLLuLadhE thAmaraiyin
pUvuLadhE Eththum pozhudhuNdE vAman
thirumaruvu thAL maruvu senniyarE sevvE
arunaragam sErvadharidhu

Word for Word Meaning

thAm uLarE – chEthanas are already there (in order to worship emperumAn with their physical bodies and senses)
tham uLLam uL uLadhE – (to think about emperumAn) their minds are within themselves (without the need for having to search outside)
thAmariyin pU uLadhE – lotus flower (in order to offer to the divine feet of emperumAn) is available in plenty (in all water bodies)
Eththum pozhudhu uNdE – the time required to praise emperumAn is available in abundance
vAman – sarvESvaran (supreme being) vAmana mUrththi (who kept his divine feet on the heads of all)
thirumaruvu thAL – beautiful divine feet
maruvu – apt to be bowed to, in obeisance
senniyarE – people with heads are available

(thus, the chEthanas (sentient beings) are there in this world without any shortfall)
sevvE – directly
arunaragam – the cruel hell
sErvadhu – to reach
aridhu – very difficult task to carry out

vyAKyAnam

thAm uLarE…emperumAn has already created chEthanas, giving them physical forms and sensory perceptions. vishNu thathvam says “vichithrA dhEha sampaththi: ISvarAya nevEdhithum, pUrvamEva kruthA brahman hasthapAdhAdhi samyuthA” (Oh brAhmaNa! The physical body, with hands and legs, has been created in the beginning to be offered to emperumAn). Thus, emperumAn has already given the physical form to chEthanas. They do not have to create themselves.

tham uLLam uL uLadhE – once their existence has been granted, without the need for searching out for a heart, he has given that also, and has made it, his. Heart is not something that is outside of oneself. In order to hold on to the readily accessible, righteous emperumAn, the readily available heart is sufficient.

Despite these, is it difficult to worship emperumAn?

thAmariyin pU uLadhE – The lotus flower is available! Even if he does not want, these have been created already so that he does not have to seek anything outside. emperumAn has removed all his short falls, so that the chEthana does not have to search out for the flower. The lotus flower is not outside his possessions!

Eththum pozhudhu uNdE – The time required to hold on to emerpumAn is also there without any shortfall. Even if one feels lazy to pluck a flower, emperumAn has created sufficient time for worship!

vAman thirumaruvu thAL maruvu senniyarE – [for the sake of poetic metrics] vAmanan has been shortened to vAman. Isn’t vAmanan willing to come even as a mendicant in order to accept whatever the chEthana gives! He has created the head [for the chEthana] so that the chEthana can bow his head at the divine feet of emperumAn. The divine feet manifest the opulence of emperumAn.

vAman – isn’t he one who is elated, keeping his divine feet on everyone’s head and is willing to come even as a mendicant in order to reclaim his possession! All that is required of us is to hold on to him (he doesn’t expect anything else).

thirumaruvu thAL – As mentioned in sthOthra rathnam 31Sanka chakra rathAnga kalpaka dhvajAravindhAnkuSa vajra lAnchanam” (divine feet which have as their identity the following: conch, disc, kaRpaka tree (wish fulfilling tree), lotus flag, goad, vajrAyudham (a weapon like a mace, made of diamond)) his divine feet are such that they manifest clearly that he is the Lord. Hasn‘t periyAzhwAr too divinely mentioned the same in his periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5-4-7 “thiruppolindha sEvadi” (his divine feet manifest opulence)!

maruvu senniyarEemperumAn had already created the head which manifests the chEthana’s servitorship! Aren’t they (chEthanas) those with heads which will accept when emperumAn keeps his divine feet on them! “nAn” (I) denotes egoistic state like that of rAvaNa. “aham” (servitor) denotes the humble state like that of vibhIshaNa.

When this is the position…

sevvE arunaragam sErvadhu aridhu – to go directly to the cruel samsAram (life in the materialistic realm) is very difficult. When such is the difficulty, how do these people go, searching for samsAram? When emperumAn has given so many implements [physical form, senses, lotus flower, time, head etc] there is no scope for going to hell (Yet these people waste all these implements and take births in samsAram repeatedly, AzhwAr says mercifully, with sadness).

arunaragam – those who do not have knowledge will consider the dwelling place of yama as hell. Those with knowledge will consider taking birth in this word itself as hell. sIthAppirAtti says in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30-18 “nirayO yasthvayA vinA” (being separated from you is hell). Hasn’t SrIvishNu purANam 17-63 said “dhEhE chEth prIthimAn mUda: bavithA narakEpi sa:” (that ignorant person will have desire for his physical form even in hell)! Instead, to one who does not have it (desire for his body), there is no scope for going to hell.

We shall move on to the 22nd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.1.11 – min koL

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Full series >> Sixth Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Just as lovers are enjoyed by damsels, those who are well versed in this decad will be enjoyed by SrIvaishNavas”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In the end, AzhwAr says “Just as lovers are enjoyed by damsels, those who are well versed in this decad will be enjoyed by sarvESvaran”.

pAsuram

min koL sEr puri nUl kuRaLAy agal gyAlam koNda
van kaLvan adi mEl kurugUrch chatakOpan sonna
paN koL AyiraththuL ivai paththum thiruvaNvaNdUrkku
in koL pAdal vallAr madhanar minnidaiyavarkkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

min – splendour
koL – having
sEr – matching his divine form and glory
puri nUl – having divine yagyOpavIdham (sacred thread)
kuRaLAy – as vAmana (dwarf)
agal – expansive
gyAlam – earth
koNda – having exclusively for himself
van – very strong, to be agreed upon by the one who gives and the people of the world
kaLvan – having mischief
adi mEl – on the divine feet
kurugUrch chatakOpan – nammAzhwAr
sonna – mercifully spoke
paN – tune
koL – consuming the words in it
AyiraththuL – among the thousand pAsurams
thiruvaNvaNdUrkku – for thiruvaNvaNdUr
in – sweetness
koL – having
pAdal – song
ivai paththum – this decad
vallAr – who can practice
min – shining/thin like lightning
idaiyavarkku – those who have waist portion
madhanar – desirable.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn as vAmana is wearing splendorous, divine yagyOpavIdham which is matching his divine form and glory, possessing the expansive earth exclusively for himself, being mischievous, to be agreed upon by the one who gives and the people of the world. nammAzhwAr mercifully spoke on the divine feet of such emperumAn these thousand pAsurams where the tune consumes the words. Among those thousand pAsurams, this sweet decad is for thiruvaNvaNdUr. Those who can practice this decad, will be desired by those who have waist portion which is shining/thin like lightning. With this – it is implied that those who are well versed in this decad will bring joy to the bhAgavathas who are radiant due to not surrendering to anyone else as explained in the middle portion of thirumanthram.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • min koL sEr puri nUl kuRaLAy – As SrI vAmana who is wearing the divine sacred thread which is having a contrast colour with his dark complexion which outshines lightning [in its shine]. The reason for speaking about vAmana form is to highlight his humble entry in the vicinity of AzhwAr to offer himself to AzhwAr. It is like the precursor for emperumAn‘s arrival which is said as in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 81″pagal kaNdEn” (I saw the dawn) [his approaching of parAnguSa nAyaki in the next decad to pacify her]. Not having the ability to send a messenger, he himself arrives in a dwarf form feeling fully ashamed of being separated from AzhwAr.
  • agal gyAlam koNda van kaLvan adi mEl – On the divine feet of the greatly mischievous emperumAn who grabbed everything from mahAbali. It is like the sunrise for “minnidai madavAr” (next decad where he comes looking to be accepted by AzhwAr); that is, just as emperumAn removed the pride of mahAbali and took everything from him, he united with parAnguSa nAyaki eliminating her pride which she acquired out of romantic quarrel. But, the pride of the enemy is not the same as the pride of a lover. That can be destroyed, but this cannot be destroyed [since these are intimate interactions]. When some one manifests anger without any reason [as in the case of romantic quarrel], it only increases when the person [who is the target of the anger] appears in front. Her anger/pride will not decrease even in his presence.
  • paN koL Ayiram – As Izham (an island such as lankA) was filled with bamboo shoots, the tune is abundant [subduing the words].
  • in koL pAdal vallAr – Those who are well versed in these sweet pAsurams. There is no need for palaSruthi (result of singing the pAsurams); singing this in itself is the enjoyable result.
  • madhanar minnidaiyavarkkE – Just like lovers are desired by damsels, those who practice this decad are desired by SrIvaishNavas; if this is not the case [i.e., if it is taken literally],why would AzhwAr who said in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “pala nI kAttip paduppAyO” (Are you trying to finish me showing various worldly pleasures?) and in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.8 “puRaththittu innam keduppAyO” (are you planning to engage me in worldly pleasures and spoil me further), will now say that they will be enjoyed by women; he is saying that just as damsels enjoy their lovers, they [those who sing these pAsurams] will be enjoyed by emperumAn and SrIvaishNavas; even previously, AzhwAr just said “thAmarai” (the example) and left out emperumAn’s divine feet [this is explained in thamizh grammar as “muRRuvamai“, where the example is directly highlighted  without the object of the example as in thiruvAimozhi 6.9.9 “thAvi vaiyam koNda thadam thAmaraigatku” (the lotus flower which measured the world)]; when an example is exactly matching the object of the example, the example itself can be cited [without the object of the example]; same principle can be explained using the words “adhu pOla” (like that) and “adhu thAn” (only that).

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 20 -pazhi pAvam kaiyagaRRi

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that without any distinction between those who have already praised emperumAn and those who have just begun to praise him, they have all carried out what they were expected to do. As mentioned in the earlier pAsuram, wouldn’t only those who meditate on the activities that he carried out to protect the world and attain him, flourish!

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

pazhi pAvam kaiyagaRRi pal kAlum ninnai
vazhi vAzhvAr vAzhvarAm mAdho – vazhuvinRi
nAraNan than nAmAngaL nanguNarndhu nangEththum
kAraNangam thAm udaiyar thAm

Word for Word Meaning

pazhi – blame; disrepute
pAvam – bad deeds carried out knowingly
kaiyagaRRi – removing
palgAlum – always
ninnai – you
vazhi  vAzhvAr – those who attain you through the ways ordained in SAsthram (sacred text)
nAraNan than – nArAyaNa, your
nAmangaL – divine names
nangu uNarndhu – knowing well
nangu Eththum kAraNangaL thAm udaiyAr thAm – those who have the means to worship you well

(thus the two types of people)
vAzhavarAm – they will live with happiness
mAdhO – is this any surprise!

vyAKyAnam

pazhi pAvam kaiyagaRRi – avoiding the blame which the people of the world heap on them and the sins which result out of that

pazhi pAvampazhi is that which comes because of others heaping blame when one does not do anything on his own. pAvam results when one knowingly causes harm to others. Removing these two. In other words, removing the two inimical forces: blame which comes without a cause and sin which comes with a cause. Should one suffer the result of an action which he has not carried out at all [blame]?  This is also due the result of a sin [committed earlier]. Does he have to spoil the apt position for himself due to these?

palgAlum ninnai vazhi vAzhvAr vAzhvarAm – Those who worship you as ordained in SAsthrams  (sacred texts) and attain you, will live without any trouble. The means adopted to attain him and the benefit of attaining him would be cause for happiness. Even though it is said that “na sukhAth sukham labhyathE” (one cannot attain happiness through happiness), this does not apply to emperumAn related matter. Here, both the means (the effort that one takes) and the benefit that one attains will both be happy, without any difference.

mAdhO – this word is like a conjunction. “Is it a surprise?” asks AzhwAr.

vazhuvinRi nAraNan than nAmangaL nangu Eththum – meditating well upon the divine names of emperumAn without any break. Meditating upon the divine names of emperumAn which are faultless and hence is the reason for meditating.

nAraNan than nAmangaL – it is like speaking about one’s mother.

nangu uNarndhu – knowing through devotion

nangu Eththum – worshipping such that one cannot sustain otherwise

kAraNangaL – the reason for reciting [his divine names]. That is, devotion; singing about emperumAn which is the cause for devotion; the desire which is the cause for singing; the puNya (virtue) which is the cause for desire; emperumAn’s mercy which is the cause for puNya – those who have these will live happily (those who attain puNya due to emperumAn’s mercy, due to which they have desire towards emperumAn, due to which they sing about him, due to which they develop devotion towards emperumAn, will prosper). Thus, those who worship you after removing their blame and sins and worship you for a long time and those who recite your divine names and worship you without any break, will both prosper. AzhwAr says that only those who receive his mercy will have affection towards him. If the pAtam (text) is thAraNangaL thAmudaiyAr [instead of kAraNangaL thammudaiyAr],  thAraNam will refer to sustenance. In other words it refers to having sustenance through engaging with emperumAn, not being swayed by other [worldly] pursuits.

Let us take up the 21st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.1.10 – vERu koNdu

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Full series >> Sixth Centum >> First decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki speaks towards some beetles with anguish due to emperumAn forgetting about her – “instead of thinking ‘she is requesting to us as she requested to everyone else’, consider my task as your responsibility and go to emperumAn who has destroyed the enemies and protected the devotees, and is remaining fully satisfied; and inform him that I too, who am one amongst those who are to be protected by him, am present to be protected”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki sends some beetles towards emperumAn who is having the ability to eliminate the enemies which is an act in love towards his devotees.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Tenth pAsuram. ALavandhAr mercifully explained – parAnguSa nAyaki tells some beetles “he will think that I am not even alive, and you tell him that I am alive too”. emperumAnAr mercifully explained – parAnguSa nAyaki tells the beetles “When I am not alive, he too will not be alive; for the one who thinks ‘I have protected all women’ and remains fully satisfied, tell him that I too am part of those who are to be protected and am waiting [to be protected]”.

pAsuram

vERu koNdu ummai yAn irandhEn veRi vaNdinangAL!
thERu nIrp pambai vadapAlaith thiruvaNvaNdUr
mARil pOr arakkan madhiL nIRezhach cheRRugandha
ERu sEvaganArkku ennaiyum uLaL enmingaLE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

veRi – as said in “brahamagandha: praviSathi” (attaining the fragrance of brahmam), that is, once AthmAs become muktha (by reaching paramapadham), they will be decorated with the garland from the divine feet of emperumAn, which decorate the nithyasUris, you [beetles] who are an embodiment of fragrance from the flowers which you enjoy,
vaNdinangAL – oh groups of beetles!
ummai – you
vERu koNdu – treating distinctly unlike all others
yAn – I who am sustaining based on your distinguished nature
irandhEn – I am submitting the same prayers which are submitted towards emperumAn, who is the apt goal, towards you who will unite me with him.

(like paramapadham which is on the banks of virajA river)
thERu – pristine
nIr – having water
pambai – for pampA river
vadapAlai – northern bank
thiruvaNvaNdUr – in thiruvaNvaNdUr
mARu – comparison
il – not having
pOr – having battle
arakkan – rAvaNa who is having rAkshasa (demoniac) birth which causes cruelty in battle
madhiL – the fort which is built for protection
nIR ezha – to become dust
seRRu – destroy
ugandha – being joyful due to that and feeling as “kruthakruthya” (one who has accomplished the tasks)
ERu – abundance, irrespective for favourable or unfavourable persons
sEvaganArkku – for the one who is having valour
uLaL – I who am other than the one whom he attained by destroying his enemies
ennaiyum – me
enmingaL – tell him.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh groups of beetles who are an embodiment of fragrance from the flowers which you enjoy as said in “brahamagandha: praviSathi” (attaining the fragrance of brahmam), that is, once AthmAs become muktha (by reaching paramapadham), they will be decorated with the garland from the divine feet of emperumAn which decorates the nithyasUris! I who am sustaining based on your distinguished nature, am treating you distinctly unlike all others and submitting the same prayers which are submitted towards emperumAn who is the apt goal, towards you who will unite me with him. SrI rAma is in thiruvaNvaNdUr which is on the northern bank of the pampA river which is having pristine water. He destroyed the fort of lankA, which was headed by rAvaNa who has no comparison in battle and is having rAkshasa (demoniac) birth which causes cruelty in battle, to become dust and became joyful due to that and feeling as “kruthakruthya” . You tell such SrI rAma, who is having abundance of valour, irrespective of favourable or unfavourable persons, “I who am other than the one whom he attained by destroying his enemies, am still waiting”. With this gataka’s (AchAryas’), the fame acquired by his attachment to bhagavAn is revealed. veRi implies radiance and splendour.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vERu koNdu – While SrI rAma [through sugrIva] sent the monkey soldiers in all directions, he specially gave thiruvadi (hanuman) his divine ring; similarly I am treating you separately. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kAndam “viSEhshENa thu sugrIvO hanUmath artham ukthavAn” (sugrIva mahArajar specially informed the message to hanuman).
  • ummai – You who cannot rest until you complete the task which you were requested to do.
  • nAn – This is similar to how SrI rAma requested sugrIva to help him.
  • yAn irandhEn – She is of the nature that he should have come and requested her. He remains obedient towards her. Why should she specifically request these beetles? This is because they are having [six] feet and are capable of accomplishing the task patiently; another reason – the beetles don’t have stage fear and can speak freely in an assembly; [another reason] beetles are compared as the ideal example for emperumAn as said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 1.8.2 “thEn uNNum pOl vaNdE pOl pangigaL” (your hair which resemble the honey-drinking beetle [very dark coloured]).
  • vERu koNdu ummai yAn irandhEn – Just as our AchAryas have more attachment towards dhvayam over the vyApaka manthrams [nArAyaNa manthram, vAsudhEva manthram and vishNu manthram]. These beetles too are shadpadham [six feet/parts – beetles have six feet and dhvaya mahA manthram has six parts].
  • veRi vandu inangAL – You manifest the mood where you cannot resist helping us. Your body reveals the emotions which you went through in union. veRi – fragrance. Having fragrance. Your fragrance appears to be the food for you during your journey. You can travel along just smelling your own pleasant bodily fragrance. Since they are referred to as “inangAL” (groups), there is no separation for them. parAnguSa nAyaki who previously embraced emperumAn who is mentioned as “sarvagandha:” (the root of all fragrances) has even forgotten that fragrance of emperumAn and is amazed about the fragrance of these beetles.
  • thERu nIrp pambai – As soon as you cross the border of this [my] town, you will see pristine entities. Where she is, everything is confused [due to suffering in separation]. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.5 “upathapthOdhakA:nadhya:” (the rivers became very hot). Thinking in this manner, considering “for a person who is anguished, by immersing in water, the heat will be eliminated”, and went to the [sarayu] river “would this river help in cooling me down from the heat of separation of SrI rAma?”, only to find out that even the shore is hot. They then checked if the ponds are cool , but even those were hot. pallavAni sarAmsi cha – In separation from SrI rAma, everything including trees, vaSishta etc were suffering. This is how it feels like where parAnguSa nAyaki is.
  • vadapAlait thiruvaNvaNdUr – In the northern side. AzhwAr is able to realise where the town is and where the river is. parAnguSa nAyaki is similar to sIthAp pirAtti who remained in the south side of the ocean [in lankA].
  • mARil … – It is only due to lack of messenger; there is no specific hurdle [for emperumAn to come and rescue me].
  • mARil pOr arakkan – The crook who was treated as an enemy by chakravarathi thirumagan (SrI rAma, the son of emperor dhaSaratha), who has incomparable valour. For emperumAn who turned rAvaNa, who had no equal opponent due to the strength of his boons and shoulders and the protective fort he had built around lankA, into dust, and subsequently became joyful.
  • ERu sEvaganArkku – While there is a slight delay [in his arrival], we cannot blame him for his valour which was praised even by the enemies as said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 18.26 “rathacharyAsu sammatha:” (praised even by the enemies for his skill in driving the chariot etc).
  • ennaiyum uLaL enmingaLE – Tell him that there are still some who are suffering. thirumAlai ANdAn explains as heard from ALavandhAremperumAn has not arrived thinking “those who are separated from me will not survive”. Inform him that I still exist. emperumAnAr mercifully heard that and said – This is fine; yet, in thamizh literature, there is a principle called “inRiyamaiyAmai” (total loving dependence on each other and survival of each other based on that); that is, [in a couple] one will survive only when the other is surviving; either both will survive or both will perish. Per this principle, as emperumAn exists, he is sure to know that parAnguSa nAyaki is also surviving; hence, inform emperumAn who destroyed the enemies [rAvaNa et al] and crowned the favourable ones [vibhIshaNa et al] and feeling accomplished thinking “there is nothing more to do”, that there is still someone remaining to be protected.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi – 19 – vazhakkanRu kaNdAy

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avathArikai

emperumAn thinks that these activities [mentioned in the previous pAsurams] are apt to be carried out. But AzhwAr, thinking of his gentle nature, says that he should not have carried out these.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vazhakkanRu kaNdAy vali sagadam seRRAy
vazhakkenRu nI madhikka vENdA kuzhakkanRu
thIviLavin kAykkeRindha thImai thirumAlE
pAr viLangach cheydhAy pazhi

Word for Word Meaning

thirumAlE – you

(when you incarnated as kaNNan, [krishNa])
vali sagadam – the powerful wheel
seRRAy – kicked it aside and broke it
vazhakkanRu kaNdAy – this is not appropriate for you, please see
vazhakku enRu nI madhikka vENdA – you should not think that this is appropriate for you

(Instead of stopping with this daring act)
kuzha kanRu – a young calf (who is actually a demon)
thI viLavin kAykku eRindha – [which you] threw to destroy another demon who had taken the form of a wood apple
thImai – this mischievous act
pAr viLanga – to shine brightly on this earth
pazhi seydhAy – you acted wrongly

vyAKyAnam

vazhakku anRu kaNdAy vali sagadam seRRAy – Even though protection is an appropriate act, taking the form of a dwarf [vAmanAvathAram], breaking and destroying a very powerful wheel even though you are gentle, are activities which you should not have indulged in. As an infant, your destroying a wheel is not appropriate for your age,

vali sagadam seRRAy – it could also be construed that you destroyed the wheel with your strength. AzhwAr is wondering whether it was appropriate for emperumAn to act that way with his strength.

seRRAy – It is our fortune that the wheel was destroyed and you were victorious (if something had happened to you, what would we have done!)

vazhakku enRu nI madhika vENdA – accepted that you had destroyed the wheel. If you say that it was to be carried out, I say that this should not have been done at all. Though the wheel had been destroyed, you should not think that this activity was correct.

nI madhikka vENdA – you did not have a feeling of remorse that you have carried out an activity which was not appropriate for your age and your gentleness! AzhwAr is saying so because if he had also accepted what emperumAn did, he would have carried out similar mischievous acts. When a worm crawls in sand, it would appear that it had left behind some writing [patterns in sand]. In a similar way, when you stretched your leg, the wheel, per chance, broke. Since this incident happened once, should you keep doing the same type of activity repeatedly?

kuzhakkanRu thIviLavin kAykku eRindha thImai – More than the activity carried out earlier, was it appropriate for you to throw  a calf on wood apple? Both of them [the demons inside the calf and the fruit] had the same intention of destroying you! Using a demon in the form of a young calf to kill another demon in the form of wood apple was an inappropriate act. AzhwAr is worried [much after the event] as to what would have happened if both the demons had fallen together on kaNNan.

thirumAlE – if something had happened to you, the world would have been without a Lord. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 16-21 “mangaLAnyabhidhadhyushI” (she carried benediction on SrI rAma), didn’t sIthAppirAtti , with affection, carry out benediction on you! Could such a person carry out these activities?

pAr viLangachcheydhAy pazhi – you carried out a blame that will last forever on earth.

pazhi – thinking that you are going to protect something on earth, you carried out an activity which would have made both the vibhUthis (his properties, material realm and spiritual realm) lose you. AzhwAr, out of his affection for emperumAn is terming this as blame. But emperumAn thinks that it is fame for him. This is anyathAgyAnam (mistaking one for another; i.e. considering blame as fame), feels AzhwAr.

We shall take up the 20th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pUrva pItikA – Part 2

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<<pUrva pItikA – Part 1

Reply to the question regarding support of verbal chanting

bhIShma spoke in response to these six questions (bhIShma uvAcha). In the process, he first replied to the last question, and then on proceeded to answer the other questions in a different order. Since the final goal is to be attained by some means, he first chose to reply to the questions regarding the means. Even among them, although asked at the very end of all questions, he chose to answer to the question regarding the japAlambanam (support of the verbal chanting) at first, which shows his high regard towards it.

bhIShma said thus:

भीष्म उवाच –
जगत्प्रभुं दॆवदॆवम् अनन्तं पुरुषॊत्तमम्
स्तुवन्नामसहस्रॆण पुरुषः सततॊत्थितः ॥ ४ ॥

jagathhprabhum dhEvadhEvam anantham puruShOttthamam |
sthuvannAmasahasrENa puruSha: sathathOtthitha: ||

‘jagatha:’ – of all moving and non-moving entities in the world

‘prabhum’ – the master

‘dhEvadhEvam’ – just as the Gods are superior to Humans in terms of owning wealth, servitude, et al, so also the One who is superior to even Gods in all respects

‘anantham’ – He who cannot be limited or measured (by space, time, and objects)

‘puruShOththamam’ – the One who is extremely generous

‘nAmasahasrENa’ – with the thousand names that can be taken as a verbal support by chanting.

‘sthuvan’ – as per the ashtAdhyAyi sUthra 3-2-126, there is a a shatRu (शतृ) adjunct because of it ‘being a reason’.  This is related (as a reason) to the statement “He shall surpass all the miseries” (sarvadhu:khAthigO bhavEth सर्वदुःखातिगो भवेत्). The word ‘sthavanam’ means that which removes all sorrows. Who is such a One (who transcends miseries upon recitation)? It is the ‘puruSha’.

‘puruSha:’ – the knowledgeable (here, refers to the individual soul – jeevAthmA). Of what nature is He? He is ‘sathathOththitha:’.

‘sathathOththitha:’ – ever awake.

(Such a soul is considered ‘ever awake’ due to his realization that) The constant prayer of such Supreme Entity with words of praise and uninterrupted thoughts will yield the most desirable and favourable fruits, while any interruptions to such actions bring untold misery.

The vEdhas popularly declare: “When this knowledgeable soul takes refuge in the Supreme One who is unseen with the naked eyes, who has no body made out of prakruthi, who is not reached by words, and who is unsupported by any external entity, he is then firmly rooted in assurance against all fears, and reaches a state of fearlessness. But when he loses interest in contemplation of that Supreme Self, and distances himself from it, he begets the biggest fear of samsAra” (yadhAhyEvaiSha Ethasmin… यदाह्येवैष एतस्मिन्… – thaiththireeya upaniShath).

This is explained further:

“Those moments in time when vAsudhEva is not contemplated are lost forever. They are the biggest voids in one’s life. That is the time when ignorance covers the soul and that only leads to the deterioration of the soul.” (yanmuhUrtham kShaNam vApi vAsudhEvO na chinthyatmE | sa hAnisthanmahachchidhram sA bhrAnthi: sA cha vikriyA)

“It is better to be put up in a cage of high flames, rather than to stay in the doomed company of those who refrain themselves from the thoughts of shouri (bhagavAn kriShNa).” ( Saunaka samhithA – varam huthavahajvAlA-panjarAyAm vyavasthithi: | na shouri-chinthA-vimukha-jana-samvAsa vaishasam)

“Even if one moment is lost without the thoughts about the Supreme Soul, it only leads to so much of miseries at once as much as one experiences when the robbers have robbed him of all his wealth.” (EkasminnapyathikrAnthE muhUrthE dhyAnavarjithE | dhasyubhirmuShithEnEva yuktham Akrandhithum bhruSham)

Thus speak the vEdhas and other supporting scriptures in connection with the ‘japa Alambanam’ as the means of attaining a goal.

The discussion on the loftiest entity eligible for worship

Since the scriptures have regarded the worship and prayers of the Supreme Soul as the highest duties, bhIShma deferred the reply to the fifth question (which among the dharmas prescribed by the scriptures is the best in your opinion?) and proceeded to first reply to the fourth and third questions respectively, which inquire about the objects of prayer and worship respectively (having prayed to whom, and worshipped whom, will the humans attain all auspicious results?). Thus, he described about bhagavAn, the Supreme Soul, who is the object of prayers and worship, and explained the means of worshipping Him:

तमॆवचार्चयन् नित्यं भक्त्या पुरुषमव्ययम्
ध्यायन् स्तुवन् नमस्यञ्श्च यजमानस्तमॆव च ॥ ५ ॥

thamEvachArchayan nithyam bhakthhyA puruSham avyayam |
dhyAyan sthuvan namasyamscha yajamAnasthamEva cha ||

He establishes that the same entity which is the object of ‘japa’ as explained before is itself the object for worship as well. This can be understood by the use of “thamEva cha” (him only). As it is said in the mahAbhAratha itself,

“We wish to worship this supreme soul who possesses all wealth, who is the supreme master, the father, the preceptor, and the one who is fit to be worshipped. All of you should agree to this.” (sabhA parva) (tham imam sarvasampannam AchAryam pitharam gurum | archyam archithum ichchAma: sarvE sammanthum arhatha).

“I do not comprehend another entity more fit to be worshipped than janArdhana.” (sabhA parva) (thasmAth pUjyathamam nAnyam aham manyE janArdhanAth)

“The wise men do not worship / serve the lower demi-gods such as the four faced brahmA, the blue necked shiva, and others of the same rank, for – the fruits of such worship are very limited.” (mOkSha parva) (brahmANam shithikantam cha yAshchAnyA dhEvathA: smruthA: | prathibudhdhA na sEvanthE yasmAth parimitham phalam)

“If one worships anybody other than me, the fruits are always limited” (SrI bhagavadh gIthA) (antavaththu phalam thEShAm…)

‘puruSham’ – the lotus eyed One

‘avyayam’ – even after having been experienced by everyone continuously, the One who knows no exhaustion, and the One whose divine auspicious qualities keep multiplying exponentially without end

‘archayan’ – being the ardent worshipper who serves such a One with bhakthiyOga

‘nithyam’ – not being able to place the mind elsewhere even for a single moment, just as illustrated in (the SrI bhagavadh gIthA as) “the ones who have placed their mind and soul with me…” (machchiththA: madhgathaprANA:..). How do they worship bhagavAn? ‘bhakthyA’ (with devotion)

‘bhakthyA’ – the state of deep love of a servant towards his master is called ‘bhakthi’. ‘bhakthyA’ means ‘with such a mindset’ (towards the lord). How else do they worship? ‘dhyAyan’ (by meditating)

‘dhyAyan’ – a mental deed; constantly meditating on the many auspicious qualities of the Lord, which are like torrential rains that are capable of subduing the three types of heats of samsAra completely, with no obstacles in between. How else? ‘sthuvan’ (by praying)

‘sthuvan’ – a verbal deed; by singing the glories of the Lord and praising his auspicious qualities with an excited body and a choking voice with eyes filled with tears out of the joy felt by experiencing Him. How else? ‘namasyan’ (by prostrating)

‘namasyan’ – with all humility; meaning to say – having submitted oneself – who is soiled by ignorance of ego – at the Lotus Feet of the Lord physically and verbally, saying “All that I considered mine is now yours, please accept”, placing everything that is his such as his senses and faculties, without the least bit of attachment to them, and with all love, humility and utter devotion. How else? ‘yajamAna:’ (worshipping)

‘yajamAna:’ – by performing the dhEva-pUja / rituals of worship of the Lord; knowing no favour in return for the greatest favour that the Lord has done unto him – of accepting him into his fold, ‘yajamAna’ is the one who does an extraordinary, continuous and most affectionate service of the Lord with all beautiful items collected with pure devotion such as scented water, flowers, a mixture of honey and fruits, et al. by performing servile actions in various forms including touching the Lord, talking to Him, and offering him many enjoyments (bhogas) as per His wishes. Such a practitioner (yajamAna) will surpass all the difficulties and sorrows in his life (as said in ‘sarvaduHkhAthigO bhavEth’).

This itself is called ‘bhaktiyOga’, and is considered to be a highway to reach salvation. This is discussed and promoted in the principal upanishaths. Similarly, the worship of brahman (brahmOpAsanam) is achieved directly by following varNa-Ashrama principles. It is also known to be the product of developing auspicious qualities of the soul such as internal and external restraints and the like. It is born out of the various limbs of worship. It is accomplished by those who have purified their minds with constant uninterrupted flow of repeated affectionate thoughts about the Supreme Soul – also referred by other equivalent words such as ‘knowledge’, ‘meditation’, ‘uninterrupted contemplation and remembrance’, ‘wisdom’ etc, which is backed by firm belief. Such a brahmOpAsanA or worship of the Supreme Brahman that is characterized by auspicious qualities mentioned in various paravidhyAs such as upakOsala, etc., is thoroughly analyzed by bhagavAn bAdharAyaNa (vyAsa) with the help of the numerous vEdhic statements and the logics of brahma sUthras, and he has concluded upon the best means for attaining salvation – mOksham. Some of the various vEdhic statements and brahmasUthra lines that have assisted in this analysis are thus:

“The one who knows Him will attain immortality in this birth itself” (thamEvam vidhvAn amrutha iha bhavathi)

“The knower of brahman shall attain the Supreme Abode” (brahmavidhApnOthi param)

“The seekers try to know the Brahman by worship, donations, penance and by fasting” (yajnEna dhAnEna thapasA anAshakEna…)

“Restraining his internal and external faculties, the seeker shall worship the Supreme Brahman” (shAnthOdhAntha..)

“Just as the reins are most important to control a horse, so also the duties or karmas prescribed by the scriptures are most important to control the mind and worship the Brahman” (sarvApEkShA cha yajnAdhi shruthE: ashvavath)

“One should worship the Supreme Self by restraining his internal and external faculties” (shama-dhamAdyupEthaththvAth)

“One must repeatedly think about the Supreme Self” (Avruththirasakruth upadEshAth).

The commentator of the sUthras has stated thus: “vEdhanam or knowledge refers to upAsanam or worship, since the vEdhas say so”.

Maturity in such upAsanA or worship itself is termed as ‘bhakthi’ or devotion. Bhakthi is not anything else outside of this.  How do we say this? It is because it is not any different from the perception of spiritual union.

(to be continued…)

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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